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Sample records for serum corticosterone level

  1. In vivo administration of IL-1 induces thymic hypoplasia and increased levels of serum corticosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, P.J.; Charrier, K.; Alpert, A.; Bressler, L.

    1988-09-01

    Administration of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta to normal mice induces a decrease in thymic cellularity, the magnitude of which depends on the number of injections and dose of IL-1. Twice daily injections of 200 ng of IL-1 alpha or -beta for 4 days results in a 90% decrease in thymic cellularity, which regenerated after cessation of treatment. Study of thymocyte subpopulations revealed that the number of CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes was dramatically decreased in IL-1-treated mice. Functional assessment of the CD4-/CD8- population from treated animals showed that these cells had adequate mitogenic responses in vitro and that the proportion of these cells in cycle was not different from control CD4-/CD8- cells. IL-1 treatment also prevented the regeneration of thymic cellularity after irradiation. The use of strains of mice differing genetically at the Ly 1 locus to construct radiation bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that bone marrow-derived thymocyte precursors were able to seed the thymus in the IL-1-treated animals. Again, however, the CD4+/CD8+ thymocyte population was significantly decreased. Thymic repopulation occurred upon cessation of IL-1 therapy. Finally, we determined that a single i.p. injection of IL-1 caused a three-fold increase in serum corticosterone levels, which peaked approximately 3 h after IL-1 administration. Thus, an IL-1-dependent increase in serum corticosterone levels may be responsible for the observed thymic hypoplasia.

  2. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females. PMID:26556064

  3. Water maze performance and changes in serum corticosterone levels in zinc-deprived and pair-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y; Mouat, M F; Harris, R B S; Coffield, J A; Grider, A

    2003-04-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the learning and short- and long-term memory of zinc-deprived (ZD) and pair-fed (PF) rats in a Morris water maze (MWM) and (2) to monitor the serum corticosterone levels of these rats before and after swimming. Young Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 27-31 days) consumed AIN-93G diet for 10 days, and then were separated into ad libitum control (CT), PF and ZD groups. The zinc content of the diet was 25-30 ppm (CT and PF) or <1 ppm (ZD). After 17 days on experimental diets, a MWM was used to test spatial cognition. Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) test results indicate that both zinc deprivation and food restriction had no effect on short-term memory. The PF rats exhibited significantly impaired learning and thigmotaxia (i.e., wall hugging) in the learning test. The PF group also demonstrated less preference for the target zone in the first 15 s of the probing test. When the total 120 s of the probing test was considered, there were no differences in preference for the target zone, but thigmotaxia was greater in the PF than the CT group. The only behavioral change of the ZD group was thigmotaxia observed during the 120-s probing test following training, indicating the increment of anxiety. Morning basal corticosterone levels before swim training were significantly elevated in the PF group on Day 15 of dietary treatment, whereas a significant elevation of the basal corticosterone level in the ZD group was not statistically significant until Day 22. The data indicate an association between impaired learning, poor searching strategy and elevated corticosterone in the PF group. In contrast, the ZD rats showed normal cognitive performance but had elevated corticosterone and increased anxiety-like behavior (thigmotaxia). PMID:12782210

  4. Resveratrol reverses the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress on behavior, serum corticosterone levels and BDNF expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexiang; Xie, Kai; Yang, Xudong; Gu, Jianhua; Ge, Li; Wang, Xueer; Wang, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders and has been associated with the neuroendocrine system and alterations in specific brain proteins. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities, including potent antidepressant-like effects. The present study attempts to explore the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like action of resveratrol by measuring serum corticosterone levels and the content of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats exposed to the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Male Wistar rats were subjected to the CUMS protocol for a period of 5 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. Resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg/i.p. 5 weeks) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased locomotor activity) and the elevated serum corticosterone levels observed in stressed rats. Additionally, 5-weeks of CUMS exposure significantly decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala, and was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), while resveratrol treatment normalized these levels. All of these effects of resveratrol were essentially identical to that observed with the established antidepressant, desipramine. In conclusion, our study shows that resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats, mediated in part by normalizing serum corticosterone levels while up-regulating pERK, pCREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:24503118

  5. Early bi-parental separation or neonatal paternal deprivation in mandarin voles reduces adult offspring paternal behavior and alters serum corticosterone levels and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xibo; He, Fengqin; Tai, Fadao

    2015-07-01

    Although the effect of early social environments on maternal care in adulthood has been examined in detail, few studies have addressed the long-term effect on paternal care and its underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Here, using monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) that show high levels of paternal care, the effects of early bi-parental separation (EBPS) or neonatal paternal deprivation (NPD) on adult paternal behavior, serum corticosterone levels, and receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were investigated. Compared to the parental care group (PC), we found that EBPS reduced crouching behavior and increased inactivity, self-grooming, and serum corticosterone levels in adult offspring; and NPD significantly reduced retrieval behavior and increased self-grooming behavior of offspring at adulthood. EBPS displayed more dopamine type I receptor (D1R) mRNA expression in the NAcc, but less oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA expression than PC in the MPOA. Both EBPS and NPD exhibited more mRNA expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) than PC in the MPOA. In the EBPS group, increased serum corticosterone concentration was closely associated with reduced crouching behavior, and reduced expression of OTR was closely associated with altered crouching behavior and increased D1R expression. Our results provide substantial evidence that EBPS or NPD has long-term consequences and reduces paternal behavior in adult animals. Importantly the oxytocin system in the MPOA might interact with NAcc dopamine systems to regulate paternal behavior and EBPS may affect interactions between the MPOA and NAcc. PMID:26012712

  6. Dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone under different physiological or stressful conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6-0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  7. Dynamics and Correlation of Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone under Different Physiological or Stressful Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6–0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  8. [Cortisol and corticosterone plasma levels in different Psittaciformes].

    PubMed

    Hochleithner, M; Nowotny, P

    1992-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and corticosterone levels were measured in macaws, African Grey Parrots, Amazon Parrots and budgerigars using a RIA after preliminary cleaning. As in other avian species, the plasma contains predominantly corticosterone. PMID:1481215

  9. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  10. Mercury Exposure May Suppress Baseline Corticosterone Levels in Juvenile Birds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  11. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (<3 days) and blood of older (15-37 days) Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis. PMID:22578153

  12. REPEATED EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254) ELEVATES THE BASAL SERUM LEVELS OF CORTICOSTERONE BUT DOES NOT AFFECT THE STRESS-INDUCED RISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants (Safe, 1984; Safe et al., 1985) resulting in concern over the possible effects to health after long-term low-level exposure. eries of studies with one of these chlorinated hydrocarbons, Aroclor 125...

  13. Shuyusan-containing serum protects SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liping; Sun, Zhigao; Wang, Fawei; Xu, Chengyong; Geng, Miao; Chen, Hongyan; Duan, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese herb Shuyusan, whose main constituent is jasminoidin, has been shown to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced damage. SH-SY5Y cells injured by 400 μmol/L corticosterone were treated with 5 and 30 μg/mL Shuyusan-containing serum. Results revealed that Shuyusan-containing serum elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells, reduced Bax expression, increased Bcl-2 expression, markedly elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression, and blocked cell apoptosis. Moreover, the effect of high-dose (30 μg/mL) Shuyusan-containing serum was more remarkable. Therefore, Shuyusan-containing serum appears to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment by adjusting the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Moreover, high-dose Shuyusan-containing serum has a protective effect on high-dose corticosterone-induced impairment. PMID:25206514

  14. Disuse atrophy, plasma corticosterone, and muscle glucocorticoid receptor levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole-body suspension on the time course and the extent of plasma corticosterone changes and the tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were investigated in rats subjected to seven days of whole-body suspension. Plasma corticosterone increased significantly on the first and the third days of suspension, but returned to control levels by day seven. Muscle glucocorticoid receptors exhibited a characteristic hormonal specificity (evaluated in competitive-displacement experiments). In controls, receptor site concentration in the slow-twitch soleus was comparable to that in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris, but was significantly less than in the extensor; seven days of suspension resulted in significant differential effects on muscle receptor levels. The largest increase in receptor concentration was observed in the soleus in which it remained elevated after the receptor levels in other muscles returned to normal.

  15. The Anxiolytic Effects of Valtrate in Rats Involves Changes of Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shu-Ning; Shi, Jin-Li; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan-Li; Wang, Chun-Guo; Hou, Wen-Hui; Guo, Jian-You

    2014-01-01

    Valtrate is a principle compound isolated from Valeriana jatamansi Jones, which is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat various mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of valtrate in rats. The animals were orally administered valtrate (5, 10, and 20 g/kg daily) for 10 days and exposed to open field test (OFT) and elevated plus-maze (EPM). Then the corticosterone levels in the rat serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The valtrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited the anxiolytic effect in rats by increasing the time and entry percentage into the open arms in the EPM and the number of central entries in the OFT. Valtrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the corticosterone level in the rat serum. Taken together, these results suggest that the valtrate has anxiolytic activity in behavioral models that might be mediated via the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24782906

  16. Are corticosterone levels a good indicator of food availability and reproductive performance in a kittiwake colony?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Eens, M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the use of corticosterone to gauge forage availability and predict reproductive performance in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding in Alaska during 1999 and 2000. We modeled the relationship between baseline levels of corticosterone and a suite of individual and temporal characteristics of the sampled birds. We also provided supplemental food to a sample of pairs and compared their corticosterone levels with that of pairs that were not fed. Corticosterone levels were a good predictor of forage availability in some situations, although inconsistencies between corticosterone levels and reproductive performance of fed and unfed kittiwakes suggested that this was not always the case. In general, higher corticosterone levels were found in birds that lacked breeding experience and in birds sampled shortly after arriving from their wintering grounds. All parameters investigated, however, explained only a small proportion of the variance in corticosterone levels. We also investigated whether corticosterone, supplemental feeding, year of the study, breeding experience, body weight, and sex of a bird were able to predict laying, hatching, and fledging success in kittiwakes. Here, breeding experience, year of the study, and body weight were the best predictors of a bird's performance. Corticosterone level and supplemental feeding were good predictors of kittiwake reproductive performance in some cases. For example, corticosterone levels of birds sampled during the arrival stage reliably predicted laying success, but were less reliable at predicting hatching and fledging success. Counts of active nests with eggs or chicks may be more reliable estimates of the actual productivity of the colony. Supplemental feeding had strong effects on kittiwake productivity when natural forage was poor, but had little effect when natural forage was plentiful. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  17. Propofol, but not etomidate, increases corticosterone levels and induces long-term alteration in hippocampal synaptic activity in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Seubert, Christoph N; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Martynyuk, Anatoly E

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies provide strong evidence that general anesthetics (GAs), administered during the early postnatal period, induce long-term cognitive and neurological abnormalities. Because the brain growth spurt in rodents is delayed compared to that in humans, a fundamental question is whether the postnatal human brain is similarly vulnerable. Sevoflurane and propofol, GAs that share positive modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) function cause marked increase in corticosterone levels and induce long-term developmental alterations in synaptic activity in rodents. If synaptogenesis is affected, investigation of mechanisms of the synaptic effects of GAs is of high interest because synaptogenesis in humans continues for several years after birth. Here, we compared long-term synaptic effects of etomidate with those of propofol. Etomidate and propofol both positively modulate GABAAR activity, but in contrast to propofol, etomidate inhibits the adrenal synthesis of corticosterone. Postnatal day (P) 4, 5, or 6 rats received five injections of etomidate, propofol, or vehicle control during 5h of maternal separation. Endocrine effects of the anesthetics were evaluated by measuring serum levels of corticosterone immediately after anesthesia or maternal separation. The frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were measured at P24-40 and P≥80. Only propofol caused a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels (F(4.26)=17.739, P<0.001). In contrast to increased frequency of mIPSCs in the propofol group (F(4.23)=8.731, p<0.001), mIPSC activity in the etomidate group was not different from that in the vehicle groups. The results of this study together with previously published data suggest that anesthetic-caused increase in corticosterone levels is required for GABAergic GAs to induce synaptic effects in the form of a long-term increase in the frequency of hippocampal m

  18. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Sembulingam, K; Sembulingam, P; Namasivayam, A

    1997-04-01

    Ethanol extract of leaves of ocimum sanctum was screened for its antistressor actions against acute and chronic noise stress in albino rats by investigating the plasma corticosterone level in these animals. There was a significant elevation of the corticosterone level in plasma of rats subjected to 30 min noise (100 dB) stress. Chromic exposure (4 hr daily for 30 days) to noise with same intensity reduced the hormonal level significantly. Treatment of animals with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum prevented the changes in plasma level of corticosterone induced by exposure to both acute and chronic noise stress, indicating the antistressor property of the plant against noise. PMID:9142558

  19. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27208490

  20. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  1. Hypericum Perforatum Decreased Hippocampus TNF-α and Corticosterone Levels with No Effect on Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio in Bilateral Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hasanin, Amany H

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect Hypericum Perforatum (HP), on behavioral changes, corticosterone, TNF-α levels and tryptophan metabolism and disposition in bilateral ovariectomized rats compared to 17α -ethinylestradiol. Behavioral analysis by measuring immobility time in forced swimming test and open field test, serum and hippocampal corticosterone and TNF-α along with hippocampal kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were determined in mature ovariectomized rats treated orally either by HP at three different doses 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day or by 17α-ethinylestradiol 30 µg/kg/day for 30 days. Ovariectomized rats showed significant increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test. Along with elevation in serum and hippocampal TNF-α and corticosterone levels associated with significant increase in hippocampal kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Immobility time in the forced swimming test was decreased in rats treated by different doses of HP in a dose dependent manner and 17α-ethinylestradiol with no concomitant changes in the open field test. Only Rats treated with HP exhibited significant decrease in the elevated serum and hippocampal TNF-α and corticosterone, which couldn't explain the associated insignificant effect on hippocampaus kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in comparison to ovariectomized untreated rats. It is concluded that increased tryptophan metabolism toward kynurenine secondary to elevated corticosterone and TNF-α might be one of the pathohphysiological mechanisms that could explain depression like state observed in this rat model. Further, the observed attenuating effect of HP on TNF-α and corticosterone could contribute in its antidepressant effect in this animal model by other ways than their effects on tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism pathway. PMID:24976763

  2. Transgenic overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the CNS influences behaviour, serum corticosterone and brain monoamines.

    PubMed

    Oprica, Mircea; Zhu, Shunwei; Goiny, Michel; Pham, Therese M; Mohammed, Abdul H; Winblad, Bengt; Bartfai, Tamas; Schultzberg, Marianne

    2005-05-01

    The effects of brain-directed overexpression of human soluble interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (hsIL-1ra) on behaviour, serum corticosterone (CST) levels and concentrations of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in different brain regions, were investigated in six months old homozygotic transgenic male mice (Tg hsIL-1ra(+/+)). The transgenic and age-matched wild type (WT) mice were subjected to a battery of behavioural tests for analysis of open field (OF) behaviours, anxiety in elevated plus maze (EPM), and motor performance in rotarod. One week after the last behavioural test, half of the mice from each genotype were subjected to a mild stress, while the remaining mice served as controls for the determination of serum CST levels and monoamine concentrations in different brain regions. Tg hsIL-1ra(+/+) mice had higher locomotor scores and showed less habituation in the OF test, spent more time in the open arms of the EPM and had similar motor performance as compared to WT mice. The serum CST levels were comparable, both in basal conditions and upon stress, in the two genotypes. Tg hsIL-1ra(+/+) mice had lower concentrations of DA, 5-HT and their metabolites in several brain regions, with different effects on monoamine turnover upon stress. In conclusion, brain-directed overexpression of hsIL-1ra resulted in increased locomotion and decreased habituation, an anxiolytic effect, but did not influence motor performance. Finally, the activation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis was comparable in the two genotypes, however Tg hsIL-1ra(+/+) mice had a modified metabolism of brain monoamines as compared to WT mice. PMID:15797311

  3. Quantitative analysis of human serum corticosterone by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ghulam, A; Kouach, M; Racadot, A; Boersma, A; Vantyghem, M C; Briand, G

    1999-04-30

    An original method based upon high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for corticosterone (B) quantification in human serum. After extraction by diethyl ether using triamcinolone (T) as an internal standard, solutes are separated on a C18 microbore column (250 X 1.0 mm, I.D.), using acetonitrile-water-formic acid (40:59.9:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase (flow-rate 40 microl/min). Detection is performed on an API 1 single quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a ESI interface and operated in positive ionization mode. Corticosterone quantifications were realized by computing peak area ratios (B/T) of the serum extracts analyzed in SIM mode (m/z 347 and m/z 395 for B and T. respectively), and comparing them with the calibration curve (r=0.998). PMID:10360442

  4. Relationship of climatic conditions to fecal corticosterone levels of captive cheetahs reared in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Une, Yumi; Ito, Shu; Yamabe, Marino; Toyoda, Hideto; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    To assess the stress level of cheetahs reared in Japan and to identify the prime components of the climatic conditions that affect their thermal stress, fecal corticosterone was monitored for 8 months from May to the following January. A total of 203 fecal samples were gathered in the morning from seven adult cheetahs that were kept at a zoological garden in Wakayama, Japan. Cheetahs were on exhibit singly or together with a harmonious conspecific during the day, but housed singly at night. Although the monthly fluctuation in corticosterone concentrations was not significant, the concentrations were relatively low during the summer season. Individual differences among cheetahs and the interaction effect between individual and month on the corticosterone concentrations were significant. Whereas the corticosterone concentrations negatively correlated with air temperature, they were positively correlated with the amount of rainfall. The highest air temperature and the amount of rainfall were extracted as the prime factors affecting corticosterone concentrations. These results suggest that cheetahs reared in Japan are somewhat subjected to thermal stress, particularly on cooler and/or rainy days. PMID:24841707

  5. Levels of fecal corticosterone in sandhill cranes during a human-led migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, N.M.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Langenberg, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen captive-reared greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were conditioned to follow ultralight aircraft to promote migration between Wisconsin and Florida (U SA) after release. Fecal samples were collected throughout the training period in Wisconsin and during a 1,977-km human-led migration to Florida to determine fecal corticosterone (FC) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. The mean (?SE) FC concentration during the training period was 1O9.5?7.5 ng/g and was representative of baseline levels recorded previously from sandhill cranes. Fecal corticosterone concentrations increased in early migration compared to concentrations 1 mo prior to departure (P<0.01) but were not different from baseline concentrations at the end of the 6-wk migration period. The variability of FC concentrations in individual samples was greater throughout the migration than the training period. Increases in FC during migration were modest and generally consistent with normal corticosterone elevations observed in migrating birds.

  6. Faecal corticosterone levels of dogs relinquished to a shelter in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, K.; Uchida, H.; Ishihara, J.; Kushima, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the baseline level of faecal corticosterone in dogs relinquished to a shelter and compared changes in it caused by social events that dogs experienced. Faecal corticosterone was measured to assess the average stress levels of dogs that depend on the actual conditions of the shelter. One category of subject animals was dogs relinquished by their owner or stray dogs who were penned in a group (group RG) or caged individually due to their incompatibility (group RI), and the other category was demonstration dogs kept for dog training classes (group DT) and petting activities held in welfare facilities for the elderly and in elementary schools (group DP). While the number of dogs that were included in groups RG and RI fluctuated almost daily, the demonstration dogs were kept together for three months. The average level of faecal corticosterone was significantly higher in group RG than in groups DT and DP. The level of group RI was also relatively high, but the difference from the other three groups was not statistically significant. Faecal corticosterone concentrations of groups DT and DP rose somewhat from the baseline levels on the day after social service activities. The results of this study reaffirm that temporarily relinquished and socially unstable dogs especially suffer a certain level of stress in a shelter. PMID:26457191

  7. Baseline corticosterone levels are higher in migrating than sedentary common blackbirds in autumn, but not in spring.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Müller, Florian; Klinner, Thomas; Bairlein, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Corticosterone at baseline levels is thought to be mainly involved in the regulation of uptake, storage and release of energy, processes central to avian migration. Consequently, corticosterone levels are thought to be upregulated during migration, but the temporal pattern of its secretion during migration is not well defined. For example, although it appears that corticosterone levels decrease from flight to stopover, it is unknown if levels at stopover are still elevated and it is largely unclear how these levels compare to non-migratory life-history stages. Furthermore, what role corticosterone plays in crucial migratory processes, such as refueling and departure from stopover, is far from understood. We here determined baseline corticosterone levels in migrating and resident common blackbirds (Turdus merula), sampled simultaneously on Helgoland, a stopover site that also supports a sedentary breeding population. In autumn, migrants had higher corticosterone levels than residents, but in spring levels did not differ between the two groups. Corticosterone levels of migrants were very similar in spring and autumn, whereas in residents levels tended to be higher in spring than autumn. Higher levels in residents in spring than autumn most likely reflect the higher daily workload faced by birds during the pre-breeding than the post-breeding period. Our study thus indicates that, relative to the levels observed in residents in autumn, in spring baseline corticosterone levels were moderately elevated in both migrants and residents and that in autumn levels were moderately elevated in migrants only. Currently, corticosterone's main function at stopover is thought to lie in the regulation of departure. Because most migrant blackbirds stay only one or two days on Helgoland, our results are in line with this idea and suggest that migrating blackbirds up-regulated their corticosterone level in anticipation of an oncoming flight bout. PMID:26163918

  8. Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) extract on neurogenesis associated with serum corticosterone and GABA in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-02-01

    Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) to check their possible mechanisms related to neurogenesis. We administered 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE to the animals once a day for 3 weeks. For labeling of newly generated cells, we also administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) twice a day for 3 days from the day of the first MOE treatment. Administration of 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE dose-dependently increased Ki67 positive nuclei to 244.1 and 763.9% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively. In addition, 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE significantly increased DCX positive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. Furthermore, MOE administration significantly increased BrdU/calbindin D-28 k double labeled cells (integrated neurons into granule cells in the DG) to 245.2% of the vehicle-treated group. On the other hand, administration of MOE reduced corticosterone levels in serum and decreased GABA-T levels in the DG homogenates. These results suggest that MOE increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells by decreasing serum corticosterone levels as well as by increasing GABA levels in the mouse DG. PMID:21076869

  9. Do cortisol and corticosterone play the same role in coping with stressors? Measuring glucocorticoid serum in free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Ovejero, Ramiro; Novillo, Agustina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Mosca-Torres, Maria E; Cuello, Pablo; Gregório, Pablo; Jahn, Graciela; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Habitat can constrain and shape successful ecological and physiological strategies, thus providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits. However, unpredictable challenges, such as storms, natural disasters, and human activities can also have great effects on stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones that play an important role in how vertebrates cope with these predictable and unpredictable environmental challenges. Although assessing GCs levels can have many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals, with or without capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific complete validation (analytical and biological) before its use. In this work, our aim was to: (a) validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring GCs levels in L. guanicoe serum; (b) assess cortisol and corticosterone levels (if present) in serum of wild L. guanicoe individuals; and (c) compare the response to acute stressors (handling, shearing, and release). Our results successfully: (a) validated RIA for asses GCs levels in wild ungulates; (b) confirmed the presence for cortisol and corticosterone and showed that both GCs are differently affected by environmental stimuli in L. guanicoe; and (c) showed that GCs exhibit different patterns in the field and in response to acute stressors, making these camelids an interesting endocrinological model when seeking the adaptive functions of a given variation and further emphasizing the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals. PMID:24115389

  10. Changes in plasma levels of cortisol and corticosterone after acute ACTH stimulation in rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    PubMed

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1985-01-01

    Resting cortisol and corticosterone levels in immobilized mature rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the influence of synthetic ACTH on the cortisol/corticosterone ratio (F/B ratio) were investigated. The basal concentration of cortisol was found to be 14.07 nmol/l (SD = 9.3, N = 15) and corticosterone was 3.79 nmol/l (SD = 2.3, N = 15). The cortisol/corticosterone ratio for the basal level was 5.31 (SD = 3.9, N = 15). After ACTH administration the cortisol/corticosterone ratio increased to 11.41 (SD = 5.4, N = 147) regardless of doses of ACTH administered to individual stags. The adrenal response to ACTH administration has a potential application for selection of deer most suitable for deer farming. PMID:2863041

  11. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-01

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels. PMID:26162700

  12. Serum corticosterone as a quantitative test of the phlogistic potency of various agents topically applied in the rat.

    PubMed

    Giagnoni, G; Marsi, A; Parolaro, D; Sala, M; Gori, E

    1976-12-01

    The application into the rat conjunctiva of various phlogistic agents, such as croton oil, mustard oil and formaldehyde, elicits an increase of serum corticosterone linearly related to the log of the applied concentrations, so that from their parallelized regression lines it is possible to calculate the phlogistic potency of each tested agent in reference to croton oil. The time kinetic of such an increase (elicited by croton oil) is compared with that of two other parameters previously adopted as indirect quantitative indices of the phlogosis: the adrenal ascorbic acid depletion and the liver tyrosine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase increase. Serum corticosterone is shown to be the quickest and the most sensitive of the adopted indices, even if the phlogistic potency of the tested agents and the precision of these evaluations substantially coincides whatsoever the index adopted. Finally the pathways of adrenocortical activation are investigated and it is shown that the activation may be peripherally blocked by topical application of corticosteroids (but not of local anesthetics) and centrally by hypophysectomy or parenteral administration of pentobarbital plus morphine. PMID:13751

  13. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress. PMID:21105176

  14. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. PMID:25828632

  15. Bilateral lesions of suprachiasmatic nuclei affect circadian rhythms in (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid in mouse intestinal tract, mitotic index of corneal epithelium, and serum corticosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Scheving, L.E.; Tsai, T.H.; Powell, E.W.; Pasley, J.N.; Halberg, F.; Dunn, J.

    1983-03-01

    Investigations into the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the coordination of circadian rhythms have presented differing results. Several reports have shown that ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNA) alters the phase and amplitude of rhythms but does not abolish them. The present study investigates the effect of SCNA on the rhythms in cell proliferation in various regions of the intestinal tract as measured by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid, in the mitotic activity of the corneal epithelium, and in serum corticosterone levels. The study involved mice with verified lesions of the SCN (six to 13 mice per time point) and control groups of both sham-operated and unoperated mice (seven of each per time point). The mice were killed in groups that represented seven time points over a single 24 hr span (3 hr intervals with the 0800 hr sampled both at start and end of the series). The tissues examined were the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, and colon for DNA synthesis, the corneal epithelium for mitotic index, and blood serum for corticosterone level. The most consistent result of SCNA was a phase advance in the rhythms in cell proliferation in the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, colon, and corneal epithelium. A reduction in rhythm amplitude occurred in the tongue, esophagus, and corneal epithelium; however, there was an amplitude increase for the stomach, colon, and serum corticosterone. The mesor (rhythm-adjusted mean) was increased by SCNA in all tissues except the corneal epithelium. These findings further support the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclear area in the control of rhythms in cell proliferation and corticosterone production, by acting as a ''phase-resetter'' and as a modulator of rhythm amplitude.

  16. Effects of Acute Restraint Stress, Prolonged Captivity Stress and Transdermal Corticosterone Application on Immunocompetence and Plasma Levels of Corticosterone on the Cururu Toad (Rhinella icterica)

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Titon Jr., Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids modulate immunocompetence in complex ways with both immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive effects in vertebrates exposed to different stressors. Such bimodal effects have been associated with variation in duration and intensity of the stress response. Given that natural populations have been exposed to a multitude of stressors, a better understanding of the functional association between duration and intensity of the stress response, the resulting changes in glucocorticoid plasma levels and their impact on different aspects of immunocompetence emerges as a cornerstone for vertebrate conservation strategies. We investigated the effects of a restraint challenge (with and without movement restriction), long-term captivity, and transdermal corticosterone application on plasma levels of corticosterone (hereinafter referred to as CORT) and different parameters of innate immunocompetence in the male cururu toads (Rhinella icterica). We show that for R. icterica restraint for 24h proved to be a stressful condition, increasing CORT by 3-fold without consistent immunological changes. However, the application of a more intense stressor (restraint with movement restriction), for the same period, potentiated this response resulting in a 9-fold increase in CORT, associated with increase Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N:L) and a lower bacterial killing ability (BKA). Transdermal application of corticosterone efficiently mimics repeated acute stress response events, without changing the immune parameters even after 13 days of treatment. Interestingly, long-term captivity did not mitigate the stress response, since the toads maintained 3-fold increased CORT even after 3 months under these conditions. Moreover, long-term captivity in the same condition increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and generated an even greater decrease in BKA, suggesting that consequences of the stress response can be aggravated by time in captivity. PMID:25831055

  17. Impact of stress and levels of corticosterone on the development of breast cancer in rats

    PubMed Central

    De la Roca-Chiapas, José María; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Martínez-García, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Soto, Joel; Ramos-Frausto, Víctor Manuel; González-Ramírez, Leivy Patricia; Nowack, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Stress is experienced during cancer, and impairs the immune system’s ability to protect the body. Our aim was to investigate if isolation stress has an impact on the development of tumors in rats, and to measure the size and number of tumors and the levels of corticosterone. Breast cancer was induced in two groups of female rats (N=20) by administration of a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 50 mg/kg. Rats in the control group (cancer induction condition) were allowed to remain together in a large cage, whereas in the second group, rats were also exposed to a stressful condition, that is, isolation (cancer induction and isolation condition, CIIC). The CIIC group displayed anxious behavior after 10 weeks of isolation. In the CIIC group, 16 tumors developed, compared with only eleven tumors in the control cancer induction condition group. In addition, compared with the control group, the volume of tumors in the CIIC group was greater, and more rats had more than one tumor and cells showed greater morphological damage. Levels of corticosterone were also significantly different between the two groups. This study supports the hypothesis that stress can influence the development of cancer, but that stress itself is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer in rats. The study also provides new information for development of experimental studies and controlled environments. PMID:26793009

  18. Behavioral stereotypies induced by "binge' cocaine administration are independent of drug-induced increases in corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Spangler, R; Zhou, Y; Schlussman, S D; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1997-07-01

    Cocaine administration causes dramatic stereotypic behavior and elevation of circulating corticosterone levels in rodents. The present study tested the possible role of increased corticosterone in mediating stereotypic behavior caused by "binge' pattern cocaine administration. Animals were administered saline or cocaine intraperitoneally for 3 days, with or without pretreatment with a D1 (SCH 23390, 2 mg/kg) or D2 (sulpiride, 50 mg/kg) dopamine receptor antagonist. Three days of cocaine "binges' significantly increased corticosterone levels in vehicle pretreated rats (P < 0.01). Both SCH 23390 and sulpiride pretreatment daily significantly attenuated this increase (P < 0.01). Cocaine administration caused stereotypic behaviors in vehicle pretreatment rats (P < 0.01). These behavioral responses were blocked by the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390, but not by the D2 antagonist sulpiride. These findings reaffirm the dominant role of the D1 receptor in mediating behavioral stereotypy caused by elevations of extracellular dopamine in the synaptic cleft. The fact that the dose of sulpiride used in these studies prevented the elevation of plasma corticosterone caused by cocaine, without blocking the stereotypy caused by cocaine, indicates that this stereotypic behavior does not require drug-induced elevation in circulating levels of corticosterone. PMID:9134155

  19. Effects of chronic 'Binge' cocaine administration on plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels in mice deficient in DARPP-32.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Schlussman, S D; Ho, A; Spangler, R; Fienberg, A A; Greengard, P; Kreek, M J

    1999-09-01

    The product of the DARPP-32 gene mediates intracellular signals initiated by the binding of dopamine to its receptors. Cocaine administration leads to increased activation of dopamine receptors, and causes activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We determined the effects of chronic 'binge' pattern cocaine on HPA activity in mice containing a targeted disruption of the DARPP-32 gene. Mice received three daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg/injection) for 14 days, and were sacrificed 30 min after the last injection. We measured the levels of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone which reflect HPA activity. In wild-type controls, 'binge' cocaine administration significantly increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels. In contrast, DARPP-32-deficient mice failed to show a significant elevation of either plasma ACTH or corticosterone levels following 'binge' cocaine. The results indicate that DARPP-32 plays a role in mediating the stimulatory effects of cocaine on the HPA axis. PMID:10516482

  20. Developmental responses to opioids reveals a lack of effect on stress-induced corticosterone levels in neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. C.; Kitchen, I.

    1987-01-01

    The neonate has an unusual capacity for survival and the possibility exists that mechanisms for controlling stress responses may differ in the developing animal. In adults both endogenous and exogenous opioids can modulate the corticosterone responses to stress. We have studied this effect in neonatal rats and found that opioid modulation is absent in early postnatal development. Neonatal rats of either sex were injected with morphine (5-50 mg kg-1), fentanyl (10-100 micrograms kg-1), buprenorphine (0.1-30 mg kg-1) or naloxone (0.1-10 mg kg-1) and plasma corticosterone measured fluorimetrically 15 or 20 min later. In addition naloxone reversibility studies (1 mg kg-1, co-administered) were carried out for the opioid agonists. In adult rats, elevations in plasma corticosterone caused by injection stress were potentiated by morphine, fentanyl and buprenorphine. In neonates, though injection stress-induced rises in plasma corticosterone were absent at 10 days, elevations were observed at 21 days and later. However, significant potentiation of this corticosterone response by fentanyl was absent at 21 days and at later ages (30 and 40 days) for morphine and buprenorphine. The potentiating effect of all three agonists did not become fully effective until day 45. In addition, in animals acclimatized to injection stress by 7 day injection pretreatment, fentanyl did not significantly alter corticosterone levels in 30 day old neonates. High doses of naloxone (10 mg kg-1) significantly increased the corticosterone response to injection stress in adult rats but this effect was absent in 30 day old animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3594070

  1. A novel technique to measure chronic levels of corticosterone in turtles living around a major roadway

    PubMed Central

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.; Lesbarrères, David

    2014-01-01

    Conservation biology integrates multiple disciplines to expand the ability to identify threats to populations and develop mitigation for these threats. Road ecology is a branch of conservation biology that examines interactions between wildlife and roadways. Although the direct threats of road mortality and habitat fragmentation posed by roads have received much attention, a clear understanding of the indirect physiological effects of roads on wildlife is lacking. Chronic physiological stress can lower immune function, affect reproductive rates and reduce life expectancy; thus, it has the potential to induce long-lasting effects on populations. Reptiles are globally in decline, and roads are known to have negative effects on reptile populations; however, it is unknown whether individual responses to roads and traffic result in chronic stress that creates an additional threat to population viability. We successfully extracted reliable measures of corticosterone (CORT), a known, commonly used biomarker for physiological stress, from claw trimmings from painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) captured at three study sites (road-impacted site, control site and validation site). Corticosterone levels in claws were evaluated as a measure of chronic stress in turtles because CORT is deposited during growth of the claw and could provide an opportunity to examine past long-term stress levels. While male turtles had higher CORT levels on average than females, there was no difference in the level of CORT between the road-impacted and control site, nor was there a relationship between CORT and turtle body condition. In validating a novel approach for non-invasive measurement of long-term CORT levels in a keratinized tissue in wild reptiles, our study provides a new avenue for research in the field of stress physiology. PMID:27293657

  2. What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

    PubMed

    Poisbleau, M; Demongin, L; Angelier, F; Dano, S; Lacroix, A; Quillfeldt, P

    2009-06-01

    Female birds deposit corticosterone into their eggs. Elevated concentrations of this hormone may interfere with the development of their offspring, and mothers should thus regulate corticosterone levels deposited into the eggs adaptively. However, if females are unable to regulate deposition, then the corticosterone concentration in eggs should reflect that in female plasma and should be influenced by stressors to the females. We measured corticosterone levels in the albumen of rockhopper penguins, and assessed their relationship with hatching order, human disturbance and laying date. Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) lay two eggs, of which the second egg (B-egg) is larger and hatches faster than the first egg (A-egg). The chick hatching from the B-egg is also much more likely to survive than its sibling. Albumen corticosterone concentrations were lower in B-eggs. However, as B-eggs contained more albumen than A-eggs, the total corticosterone deposited in the albumen was not significantly different between the two eggs. Daily disturbance by human observers during albumen production did not influence albumen corticosterone levels. Laying date had an effect on total albumen corticosterone through a higher albumen mass. However, we observed a high individual component in the composition of eggs from the same clutch. Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone. PMID:19341737

  3. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion. PMID:27213675

  4. Feather Corticosterone Levels on Wintering Grounds Have No Carry-Over Effects on Breeding among Three Populations of Great Skuas (Stercorarius skua)

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza H. K.; Magnusdóttir, Ellen; Furness, Robert W.; Strøm, Hallvard; Petersen, Aevar; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions encountered by migratory seabirds in their wintering areas can shape their fitness. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain largely unknown as birds are relatively inaccessible during winter. To assess physiological condition during this period, we measured corticosterone concentrations in winter-grown primary feathers of female great skuas (Stercorarius skua) from three breeding colonies (Bjørnøya, Iceland, Shetland) with wintering areas identified from characteristic stable isotope signatures. We subsequently compared winter feather corticosterone levels between three wintering areas (Africa, Europe and America). Among females breeding in 2009, we found significant differences in feather corticosterone levels between wintering areas. Surprisingly, levels were significantly higher in Africa despite seemingly better local ecological factors (based on lower foraging effort). Moreover, contrary to our predictions, females sharing the same wintering grounds showed significant differences in feather corticosterone levels depending on their colony of origin suggesting that some skuas could be using suboptimal wintering areas. Among females wintering in Africa, Shetland females showed feather corticosterone levels on average 22% lower than Bjørnøya and Iceland females. Finally, the lack of significant relationships between winter feather corticosterone levels and any of the breeding phenology traits does not support the hypothesis of potential carry-over effects of winter feather corticosterone. Yet, the fitness consequences of elevated feather corticosterone levels remain to be determined. PMID:24964085

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species.

    PubMed

    Tartu, S; Angelier, F; Bustnes, J O; Moe, B; Hanssen, S A; Herzke, D; Gabrielsen, G W; Verboven, N; Verreault, J; Labadie, P; Budzinski, H; Wingfield, J C; Chastel, O

    2015-02-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑₇PCB concentrations (range: 61-115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑₇PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑₇PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. PMID:25541072

  6. The Effect of Food Deprivation on Nociception in Formalin Test and Plasma Levels of Noradrenaline and Corticosterone in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Saroukhani, Mohammadreza; Azhdari-Zarmehri, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The concentration of noradrenalin and corticosterone as the two nociception modulators change after fasting or stress situation. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of food deprivation on formalin-induced nociceptive behaviours and plasma levels of noradrenalin and corticosterone in rats. Methods Food was withdrawn 12, 24 and 48 h prior to performing the formalin test, but water continued to be available ad libitum. The formalin solution (50 µL, 2%) was injected into plantar surface of hind paw. The nociception responses of the animals during the first phase (1-7 minutes), the inter-phase (8-14), the phase 2A (15-60) and the phase 2B (61-90) was separately evaluated. The plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and corticosterone were measured using specific ELISA and IRA kits, according to manufacturer's instructions. Results In contrast to the increasing of 48 h food deprived animals during phase 2, the nociceptive behaviours of 12 and 24 h groups decreased through the interphase, phase 2A and phase 2B. The injection of formalin in the normal male rats significantly decreased the plasma level of noradrenalin and corticosterone. Food deprivation for 12 and 24 h increased noradrenalin level significantly in comparison with control group which has caused by fasting induced antinociceptive behaviours. There was no significant change in food deprivation for 48 h group. Food deprivation for 12, 24 and 48 h had no effect on corticosterone level in male rats. Discussion The present study emphasizes that the acute food deprivation diminished the nociceptive behaviours in the formalin test and show a correlation with increase in plasma noradrenalin level. PMID:25337367

  7. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. PMID:26658172

  8. Effects of population density on corticosterone levels of prairie voles in the field.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Dimitri V; Wallace, Gerard N; Calderone, Stefanie; Gorinshteyn, Marija; St Mary, Colette M; Phelps, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    High population density is often associated with increased levels of stress-related hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species known for their large population density fluctuations in the wild. Although CORT influences the social behavior of prairie voles in the lab, the effect of population density on CORT has not previously been quantified in this species in the field. We validated a non-invasive hormone assay for measuring CORT metabolites in prairie vole feces. We then used semi-natural enclosures to experimentally manipulate population density, and measured density effects on male space use and fecal CORT levels. Our enclosures generated patterns of space use and social interaction that were consistent with previous prairie vole field studies. Contrary to the positive relationship between CORT and density typical of other taxa, we found that lower population densities (80 animals/ha) produced higher fecal CORT than higher densities (240/ha). Combined with prior work in the lab and field, the data suggest that high prairie vole population densities indicate favorable environments, perhaps through reduced predation risk. Lastly, we found that field animals had lower fecal CORT levels than laboratory-living animals. The data emphasize the usefulness of prairie voles as models for integrating ecological, evolutionary, and mechanistic questions in social behavior. PMID:26342968

  9. Distinct responses of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels to genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Homberger, Benjamin; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, i.e. corticosterone (CORT) in birds, support physiological homeostasis and facilitate adaptations to stressful situations. However, maintaining high GC levels are energetically costly and interfere with other physiological processes. To keep the balance of costs and benefits of GC hormones, various mechanisms act to adapt GC levels to environmental conditions on different timescales, i.e. over generations, between parents and their offspring and within the life-time of a single individual. We elucidated whether two strains (domesticated and wild) of grey partridges (Perdix perdix) differed in the developmental trajectories of baseline and stress response CORT throughout the first 80 days of life. We also explored the potential of prenatal and postnatal factors, e.g. parental origin, predictable vs. unpredictable food treatments, individual and social factors to modify these trajectories. Baseline CORT was similar between strains and unaffected by perinatal food treatments. It was negatively related to body size and body condition. Conversely, the CORT stress response was not markedly affected by physiological condition. It was stronger in wild than in domesticated birds and it increased with age. Birds subjected to prenatal unpredictable food supply exhibited an accelerated development of the CORT stress response which could reflect an adaptive maternal effect. We conclude that the vital role of baseline CORT may allow little adaptive scope since changes can quickly become detrimental. In contrast, the CORT stress response may show considerable adaptive potential which might ultimately support homeostasis in a changing environment. PMID:25307951

  10. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity. PMID:23315312

  11. Parental care, loss of paternity and circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone in a socially monogamous song bird

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In biparental birds testosterone levels of males are typically high during the mating phase and decrease during the parental phase. Testosterone implants may enhance mating behaviors, increase the likelihood of males to engage in extra-pair mating behavior and may reduce paternal care. Thus, sex steroids such as testosterone influence reproductive behaviors. Little is known, however, as to whether the more subtle differences in physiological concentrations of testosterone that occur between individuals are related to differences in paternal care, extra-pair behavior, and genetic paternity between those males. Here, we investigate these relationships in the male black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros), a socially monogamous songbird with a low breeding synchrony. We used nestling provisioning as a proxy for parental care behavior and genetic paternity loss as a proxy for the efficiency of mate-guarding. Results There was no relationship between nestling provisioning and paternity loss of males. Baseline and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced levels of testosterone, but not baseline corticosterone, were significantly higher during the mating than during the provisioning phase. Males fed more often when temperatures decreased and fed less when they sang more, but we found no correlation between parental behavior and baseline or GnRH-induced testosterone, and baseline corticosterone – both measured during either the mating or the parental phase. However, males that experienced loss of paternity had lower levels of testosterone during the provisioning phase than males that did not lose paternity. Further, males that lost paternity also expressed higher baseline levels of corticosterone. Conclusions Physiological differences in testosterone or baseline corticosterone were not related to differences in parental care, suggesting that the variation of testosterone within a physiological range may not relate to the degree of paternal care in this

  12. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks.

    PubMed

    Kitaysky, A S; Kitaiskaia, E V; Piatt, J F; Wingfield, J C

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. PMID:12614644

  13. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation of the Hypothalamic Nucleus in Wistar Rats Alters Circulatory Levels of Corticosterone and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Calleja-Castillo, Juan Manuel; De La Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Morales-Espinoza, Gabriel; Moreno-Aguilar, Julia; Hernández, Maria Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic option for several diseases, but its effects on HPA axis activity and systemic inflammation are unknown. This study aimed to detect circulatory variations of corticosterone and cytokines levels in Wistar rats, after 21 days of DBS-at the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), unilateral cervical vagotomy (UCVgX), or UCVgX plus DBS. We included the respective control (C) and sham (S) groups (n = 6 rats per group). DBS treated rats had higher levels of TNF-α (120%; P < 0.01) and IFN-γ (305%; P < 0.001) but lower corticosterone concentration (48%; P < 0.001) than C and S. UCVgX animals showed increased corticosterone levels (154%; P < 0.001) versus C and S. UCVgX plus DBS increased IL-1β (402%; P < 0.001), IL-6 (160%; P < 0.001), and corsticosterone (178%; P < 0.001 versus 48%; P < 0.001) compared with the C and S groups. Chronic DBS at VMHvl induced a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by a decrease of HPA axis function. UCVgX rats experienced HPA axis hyperactivity as result of vagus nerve injury; however, DBS was unable to block the HPA axis hyperactivity induced by unilateral cervical vagotomy. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings and their clinical implication. PMID:24235973

  15. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction. PMID:26189974

  16. Brief anesthesia by isoflurane alters plasma corticosterone levels distinctly in male and female rats: Implications for tissue collection methods.

    PubMed

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Merrill, Liana; Kelly, Sean D; Lee, Vanessa K; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-05-15

    Euthanasia by anesthetic agents is commonly performed prior to tissue collection in order to minimize pain and distress to the animal. However, depending on their mechanism of action as well as administration regimen, different methods of anesthesia may trigger an acute stress response through engaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which can impact numerous other physiological processes that the researcher may wish to examine as endpoints. We investigated the effects of the commonly used anesthetic agent isoflurane on two different endpoints related to the stress response: plasma corticosterone levels and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well as several of its regulators including FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp5) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Our results indicate that brief exposure to anesthesia by isoflurane prior to decapitation can alter plasma corticosterone levels differentially in male and female rats within minutes without impacting gene expression in the hippocampus. We conclude that collection methods can influence stress-related physiological endpoints in female rats and the potential influence of even brief anesthesia as well as sex differences in response to anesthesia should be evaluated during the experimental design process and data interpretation. This finding is particularly important in light of new NIH standards regarding sex and reproducibility, and care should be taken to be certain that sex differences in endpoints of interest are not an artifact of sex differences in response to collection paradigms. PMID:26946276

  17. Disruption of the HPA-axis through corticosterone-release pellets induces robust depressive-like behavior and reduced BDNF levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Deneyer, Lauren; Albertini, Giulia; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-07-28

    The corticosterone mouse model is widely used in preclinical research towards a better understanding of mechanisms of major depression. One particular administration procedure is the subcutaneous implantation of corticosterone slow-release pellets. In this report we want to provide basic evidence, regarding behavioral changes, neurotransmitter and -modulator levels and some other relevant biomolecules after hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis distortion. We show that three weeks of corticosterone pellet exposure robustly induces depressive-like but not anxiety-like behavior in mice, accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, at five weeks after the start of treatment. Furthermore there is an overall decrease in plasma corticosterone levels after three weeks of treatment that lasts up until the five weeks' time point. On the other hand, no differences are observed in total monoamine, glutamate or d-serine levels, nor in glucocorticoid receptor expression, in various depression-related brain areas. Altogether this characterization delivers vital information, supplementary to existing literature, regarding the phenotyping of pellet-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption in mice following three weeks of continuous corticosterone exposure. PMID:27208833

  18. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  19. Serum neopterin levels in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Milena-Abril, A; González-García, C

    1993-09-01

    Serum neopterin levels have been determined by RIA in 105 patients affected by chronic alcoholic liver disease, 68 of them cirrhotics, and in 12 controls. Serum Neopterin was significantly higher in patients than in controls, correlated with Pughs' score and Child's classification, and also with serum laminin and type III collagen N-terminal propeptide, and with histomorphometrically determined liver fibrosis. Serum neopterin levels were higher in patients who died than in survivors, serum neopterin levels over 19.15 nmol/l being associated with higher mortality rates. PMID:8261879

  20. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats.

    PubMed

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference in the operated rats. The present study strengthens the hypothesis that pre-emptive oral buprenorphine in Nutella is suitable for treatment of postoperative pain in rats. PMID:20363983

  1. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-01-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague–Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats—an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  2. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern. PMID:27293591

  3. Comparison of monoamine and corticosterone levels 24 h following (+)methamphetamine, (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, (+)fenfluramine or (+/−)methylphenidate administration in the neonatal rat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Tori L.; Ehrman, Lisa A.; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that neonatal administration of (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and (+)fenfluramine produce deficits in spatial and path integration learning, whereas (+)methamphetamine causes deficits in spatial learning. Conversely, cocaine and (+/−)methylphenidate have no effect on either form of learning following neonatal administration. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether corticosterone and/or monoamine levels were changed following subcutaneous administration of 10 mg/kg (+)methamphetamine, (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (+)fenfluramine, (+/−)methylphenidate or cocaine every 2 h (total of four injections) on postnatal day 11. Twenty-four hours after the first dose, plasma, striatum and hippocampus were collected. Corticosterone levels were increased in methamphetamine-, fenfluramine-, methylenedioxymethamphetamine- and methylphenidate-treated rats relative to levels in saline-treated rats, whereas cocaine-treated rats were unaffected. In the striatum and hippocampus, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid were reduced in animals treated with methylenedioxymethamphetamine or fenfluramine, compared with levels in saline controls. Dopamine levels were not changed by any of the drugs, although 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was decreased following methylenedioxymethamphetamine or methamphetamine. Minimal effects were seen in neurotransmitter levels following injection of cocaine or methylphenidate. These data suggest that drugs that affect corticosterone and hippocampal serotonin are associated with both spatial learning and path integration deficits, and those that affect corticosterone and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid are associated with spatial learning deficits only. PMID:16923155

  4. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition: a study in common terns.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2014-08-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, a species whose young compete for access to food by scramble interactions. Blood samples were taken in nests with two and only one single chick both immediately after a feeding bout and in non-challenged controls. We found that T levels were lower in siblings challenged by a feeding bout as compared to controls, which may be explained by the fact that T suppresses begging behavior and is only elevated in response to territorial intrusion but not sibling competition in a related species. Singletons had, corrected for body condition, generally lower CORT levels than siblings suggesting that growing up with siblings creates a competitive environment in which high CORT levels are sustained irrespective of a social challenge. CORT levels were also negatively correlated with body condition and were higher in males than in females. The latter may be related to sex-specific food requirements and susceptibility to stress. Our results suggest a possible suppressive effect of acute sibling competition on T secretion, and a positive effect on CORT levels by longer term sibling competition. The degree to which these dynamics are related to begging or aggression, or both, needs further experimental work. PMID:24859255

  5. A flexible Bayesian hierarchical approach for analyzing spatial and temporal variation in the fecal corticosterone levels in birds when there is imperfect knowledge of individual identity.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Link, William A; Woods, Rami J; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-12-01

    Population cycles have long interested biologists. The ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is one such species whose populations cycle over most of their range. Thus, much effort has been expended to understand the mechanisms that might control cycles in this and other species. Corticosterone metabolites are widely used in studies of animals to measure physiological stress. We evaluated corticosterone metabolites in feces of territorial male grouse as a potential tool to study mechanisms governing grouse cycles. However, like most studies of corticosterone in wild animals, we did not know the identity of all individuals for which we had fecal samples. This presented an analytical problem that resulted in either pseudoreplication or confounding. Therefore, we derived an analytical approach that accommodated for uncertainty in individual identification. Because we had relatively low success capturing birds, we estimated turnover probabilities of birds on territorial display sites based on capture histories of a limited number of birds we captured. Hence, we developed a study design and modeling approach to quantify variation in corticosterone levels among individuals and through time that would be applicable to any field study of corticosterone in wild animals. Specifically, we wanted a sampling design and model that was flexible enough to partition variation among individuals, spatial units, and years, while incorporating environmental covariates that would represent potential mechanisms. We conducted our study during the decline phase of the grouse cycle and found high variation among corticosterone samples (11.33-443.92 ng/g [x=113.99 ng/g, SD=69.08, median=99.03 ng/g]). However, there were relatively small differences in corticosterone levels among years, but levels declined throughout each breeding season, which was opposite our predictions for stress hormones correlating with a declining population. We partitioned the residual variation into site, bird, and

  6. Sex and migratory strategy influence corticosterone levels in winter-grown feathers, with positive breeding effects in a migratory pelagic seabird.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P; Catry, Paulo

    2016-08-01

    To overcome unpredictable stressful transitory events, animals trigger an allostatic response involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex. This hormonal response, which involves the release of glucocorticoids which in turn mediate between the main physiological mechanisms that regulate the energetic demands and resource allocation trade-off with behavioural responses to environmental perturbations and may ultimately lead to variation in fitness. We have used the Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis, a sexually dimorphic pelagic seabird with a partial migratory strategy, as a model bird species to analyse a number of traits related to the stress response. We investigated whether the activation of a stressful response, mediated by corticosterone, during the wintering period (1) correlated with the previous breeding success, (2) was affected by the migratory behaviour of male birds and (3) had consequences in the fitness of the birds. Corticosterone levels in feathers grown overwinter were analysed in 61 adult birds during three consecutive migratory periods (2009-2012) and in 14 immature birds in the wintering period 2010-2011. Moreover, the levels of corticosterone were analysed in experimental birds which were freed from their reproductive duties and compared with control birds which raised fledglings to the end of the breeding period. The results show that the levels of corticosterone were sex dependent, differed between years and were affected by the migratory strategy performed by the birds. The activation of the stressful response over the wintering period generated residual carry-over effects that positively affected the reproductive output in the subsequent breeding stage, a phenomenon previously undescribed in a long-lived pelagic seabird. Our study provides evidence that the analysis of corticosterone from feathers is a useful tool to evaluate carry-over effects in birds far away from breeding sites, opening new possibilities for future studies in

  7. Flattening plasma corticosterone levels increases the prevalence of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons inhibitory responses to nicotine in adrenalectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Frías-Domínguez, Carmen; Garduño, Julieta; Hernández, Salvador; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Major depression is characterized by a diminished activity of the brain serotonergic system as well as by the flattening of plasma cortisol levels. Nicotine improves mood in patients with major depression and in experimentally depressed animals by increasing brain serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline and dopamine levels. The present study was directed to determine if flattening plasma glucocorticoid levels changes nicotine's stimulatory effects upon 5-HT DRN neurons. The experiments were performed in brain slices obtained from rats previously (14 days) adrenalectomised and implanted subcutaneously with one pellet containing 75mg of corticosterone (Adx+CSR rats). Whole cell voltage and current clamp techniques were used to study the activity of immunocitochemically identified 5-HT DRN neurons. Administration of nicotine (1μM) in sham-operated animals produced stimulatory effects in all 5-HT DRN neurons studied. In Adx+CSR rats however, nicotine inhibited 75% of 5-HT DRN neurons and increased the potassium-dependent inward rectifying current. The inhibitory effect of nicotine upon 5-HT DRN neurons was dependent on serotonin release inside the DRN, since it was converted into a stimulatory response by the selective antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635, 25nM). Adx+CSR rats also presented an increased function of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, since, in these rats, serotonin (1-10μM) produced a higher increase in the potassium dependent inward rectifying current in comparison with sham-operated animals. Serotonin release inside DRN was mediated by α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors since the selective antagonist of these receptors dihydro-β-erytroidine hydrobromide (DHβE, 100nM) blocked the inhibitory effects of nicotine 5-HT DRN neurons. These data indicate that, in the experimental model of adrenalectomised rats implanted with corticosterone pellets, nicotine increases the function of

  8. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  9. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  10. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A; Vleck, Carol M; Otis, David L

    2009-10-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10-15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves. PMID:19682449

  11. Environmental Enrichment during Rearing Alters Corticosterone Levels, Thymocyte Numbers, and Aggression in Female BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Eric K; Avery, Anne C; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The goal of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is to improve welfare, but some enrichment practices may affect research in unintended ways or even be harmful to the animals themselves. We previously found that mice raised at a commercial vendor then given multiple enrichment devices upon arrival at our facilities experienced thymic atrophy and greater variation in measured parameters than did their unenriched counterparts, suggesting that enrichment conditions affected corticosteroid expression in mice. The current study verified and expanded these results, examining 120 female BALB/c mice raised with or without nesting material at a commercial vendor (n = 60 per group) and allocated (n = 20 per group) to receive no enrichment, nesting material, or ‘superenrichment’ on arrival at our facilities. Nesting material provided prior to weaning was associated with higher levels of urinary corticosteroid, whereas superenrichment and nesting material during the adult period both led to increased thymic atrophy. Paradoxically, mice that never received enrichment, despite having the lowest corticosterone levels and least thymic atrophy, had increased tail wounds resulting from aggressive interactions. Therefore, enrichment devices that are as seemingly innocuous as nesting material, even if only provided in the preweaning period, may lead to significant, lasting changes in behavioral, physical, or immunologic measures with the potential to alter research outcomes. PMID:22330863

  12. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  13. Serum estradiol levels in male cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Dalen, J E

    1984-11-01

    Serum estradiol levels were compared in smoking and nonsmoking men in two separate samples. Sample I consisted of 41 young adult male volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 24 years. Twenty-three men smoked an average of 24.5 +/- 6.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 5.2 +/- 2.2 years. Sample II consisted of 35 husbands who had been evaluated for infertility; they ranged in age from 19 to 49 years. Eighteen men smoked an average of 21.6 +/- 7.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 11.5 +/- 4.5 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly between smokers and nonsmokers within either group. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in smokers compared with nonsmokers in both groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.0001 in Samples I and II, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum estradiol levels and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, or with the duration of smoking in either sample. The differences in serum estradiol levels between smokers and nonsmokers could not be attributed to the differences in marijuana and alcohol use that existed between the smokers and nonsmokers in each sample. The recent reports of elevated serum estradiol levels as a possible risk factor in coronary heart disease are discussed in view of the known relationship of cigarette smoking to coronary heart disease. PMID:6496540

  14. Reference levels for corticosterone and immune function in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings using current Code of Practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Adams, Amanda L; Benedict, Suresh; Moran, Christopher; Isberg, Sally R

    2015-02-01

    To determine reference levels for on-farm stressors on immune responsiveness and growth rate, 253 hatchling crocodiles from 11 known breeding pairs were repeatedly measured and blood sampled during their first year. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was used to quantify baseline stress levels in captive animals and were found to be lower (mean 1.83±SE 0.16 ng/mL) than previously reported in saltwater crocodile hatchlings. Two tests of immune function were also conducted. Innate constitutive immunity was assessed using bacterial killing assays (BKA) against two bacterial species: Escherichia coli and Providencia rettgeri, whereby the latter causes considerable economic loss to industry from septicaemic mortalities. Although the bactericidal capabilities were different at approximately 4 months old (32±3% for E. coli and 16±4% for P. rettgeri), the differences had disappeared by approximately 9 months old (58±2% and 68±6%, respectively). To assess immune responsiveness to a novel antigen, the inflammatory swelling response caused by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection was assessed but was only significantly different between Samplings 1 and 3 (5% LSD). There were no significant clutch effects for CORT or PHA but there were for both BKA traits. CORT was not significantly associated with growth (head length) or the immune parameters except for P. rettgeri BKA where higher CORT levels were associated with better bactericidal capability. As such, these results suggest that the crocodiles in this study are not stressed, therefore endorsing the management strategies adopted within the Australian industry Code of Practice. PMID:25644211

  15. Labisia pumila extract down-regulates hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 expression and corticosterone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Fazliana, Mansor; Gu, Harvest F; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Yusoff, Mashitah Mohd; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of a standardized Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) extract on body weight change, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) expressions and corticosterone (CORT) level in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The decoction of LPva has been used for generations among Malay women in Malaysia to maintain a healthy reproductive system.Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley OVX rats were treated orally with LPva extract (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg/day) or estrogen replacement (ERT) for 30 days. Sham operated rats were used as controls. Compared to untreated OVX rats, LPva-treated rats showed less weight gain and had significantly down-regulated HSD11B1 mRNA in liver tissues. HSD11B1 mRNA in adipose tissues increased by 55% (p < 0.05) in OVX rats but normalized in rats treated with LPva. Similarly, there was significant down-regulation (p < 0.05) of protein levels of HSD11B1 in both liver and adipose tissue of LPva and ERT groups, and CORT levels were significantly reduced in both groups of rats. This is the first study ever conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of LPva in relation to weight gain caused by estrogen insufficiency. Results implied that the bioactive components in LPva extract affect not only HSD11B1 expressions in both adipose and liver tissues but also decrease circulating CORT. The extract should be explored for its potential use as a natural remedy for weight management. PMID:21833773

  16. Do smart birds stress less? An interspecific relationship between brain size and corticosterone levels

    PubMed Central

    Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Bókony, Veronika; Angelier, Frédéric; Chastel, Olivier; Sol, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates respond to unpredictable noxious environmental stimuli by increasing secretion of glucocorticoids (CORT). Although this hormonal stress response is adaptive, high levels of CORT may induce significant costs if stressful situations are frequent. Thus, alternative coping mechanisms that help buffer individuals against environmental stressors may be selected for when the costs of CORT levels are elevated. By allowing individuals to identify, anticipate and cope with the stressful circumstances, cognition may enable stress-specific behavioural coping. Although there is evidence that behavioural responses allow animals to cope with stressful situations, it is unclear whether or not cognition reduces investment in the neuroendocrine stress response. Here, we report that in birds, species with larger brains relative to their body size show lower baseline and peak CORT levels than species with smaller brains. This relationship is consistent across life-history stages, and cannot be accounted for by differences in life history and geographical latitude. Because a large brain is a major feature of birds that base their lifetime in learning new things, our results support the hypothesis that enhanced cognition represents a general alternative to the neuroendocrine stress response. PMID:24026820

  17. Serum Prolactin Level of Subfertile Women.

    PubMed

    Anwary, S A; Fatima, P; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Rahman, M M; Bari, N

    2016-01-01

    Subfertility is a major reproductive health problem all over the world as well as Bangladesh, and the problem is increasing day by day. This study was done to estimate the serum prolactin concentration in primary and secondary subfertile women. Laboratory investigation included serum prolactin level, as well as LH, FSH, TSH blood glucose (2 hours after 75 gm glucose load) of 50 women who attended infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2009 and February 2010. In most cases, common age group 26-30 years (52%), primary subfertility (74%), duration of marriage >5 years (60%), trying to conceive duration ≤5 years (54%), BMI >25 kg/m² (60%), menstrual cycle regular (58%), history of abortion absent (90%), and history of menstrual regulation absent (94%). Common investigation findings was normal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 82%, normal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 50%, normal serum prolactin 1.9-25.0 ng/ml in 36%, normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-4.0 μIU/ml in 56%, and normal blood glucose level (2 hours after breakfast) (<7.8 mmol/) in 66% women. Ultrasonographic finding of lower abdomen was normal in 14% women. Common finding of semen analysis husbands of the study women was normozoospermia in 88% cases. Serum prolactin concentration may have role to play in subfertility of women. PMID:26931256

  18. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  19. Serum fucose level in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K

    2010-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions. PMID:21131761

  20. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  1. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  2. Moderate differences in circulating corticosterone alter receptor-mediated regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Judge, Sarah J; Ingram, Colin D; Gartside, Sarah E

    2004-12-01

    Circulating glucocorticoid levels vary with stress and psychiatric illness and play a potentially important role in regulating transmitter systems that regulate mood. To determine whether chronic variation in corticosterone levels within the normal diurnal range altered the control of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity, male rats were adrenalectomized and implanted with either a 2% or 70% corticosterone/cholesterol pellet (100 mg). Two weeks later, the regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus was studied by in vitro electrophysiology. At this time, serum corticosterone levels approximated the low-point (2%) and mid-point (70%) of the diurnal range. The excitatory response of 5-HT neurones to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (1-11 microM) was significantly greater in the 2% group compared to the 70% group. By contrast, the inhibitory response to 5-HT (10-50 microM) was significantly lower in the 2% group compared to the 70% group. Thus, chronic variation in circulating corticosterone over a narrow part of the normal diurnal range causes a shift in the balance of positive and negative regulation of 5-HT neurones, with increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation and reduced 5-HT-mediated autoinhibition at lower corticosterone levels. This shift would have a major impact on control of 5-HT neuronal activity. PMID:15582914

  3. Changes in Behavior and Blood Corticosterone Level in Male and Female Rats after Single Administration of Obestatin Fragment 1-4.

    PubMed

    Motorykina, E S; Khirazova, E A; Maslova, M V; Graf, A V; Maklakova, A S; Bayzhumanov, A A; Kurko, O D; Andreeva, L A; Sokolova, N A; Myasoedov, N F; Kamenskii, A A

    2016-06-01

    Single administration of the obestatin fragment 1-4 (300 nmol/kg) to male Wistar rats produced a significant weight loss in male rats on observation days 5-8, while in female rats only on day 8. In addition, males demonstrated decreased risk factor in the elevated plus-maze test, but no effect of the preparation on behavior of female rats was revealed. Obestatin fragment 1-4 had no effect on corticosterone level 1 week after single administration in both females and male rats. PMID:27383154

  4. Maternal Exposure to Low Levels of Corticosterone during Lactation Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Colitis-Induced Damage in Adult Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Carla; Giuli, Chiara; Agostini, Simona; Bacquie, Valérie; Zinni, Manuela; Theodorou, Vassilia; Broccardo, Maria; Casolini, Paola; Improta, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Opposing emotional events (negative/trauma or positive/maternal care) during the postnatal period may differentially influence vulnerability to the effects of stress later in life. The development and course of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease are negatively affected by persistent stress, but to date the role of positive life events on these pathologies has been entirely unknown. In the present study, the effect of early life beneficial experiences in the development of intestinal dysfunctions, where inflammation and stress stimuli play a primary role, was investigated. As a “positive” experimental model we used adult male rat progeny nursed by mothers whose drinking water was supplemented with moderate doses of corticosterone (CORT) (0.2 mg/ml) during the lactation period. Such animals have been generally shown to cope better with different environmental situations during life. The susceptibility to inflammatory experimental colitis induced by intracolonic infusion of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) was investigated in CORT-nursed rats in comparison with control rats. This mild increase in maternal corticosterone during lactation induced, in CORT-nursed rats, a long lasting protective effect on TNBS-colitis, characterized by improvements in some indices of the disease (increased colonic myeloperoxidase activity, loss of body weight and food intake) and by the involvement of endogenous peripheral pathways known to participate in intestinal disorder development (lower plasma corticosterone levels and colonic mast cell degranulation, alterations in the colonic expression of both corticotrophin releasing factor/CRF and its receptor/CRH-1R). All these findings contribute to suggesting that the reduced vulnerability to TNBS-colitis in CORT-nursed rats is due to recovery from the colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction. Such long lasting changes induced by mild hormonal manipulation during lactation, making the adult also better adapted

  5. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D

    2012-07-01

    Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort. PMID:22673661

  6. Serum thrombopoietin level in various hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Usuki, K; Tahara, T; Iki, S; Endo, M; Osawa, M; Kitazume, K; Kato, T; Miyazaki, H; Urabe, A

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the pathophysiological role of thrombopoietin (TPO) in thrombopoiesis, we measured its serum levels in 15 healthy individuals, 84 patients with various hematological diseases and 2 patients with liver cirrhosis using an enzyme immunoassay procedure. The TPO level was 0.84 +/- 0.40 f mol/ml in normal individuals. TPO levels were considerably elevated in patients with myelosuppression after intensification chemotherapy of acute leukemia in complete remission (postchemotherapy group; n = 18; 18.46 +/- 9.70 f mol/ml). When the data of normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group were combined, TPO levels were inversely correlated with the platelet count in this combined group. We compared these data of normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group with various hematological disease states. In aplastic anemia (n = 13; 16.03 +/- 9.44 f mol/ml), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 5; 10.36 +/- 5.57 f mol/ml), malignant lymphoma (n = 6; 2.79 +/- 2.27 f mol/ml), multiple myeloma (n = 3; 3.34 +/- 0.20 f mol/ml) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2; 1.71 +/- 3.91 f mol/ml), the relationship of serum TPO levels and platelet counts was almost the same as in the combined group with normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group. However, the TPO levels were slightly higher in myeloproliferative disorders (n = 12; 1.99 +/- 1.47 f mol/ml) and lower in acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 8; 2.27 +/- 1.25 f mol/ml), hypoplastic leukemia (n = 3; 2.76 +/- 2.23 f mol/ml), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2; 0.42 +/- 0.60 f mol/ml), liver cirrhosis (n = 2; 1.50 +/- 0.92 f mol/ml) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 12; 2.08 +/- 1.41 f mol/ml), when compared to the regression line for the combined group with normal individuals and postchemotherapy group. These findings suggest that TPO might play an important role in regulation of the platelet count in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:8888496

  7. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  8. Alteration of serum bilirubin level in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Semnani, Yousef; Nazemi, Farzad; Azariyam, Aileen; Ardakani, Mohammad Javad Ehsani

    2010-11-01

    Abstract Objective. Alteration of serum bilirubin level in acute episodes of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia has been reported but the pattern of this alteration is controversial. Methods. Patients diagnosed as schizophrenia (162, group S) or bipolar disorder (155, group B) entered the study. The control group consisted of 95 patients admitted to cardiac care unit who had no personal or family history of major psychiatric disorders. Pre- and post-admission levels of bilirubin were measured and compared within and between the groups. Patients were examined to exclude all other causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Group S and B participants were also evaluated using positive and negative syndrome subscale (PANSS) both at admission and discharge. Results. The mean admission bilirubin levels of all the groups were in the normal range (significantly higher in group S than groups B and C) and were affected by the score of general psychopathology subscale rather than the scores of positive symptoms subscale. Conclusions. Although bilirubin decreased in all three groups at discharge, the rate of decrease was significantly higher in group S. The reason for this is not clear and needs further study. PMID:24917437

  9. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  10. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Cağlayan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  11. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  12. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Neveen; Abbas, Amal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to T score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal T score versus controls (P < 0.001). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar T score (r = −0.69, P < 0.001) and femur T score (r = −0.64, P < 0.001) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. PMID:23878759

  13. Preoperative Serum Levels of Mesothelin in Patients with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bostancı, Özgür; Kemik, Özgür; Kemik, Ahu; Battal, Muharrem; Demir, Uygar; Purisa, Sevim; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Screening for biochemical markers is important for diagnosing colon cancer. In this study, the reliability of serum mesothelin levels as a potential diagnostic and screening instrument was evaluated concerning colon cancer. Methods. Ninety-five patients who had undergone colonoscopic examination and who were diagnosed with colon cancer were included in the study. The serum mesothelin levels were measured with the ELISA kits and were evaluated in terms of significant difference when compared between colon cancer and control group. Results. Patients with colon cancer had significantly higher mesothelin serum levels (P < 0.001) than the control groups. We found significant associations between serum levels and tumor grade, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion (resp., P < 0.001). Conclusion. Evaluating the serum levels of mesothelin has a potential to detect and screen the colon cancer in affected patients. Our data suggest that mesothelin exhibits effects towards colon cancer and serves as a biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:25477701

  14. Breeding under unpredictable conditions: Annual variation in gonadal maturation, energetic reserves and plasma levels of androgens and corticosterone in anurans from the Brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    Madelaire, Carla Bonetti; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Anurans living in arid and semi-arid habitats are subjected to unpredictable rain patterns. Consequently, they should be prepared to reproduce at the onset of rain events. We investigated the covariation between calling behavior, testicular maturation, abdominal fat body index (FBI), plasma levels of androgens (T-DHT) and corticosterone (CORT) of males from three species of anurans in the Brazilian semi-arid during the reproductive period and drought. One of these species aestivates during the drought, while the other two species remain foraging. Although the three species display different behavioral strategies during the dry period, they present the same general reproductive patterns. T-DHT levels on the plasma and germinative cyst diameters were higher during the reproductive and breeding period compared to the drought. Additionally, the germinative cysts had all cell stages including sperm bundles during the dry season, however, it was only during the breeding event that free spermatozoa were found in the cyst lumen. These results suggest that these species present the reproductive pattern typical of desert anurans, consisting of opportunistic breeders that reproduce when triggered by a rain stimulus. Rhinella jimi and Pleurodema diplolister had higher CORT when males were calling. Moreover, Rhinella granulosa and P. diplolister showed lower FBI during breeding event, when males were calling. The high levels of CORT and lower FBI during reproductive period are associated, indicating that CORT modulates the recruitment of energy stores to prepare and maintain reproduction, particularly the expensive calling effort. PMID:26808964

  15. Pre- and Postnatal Effects of Corticosterone on Fitness-Related Traits and the Timing of Endogenous Corticosterone Production in a Songbird.

    PubMed

    Strange, Meghan S; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Maternally derived corticosterone in the egg and corticosterone produced endogenously by altricial nestling birds play essential roles during development. Although persistently high corticosterone levels can be harmful, moderately elevated levels above baseline can lead to reallocation of resources between growth and maintenance to ensure immediate survival or to enhance the development of fitness-related traits. We tested two hypotheses concerning the fitness consequences of elevated corticosterone during prenatal and postnatal development in altricial house wrens: (1) elevated corticosterone shifts resources away from growth and immune function and (2) elevated corticosterone serves as a signal to allocate resources to fitness-related traits. We also explored the development of the stress response, hypothesizing that early-stage nestlings have little endogenously produced corticosterone, but that their baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels increase with age. Nestlings hatching from corticosterone-injected eggs were lighter at hatching, but through compensatory growth, ended up heavier than controls near the time of fledging, an important, fitness-related trait. Nestlings that hatched from corticosterone-injected eggs and those given oral doses of corticosterone did not differ from controls in three other fitness-related traits: immunoresponsiveness, size, or haematocrit. Early- and late-stage nestlings had similar baseline corticosterone levels, and all nestlings increased their plasma corticosterone levels in response to a capture-and-restraint protocol, with older nestlings mounting a stronger stress-induced response than younger nestlings. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to corticosterone is important in shaping offspring phenotype and are consistent with the hypothesis that maternally derived corticosterone in the egg can have long-term, fitness-related effects on offspring phenotype. PMID:27279255

  16. Pre- and Post-Natal Effects of Corticosterone on Fitness-Related Traits and the Timing of Endogenous Corticosterone Production in a Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Meghan S.; Bowden, Rachel M.; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Maternally-derived corticosterone in the egg and corticosterone produced endogenously by altricial nestling birds play essential roles during development. Although persistently high corticosterone levels can be harmful, moderately elevated levels above baseline can lead to reallocation of resources between growth and maintenance to ensure immediate survival or to enhance the development of fitness-related traits. We tested two hypotheses concerning the fitness consequences of elevated corticosterone during pre-natal and post-natal development in altricial house wrens: (1) elevated corticosterone shifts resources away from growth and immune function and (2) elevated corticosterone serves as a signal to allocate resources to fitness-related traits. We also explored the development of the stress response, hypothesizing that early-stage nestlings have little endogenously produced corticosterone, but that their baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels increase with age. Nestlings hatching from corticosterone-injected eggs were lighter at hatching, but through compensatory growth, ended up heavier than controls near the time of fledgling, an important, fitness-related trait. Nestlings that hatched from corticosterone-injected eggs and those given oral doses of corticosterone did not differ from controls in three other fitness-related traits: immunoresponsiveness, size, or haematocrit. Early- and late-stage nestlings had similar baseline corticosterone levels, and all nestlings increased their plasma corticosterone levels in response to a capture-and-restraint protocol, with older nestlings mounting a stronger stress-induced response than younger nestlings. These results suggest that pre-natal exposure to corticosterone is important in shaping offspring phenotype, and are consistent with the hypothesis that maternally derived corticosterone in the egg can have long-term, fitness-related effects on offspring phenotype. PMID:27279255

  17. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0

  18. Corticosterone, food intake and refueling in a long-distance migrant.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Bairlein, Franz; Stöwe, Mareike; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Elevated baseline corticosterone levels function to mobilize energy in predictable life-history stages, such as bird migration. At the same time, baseline corticosterone has a permissive effect on the accumulation of fat stores (fueling) needed for migratory flight. Most migrants alternate flight bouts with stopovers, during which they replenish the fuel used during the preceding flight (refueling). The role of corticosterone in refueling is currently unclear. In a fasting-re-feeding experiment on northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) in autumn we found that baseline total and free corticosterone levels were negatively related with both food intake and the rate of fuel deposition after fasting. This confirms our earlier findings in wild conspecifics in spring and indicates that corticosterone does not stimulate stopover refueling. Whether the negative relationship between baseline corticosterone level and fuel deposition rate is causal is questionable, because within-individual comparison of corticosterone metabolite levels in droppings did not reveal differences between refueling and control periods. In other words, corticosterone does not appear to be down-regulated during refueling, which would be expected if it directly hampers refueling. We discuss possible correlates of corticosterone level that may explain the negative association between corticosterone and stopover refueling. Additionally, we found that fasting decreases total corticosterone level, which contrasts with previous studies. We propose that the difference is due to the other studies being conducted outside of the migration life-history stage, and provide a possible explanation for the decrease in corticosterone during fasting in migrating birds. PMID:24721337

  19. Active coping toward predatory stress is associated with lower corticosterone and progesterone plasma levels and decreased methylation in the medial amygdala vasopressin system.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael T; Dass, Shantala A Hari; Booth, Jessica; Suraev, Anastasia; Vyas, Ajai; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    An active coping style displayed under stress - which involves proactive investigatory responses toward environmental threats - has been associated with reduced vulnerability to psychiatric illness. However, the neurobiological determinants of coping styles are not well understood. When rats are exposed to a naturalistic stressor (cat fur) in a group, some individuals in the group show robust active investigation of the stimulus while others show a passive response involving retreat, immobility and close aggregation with conspecifics. Here we explored endocrine and epigenetic correlates of these contrasting coping styles. Male Wistar rats (n=48) were exposed to cat fur in groups of 4 and the passive and active responders were identified and assessed for endocrine and epigenetic differences. Three days after the final cat fur exposure, active responders had substantially lower plasma levels of corticosterone and progesterone than passive responders. Plasma and testicular testosterone levels did not differ between active and passive responders. Active responders had markedly less methylation of the AVP CGCG promoter region located at base 4970 in the posterodorsal region of the medial amygdala but did not differ in the methylation status of the CCGG sequence located at base 2243. This is in agreement with prior research suggesting that AVP and progesterone act in opposition within the medial amygdala to modulate stress-related behaviors. The present study reports striking endocrine and epigenetic differences between active and passive responders, providing insight into potential systems involved in the manifestation of differing coping styles. PMID:25127982

  20. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED. PMID:26302884

  1. Serum estrogen levels in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Haffajee, C I; Hochman, J S; Sacks, G M; Dalen, J E

    1982-12-01

    Serum estradiol and serum estrone levels were assessed in 29 men in 14 men in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out; in 12 men without apparent coronary heart disease but hospitalized in an intensive care unit; and in 28 men who were not hospitalized and who acted as control subjects. (The 12 men who were hospitalized but who did not have coronary heart disease were included to control for physical and emotional stress of a severe medical illness.) Ages ranged from 21 to 56 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly among groups. Blood samples were obtained in the patient groups on each of the first three days of hospitalization. The serum estrone level was significantly elevated in all four patient groups when compared with that in the control group. Estrone level, then, did not differentiate patients with and without coronary heart disease. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in the groups with myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and in the group in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out. However, estradiol levels were not significantly elevated in the group in the intensive care unit without coronary heart disease when compared to the level in the normal control group. Serum estradiol levels, then, were elevated in men with confirmed or suspected coronary heart disease but were not elevated in men without coronary heart disease even under the stressful conditions found in an intensive care unit. Serum estradiol levels were significantly and positively correlated (p less than 0.03) with serum total creatine phosphokinase levels in the patients with myocardial infarction. The five patients with myocardial infarction who died within 10 days of admission had markedly elevated serum estradiol levels. The potential significance of these serum estradiol elevations is discussed in terms of estradiol's ability to enhance adrenergic neural activity and the resultant increase in myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7148879

  2. Malnutrition Markers and Serum Ghrelin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Gorgij, Farnia; Akbari, Ommolbanin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of study was to investigate the changes levels of serum ghrelin in HD patients and its relationship to some malnutrition markers compared with healthy controls. Methods. Forty-five patients on hemodialysis and forty healthy controls were studied. Biochemical parameters and serum ghrelin levels were measured. Both daily dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) assessments were performed for evaluation of nutritional status. Results. Ghrelin concentrations were significantly reduced in patients undergoing hemodialysis when compared to healthy controls (5 ± 0.68 (1.1–18.5) pg/mL versus 7.8 ± 0.84 (2.4–18.3) pg/mL; P = 0.004). BMI and serum albumin in HD patients were markedly reduced compared to controls. The patients with an insufficient intake of energy and protein demonstrated slightly lower levels of serum ghrelin. A negative correlation between serum ghrelin concentration with age (r = −0.34, P = 0.02), BUN (r = −0.26, P < 0.01), and serum creatinine (r = −0.27, P < 0.01) was observed in HD patients. Conclusions. The findings suggest that decreased ghrelin levels in HD patients might be associated with anorexia. Further studies are needed to determine changes in serum ghrelin levels during dialysis and to clarify whether the decrease in ghrelin levels contributes to the malnutrition that is common in these patients.

  3. Corticosterone facilitates begging and affects resource allocation in the black-legged kittiwake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and their dependent chicks respond to food shortages by increasing circulating levels of corticosterone. To examine the behavioral significance of corticosterone release, we experimentally increased levels of circulating corticosterone in parents and chicks up to the levels observed during food shortages. We found that corticosterone-implanted chicks begged more frequently than sham-implanted controls. Corticosterone-implanted chicks in broods of two begged more frequently than singletons. Parent kittiwakes then responded to the increase in corticosterone levels in their chicks by increasing chick-feeding rates. However, feeding rates were not different among corticosterone-implanted chicks in broods of two and singletons. We also found that corticosterone-implanted parents spent more time away from the nest - perhaps foraging - and less time brooding/guarding chicks than sham-implanted controls. Untreated mates of the corticosterone-implanted bird did not compensate for the change in their partner's behavior; consequently, chicks were left unattended about 20% of the time compared to 1% at the control nests. However, corticosterone-implanted parents did not decrease their chick-feeding rates. Our findings suggest two functional implications of the increased corticosterone secretion during food shortages in the black-legged kittiwake: it facilitates begging in chicks, and it affects time allocated by parents to guarding young at the nest. Thus, release of corticosterone might provide a mechanistic link between physiological condition and behavioral interactions among adults and their young.

  4. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hamuro, Akihiro; Tachibana, Daisuke; Misugi, Takuya; Katayama, Hiroko; Ozaki, Koji; Fujino, Yuji; Yoshihiro, Nakamura; Shintaku, Haruo; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. PATIENTS AND METHODS Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval (n = 12), and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes (n = 13). Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 (P < 0.05 each). CONCLUSION Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval. PMID:26568687

  5. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  6. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  7. Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture have recently been shown for the first time in amphibians, and in the present study urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and to confinement in captivity were measured in adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Queensland, Australia. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was used to provide a biological validation for urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urinary corticosterone metabolite increased 1-2 days after ACTH but not saline injection and then returned to initial values, indicating that the RIA could detect changes in corticosterone secretion in toads. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and restraint in plastic bags were first apparent 2h after capture of wild toads. Toads held communally in captivity for 5 days had elevated urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Mean corticosterone concentrations declined significantly after a further 7 days in individual housing chambers. There was no sex difference in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses of toads to ACTH challenge, short-term capture or captivity. The relative amount of variation in the mean corticosterone responses was quantified by calculating coefficients of variation (CV) for each mean corticosterone response. Mean corticosterone at 0 min was more variable for captive toads than wild toads. Furthermore, initial corticosterone concentrations (0 min) were more variable than concentrations during the ACTH challenge, short-term capture and captivity. There was little change in the amount of variation of mean corticosterone levels between male and female toads with increasing time in captivity (12-29 days). This study has shown individual corticosterone responses of amphibians for the first-time, and has provided a novel method for quantifying the relative amount of variation in amphibian corticosterone responses. PMID:21756910

  9. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  10. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  11. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-02-01

    Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated.The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels.In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4.At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month.In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with

  12. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month. In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively

  13. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  14. The Serum Lead level in Patients With Retained Lead Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammad Alibeigi, Faramarz; Sayadi, Masoud; Poorya Mofrad, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Soleiman; Darvishi, Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, who survived from shotgun injuries, often have some retained lead pellets in their bodies. Several cases of lead toxicity have been reported regarding these patients. Objectives: This study seeks to compare the serum lead level in patients who have retained lead pellets in their bodies with the control group. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we gathered the serum lead levels of 25 patients with some retained lead pellets in their bodies due to shotgun and 25 volunteers without similar lead exposure and compared them in view of the age, gender, and living place. Results: While the mean serum lead level in both groups was lower than the standard level (i.e. 40 µg/dL) , the mean ± SD of serum lead level were 29 ± 12.8 µg/dL and 25.3 ± 6.4 µg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively without any significant difference (P = 0. 30) . However, a positive relationship was seen between serum lead level, and the number of retained lead pellets (r = 0.447, P = 0. 025) . Conclusions: Although extensive surgery to remove the lead pellets is not recommended in patients injured with shotguns, those with many retained lead pellets in their bodies should be considered at risk for lead poisoning and monitored carefully. PMID:25147780

  15. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  16. Clinical significance of serum adipokines levels in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kerenidi, Theodora; Lada, Martha; Tsaroucha, Agori; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Mystridou, Parthena; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2013-06-01

    Adipokines have a significant effect on metabolism, immunoinflammatory responses as well as on carcinogenesis; therefore, we aimed at evaluating their potential predictive and prognostic significance in lung cancer. Eighty patients--mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years--with previously untreated lung cancer (61 NSCLC and 19 SCLC) of all stages and 40 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured using human Radioimmunoassay kits. Serum leptin levels in lung cancer patients were lower compared to control (p < 0.0001), while adiponectin and ghrelin levels were significantly increased in patients (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0043, respectively). Additionally, the leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly lower in the patients group compared to controls (p < 0.0001]. There was no association between serum levels of adipokines and any of the patient clinicopathological characteristics or response to therapy. Nevertheless, patients with lower values of serum leptin had shorter overall survival (p = 0.014), whereas multivariate analysis revealed leptin levels as an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.024, HR 0.452, CI 95 % 0.232-0.899). These results suggest that adipokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, while leptin serum levels might provide useful prognostic information. PMID:23430445

  17. Serum homocysteine level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Başkan, Bedriye Mermerci; Sivas, Filiz; Aktekin, Lale Akbulut; Doğan, Yasemin Pekin; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-10-01

    In this study serum homocystein (Hcy) level was measured and its relationship with disease activity criteria and treatment protocols was investigated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Ninety-two AS patients and 58 healthy individuals were recruited. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein were determined. Bath AS disease activity index and Bath AS functional index were calculated. Serum Hcy levels >15 micromol/l were considered as hyperhomocysteinemia. The mean serum homocysteine levels were 14.40 and 12.60 micromol/l in patients with AS and the control group, respectively, and the difference between two groups was significant. While there was no significant difference between the sulfasalazine (SSZ) group with 14.25 micromol/l mean Hcy level and the methotrexate (MTX)/SSZ group with 16.05 micromol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the Hcy levels of these two groups and Hcy level of 12.15 micromol/l of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group, and 12.60 micromol/l Hcy level of the control group. Mean serum Hcy level was 13.65 micromol/l in patients with active AS and 14.60 micromol/l in patients with inactive AS, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In our study serum Hcy level was found to be significantly higher in patients with AS than in healthy control subjects. Especially for the AS patients receiving MTX and SSZ treatment without folic acid supplementation, addition of folic acid to their therapy may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease which in turn decreases the mortality in these patients, but further prospective studies are needed for supporting these results. PMID:19288264

  18. Levels of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Tih-Shih

    2016-08-01

    Recent meta-analyses of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have reported lower levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies did not consider the potential confounding effects of time of collection, age, sex, smoking, and obesity. Here, we sought to examine differences in serum BDNF between medicated patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects, taking into consideration the potential confounders of serum BDNF. Serum was obtained from a sample of fasted blood collected from all participants, and BDNF was assayed on a commercially available kit. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no statistically significant difference between cases and control subjects (p = 0.261). In the model, body mass index emerged as the most significant predictor of serum BDNF (β = 0.22, p = 0.009). The present study did not support a role for serum BDNF as a biomarker in schizophrenia. This could be due to the nonspecific nature of serum BDNF and its association with both mental and physical conditions. PMID:27479612

  19. Serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yolbas, Servet; Kara, Murat; Yilmaz, Musa; Aydin, Suleyman; Koca, Suleyman Serdar

    2016-06-01

    Adropin, a secreted protein, is encoded by the energy homeostasis associated (ENHO) gene. It has been implicated in the several physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate serum adropin levels and ENHO gene expressions in systemic sclerosis (SSc) characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation, and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. The study includes 27 patients with SSc, 39 patients with Behçet's disease (BD), and 20 healthy controls (HC). Serum adropin levels and ENHO gene expressions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by ELISA method and by real-time PCR, respectively. The serum adropin levels were higher in the SSc and BD groups than in the HC group (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of ENHO gene expressions (p ANOVA = 0.149). There was no significant difference between the limited and diffuse cutaneous subtypes of SSc in terms of serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression. Moreover, serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression were not associated with the disease activity and severity indexes. ENHO gene expression was correlated with the triglyceride levels in the BD group (r = -0.426, p = 0.027). The augmented serum adropin levels may be expected in the chronic inflammatory disease and seem not to be characteristic of only SSc. However, further studies are needed to explain the precise role of adropin in SSc. PMID:27079850

  20. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  1. The relationship between maternal serum magnesium level and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khani, S; Shokrzadeh, M; Karamoddini, P K; Shahmohammadi, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm birth. This Nested case-control study carried out on 20 with preterm birth and 20 women at term birth at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari/Iran in 2008. The women with singleton gestation and intact fetal membrane suspected to preterm labor (case group), 10 cc blood samples were drawn into syringes and sent to laboratory of the hospital immediately. Sampling for control group was same as the case group. These samples recognized as control group just as birth occurring after week 37. Finally, serum magnesium level measured. Data analyzed using chi2, t-test and OR (Odd's Ratio). There was a relationship between the number of prenatal visits (p = 0.008) and stressful events associated with preterm birth (p < 0.02). Serum magnesium level was associated with preterm birth OR = 4.75, CI 95% = (0.48-46.91), Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of serum magnesium for preterm birth was 95, 50, 66.5 and 83.33%, respectively. Although, there was a correlation between serum magnesium levels and preterm birth, due to methodology of the study, a cohort study with the same cut off point and supplementation of magnesium in RTC studies is recommended. PMID:20836289

  2. Clinical significance of serum claudin-1 levels in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Erturk, Kayhan; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Claudins are the most important structural and functional components of tight-junction integral membrane proteins. They play roles in major cellular functions including growth and adhesion and are responsible for regulating the paracellular transport of molecules. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of claudin-1, an oldest and important member of the claudin family, in melanoma patients. A total of 98 patients with a pathologically confirmed melanoma were enrolled into this study. Serum claudin-1 concentrations were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Age-matched and sex-matched 43 healthy controls were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, ranging from 16 to 85 years. The majority of the patients were male (61%) and had axial localized (54%) and metastatic disease (61%). Moreover, most of the patients with metastatic disease had M1c (73%). The baseline serum claudin-1 levels of the melanoma patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects (median values 9.17 vs. 13.82 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.001). However, known clinical variables including age of the patient, sex, site of lesion, histology, lymph node involvement, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and response to chemotherapy were not found to be correlated with serum claudin-1 concentrations (P>0.05). Similarly, serum claudin-1 concentration was found to have no prognostic role in survival (P=0.524). In conclusion, serum levels of claudin-1 may have a diagnostic value in melanoma patients. However, its predictive and prognostic value has not been determined. PMID:26886788

  3. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  4. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood. PMID:21290101

  5. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. Results: The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  6. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  7. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  8. Maternal Serum Meteorin Levels and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, María F.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luisa F.; Simanca, Elkin L.; González, Iván; Leal, Luis G.; Mora, José A.; Bedoya, Andrés; Alzate, Juan P.; Sánchez, Ángel Y.; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.; Franco-Vega, Roberto; Parra, Mario O.; Ruíz—Parra, Ariel I.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meteorin (METRN) is a recently described neutrophic factor with angiogenic properties. This is a nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort study that describes the serum profile of METRN during different periods of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Moreover, we explore the possible application of METRN as a biomarker. Methods and Findings Serum METRN was measured by ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 37 healthy pregnant women, 16 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle with the aim of assessing serum METRN levels and its correlations with other metabolic parameters. Immunostaining for METRN protein was performed in placenta. A multivariate logistic regression model was proposed and a classifier model was formulated for predicting preeclampsia in early and middle pregnancy. The performance in classification was evaluated using measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In healthy pregnant women, serum METRN levels were significantly elevated in early pregnancy compared to middle and late pregnancy. METRN levels are significantly lower only in early pregnancy in preeclamptic women when compared to healthy pregnant women. Decision trees that did not include METRN levels in the first trimester had a reduced sensitivity of 56% in the detection of preeclamptic women, compared to a sensitivity of 69% when METRN was included. Conclusions The joint measurements of circulating METRN levels in the first trimester and systolic blood pressure and weight in the second trimester significantly increase the probabilities of predicting preeclampsia. PMID:26121675

  9. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Xiaomin; Liu, Yuan; Yin, Geng; Xie, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and evaluate whether serum 25(OH)D is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our results suggested that serum 25(OH)D in RA groups has significant lower level (35.99 ± 12.59 nmol/L) than that in the normal groups (54.35 ± 8.20 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Based on the DAS28, patients with RA were divided into four subgroups, and no differences were found in the four groups (P > 0.05). The 25(OH)D levels in complete remission, low disease activity, middle disease activity, and high disease activity group were 32.86 ± 12.26, 33.97 ± 13.28, 38.41 ± 10.64, and 38.94 ± 13.35 nmol/L, respectively. Based on the serum 25(OH)D levels, patients with RA were divided into inadequate group and normal group, and there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and disease activity in the two groups. Our results showed that serum 25(OH)D levels in the inadequate group are significantly lower than those in the normal group. However, no correlations were found between 25(OH)D levels and disease activity among 116 patients with RA. The present findings will help to understand the association between 25(OH)D and disease activity of RA. PMID:26064964

  10. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant. PMID:27612883

  11. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP. PMID:24497087

  12. Pro-apoptotic Action of Corticosterone in Hippocampal Organotypic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Anna; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Detka, Jan; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Bojarski, Bartosz; Ludwikowska, Agnieszka; Lasoń, Władysław; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-08-01

    Elevated levels of glucocorticoids exert neurotoxic effects, and the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to the effects of glucocorticoids. Because some data have indicated that an increased action of glucocorticoids in the perinatal period enhances the susceptibility of brain tissue to adverse substances later in life, the main purpose of the present study was to compare necrotic/apoptotic corticosterone action in hippocampal organotypic cultures obtained from control animals with the effect of this steroid in tissue from prenatally stressed rats. Because the adverse effects of glucocorticoid action on nerve cell viability appear to result mainly from an increase in the intensity of the effects of glutamate and changes in growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, the involvement of these factors in corticosterone action were also determined. In stress-like concentration (1 μM), corticosterone, when added to hippocampal cultures for 1 and 3 days, alone or jointly with glutamate, did not induce necrosis. In contrast, in 3-day cultures, corticosterone (1 μM) increased caspase-3 activity and the mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax. Moreover, corticosterone's effect on caspase-3 activity was stronger in hippocampal cultures from prenatally stressed compared to control rats. Additionally, 24 h of exposure to corticosterone and glutamate, when applied separately and together, increased Bdnf, Ngf, and Tnf-α expression. In contrast, after 72 h, a strong decrease in the expression of both growth factors was observed, while the expression of TNF-α remained high. The present study showed that in stress-like concentrations, corticosterone exerted pro-apoptotic but not necrotic effects in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Prenatal stress increased the pro-apoptotic effects of corticosterone. Increased synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may be connected with the adverse effects of corticosterone on brain cell viability. PMID:27189478

  13. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  14. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  15. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  16. Serum cortisol levels in patients with uncomplicated and cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Shwe, T; Khin, M; Min, H; Hla, K K; Win, Y Y; Htwe, K; Thu, T M

    1998-03-01

    Ten patients with uncomplicated malaria, ten with cerebral malaria and 37 controls (blood donors from blood bank) were included in the study. The serum cortisol levels of the patients were determined daily for 7 days while they were at the hospital. A radio-immunoassay method was used for quantitative measurement of cortisol in human serum. The mean serum cortisol level of patients with uncomplicated malaria was 528.2 +/- 123.9 nmol/l, with cerebral malaria was 516.0 +/- 80.5 nmol/l, and in controls was 393.8 +/- 141.0 nmol/l. There was a significant rise of serum cortisol levels in patients with malaria when compared to controls at the day of admission to hospital. There was no significant difference between uncomplicated malaria patients and those with cerebral malaria. There was also no significant difference between the different days of treatment up till day 7. We found no cortisol insufficiency in cases with falciparum malaria during acute and convalescent stages of illness. PMID:9740267

  17. Low serum levels of ghrelin are associated with gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Bermejo-Martínez, Luisa; Villa, Antonio R; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Zamora-Valdés, Daniel; Pichardo-Bahena, Raúl; Barredo-Prieto, Blanca; Uribe-Ramos, Martha H; Ramos, Martha H; Baptista-González, Héctor A; Uribe, Misael

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of ghrelin in gallstone disease. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 150 subjects, 38 with gallstones (cases) and 112 controls. We also did a real-time PCR-RT study in twenty gallbladder samples each. Body mass index (BMI), serum insulin, ghrelin, and serum lipids were measured. Logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariate) were conducted to estimate the probability of gallstone disease associated with serum ghrelin concentrations. RESULTS: Cases were statistically different from controls in gender distribution (P = 0.01), age (53 vs 44 yr, P = 0.002), BMI (28 vs 25; P = 0.004), and glucose (5.26 vs 4.98 mmol/L; P = 0.05). The prevalence of ghrelin serum levels above the third tercile was lower in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model, we found a protective effect, when ghrelin values were higher than the median value (OR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.82, P = 0.02). Twenty (20%) gallbladder specimens expressed ghrelin mRNA. CONCLUSION: Serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with a protective effect of GD. PMID:16718795

  18. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER.

    PubMed

    Soundravally, Rajendiran; Sherin, Jacob; Agieshkumar, Balakrishna Pillai; Daisy, Mariya Samadanam; Cleetus, Cherupanakkal; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Sujatha, Sistla; Harichandrakumar, Kottyen Thazhath

    2015-01-01

    The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs), and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI), used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue. PMID:26422155

  19. The Association Between Serum Selenium Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Na; Han, Fang; Lin, Xiaojun; Tang, Chun; Ye, Jinghua; Cai, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between serum selenium (Se) levels with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through a meta-analysis approach, the aim of the present study is to clarify the relationship between serum Se levels with RA. We searched literatures that met our predefined criteria in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and OVID published as of September 2015. Ten eligible articles with 14 case-control studies involving 716 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum levels of Se than the healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -1.347, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = [-1.872, -0.823], p < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum Se levels than healthy controls in Europe (SMD = -1.063, 95 % CI = [-1.571, -0.556], p < 0.001) and Asia (SMD = -3.254, 95 % CI = [-4.687, -1.821], p < 0.001) but not in USA (SMD = -0.322, 95 % CI = [-0.657, 0.012], p = 0.059). The serum Se levels were lower in RA than healthy controls measured by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (SMD = -1.026, 95 % CI = [-1.522, -0.530], p < 0.001), electrothermal absorption spectrometry (EAS) (SMD = -1.197, 95 % CI = [-2.373, -0.020], p < 0.05), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) (SMD = -0.681, 95 % CI = [-1.049, -0.313], p < 0.001), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) (SMD = -11.707, 95 % CI = [-15.189, -8.224], p < 0.001) but not by neutron activation analysis (NAA) (SMD = -0.674, 95 % CI = [-1.350, 0.003], p = 0.051). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between low serum Se concentration with RA. However, this finding needs further confirmation by a trans-regional multicenter study to obtain better understanding of causal relationship between serum Se with RA of different human

  20. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, L.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Smith, S.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Gerthoux, P.M.; Brambilla, P.; Mocarelli, P.

    1999-02-01

    Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one`s temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. The authors believe that the latter measure is the ``gold standard.`` In this article they present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

  1. Association between serum fetuin-A level and erectile function.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Gunay, M; Aktas, B K; Hirik, E; Aydın, M; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that ED is an early symptom of atherosclerosis. Fetuin-A, a glycoprotein secreted by the liver, kidneys and choroid plexus, has been linked to systemic fibrosis and calcification in human and rat studies. Deficiency of this compound may play a role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease progression. The aim of the study was to examine whether serum fetuin-A level is related to erectile function or severity of ED. Sixty ED patients without cardiovascular disease were assigned to one of the three groups (mild, moderate or severe ED) depending on ED severity. Twenty healthy volunteers were included as the control group. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire was used to measure erection quality in all four groups. Mean age, body mass index, total testosterone, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not significantly differ between the three erectile dysfunction and control groups (P > 0.05). The group with severe ED had a significantly lower mean fetuin-A level than the mild ED and control groups. For both mild and moderate ED groups, the mean serum fetuin-A level was significantly lower in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Serum fetuin-A level may be used as a supplemental biochemical parameter in preliminary evaluation of ED. PMID:26685713

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  3. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  4. Serum immunoglobulin levels and humoral immune competence in coalworkers

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.D.; Boyd, J.E.; Collins, H.P.; Davis, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured in 788 coalworkers and 121 nonmining controls for comparison with the radiological category of pneumoconiosis after taking into account age and smoking habit. In addition a simple assessment of humoral immune competence was made by estimating the titre of serum antibody against the common gut commensal Escherichia coli. Smoking was found to depress serum IgA and IgM while levels of IgG and IgA increased slightly with age. Men with radiological signs of coalworkers pneumoconiosis (CWP) had significantly raised levels of IgA and IgG with increasing pneumoconiosis category. Even coalworkers with less than category 1 simple pneumoconiosis had raised levels of IgA, suggesting that increased production of this immunoglobulin occurs before radiologically identifiable pathological changes have occurred in the lung tissue. No association between reduced humoral immune competence and radiological category of pneumoconiosis was found. Whether high Ig levels in men exposed to coal dust are merely a passive response to dusted lung tissue or whether they indicate that an immunological process is important in the development of pneumoconiotic lesions remains uncertain.

  5. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Karagün, Ebru; Baysak, Sevim; Erden, Gönül; Aktaş, Habibullah; Ekiz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570). Conclusions It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo. PMID:27605903

  6. Serum Glucose Level in First and Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zannat, M R; Nessa, A; Hossain, M M; Das, R K; Asrin, M; Sufrin, S; Islam, M T; Tajkia, T; Nasreen, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group. Study group was further divided into 100 pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosed case of type I and type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, antipsychotic drug users, regular steroid users were excluded from this study. Serum glucose was evaluated by the glucose-oxidase principle by GOD-PAP method in women with 1st trimester of pregnancy, 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in non pregnant women. Statistical analysis of data was done by unpaired student's t test. The results showed that the serum glucose levels increased significantly in third trimester and the value is not significant in first trimester. The increasing frequency of serum glucose level in third trimester may predispose the women to hyperglycemia of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27277349

  7. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Pediatric Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sobouti, Behnam; Riahi, Aina; Fallah, Shahrzad; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh; Shafiee Sabet, Azin; Ghavami, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have implicated the important and active role of vitamin D in the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children with burn injuries. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 118 patients with various degrees of burn injuries were enrolled. A checklist consisting of demographic data, total body surface area (TBSA) affected by burn, degree of burn, serum level of 25(OH)D, total protein, albumin, electrolytes, and parathyroid hormone was recorded for each patient. Results Sixty-eight (57.6%) males and 50 (42.4%) females with a mean age of 4.04 years (SD = 3.04) were evaluated. The mean level of 25(OH)D was 14.58 ng/mL (SD = 6.94). Levels of 25(OH)D in four (3.39%) cases were higher than 30 ng/mL, while 95 (81.35%) cases had levels lower than 20 ng/mL, and 19 (16.10%) cases had levels of 21 - 30 ng/mL. The level of 25(OH)D was below recommended levels in 96.61% of cases, while 81.34% had vitamin D deficiency and 16.1% had insufficiency. We found a significant correlation between vitamin 25(OH)D and total protein, albumin, and total and ionized calcium (P < 0.001). There was also a significant negative correlation between 25(OH)D and TBSA affected by burn (P = 0.001). Conclusions The levels of 25(OH)D in children suffering from severe burns were low. Supplementation might be useful in patients with very low levels of serum vitamin D. PMID:27218060

  9. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients. PMID:26329996

  10. Testosterone application decreases the capacity for ACTH and corticosterone secretion in a rat model of the andropause.

    PubMed

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Jarić, Ivana; Živanović, Jasmina; Filipović, Branko; Ristić, Nataša; Miler, Marko; Milošević, Verica

    2015-07-01

    The culminating phase of ageing in males-andropause is characterized by enhanced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and frequent glucocorticoid excess. In parallel, free testosterone deficiency provides the baseline hormonal milieu for the ageing male. The aim of this study was to illustrate (using diverse microscopic and biochemical methodologies) the effects of testosterone application on the capacity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion in a rat model of the andropause. Middle-aged Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated (SO; n=8), orchidectomized (Orx; n=8) and testosterone treated orchidectomized (Orx+T; n=8) groups. Testosterone propionate (5 mg/kg b.w./day) was administered for three weeks, while SO and Orx groups received the vehicle alone. ACTH cells and the adrenal cortex were stained using immuno-histochemical, immuno-fluorescent and histochemical procedures. Circulating concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, ACTH and corticosterone, as well as the adrenal tissue corticosterone levels were measured by immunoassays. Testosterone application led to increased (p<0.05) serum concentrations of sex steroids. Consequently, in Orx+T rats the ACTH cell nuclei volume increased (p<0.05) by 34%, while the volume density of ACTH cells and their relative intensity of fluorescence decreased (p<0.05) by 46% and 21%, respectively, in comparison with the corresponding parameters in the Orx group. Testosterone also induced vasodilatation in the adrenocortical zona fasciculata, and decreased (p<0.05) the ACTH concentrations and adrenal tissue corticosterone levels by 38% and 31%, respectively, compared to the Orx group. In conclusion, testosterone administration caused a decrease in the capacity for ACTH and corticosterone secretion in a rat model of the andropause. PMID:25940766

  11. Neopterin and interferon gamma serum levels in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Khoss, A E; Balzar, E; Steger, H; Howanietz, H; Wladika, W; Hamilton, G; Woloszczuk, W

    In the follow-up of children receiving renal allografts the early differential diagnosis of infections and rejection episodes is the main problem. Serum levels of neopterin (N), a pteridine released from stimulated macrophages, was determined by radioimmunoassay. Also interferon-gamma (IF) serum levels, a marker of T lymphocyte activity, were determined with an immunoradiometric assay in 19 kidney-transplanted children. Both, infections and rejection episodes, are accompanied by distinct increases in N. The IF are elevated 1-3 days earlier than N, the median values during infections being significantly (p less than or equal to 0.001) higher than those during rejection crises. The routine measurement of N and IF allow the simple, quick and reliable monitoring of the immune status, which seems to be of a high relevance for the daily monitoring of transplant recipients. PMID:3150820

  12. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine-2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old. PMID:27423152

  13. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with increased serum CYFRA 21-1 level.

    PubMed

    Kashihara, T; Ohki, A; Kobayashi, T; Sato, T; Nishizawa, H; Ogawa, K; Tako, H; Kawakami, F; Tsuji, M; Tamaoka, K

    1998-06-01

    CYFRA 21-1 is a fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CK 19). Four patients with large intrahepatic (or peripheral) cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and high serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 (normal, < or = 2 ng/ml) are reported. CYFRA 21-1 levels exceeded 9 ng/ml in all 4 patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was high in 1 (CEA; normal range, < or = 5.0 ng/ml) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was high in 3 (CA19-9; normal range, < or = 36 U/ml). We also measured serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 in 13 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) more than 5 cm in diameter. Levels of CYFRA 21-1 exceeded 2 ng/ml in 9 of the HCC patients and were higher than 9 ng/ml in 2 of the HCC patients. Levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and/or protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA II) were elevated in all HCC patients (AFP, PIVKA II, respectively; normal range, < or = 10.0 ng/ml and < or = 0.1 AU/ml) CYFRA 21-1 levels were measured twice or three times during the clinical course in 2 CC patients and in 6 HCC patients, and increased gradually with tumor growth in the 2 CC patients and in 3 of the 6 HCC patients. Marked increases in serum CYFRA 21-1 levels in patients with large liver cancers, particularly in those with normal levels of AFP and PIVKA II, would suggest the existence of intrahepatic CC rather than HCC. PMID:9658330

  14. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease. PMID:19390788

  15. Serum endocan levels in women with restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Kenan; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet A; Halac, Gulistan; Kilic, Elif; Ayhan, Siddika; Ozaras, Nihal; Yildiz, Kemal; Yildiz, Rabia S; Zorlu, Mehmet; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Kiskac, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocan is a recently introduced marker of endothelial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to compare serum endocan levels in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and control subjects in order to elucidate whether RLS is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods A total of 31 drug naïve female patients with RLS and 31 age- and BMI-matched women were included in the study. Patients with pathological or physiological conditions or with a history of medication use that could potentially influence endothelial functions were excluded, as well as those with alcohol or drug abuse history. The two groups were compared with routine blood tests and serum endocan levels. Results Patients with RLS had lower serum endocan levels than the controls (P=0.037). There was a negative bivariate correlation between RLS severity score and serum endocan levels (r=−0.406, P=0.023). While white blood cell count was significantly higher in RLS group, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, vitamin B12, transferrin saturation rate, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower. Creatininemia and diastolic blood pressure were also marginally insignificantly lower in RLS group. Due to the presence of differences between two groups in these variables, a linear regression analysis was performed that showed a positive association between endocan and creatininemia (β=0.310, P=0.022), and a negative association between endocan and RLS (β=−0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion The results of this study seem to suggest that patients with RLS may have better endothelial functions when compared with the general population and that these patients may be better protected against atherosclerosis. PMID:26640378

  16. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  17. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-06-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone.

  18. Vascular Responsiveness in Adrenalectomized Rats with Corticosterone Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Kaship, Kapil; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    To determine under resting, unstressed conditions the circulating glucocorticoid concentrations that best maintain sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle and baroreceptor responses to vasoactive agents, rats with vascular cannulas were sham-adrenalectomized (sham) or adrenalectomized (ADRX) and provided with four levels of corticosterone replacement (-100 mg fused pellets of corticosterone: cholesterol 0, 20, 40, and 80% implanted subcutaneously at the time of adrenal surgery). Changes in vascular and baroreflex responses were determined after intravenous injection of varying doses of phenylephrine and nitroglycerin with measurement of arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious, chronically cannulated rats. Vascular sensitivity was decreased, and resting arterial blood pressure tended to be decreased in the adrenalectomized rats; both were restored to normal with levels of corticosterone (40%), which also maintained body weight gain, thymus weight, and plasma corticosteroid binding globulin concentrations at normal values. The baroreflex curve generated from the sham group was different from the curves generated from the ADRX+O, 20, and 40% groups, but not different from that of the ADRX+80% group, suggesting that the baroreflex is maintained by higher levels of corticosterone than are necessary for the maintenance of the other variables. These data demonstrate that physiological levels of corticosterone (40% pellet) restore vascular responsiveness, body weight, thymus weight, and transcortin levels to normal in ADRX rats, whereas higher levels (80% pellet) are necessary for restoration of the baroreflex.

  19. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    PubMed

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  20. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has harmful effects on health and that recent vitamin D intake recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower extremity function, dental health, risk of falls, fractures, cancer prevention, incident hypertension and mortality. For all endpoints, levels in the deficient range (< 50 nmol/l; < 20 ng/ml) are associated with no benefit or adverse effects, while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 microg) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day for all adults may bring 97% of the population to level of at least 50 nmol/l and about 50% up to 75 nmol/l. Thus, higher doses of vitamin D than currently recommended are needed to bring most individuals to75 nmol/l. While estimates suggest that 1600 to 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day may successfully and safely achieve this goal, the implications of higher doses for the total adult population need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25207384

  1. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  2. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  3. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes.

    PubMed

    Morato-Conceicao, Yvelise T; Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Arruda, Talita A; Lopes, Jose C; Fontes, Cor J F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18-69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with type

  4. Low serum levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Michael; Al Samie, Abdul Rahim; Winkler, Heide-Maria; Nemeth, Johannes; Grasnek, Andreas; Indra, Alexander; Bieglmayer, Christian; Winkler, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37 possesses antituberculous activity, its association with other mycobacterial diseases, such as leprosy, is unknown. We studied serum cathelicidin and 25OH-vitamin D3 levels in 29 leprosy patients and 19 healthy individuals from Yemen. Cathelicidin levels were significantly lower in both treated (n=15) and untreated leprosy patients (n=14) when compared to controls (P<0.001). Within leprosy patients, levels were lower in those who very recently developed disease (untreated group) when compared to already treated patients (P<0.05). 25OH-vitamin D3 levels were not different between groups. The results suggest a potential association of cathelicidin LL-37 with Mycobacterium leprae infection. PMID:20887706

  5. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  6. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  7. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  8. Corticosterone mediates the inhibitory effect of restraint stress on the migration of mesenchymal stem cell to carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrotic liver by downregulating CXCR4/7 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lv, Chuan; Yang, Xue; Han, Zhipeng; Zhang, Shuili; Zhang, Jianwei; Zong, Chen; Gao, Lu; Li, Li; Zhao, Qiudong; Li, Rong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Fenghai; Li, Xiaoning; Zhang, Ping; Wei, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential in therapeutic applications. The low efficiency of MSC recruitment and homing to sites of diseased organ tissue, however, remains a major hurdle in their application for treatment of diseases. Stress is commonly associated with various diseases. At the present time, little information is available about the effect of stress on MSC function. Here, we employed a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse liver fibrosis model to investigate whether constraint stress affects the migration of MSCs to fibrotic liver. MSC homing to the fibrotic liver was significantly inhibited in mice with restraint stress. Restraint stress induced an elevation of corticosterone level in the serum. Blocking glucocorticoid signaling with either corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (MET) or glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 attenuated restraint stress-induced inhibition of MSCs migration. The serum concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) increased in mice treated with CCl4. Restraint stress had no influence on expression of SDF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the fibrotic liver. Culture with the serum of CCl4-treated mice or SDF-1 promoted MSC migration, which was suppressed by corticosterone. Exposure of MSCs to corticosterone decreased their expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7). These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of corticosterone on MSC migration might be mediated via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in MSCs. Interventions targeting the interaction between corticosterone and its receptor improve migration and homing of MSCs in hosts receiving transplantation of these cells. PMID:25268050

  9. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  10. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  11. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  12. Pyoderma gangrenosum with increased levels of serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Kana; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoko; Itoh, Eriko; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented after an episode of accidental trauma with a painful ulcer on her scalp which rapidly enlarged in size, accompanied by central necrosis and undermining ulceration. The patient's past history was negative for underlying systemic disease, although she had had a similar post-traumatic intractable leg ulcer 3 years prior, which was unresponsive to surgical management but successfully treated with systemic steroids. A biopsied specimen from the scalp showed marked neutrophilic infiltrates in the dermis, compatible with a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The large ulcerative lesion responded very well to oral steroid therapy, showing rapid epithelialization. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated prior to treatment, with decrease to normal levels after treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels were within normal limits. The significance and pathogenic role of cytokine burst in PG is reviewed and discussed. PMID:26047254

  13. Complement levels in acute infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, J. C.; Leader-Williams, Lesley K.

    1972-01-01

    The level of the third component of complement was measured in serial specimens of serum taken from thirty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis. Fourteen of the thirty-one patients were positive for the hepatitis-associated antigen. A characteristic fluctuation was observed in twenty-nine of the thirty-one patients. This consisted of an initial fall of the level of C3, followed by an increase to a higher than normal level and then a gradual return to normal. No difference was observed between the patients who were positive and those who were negative for the hepatitis-associated antigen. These results support the view that immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. PMID:4624985

  14. Association Between Serum B12 and Serum Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Patients on Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and metformin both can lower serum B12 (s.B12). Raised serum Homocysteine (s.Hcy) is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. Aim The study aimed to check whether homocysteine levels are more sensitive indicator of s. B12 deficiency or not among diabetics using metformin. Materials and Methods Mean s.B12 and s.Hcy levels of 30 cases (diabetics on metformin <5years) were compared with 30 diabetic controls not on metformin and 31 nondiabetic controls and statistically analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy. Conclusion In this study neither metformin nor T2DM could be identified as a cause for s.B12 lowering and raised s.Hcy in the scenario of low normal levels of s.B12 (<300pmol/L). If B12 deficiency recognized early using s. Hcy, consequences due to B12 deficiency can be prevented or delayed among nondiabetics as well as among diabetics and metformin users. PMID:27190787

  15. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  16. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  17. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  18. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  19. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  20. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with normal serum lactate dehydrogenase level].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideaki; Hangaishi, Akira; Saika, Makoto; Morioka, Takehiko; Ando, Yayoi; Kida, Michiko; Usuki, Kensuke

    2015-11-01

    We herein report two cases of AIHA (autoimmune hemolytic anemia), a 25-year-old woman and a 77-year-old man, who presented with normal serum LDH values. Though in these two cases, low hemoglobin and haptoglobin, high total bilirubin and positive direct Coombs' test results led to the diagnosis of AIHA, both patients had normal LDH levels (218 and 187 IU/l). Both cases were successfully treated with prednisone. In the diagnosis of AIHA, elevated LDH is usually used as a marker of hemolysis. However, medical records of 24 AIHA patients collected in our institute from January 2001 to August 2012 revealed LDH levels to have been normal in 25% of these cases. This report indicates the importance of obtaining complete information about the blood testing of patients and taking these data into account when considering the diagnosis of AIHA. PMID:26666722

  1. Serum magnesium levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Dipankar; Osta, Manish; Mandal, Tridibeswar; Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Ray, Debes; Gautam, Divyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Hypomagnesemia has been reported to occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control. Many studies have been undergone to find out the precipitated factors of retinopathy such as duration and type of diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypomagnesemia and increased urinary total protein levels. Aim: This study was carried out to study the correlation between serum magnesium levels, glycosylated hemoglobin and urinary total protein levels in diabetic patients with retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 30 type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy as Group 2, 30 type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy as Group 3 in the age group 45-75 years as cases and 60 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls (Group 1). Determination of Serum Magnesium (photometric xylidyl blue method), glycosylated hemoglobin, Hb1C (IFCC), fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose (glucose oxidase method) and urine total protein (Pyrogallol red method) was carried out. The statistical software SPSS 11.0 and Systat 8.0 were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Hypomagnesemia was observed in cases compared with both Group 2 and Group 3. FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, Urine total protein levels were increased in cases (without retinopathy and with retinopathy) compared with controls. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia and albuminuria individually or in conjunction serve as indicators for dysglycemia and could be used as marker for the risk of development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23633845

  2. Lipoprotein(a) Serum Levels in Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Gagliano, Caterina; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Michele; Leonardi, Daniela Giovanna; Motta, Massimo; Drago, Filippo; Avitabile, Teresio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Atherogenic lipoproteins, such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, are associated with progression of retinopathy. Aim. To evaluate the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 145 diabetic consecutive patients (82 females, 63 males; mean age 66.8 ± 12 years, mean duration of diabetes 9.4 ± 6.8 years). Presence and severity of retinopathy were evaluated. Serum lipid profile, including Lp(a) level, was assessed. Results. High Lp(a) levels have been observed in 54 (78.3%) subjects and normal levels in 13 (18.85%) subjects as regards diabetic patients with retinopathy. Lp(a) levels were high in 15 subjects (21.75%) and normal in 63 subjects (91.35%) as regards patients without retinopathy. Conclusions. Lp(a) levels are increased in a significant percentage of patients with retinopathy compared to diabetic patients without retinopathy. The impact of Lp(a) levels on diabetic retinopathy needs to be further investigated. PMID:23862162

  3. Individual variation and repeatability in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-15

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) can be used for the non-invasive assessment of baseline levels and corticosterone responses in amphibians. In this study, urinary corticosterone responses of wild male cane toads (Rhinella marina) to confinement and repeated handling were measured to quantify individual variation in corticosterone responses for the first time in an amphibian species. Urine samples were collected at 0 h in the wild, hourly from 2 to 8 h after transfer into captivity, and again at 12 and 24 h in captivity. Toads were then held in captivity and subjected to the same sampling protocol on three occasions at 14 days intervals to quantify variation in corticosterone metabolite responses within and between toads. Baseline and individual corticosterone metabolite responses in male cane toads were generally consistent, with high statistical repeatabilities for 0 h (r=0.630), 6 h (r=0.793), 12 h (r=0.652) and 24 h (r=0.721) corticosterone metabolite concentrations, and for the total and corrected integrated corticosterone responses (r=0.567, p=0.033; r=0.728, p=0.014 respectively). Urinary corticosterone responses appear to be a stable, repeatable trait within individuals. Corticosterone responses in amphibians can be more readily measured when urine rather than plasma samples are collected, and the protocol established in the current study can now be applied to the study of variation in corticosterone responses in other amphibians. PMID:22137908

  4. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition. PMID:25555007

  5. Pond acidification may explain differences in corticosterone among salamander populations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David L; Wojdak, Jeremy M; Du, Pang; Belden, Lisa K

    2013-01-01

    Physiological tolerances play a key role in determining species distributions and abundance across a landscape, and understanding these tolerances can therefore be useful in predicting future changes in species distributions that might occur. Vertebrates possess several highly conserved physiological mechanisms for coping with environmental stressors, including the hormonal stress response that involves an endocrine cascade resulting in the increased production of glucocorticoids. We examined the function of this endocrine axis by assessing both baseline and acute stress-induced concentrations of corticosterone in larvae from eight natural breeding populations of Jefferson's salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum. We surveyed individuals from each pond and also examined a variety of environmental pond parameters. We found that baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations differed significantly among ponds. Population-level baseline corticosterone concentrations were negatively related to pH and positively related to nitrate, and stress-induced concentrations were again negatively related to pH, positively related to nitrate, and positively related to temperature. We followed the field survey with an outdoor mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated pH and again examined baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone in A. jeffersonianum larvae. As in the field survey, we observed an increase in the baseline corticosterone concentration of individuals exposed to the lowest pH treatment (pH 5-5.8). Examining physiological indices using a combined approach of field surveys and experiments can be a powerful tool for trying to unravel the complexities of environmental impacts on species distributions. PMID:23434782

  6. Schisandra chinensis produces the antidepressant-like effects in repeated corticosterone-induced mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wan, Shutong; Wang, Mengshi; Wu, Bo; Xiao, Feng; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-09-30

    The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant downregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with EESC (600mg/kg) significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a abolished entirely the antidepressant-like effect triggered by chronic EESC treatment. These results suggest that EESC produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated, at least in part, by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway. PMID:27387555

  7. Association of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Miao, Xiao; Wang, Hongshen; Wang, Yifei; Li, Fulun; Yang, Qiong; Cui, Rutao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High levels of serum uric acid (SUAC) are frequently detected in patients with psoriasis. However, the relationship between psoriasis and hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the SUAC levels in subjects with psoriasis and to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. A comprehensive search of the literature from January 1980 to November 2014 across 7 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, and 4 Chinese databases) was conducted to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. Among the 170 identified reports, 14 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant higher SUAC level (MD 0.68, 95% CI 0.26–1.09; P = 0.002) in patients with psoriasis in Western Europe, but no significant differences were found between the East Asia and India subgroup (MD 1.22, 95% CI –0.13–2.56; P = 0.08) or the Middle East subgroup (MD 0.48, 95% CI –0.49–1.44; P = 0.33). Similar results were obtained from the meta-analysis of SUAC levels in subjects with severe psoriasis. Our meta-analysis showed that the correlation between psoriasis and hyperuricemia was either ethnicity- or region-dependent and that patients with psoriasis in Western Europe were more likely to have hyperuricemia. PMID:27175702

  8. Carbohydrate 19.9 Antigen Serum Levels in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, Gaetano; Ardiri, Annalisa Maria; Calvagno, Giuseppe Stefano; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Interlandi, Donatella; Vacante, Marco; Bertino, Nicoletta; Lucca, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Motta, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbohydrate 19.9 antigen (CA19.9) has been used in the diagnosis and followup of gastrointestinal tumours. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was the evaluation of CA19.9 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis hepatitis C virus and B virus correlated. Materials and Methods. 180 patients were enrolled, 116 with HCV-related chronic liver disease (48% chronic hepatitis, 52% cirrhosis) and 64 with HBV-related chronic liver disease (86% chronic hepatitis, 14% cirrhosis). Patients with high levels of CA19.9 underwent abdominal ecography, gastroendoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scan. Results. 51.7% of patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease and 48.4% of those with HBV-related chronic liver disease presented high levels of CA19.9. None was affected by pancreatic or intestinal neoplasia, cholestatic jaundice, or other diseases potentially able to induce Ca19.9 elevations. CA19.9 levels were elevated in 43.3% of HCV chronic hepatitis, in 56.3% of HCV cirrhosis, in 45.1% of HBV chronic hepatitis, and in 58% of HBV cirrhosis. Conclusions. CA19.9 commonly increases in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Elevation of CA 19.9 is not specific for neoplastic disease and is related to the severity of fibrosis and to the viral aetiology of hepatitis. PMID:24282817

  9. An acute injection of corticosterone increases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus but interferes with the rapid hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis response to cold in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Rivera, I; Jaimes-Hoy, L; Cote-Vélez, A; Espinoza-Ayala, C; Charli, J-L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2014-12-01

    The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is rapidly adjusted by energy balance alterations. Glucocorticoids can interfere with this activity, although the timing of this interaction is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that, albeit incubation with either glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists or protein kinase A (PKA) activators enhances pro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) transcription, co-incubation with both stimuli reduces this enhancement. In the present study, we used primary cultures of hypothalamic cells to test whether the order of these stimuli alters the cross-talk. We observed that a simultaneous or 1-h prior (but not later) activation of GR is necessary to inhibit the stimulatory effect of PKA activation on pro-TRH expression. We tested these in vitro results in the context of a physiological stimulus on the HPT axis in adult male rats. Cold exposure for 1 h enhanced pro-TRH mRNA expression in neurones of the hypophysiotrophic and rostral subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thyrotrophin (TSH) serum levels and deiodinase 2 (D2) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). An i.p. injection of corticosterone stimulated pro-TRH expression in the PVN of rats kept at ambient temperature, more pronouncedly in hypophysiotrophic neurones that no longer responded to cold exposure. In corticosterone-pretreated rats, the cold-induced increase in pro-TRH expression was detected only in the rostral PVN. Corticosterone blunted the increase in serum TSH levels and D2 activity in BAT produced by cold in vehicle-injected animals. Thus, increased serum corticosterone levels rapidly restrain cold stress-induced activation of TRH hypophysiotrophic neurones, which may contribute to changing energy expenditure. Interestingly, TRH neurones of the rostral PVN responded to both corticosterone and cold exposure with an amplified expression of pro-TRH mRNA, suggesting that these neurones integrate stress and temperature

  10. Enhanced Soluble Serum CD40L and Serum P-Selectin Levels in Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Petramala, L; Iacobellis, G; Carnevale, R; Marinelli, C; Zinnamosca, L; Concistrè, A; Galassi, M; Iannucci, G; Lucia, P; Pignatelli, P; Ciardi, A; Violi, F; De Toma, G; Letizia, C

    2016-07-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is one of the most frequent forms of secondary hypertension, associated with atherosclerosis and higher risk of cardiovascular events. Platelets play a key role in the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the platelet activation by measuring serum levels of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and P-selectin (sP-selectin) in consecutive PA patients [subgroup: aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (IHA)], matched with essential hypertensive (EH) patients. The subgroup of APA patients was revaluated 6-months after unilateral adrenalectomy. In all PA group, we measured higher serum levels of both sP-selectin (14.29±9.33 pg/ml) and sCD40L (9.53±4.2 ng/ml) compared to EH patients (9.39±5.3 pg/ml and 3.54±0.94 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.001). After removal of APA, PA patients showed significant reduction of blood pressure (BP) values, plasma aldosterone (PAC) levels and ARR-ratio, associated with a significant reduction of sP-selectin (16.74±8.9 pg/ml vs. 8.1±3.8 pg/ml; p<0.01) and sCD40L (8.6±1 ng/ml vs. 5.24±0.94 ng/ml; p<0.001). In PA patients, we found a significant correlation between sP-selectin and sCD40L with PAC (r=0.52, p<0.01; r=0.50, p<0.01, respectively); this correlation was stronger in APA patients (r=0.54; p<0.01 r=0.63; p<0.01, respectively). Our results showed that PA is related to platelet activation, expressed as higher plasma values of sCD40L and sP-selectin values. Surgical treatment and consequent normalization of aldosterone secretion was associated with significant reduction of sCD40L and sP-selectin values in APA patients. PMID:27101095

  11. Influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive Greater Rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Della Costa, Natalia S; Marin, Raul H; Busso, Juan M; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2016-05-01

    Many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. We investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in Greater Rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (IRS) and a semi-extensive (SRS) rearing system. After HPLC validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) I radio-immunoassay kit. Results (mean ± SE) showed that eggs collected from the IRS exhibited a significantly higher corticosterone concentration than eggs from SRS (89.88 ± 8.93 vs. 45.41 ± 5.48 ng/g yolk, respectively). Our findings suggest that rearing conditions under an intensive scheme (e.g., small pens with bare ground, no direct foraging and handling) might be perceived as more stressful for Greater Rhea females than semi-extensive rearing conditions (e.g., low animal density distributed in extensive areas and direct foraging), which would result in the transfer of higher yolk corticosterone levels. A better understanding of environmental conditions and female traits that affect yolk corticosterone deposition provides a background for future studies concerning the roles of maternal corticosterone on offspring development. Zoo Biol. 35:246-250, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928950

  12. Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret; Prince, Jonathan A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex which may clarify conflicting prior evidence. Design A 16-year prospective cohort study of health and cognitive aging. Participants 819 adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 50 years and older at the first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. Measurements Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span. Baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, apoA1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident prior to age 65. In women higher HDL and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities over age, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction: i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline. In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. Conclusions Elevated lipids may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, while for men the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. PMID:20398119

  13. Serum resistin levels in children with primary snoring.

    PubMed

    Zicari, A M; Cutrera, R; Occasi, F; Carbone, M P; Cesoni Marcelli, A; De Castro, G; Indinnimeo, L; Tancredi, G; Galandrini, R; Giuffrida, A; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    Primary Snoring (PS) has been positioned at the milder end of the Sleep-Disordered Breathing severity continuum characterized by snoring and it is usually underestimated. PS is defined as snoring without apnea, frequent arousals, or gas exchange abnormalities and recent studies demonstrated that children with PS have increased blood pressure and reduced arterial distensibility. The association between adipokines and SDB has been recently investigated, though most of the studies were focused on OSAS where intermittent hypoxia characterizing the disease may lead to an inflammatory cascade and to the release of several adipokines, contributing to oxidative stress. Resistin, initially described s an adipokine increasing insulin resistance, has been recently identified as a novel important member of the cytokine family involved in the regulation of inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate circulating resistin levels in normal weight children with PS. Sixty-five children of normal weight aged between 4 and 14 years of age were selected for habitual snoring. Children with positive polysomnography were excluded from the study. Serum resistin levels were detected in all children with PS. Thirty-three healthy non-snorer children with similar age, sex and BMI were selected as a control group. A significantly higher level of resistin was observed in patients with PS compared to the control group (4.67±1.91 ng/ml vs 3.98±1.58 ng/ml; p<0.01). Patients with inconclusive pulse oximetry showed significantly higher resistin levels than those with negative recordings recordings (5.29±1.91 ng/ml vs 4.20±1.93 ng/ml; p<0.008). Moreover, there was a significant increasing trend between sieric adipokine level and the frequency of snoring (p<0.006). Our results suggest that systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may also play a significant role in the pathophysiology of PS. PMID:25280038

  14. Serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Preti, Paola; Zoppi, Annalisa; Fogari, Elena; Rinaldi, Andrea; Corradi, Luca; Mugellini, Amedeo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in the elderly. We studied 356 non-diabetic, non-smoking, non-obese men aged 60 to 80 years and untreated for hypertension. All subjects were evaluated in the morning after an overnight fast. Evaluation included measurements of the following: BP (by mercury sphygmomanometer, Korotkoff I and V), body weight, height and free testosterone (T) plasma levels (by radioimmunoassay). According to the BP values, the subjects were classified as normotensives (NT; n=112; SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg), systolic and diastolic hypertensives (HT; n=127; SBP/DBP>140/90 mmHg), and isolated systolic hypertensives (ISH; n=117; SBP>140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg). T values decreased with increasing age in all 3 groups and was significantly lower in HT (-15%) and ISH men (-21%) than in NT men (p<0.05). In each group, the T levels showed a highly significant negative correlation with BMI (p<0.001). A significant negative correlation was also found between T levels and SBP in NT (r=-0.35, p<0.001), ISH (r=-0.67, p<0.001), and HT (r=-0.19, p<0.05) men, whereas a negative correlation with DBP was observed only in the NT men (r=-0.19, p<0.05). Adjusting for the BMI confirmed a significant difference in plasma T levels between ISH and NT men, but not between HT and NT men. Multiple regression analysis employing BP as a dependent variable confirmed a strong relationship between T levels and SBP in all 3 groups, whereas a significant relationship between T levels and DBP was found only in NT men. In conclusion, although further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between plasma T levels and BP, our findings suggest that in elderly men with ISH, the reduced plasma levels of testosterone might contribute to the increased arterial stiffness typical of these subjects. PMID:16392765

  15. Serum interleukin-15 levels in cancer patients with cachexia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Pedro L; Hernanz-Macías, Ángel; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Grande-Aragón, Cristina; Feliu-Batlle, Jaime; Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Martínez-Muñoz, Isabel; Zurita-Rosa, Laura; Villarino-Sanz, Marta; Prados-Sánchez, Concepción; Sánchez García-Girón, Joaquín

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has important anabolic effects on muscle protein metabolism through a decrease in the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. The role of IL-15 in human cancer cachexia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between interleukin-15 (IL-15) in cancer patients with cachexia at diagnosis of malignancy and 8 weeks later. An observational study of 21 cancer patients (with and without cachexia) and 8 healthy subjects was conducted. Body composition was measured by leg-to-leg impedance. Serum IL-15 levels were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. Baseline IL-15 values were similar in cancer patients and in healthy subjects. Cancer patients with lower baseline levels of IL-15 (<2 pg/ml) had significantly higher fat mass (%) along the study. Eighteen patients completed the study: five patients showed an increase of 3.7 kg at the end of the study (5.4% of body weight) and showed a mean increase of IL-15 of 1.32 pg/ml (121%) at 4 weeks and 2.32 pg/ml (197%) at 8 weeks, as compared with mean decrease of -4.1 kg (-5.3%) and -0.09 pg/ml (-2.5%) and 0.6 pg/ml (40.8%) in the 13 patients who lost weight (P=0.001 and P=0.022, respectively). Changes of IL-15 at 4 and 8 weeks were directly associated with changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass and muscle mass (P<0.05), and indirectly associated with percentage of weight loss (P<0.05). In summary, although the results indicate that IL-15 does not have a role in cancer cachexia pathogenesis, the association during evolution between serum IL-15 and changes in weight and muscle mass suggests a possible role of IL-15 as a marker of the body composition response in cancer patients who are losing weight at the time of diagnosis. PMID:22825570

  16. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  17. The association between abdominal obesity and serum cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas; Joshaghani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum cholesterol level and abdominal obesity in adult men and women in the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on the 1956 subjects (990 men and 966 women) between 25 and 65 years old chosen by cluster sampling. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12 h fast and determined by auto-analyzer. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) was defined by a total plasma cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. Waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women were defined as abdominal obesity. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 considered as statistical significance. Results: Averagely, the mean of age was 44.2 years and mean ± standard deviation of plasma total cholesterol level was 203 ± 11.3 mg/dl. The HC was seen in 50.8% of subjects with a more common in women than in men. Compared with normal subjects, in abdominal obese people, the odds ratio (OR) of HC was (OR = 4.208 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.939–9.130]) and (OR = 3.956 [95% CI: 1.821–8.592]) in men aged 25–35 and 35–45 years, respectively. In women aged 25–35 years, it was (OR = 3.444 [95% CI: 1.959–6.056]) in abdominal obese compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia was revealed as a major health problem among adults, and it was associated with abdominal obesity especially in the early middle-age in the north of Iran. This association was not significant in men and women after the age of 45 and 35, respectively. PMID:26097812

  18. [Diagnosis of an increased serum level of ferritin].

    PubMed

    Lorcerie, B; Audia, S; Samson, M; Millière, A; Falvo, N; Leguy-Seguin, V; Berthier, S; Bonnotte, B

    2015-08-01

    The discovery of a hyperferritinemia is most of the time fortuitous. The diagnostic approach aims at looking for the responsible etiology and at verifying if an iron hepatic overload is present or not. Three diagnostic steps are proposed. The clinical elements and a few straightforward biological tests are sufficient at first to identify one of the four main causes: alcoholism, inflammatory syndrome, cytolysis, and metabolic syndrome. None of these causes is associated with a significant iron hepatic overload. If the transferring saturation coefficient is raised (>50%) a hereditary hemochromatosis should be discussed. Secondly, less common disorders will be discussed. Among these, only the chronic hematological disorders either acquired or congenital are at risk of iron hepatic overload. Thirdly, if a doubt persists in the etiologic research, and the serum ferritin level is very high or continues to rise, it is essential to verify that there is no iron hepatic overload. For that purpose, the MRI with study of the iron overload is the main test, which will guide the therapeutic attitude. Identification of more than a single etiology occurs in more than 40% of the cases. PMID:25640247

  19. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  20. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  1. Zuclopenthixol decanoate in schizophrenia: serum levels and clinical state.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, A; Aaes-Jørgensen, T; Gravem, A; Amthor, K F; Dencker, S J; Rosell, I; Baastrup, P C; Buckhave, J; Gram, L F

    1985-01-01

    Serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol were determined in a group of 20 patients treated with a depot preparation, zuclopenthixol decanoate in Viscoleo. Clinical assessments according to a Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Comprehensive Psychological Rating Scale (CPRS), 16-item subscale for schizophrenia, and the UKU side effect scale were performed on 3 consecutive days of injection. The serum concentrations showed a limited individual variation and a high and significant correlation between dose and serum concentration. One patient had a particularly high serum concentration of zuclopenthixol. This patient also had an elevated concentration of the N-dealkyl metabolite, but a low concentration of the sulphoxide. For serum concentrations versus clinical state and side effects some significant correlations were found. All correlations were positive, which means that the higher the serum concentration the poorer the clinical state of the patient. We think that this probably reflects a common clinical pattern of increasing the dose, when the antipsychotic response is unsatisfactory. The study also showed that for moderately ill patients, who were given the optimum dose of drug, the subgroup of patients not experiencing side effects had significantly lower serum concentrations than the subgroup with side effects. PMID:2867572

  2. Effect of sodium valproate on phenobarbital serum levels in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fernandez de Gatta, M R; Alonso Gonzalez, A C; Garcia Sanchez, M J; Dominguez-Gil Hurle, A; Santos Borbujo, J; Monzon Corral, L

    1986-01-01

    The influence of sodium valproate on serum levels of phenobarbital during combination treatment was studied in 29 children and 50 adults with epilepsy. Steady-state drug levels in serum were determined immediately prior to drug administration using immunoenzymatic analysis. The serum level/dose ratio of phenobarbital increased significantly (p less than 0.001) when sodium valproate was added to the treatment. The increase had a mean value of 50.9% in adults and 112.5% in children, suggesting marked interindividual variability in the intensity of the interaction. Almost half of the patients required a decrease in the dose of phenobarbital prescribed. The interaction was more pronounced in patients with high serum levels of phenobarbital, while the dose of phenobarbital and the serum levels and dose of sodium valproate did not seem to affect the extent of the interaction. Close monitoring of the serum levels of phenobarbital is recommended during simultaneous treatment with sodium valproate. PMID:3103264

  3. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27432092

  4. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  5. Changes in patterns of corticosterone secretion concurrent with migratory fattening in a neotropical migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Holberton, R L

    1999-10-01

    Several studies on free-living birds have shown a change in corticosterone secretion (elevated baseline levels and a reduced corticosterone response to stress) during migration. It was not known, however, if this change was concurrent with the development of migratory condition or if it was an independent response to unknown environmental stressors experienced by the birds prior to capture. In this study, a Neotropical annual migrant, the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata), held under controlled laboratory conditions, was used to test the Migration Modulation Hypothesis (MMH): during the migratory period migrants exhibit (1) elevated baseline corticosterone to facilitate migratory fattening and (2) a reduced corticosterone stress response, a means by which skeletal muscle needed for migration can be protected against catabolism by high levels of corticosterone. Fifteen hatching-year warblers were maintained on insect larvae and water ad libitum for 43 weeks, experiencing two transitions from a short- to long-day photoperiod to bring them into spring migratory condition. Corticosterone profiles comprising three blood samples from each individual (baseline at the time of initial disturbance and 30 and 60 min later), body mass, fat reserves, molt, and state of cloacal protuberance (males only) were measured at key intervals throughout the study. Over the entire study, mean baseline corticosterone levels were positively correlated with mean body mass, which increased predictably in response to long days. Individual baseline corticosterone was not correlated with individual body mass at any time. During periods when the birds were lean and held on short days, the corticosterone stress profiles were characterized by low initial hormone concentration followed by a significant increase in corticosterone with handling time. In response to long days, the warblers showed a significant increase in body mass and fat reserves concurrent with corticosterone stress

  6. Time-dependent miR-16 serum fluctuations together with reciprocal changes in the expression level of miR-16 in mesocortical circuit contribute to stress resilient phenotype in chronic mild stress - An animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Zurawek, Dariusz; Kusmider, Maciej; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Gruca, Piotr; Pabian, Paulina; Kolasa, Magdalena; Solich, Joanna; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in stress-related pathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying stress resilience are elusive. Using chronic mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression, we identified animals exhibiting a resilient phenotype. We investigated serum levels of corticosterone, melatonin and 376 mature miRNAs to find peripheral biomarkers associated with the resilient phenotype. miR-16, selected during screening step, was assayed in different brain regions in order to find potential relationship between brain and peripheral alterations in response to stress. Two CMS experiments that lasted for 2 and 7 consecutive weeks were performed. During both CMS procedures, sucrose consumption levels were significantly decreased in anhedonic-like animals (p<0.0001) compared with unstressed animals, whereas the drinking profiles of resilient rats did not change despite the rats being stressed. Serum corticosterone measurements indicated that anhedonic-like animals had blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whereas resilient animals exhibited dynamic responses to stress. miRNA profiling revealed that resilient animals had elevated serum levels of miR-16 after 7 weeks of CMS (adjusted p-value<0.007). Moreover, resilient animals exhibited reciprocal changes in miR-16 expression level in mesocortical pathway after 2 weeks of CMS (p<0.008). A bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-16 regulates genes involved in the functioning of the nervous system in both humans and rodents. Resilient animals can actively cope with stress on a biochemical level and miR-16 may contribute to a "stress-resistant" behavioral phenotype by pleiotropic modulation of the expression of genes involved in the function of the nervous system. PMID:26628105

  7. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: Any correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.; Okunade, Kehinde S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study assessed whether low maternal serum cholesterol during early pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study involving pregnant women at gestational age of 14-20 weeks over a period of 12 months. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analysed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: Low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery. Optimal maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit, therefore pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet. PMID:25298606

  8. Microwave-induced temperature, corticosterone, and thryotropin interrelationships

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Pettit, S.; Michaelson, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    To delineate acute endocrine responses to microwave energy absorption, 142 unanesthetized male Long-Evans rats acclimated to experimental procedures were subjected to far-field 2.45-GHz microwave exposure for 1 h at 1-70 mW/cm/sup 2/, 4 h at 0.1-40 mw/cm/sup 2/, or sham exposure. Controls were sham exposed in a sham-exposure chamber beginning at 030 h and killed at 1230, 1330, 1530, and 1930 h. Microwave-exposed rats were equilibrated in an anechoic chamber for 3 h prior to the start of exposure. Microwave exposure was initiated at 1130 h. Exposed rats were killed at 1230 and 1530 h. Colonic temperature (T/sub col/) was measured and serum obtained for thyrotropin (TSH) and corticosterone (CS) determination immediately after exposure. Inverse relations of TSH to power density (PD) or R/sub col/ were noted in the microwave-exposed rats while CS increased with PD or T/sub col/. Similar relations of TSH and CS to T/sub col/ were also noted among ''shams.'' The increase of T/sub col/ by microwave exposure was dependent on PD but independent of an exposure duration greater than 1 h. The serum CS level increasd with PD but the effect decreased with duration of exposure. ''Low intensity'' 4-h microwave exposure inhibited normal circadian elevation of adrenocortical function in rats if the exposure was coincident with diurnal CS elevation.Inhibition of TSH became more pronounced with duration of exposure. Differences in the endocrine-body temperature relationships between sham- and microwave-exposed rats were also noted. It was concluded that endocrine control was dissociated from body temperature in the microwave-exposed rats. The endocrine control in microwave-exposed rats is different from shams.

  9. Urinary corticosterone as an indicator of stress-mediated immunological changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Stephen; Lapointe, Jean-Martin; Reagan, William; Lawton, Michael; Kawabata, Thomas T

    2008-01-01

    Drugs that target the CNS or doses of drugs near the maximum tolerated dose may cause a non-specific stress response during routine safety testing in rodents that leads to the release of corticosterone and changes immunological parameters. In situations with mild clinical signs of stress and changes to immune organs, it may be difficult to differentiate direct immunotoxicity from changes mediated by stress. To address this concern, studies were conducted to identify potential biomarker of stress in rats that could be used in routine toxicology studies. Since serial blood collections for corticosterone levels are not practical, studies were conducted to evaluate urine corticosterone and its metabolites as a potential biomarker of stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Exogenous corticosterone was used as a reference to identify immune system targets and determine their relative sensitivity to corticosterone. The data from rats treated with exogenous corticosterone and from rats treated with drug or chemical stressors produced linear relationships between urine corticosterone and most immunological parameters, with r-squared values greater than 0.6. Thus, quantitatively similar effects on immunological end points are produced by exogenous corticosterone and by corticosterone induced by chemical stressors with regard to their correlation to selected immunological changes. In preclinical safety testing for a new drug, the combined findings of increased urinary corticosterone and changes of the predicted magnitude and direction in blood lymphocyte and neutrophil differentials and thymus weight or cellularity would strongly suggest that the immunological effects are secondary to a drug-induced stress response. Because these results can be obtained reliably during routine preclinical evaluations, they should be useful for the weight-of-evidence approaches often used in regulatory settings. PMID:18382854

  10. Decreased fecal corticosterone levels due to domestication: a comparison between the white-backed Munia (Lonchura striata) and its domesticated strain, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica) with a suggestion for complex song evolution.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenta; Yamada, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-11-01

    The Bengalese finch (BF; Lonchura striata var. domestica) is a domesticated strain of the white-backed munia (WBM; Lonchura striata). Environmental stresses activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and release corticosterone (CORT). We hypothesized that domesticated songbirds have reduced CORT levels because of reduced levels of environmental stresses (compared to wild conditions) and reductions in the role of CORT, which is necessary for survival in the wild. However, no study has examined the effects of domestication on songbird CORT levels. To explore the domestication effects, we compared CORT levels between domesticated BFs and their wild ancestors WBMs. We also compared CORT levels between bought and aviary-raised BFs, and between wild-caught and captive-raised WBMs to examine the influence of being raised. However, blood collection causes stress, which affects endocrine dynamics and makes continuous sampling difficult in small birds. Therefore, we used a non-invasive method to measure fecal CORT. Parallelism between diluted fecal extracts and a CORT standard, extraction efficiency, and ACTH challenge demonstrated the effectiveness of this method. This study demonstrates that BFs have lower fecal CORT than do WBMs, regardless of whether the WBMs were wild-caught or captive-raised. In addition, BFs sing more complex songs than WBMs. Considerable evidence suggests that song complexity is related to CORT levels. Previously, we found that the corticosteroid receptors were expressed in song-control areas of the BF brain. Based on these results, we hypothesize that reduced CORT levels through domestication might be one factor allowing for the development of more complex songs in BFs. PMID:22927235

  11. The usefulness of serum troponin levels in evaluating cardiac injury.

    PubMed

    Collins, J N; Cole, F J; Weireter, L J; Riblet, J L; Britt, L D

    2001-09-01

    The diagnosis and clinical significance of blunt cardiac injury remains controversial. Cardiac troponin I is not found in skeletal muscle and has a high sensitivity for myocardial ischemia or injury. We hypothesized that normal troponin levels 4 to 6 hours postinjury would effectively exclude the diagnosis of cardiac contusion. A prospective evaluation of all blunt trauma patients older than 16 and admitted with the possible diagnosis of blunt cardiac injury was undertaken. Patients in whom this diagnosis was considered had an electrocardiogram (EKG) on admission, serum troponin, CPK and isoenzymes 4 to 6 hours postinjury, and admission with overnight telemetry. Other laboratory data and radiographic imaging was obtained as indicated. Seventy-two patients met criteria for entry into the study. Data was incomplete or inaccurately obtained on six patients, and they were excluded. Forty patients had normal troponins and normal EKG's on admission and were discharged the following day without any untoward effect. Sixteen patients were admitted with abnormal EKGs. All of these 16 patients had normal troponins 4 to 6 hours after their injury. They all did well and were discharged the following day. Ten patients had elevated troponins 4 to 6 hours after injury. One died two days later from refractory cardiogenic shock. Another was noted to have severely depressed left ventricular function by echocardiography. The other eight patients sustained no cardiac sequelae and were discharged once recovered from injuries. In the hemodynamically stable patient a normal troponin 4 to 6 hours after injury excludes clinically significant blunt cardiac injury. This holds true whether the admission EKG is normal or not. An elevated troponin does not definitively diagnose a clinically significant contusion. However, these patients should be monitored at least for 24 hours. Patients suspicious for cardiac contusions who have normal troponins and no other serious injuries may be safely

  12. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients. PMID:26225965

  13. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, P A; Welty, E; Steele, G; Steinberg, K

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.08) when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level (r = -0.21) and serum albumin (r = -0.24) and total bilirubin (r = 0.30) with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn. PMID:3104024

  14. Correlation between serum cystatin C level and elderly hypertensive patients combined coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Su, Xianming; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; He, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the correlation between serum cystatin C level and elderly hypertension with coronary heart disease patients. Methods: 500 hypertensive patients combined coronary heart disease were selected by coronary angiography. 321 of them were elderly patients with hypertension (male 204, female 117), and 400 of them were elderly patients with coronary heart disease (male 257, female 143), The serum cystatin C level of all patients were detected by immunoturbidimetry, and analyzed the correlation between the serum cystatin C level and different degree of blood pressure and the degree of coronary artery stenosis in elderly patients. Results: The serum cystatin C level was closely related with the blood pressure and the degree of the coronary artery stenosis. The higher the blood pressure level and the more serious the coronary artery stenosis, the higher the serum cystatin C level; The serum cystatin C level of hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease patients (Group D) were markedly higher than the level of the patients without hypertension and coronary heart disease patients (Group A), and the level of the patients with coronary heart disease (Group B) and the hypertension group (Group C) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The serum cystatin C level of elderly patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease were closely related with the degree of blood pressure and coronary arteries stenosis. The serum cystatin C maybe a predictor of disease severity in elderly hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:26131241

  15. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Serum Magnesium, Potassium, and Sodium Concentrations Identify Six Loci Influencing Serum Magnesium Levels

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Felix, Janine F.; Leak, Tennille S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Qiong; Dehghan, Abbas; Aspelund, Thor; Katz, Ronit; Homuth, Georg; Kocher, Thomas; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Prucha, Hanna; Pfeufer, Arne; Meitinger, Thomas; Coresh, Josef; Hofman, Albert; Sarnak, Mark J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Uitterlinden, André G.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Köttgen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p<5×10−8) or suggestive associations (p<4×10−7) were evaluated for replication in an additional 8,463 subjects of European descent. The association of common variants at six genomic regions (in or near MUC1, ATP2B1, DCDC5, TRPM6, SHROOM3, and MDS1) with serum magnesium levels was genome-wide significant when meta-analyzed with the replication dataset. All initially significant SNPs from the CHARGE Consortium showed nominal association with clinically defined hypomagnesemia, two showed association with kidney function, two with bone mineral density, and one of these also associated with fasting glucose levels. Common variants in CNNM2, a magnesium transporter studied only in model systems to date, as well as in CNNM3 and CNNM4, were also associated with magnesium concentrations in this study. We observed no associations with serum sodium or potassium levels exceeding p<4×10−7. Follow-up studies of newly implicated genomic loci may provide additional insights into the regulation and homeostasis of human serum magnesium levels. PMID:20700443

  16. Association of Serum Vitamin D Levels with Bacterial Load in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, B.; Kumar, S. Vinod; Kadhiravan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is known to have diverse effects on various systems in the body. There is evidence to suggest that a link exists between the serum vitamin D status and tuberculosis. The present study was designed to assess the alterations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in newly diagnosed sputum acid fast bacilli (AFB) positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and to study the association, if any, between serum vitamin D levels and different levels of sputum smear positivity. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were estimated in 65 sputum AFB positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 65 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D in tuberculosis patients were not statistically different from the levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy controls. However, among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D and levels of sputum positivity. Conclusion Serum vitamin D levels negatively correlates with bacterial load in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27433175

  17. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  18. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m(2); all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  19. Serum uric acid levels in patients with infections of central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Min; Wang, Xuan; Yi, Huan; Xu, Li; Zhong, Xiu-Feng; Peng, Fu-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The lower levels of serum uric acid (UA) correlated with meningitis have been reported. However, comparison of UA levels among different kinds of infections of central nervous system (CNS) and changes of UA levels before and after treatment are unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the antioxidant status of serum UA in five common types of CNS infections. We retrospectively evaluated serum UA levels of 399 patients with different types of CNS infections including viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis (VM), brain cysticercosis (BC), tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis (TM), cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis (CM) and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis (BM), and 119 healthy controls. The changes of serum UA were examined and analyzed. The serum levels of UA in patients with CNS infections were significantly lower than those in normal subjects and among in TM, CM and BM groups were apparently lower when compared with VM and BC groups; otherwise, after effective therapy, serum UA levels were obviously higher than before. Our findings showed that patients with CNS infections had lower serum UA levels, which was independent of the classification and the serum UA levels increased obviously after valid treatment, the variation of UA levels might be considered as an indicator of clinical curative effect in patients with CNS infections. PMID:26612048

  20. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  1. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun; Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  2. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  3. Serum vitamin A levels and associated abnormalities in patients on regular dialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Werb, R; Clark, W F; Lindsay, R M; Jones, E O; Linton, A L

    1979-08-01

    Multivitamin preparations are commonly administered to regular dialysis treatment (RDT) patients. Serum Vitamin A was measured in 72 patients on RDT. Elevated serum Vitamin A levels (102.29 +/- 26.95 microgram/dl [3.57 +/- 0.94 mumoles/l]) were found in the dialysis population (normal 40.98 +/- 6.71 microgram/dl [1.43 +/- 0.23 mumoles/l]; P less than 0.0005). Serum Vitamin A levels increased with duration (months) of dialysis but not with frequency of dialysis (twice or thrice weekly). Patients taking a VitaminA-containing multivitamin preparation had higher serum Vitamin A levels than those on a non-Vitamin A supplemented diet. Bilaterally nephrectomized patients had the highest serum Vitamin A levels while patients with obstructive uropathy had the lowest levels. Serum Vitamin A levels did not correlate with symptoms of uremia. Positive correlations were found with serum levels of calcium, cholesterol and triglycerides. Patients receiving a Vitamin A supplement had higher serum cholesterol levels than non-supplemented patients. Vitamin A might be a factor in the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in RDT patients. We therefore advise discontinuing the long-term administration of Vitamin A-containing multivitamin supplements to patients on RDT. PMID:527272

  4. Comparative Serum Levels and Protective Activity of Parenterally Administered Cephalosporins in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fare, Louis R.; Actor, Paul; Sachs, Carl; Phillips, Lillian; Joloza, MacDonald; Pauls, John F.; Weisbach, Jerry A.

    1974-01-01

    Six cephalosporin antibiotics were administered subcutaneously to mice at a level of 20 mg/kg. The serum levels of each were determined at five time intervals ranging from 5 to 120 min after dosing. Urinary recovery and the presence of active metabolites in mouse urine were determined. The peak serum levels and serum half-lives in mice were found to be positively correlated with the mean effective dose values obtained after lethal challenge with Escherichia coli. The administration of cefazolin and cephanone resulted in the highest serum level and the best protection. Good protection was obtained with cephaloridine despite somewhat lower serum levels. The cephalosporins with the acetoxy side chain (cephalothin, cephapirin, and cephacetrile) showed lower serum levels and the poorest protection. Cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin serum levels were also determined in dogs, squirrel monkeys, and rabbits. A mixed response was obtained in these species, with cefazolin peak serum levels being highest in rabbits and cephaloridine peak highest in dogs. PMID:15828185

  5. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  6. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  7. Elevation of serum heat-shock protein levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Hineno, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Chinatsu; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to examine whether the serum levels of HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) are altered in patients with ALS. We included 58 patients diagnosed with ALS and 85 control individuals. Serum HSP levels of patients and controls were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly higher in patients than in controls. In contrast, serum levels of HSP27 did not differ significantly between the patient and control groups. Moreover, serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 in patients remained high throughout the duration of the disease. Taken together, our findings suggest that HSPs might have a role in ALS progression throughout the course of the disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27112486

  8. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; KARABULUT, SENEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value. PMID:27330797

  9. Hippocampal Fast Glutamatergic Transmission Is Transiently Regulated by Corticosterone Pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Pasricha, Natasha; Smeets, Johanna A S; Kerkhofs, Amber; Mikasova, Lenka; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that corticosteroid hormones (such as corticosterone) are released in ultradian pulses as a natural consequence of pituitary-adrenal interactions. All organs, including the brain, are thus exposed to pulsatile changes in corticosteroid hormone level, important to ensure full genomic responsiveness to stress-induced surges. However, corticosterone also changes neuronal excitability through rapid non-genomic pathways, particularly in the hippocampus. Potentially, background excitability of hippocampal neurons could thus be changed by pulsatile exposure to corticosteroids. It is currently unknown, though, how neuronal activity alters during a sequence of corticosterone pulses. To test this, hippocampal cells were exposed in vitro to four consecutive corticosterone pulses with a 60 min inter-pulse interval. During the pulses we examined four features of hippocampal signal transfer by the main excitatory transmitter glutamate-i.e., postsynaptic responses to spontaneous release of presynaptic vesicles, postsynaptic GluA2-AMPA receptor dynamics, basal (evoked) field responses, and synaptic plasticity, using a set of high resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches. We show that the first pulse of corticosterone causes a transient increase in miniature EPSC frequency, AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity, while basal evoked field responses are unaffected. This pattern is not maintained during subsequent applications: responses become more variable, attenuate or even reverse over time, albeit with different kinetics for the various experimental endpoints. This may indicate that the beneficial effect of ultradian pulses on transcriptional regulation in the hippocampus is not consistently accompanied by short-term perturbations in background excitability. In general, this could be interpreted as a means to keep hippocampal neurons responsive to incoming signals related to environmental challenges. PMID:26741493

  10. Hippocampal Fast Glutamatergic Transmission Is Transiently Regulated by Corticosterone Pulsatility

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Johanna A. S.; Kerkhofs, Amber; Mikasova, Lenka; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that corticosteroid hormones (such as corticosterone) are released in ultradian pulses as a natural consequence of pituitary-adrenal interactions. All organs, including the brain, are thus exposed to pulsatile changes in corticosteroid hormone level, important to ensure full genomic responsiveness to stress-induced surges. However, corticosterone also changes neuronal excitability through rapid non-genomic pathways, particularly in the hippocampus. Potentially, background excitability of hippocampal neurons could thus be changed by pulsatile exposure to corticosteroids. It is currently unknown, though, how neuronal activity alters during a sequence of corticosterone pulses. To test this, hippocampal cells were exposed in vitro to four consecutive corticosterone pulses with a 60 min inter-pulse interval. During the pulses we examined four features of hippocampal signal transfer by the main excitatory transmitter glutamate—i.e., postsynaptic responses to spontaneous release of presynaptic vesicles, postsynaptic GluA2-AMPA receptor dynamics, basal (evoked) field responses, and synaptic plasticity, using a set of high resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches. We show that the first pulse of corticosterone causes a transient increase in miniature EPSC frequency, AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity, while basal evoked field responses are unaffected. This pattern is not maintained during subsequent applications: responses become more variable, attenuate or even reverse over time, albeit with different kinetics for the various experimental endpoints. This may indicate that the beneficial effect of ultradian pulses on transcriptional regulation in the hippocampus is not consistently accompanied by short-term perturbations in background excitability. In general, this could be interpreted as a means to keep hippocampal neurons responsive to incoming signals related to environmental challenges. PMID:26741493

  11. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  12. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  13. Association Between Serum Levels of Vitamin D and the Risk of Post-Stroke Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowen; Ren, Wenwei; Cheng, Jianhua; Zhu, Beilei; Jin, Qianqian; Wang, Liping; Chen, Cao; Zhu, Lin; Chang, Yaling; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; Lv, Dezhao; Shao, Bei; Zhang, Shunkai; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low levels of serum vitamin D are common in patients with mood disorders and stroke. It has been shown that low levels of serum vitamin D indicate a risk of depression in post-stroke subjects. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D and post-stroke anxiety (PSA). A consecutive series of 226 first acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and followed up for 1 month. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured within 24 hours of admission. Patients with significant clinical symptoms of anxiety and a Hamilton anxiety scale score >7 were diagnosed as having PSA. In addition, 100 healthy subjects were recruited as controls and underwent measurements of serum vitamin D. A total of 60 patients (26.55%) showed anxiety at 1 month. Both PSA patients and non-PSA patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D than healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between PSA and serum levels of vitamin D. Low serum levels of vitamin D (≤38.48 nmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSA (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21–5.13, P = 0.01). Serum vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of anxiety in post-stroke patients and may be an independent risk factor of PSA after 1 month. PMID:27149477

  14. The effect of long-term corticosterone treatment on blood cell differentials and function in laboratory and wild-caught amphibian models.

    PubMed

    Falso, Paul G; Noble, Christopher A; Diaz, Jesus M; Hayes, Tyrone B

    2015-02-01

    The effect of long-term stress on amphibian immunity is not well understood. We modeled a long-term endocrine stress scenario by elevating plasma corticosterone in two species of amphibians and examined effects on white blood cell differentials and innate immune activity. Plasma corticosterone was elevated in American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) by surgically implanting corticosterone capsules and in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) by immersion in corticosterone-treated water. To provide a context for our results within endogenous corticosterone fluctuations, diurnal plasma corticosterone cycles were determined. A daily low of corticosterone was observed in X. laevis at 12:00, while a significant pattern was not observed in L. catesbeianus. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels increased the ratio of peripheral neutrophils to lymphocytes, in both species, and decreased eosinophil concentrations in L. catesbeianus over a long-term period. Whole blood oxidative burst generally correlated with neutrophil concentrations, and thus was increased with corticosterone treatment, significantly in L. catesbeianus. In L. catesbeianus, an endogenous response of eosinophils and lymphocytes to implanted empty (sham) capsules was observed, but this effect was attenuated by corticosterone. Peripheral monocyte and basophil concentrations were not significantly altered by corticosterone treatment in either species. Our results show that long-term stress can alter amphibian immune parameters for extended periods and may play a role in susceptibility to disease. PMID:25616196

  15. Influence of thyroid dysfunction on serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 6.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ahn, Hwa Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 6 (ANGPTL6) is a novel metabolic regulator that modulates energy expenditure as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Thyroid hormone can induce metabolic changes that are similar to those induced by ANGPTL6. Herein, we investigated whether circulating ANGPTL6 levels change according to thyroid hormone status in humans. We measured the serum levels of ANGPTL6 and metabolic parameters in 150 drug-naïve subjects with overt hyperthyroid, subclinical hyperthyroid, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid, or overt hypothyroid status (n=30 in each group). Serum ANGPTL6 levels were significantly higher in patients with overt hypothyroidism than in the other subjects. Women had significantly higher serum levels of ANGPTL6 than men. ANGPTL6 levels correlated positively with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and negatively with serum free thyroxine (T4) level. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that sex, TSH, free T4, and ALT were independent predictors of serum ANGPTL6 levels. In summary, serum ANGPTL6 levels increased in patients with a hypothyroid status, and both TSH and free T4 levels are associated with ANGPLT6 levels, suggesting a possible association between thyroid function and ANGPTL6 levels. Whether the upregulated ANGPTL6 level in the hypothyroid status is primarily owing to a direct association or a compensatory mechanism remains to be determined. PMID:26189599

  16. Elevation of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in androgen-treated and ultraviolet-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ohata, M; Sakagami, Y; Fujita, T

    1977-10-01

    Administration of 4-8 mg testosterone propionate significantly raised 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the ultraviolet irradiated rats compared to the ultraviolet irradiated controls, but failed to influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the non-irradiated animals. Estradiol benzoate and progesterone did not influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels regardless of the ultraviolet irradiation. These findings implicate that testosterone enhances vitamin D biosynthesis induced by ultraviolet irradiation in rats, in accordance with the clinical observation that males often show higher levels of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol than females. PMID:303993

  17. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Soliman, M; Abdelhady, S; Fattouh, I; Ishioka, K; Kitamura, H; Kimura, K; Saito, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep. PMID:11714034

  18. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  19. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  20. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. The short-term effect of mustard gas on the serum immunoglobulin levels.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Abdolhossein; Eslami, Mohammad Bagher; Razavimanesh, Hossein

    2007-03-01

    Mustard gas (MG), as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto) antigenic stimulation of the patients' immune systems. PMID:17303924

  2. Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-qi; Ma, Xiao-jing; Hao, Ya-ping; Pan, Xiao-ping; Xu, Yi-ting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yu-qian; Jia, Wei-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Osteocalcin is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models and humans. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 733 postmenopausal women (age range: 41–78 years) with normal blood glucose levels were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Women taking lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The degree of NAFLD progression for each subject was assessed through ultrasonography. The fatty liver index (FLI) of each subject was calculated to quantify the degree of liver steatosis. Results: The median level of serum osteocalcin for all subjects enrolled was 21.99 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.84–26.55 ng/mL). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (18.39 ng/mL; range: 16.03–23.64 ng/mL) compared with those without NAFLD (22.31 ng/mL; range: 18.55–27.06 ng/mL; P<0.01). Serum osteocalcin levels decreased with incre¬mental changes in the FLI value divided by the quartile (P-value for trend<0.01). The serum osteocalcin levels showed a negative correlation with the FLI values, even after adjusting for confounding factors (standardized β=−0.124; P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis identified an individual's serum osteocalcin level as an independent risk factor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.951; 95% confidence interval: 0.911–0.992; P=0.02). Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely correlated with NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels. PMID:26567728

  3. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  4. Serum levels of interleukin-6 are not dependent on the kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Nässberger, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin-6, also named B-cell stimulatory factor, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 26 kDa. Increased serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are found in several disease conditions. We investigated the importance of a deteriorated kidney function upon IL-6 serum concentrations. No relation was found between serum levels of IL-6 and s-creatinine, r = 0.004. On the other hand, the serum concentration of complement protein factor D and soluble IL-2 receptor showed a good correlation to s-creatinine, r = 0.92 and 0.79, respectively. In conclusion, serum levels of IL-6 are not dependent upon a reduced kidney function. PMID:18475461

  5. Serum immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate levels in children living along major roads

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, Masayuki; Adachi, Motoaki

    1996-11-01

    To assess the effects of automobile exhaust on human health, we determined serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate in 185 schoolchildren who lived in a district that contained major roads. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in children who had asthma or wheezing, but levels did no t differ with respect to distance of their homes from the major roads. Serum hyaluronate levels were higher in children who lived less than 50 m from the roadside, compared with children who resided a greater distance from roads. The difference, however, was significant only in a subgroup of children in whom immunoglobulin E levels exceeded 250 IU/ml. Our results suggest that serum hyaluronate levels in children reflect the effects of traffic-related air pollution. Children with high immunoglobulin E levels appeared to be particularly susceptible to the effects of automobile exhaust. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effects of chronic elevated levels of CO2 on the concentration of blood cellular elements and plasma corticosterone in the male rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. A.; Lang, C. K.; Steele, M. K.; Corbin, B. J.; Wade, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The mean CO2 concentration on the Space Shuttle is 0.3% and has reached 0.7%, for extended periods of time. Following space flight, it has been shown that both humans and animals have significant changes in red blood cell counts (RBC) and white blood cell counts (WBC). In other studies, where no significant change did occur in the total WBC, a significant change did occur in the distribution of WBC. WBC are affected by circulating levels of glucocorticoids, which often increase when animals or humans are exposed to adverse and/or novel stimuli (e.g. elevated CO2 levels or weightlessness). The purpose of this study was to determine if elevations in CO2 concentration produce changes in total WBC and/or their distribution.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of various factors on the serum triglyceride level in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, R; Miyoshi, T; Imaki, M; Nakamura, T

    1994-06-01

    The life style of young adults has been receiving attention with a view to its improvement to preventing coronary heart diseases (CHD) in later life. In this study, for determining the influence of different life styles on the serum triglyceride level, we carried out surveys and laboratory studies on the relationships of the nutritional intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption of young adults with their serum triglyceride levels. The nutritional survey indicated a significant correlation between the serum triglyceride level and carbohydrate intake (p < 0.01). In the survey of physical activity, a significant inverse correlation was found between the energy expenditure per kg body weight and the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found of smoking or drinking with the serum triglyceride level. The body mass index was found to have effects on both the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Of the factors examined, carbohydrate intake and energy expenditure per kg body weight had the greatest effects on the serum triglyceride level. Considering the trend for young people to consume large quantities of carbonated drinks, in which most of carbohydrate is sucrose, we tested the affect of a high carbohydrate diet on one group of subjects and found that it caused a significant increase in the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). Another group for whom a mild exercise regimen was prescribed showed slight, but not significant decrease in the serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that at least optimal nutrition and physical activity including weight control during adolescence are important for preventing CHD. PMID:7940529

  8. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  9. Is the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease relationship modified by activity level in older persons?

    PubMed

    Harris, T B; Makuc, D M; Kleinman, J C; Gillum, R F; Curb, J D; Schatzkin, A; Feldman, J J

    1991-08-01

    Although coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of death and disability in old age, the relationship of serum cholesterol level to risk of coronary heart disease in old age is controversial. Data for 2,388 white persons aged 65-74 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) were examined to determine the relationship of serum cholesterol level to coronary heart disease incidence and whether activity level would modify this relationship. While there was no overall relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease risk in either men or women, the relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease differed within activity groups. For persons who were more active, serum cholesterol level was associated with a graded increase in risk of coronary heart disease, from 1.3 (95% CI 0.7, 2.3) in those with serum cholesterol level of 4.7-5.1 to 1.7 in those with serum cholesterol level of 6.2 mmol/L or more (95% CI 1.0, 2.7), when compared with those with serum cholesterol level below 4.7. For the least active persons, all levels of cholesterol were associated with a significant inverse relative risk, including cholesterol of 6.2 mmol/L or more (Relative risk = 0.4 (95% CI 0.2, 0.7]. These data suggest that factors such as activity level may modify the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in old age. The serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in more active older persons resembles that seen in younger populations, whereas the association in less active persons is that of serum cholesterol level and risk of cancer or death. The modification of the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association by activity level may have implications for appropriate clinical management as well as appropriate design of research studies of this association. PMID:2071804

  10. Exenatide Treatment Causes Suppression of Serum Ghrelin Levels following Mixed Meal Test in Obese Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Topyildiz, Figen; Kiyici, Sinem; Gul, Zulfiye; Sigirli, Deniz; Guclu, Metin; Kisakol, Gurcan; Cavun, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of exenatide treatment on serum ghrelin levels in obese female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. Fourteen female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin and exenatide were enrolled. A mixed meal test was applied to the patients while continuing with their daily medications. Blood samples were taken before and at 60, 120, and 180 minutes following mixed meal test to measure serum total ghrelin, glucose, and insulin levels. The following week, exenatide treatment of the patients was paused for 24 hours and the same experimental procedures were repeated. Results. Serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 180 minutes with exenatide treatment compared with baseline (294.4 ± 57.5 versus 234.5 ± 59.4 pg/mL) (p < 0.001). Serum ghrelin levels at 180 minutes were statistically different when percentage change in serum ghrelin levels after mixed meal tests with and without exenatide usage were compared (p = 0.001). Estimated total area under the curve values for serum ghrelin concentrations was also significantly lower with exenatide compared with omitted treatment (p = 0.035). Conclusion. These results suggest that the effect of exenatide on weight loss may be related with the suppression of serum ghrelin levels, which is an orexigenic peptide. PMID:26998491

  11. Serum Bisphenol A Level in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Step to Male Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Marta Diana; Hermanowicz, Adam; Czyzewska, Urszula; Milewski, Robert; Matuszczak, Ewa; Miltyk, Wojciech; Debek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital birth defect in boys and affects about 2–4% full-term male neonates. Its etiology is multifactorial. Purpose. To evaluate the serum bisphenol A (BPA) levels in boys with cryptorchidism and healthy boys and to assess the risk of environmental exposure to BPA using the authors' questionnaire. The data were acquired from a study on boys with cryptorchidism (n = 98) and a control group (n = 57). Prior to surgery, all patients had BPA serum levels evaluated. The size, position, rigidity of the testis, and abnormality of the epididymis of the undescended testis were assessed. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the risks of exposure to BPA in everyday life. Results. The testes in both groups were similar in size. The turgor of the undescended testis in the group of boys with cryptorchidism was decreased. Free serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The conjugated serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). Total serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Serum total BPA level was related with a positive answer about problems with conception (p < 0.02). Conclusion. Our study indicated that high serum BPA was associated with cryptorchidism. PMID:26491444

  12. Serum Amyloid-Beta Levels are Increased in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xian-Le; Cao, Guo-Qiang; Shen, Lin-Lin; Xiang, Yang; Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hui; Zhu, Chi; Zeng, Fan; Wang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Ye-Ran; He, Yong; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cognitive decline, but the molecular link between COPD and dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate whether serumlevels are correlated with COPD. 77 cognitively normal COPD patients and 45 age- and gender-matched normal controls were admitted to the study. Serum Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were measured using ELISA kits. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT) measurements were done using standard laboratory methods. Pulmonary function tests were performed to assess the pulmonary function and determine the degree of lung damage. Significantly increased levels of serum Aβ40, Aβ42, and total Aβ levels were found in patients with COPD in comparison with normal controls. In COPD patients, serumlevels were higher in subjects with serum CRP, IL-6, and PCT upper the limit of normal. Moreover, serumlevels were dramatically higher in COPD patients with worse pulmonary function. Our study suggests that cognitively normal COPD patients may undergo AD-related pathological changes, and COPD might facilitate AD-type pathogenesis. PMID:26243505

  13. Circadian rhythm of serum sulfate levels in man and acetaminophen pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D A; Wallace, S M; Verbeeck, R K

    1990-01-01

    The circadian variation of serum inorganic sulfate levels was studied in healthy volunteers. The effect of subchronic acetaminophen administration (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) on serum inorganic sulfate levels was investigated and the possible role of fluctuating serum inorganic sulfate levels on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was evaluated. During a 24 h cycle, serum inorganic sulfate levels were lowest in the morning (11.00 h) and typically increased in the afternoon to reach a maximum in the early evening (19.00 h). Average 24 h serum concentrations were 360 microM and the difference between minimum and maximum levels was on average 25.8%. Subchronic administration of acetaminophen (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) significantly reduced serum inorganic sulfate levels to a 24 h average of 253 microM. The circadian rhythm, however, was not affected and the difference between minimum (12.00 h) and maximum (18.50 h) serum concentrations was 31.3%. Subchronic acetaminophen administration lead to a significant decrease in the renal excretion (-51%) and renal clearance (-33%) of inorganic sulfate. No significant differences were found in the disposition kinetics of acetaminophen and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates during two consecutive dosing intervals (08.00-14.00 h, 14.00-20.00 h) on Day 4 of the acetaminophen regimen. PMID:2253663

  14. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in non-obese men and women: a randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anti-cancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and c...

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  16. Serum and hair zinc levels in breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Tang, Jing; Xie, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between serum/hair zinc levels and breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent. To compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase to identify relevant studies with publication dates up through November 2014. Based on a random effects model, summary standard mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls. Fourteen studies that investigated serum zinc levels and seven studies that assessed hair zinc levels were included. Our study observed no difference in serum zinc levels between breast cancer cases and controls (SMD (95%CI): −0.65[−1.42,0.13]). However, we determined that hair zinc levels were lower in women with breast cancer compared with those of controls (SMD (95%CI): −1.99[−3.46, −0.52]). In conclusion, this study was the first to provide evidence that hair zinc levels in female breast cancer patients are lower than in controls; however, there was no significant difference in serum zinc levels between female breast cancer patients and controls. PMID:26179508

  17. Corticosterone stress response in tree swallows nesting near polychlorinated biphenyl- and dioxin-contaminated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franceschini, M.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Reed, J.M.; Romero, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assayed baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations from adult female and nestling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, from New England, USA, sites with different levels of contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Corticosterone was compared over 2 years from a highly contaminated PCB site along the Housatonic River (Berkshire County, MA, USA), a midrange contaminated site upstream, and a reference site. Adult females (n = 29), sampled only in 2003, showed an inverted-U association with PCBs, with higher stress-induced corticosterone with midrange contamination than at the high-contamination site. In nestlings, stress-induced corticosterone was highest for the highly contaminated site compared with the other sites in 2003 (n = 53, 29 nests), with no difference among sites in 2004 (n = 93, 27 nests). In 2004, we began testing mechanisms underlying these changes in nestlings at the high- and low-PCB sites. Corticosterone response to dexamethasone injection (used to test negative feedback) was not different between sites, but stress-induced corticosterone was reduced at the contaminated site after adrenocorticotropin hormone injection (used to test adrenal responsiveness), suggesting an inhibited ability to mount a stress response. We also compared nestlings from a stretch of the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA, heavily contaminated with TCDD (n = 80, 43 nests) with nestlings from an upstream site that had lower levels of TCDD and the Berkshire County reference site. Although there were no stress-induced differences, baseline corticosterone was lower at the higher TCDD site than at the reference site. Altogether these findings suggest that tree swallows chronically exposed to high PCB and TCDD levels exhibit altered baseline and stress-induced corticosterone responses, but the patterns of alteration might not be predictable. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  18. Corticosterone stress response in tree swallows nesting near polychlorinated biphenyl- and dioxin-contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Melinda D; Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Reed, J Michael; Romero, L Michael

    2008-11-01

    We assayed baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations from adult female and nestling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, from New England, U.S.A., sites with different levels of contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Corticosterone was compared over 2 years from a highly contaminated PCB site along the Housatonic River (Berkshire County, MA, USA), a midrange contaminated site upstream, and a reference site. Adult females (n=29), sampled only in 2003, showed an inverted-U association with PCBs, with higher stress-induced corticosterone with midrange contamination than at the high-contamination site. In nestlings, stress-induced corticosterone was highest for the highly contaminated site compared with the other sites in 2003 (n=53, 29 nests), with no difference among sites in 2004 (n=93, 27 nests). In 2004, we began testing mechanisms underlying these changes in nestlings at the high- and low-PCB sites. Corticosterone response to dexamethasone injection (used to test negative feedback) was not different between sites, but stress-induced corticosterone was reduced at the contaminated site after adrenocorticotropin hormone injection (used to test adrenal responsiveness), suggesting an inhibited ability to mount a stress response. We also compared nestlings from a stretch of the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, U.S.A., heavily contaminated with TCDD (n=80, 43 nests) with nestlings from an upstream site that had lower levels of TCDD and the Berkshire County reference site. Although there were no stress-induced differences, baseline corticosterone was lower at the higher TCDD site than at the reference site. Altogether these findings suggest that tree swallows chronically exposed to high PCB and TCDD levels exhibit altered baseline and stress-induced corticosterone responses, but the patterns of alteration might not be predictable. PMID:18476749

  19. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  20. Clinical significance of serum protease-activated receptor-1 levels in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; KARABULUT, SENEM; TASTEKIN, DIDEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has a significant role in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and its expression mainly affects the survivals of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum concentrations of PAR-1 in patients with gastric carcinoma. A total of 63 pathologically confirmed gastric cancer patients were enrolled in this study, with a median age of 62 years. Serum PAR-1 concentrations were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and no significant difference in the baseline serum PAR-1 concentrations was found between patients and normal controls (P=0.5). The investigated clinical variables, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histology, grade of pathology, disease stage and serum tumor markers (lactate dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9) were not correlated with serum PAR-1 levels (P>0.05). Furthermore, no association was identified between the serum PAR-1 level and chemotherapy responsiveness (P=0.43). Serum PAR-1 level also had no prognostic role for survival (P=0.27). In conclusion, the serum PAR-1 concentration has no diagnostic, predictive and prognostic values in gastric cancer patients. PMID:27073639

  1. Assessment of serum prolactin levels in acute myocardial infarction: The role of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Awad, Mohamed S.; Alrifai, Sinan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperprolactinemia may reflect neuroendocrine stress reaction against acute coronary syndromes. Aim: The aim of the present study was evaluation of the serum prolactin level in the acute myocardial infarction (MI) regarding the current pharmacotherapy in management of MI. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional clinical based study. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional clinical study involved all patients with acute MI in a coronary care unit, a total number of 44 patients (45% males and 55% females) with age ranged from 40 to 75 years. A full history for modifiable risk factors and current therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and or metformin, all patients are nonsmokers. The anthropometric measurements; for estimations of body mass index (kg/m2), electrocardiography was obtained. Fasting blood samples were taken in the morning from all patients and the sera used for estimations of routine investigation and determination of ischemic cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and serum prolactin level. Results: This study shows a significant increase in the serum prolactin in acute MI as compared with the control. In acute MI serum cTnI elevation was correlated with serum prolactin increments. In metformin-treated group, there was a lowest prolactin serum level. Conclusions: Serum prolactin level increased in acute MI, and positively correlated with cardiac troponin level and reflects underlying cardiovascular complications. PMID:26904472

  2. Increased serum levels of soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin in patients with systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Guo, Zai-Pei; Cao, Na; Qin, Sha; Li, Meng-Meng; Jia, Rui-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a commonest systemic vasculitis (SV) in childhood characterized by an inflammatory reaction directed at vessels. Endothelial damage and perivascular leukocyte infiltrates are vital in the development of HSP. Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is an endothelial cell-specific adhesion molecule, which plays critical roles in angiogenesis and endothelial integrity. Herein, we investigated the serum levels of soluble VE-cadherin (sVE-cadherin) in patients with HSP and other forms of SV. The serum levels of sVE-cadherin in 30 patients with HSP, together with patients with urticarial vasculitis, allergic vasculitis, Behcet disease, psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and atopic dermatitis (AD) and 26 health controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of sVE-cadherin were significantly increased in patients with HSP in acute stage and patients with other forms of SV but not in patients with PV or AD. Moreover, Serum sVE-cadherin levels in HSP patients were correlated with the severity of this disease and serum concentrations of IgA anticardiolipin antibodies and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, we show firstly that serum sVE-cadherin is abnormally increased in HSP patients. Increased serum levels of sVE-cadherin might be a novel biomarker for evaluating the severity of HSP and useful for identifying the presence of SV in inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:24469639

  3. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine. PMID:25209952

  4. Serum electrolyte levels in relation to macrovascular complications in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in China is increasing rapidly. However, scarce data are available on serum electrolyte levels in Chinese adults with diabetes, especially in those with cardiovascular complications. This study measured serum electrolyte levels and examined their relationship with macrovascular complications in Chinese adults with diabetes. Methods The three gender- and age-matched groups were enrolled into this analysis, which were 1,170 subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 389 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 343 with diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum electrolyte levels were measured. Data collection included ankle brachial index results. Results Serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were significantly decreased compared to the NGR group (sodium: 141.0 ± 2.4 vs. 142.1 ± 2.0 mmol/l; magnesium: 0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.07 mmol/l, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was significantly increased (2.36 ± 0.11 vs. 2.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were negatively correlated with FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c (sodium: Std β = −0.35, -0.19, -0.25; magnesium: Std β = −0.29, -0.17, -0.34, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was positively correlated with HbA1c (Std β = 0.17, P < 0.05). In diabetic subjects, serum sodium, magnesium and potassium levels were decreased in the subjects with the elevation of estimated glomerular filtration rates (P < 0.05). ANCOVA analysis suggested that serum magnesium level in subjects with diabetic macrovascular complications was significantly decreased compared with diabetic subjects without macrovascular complications after the effect of some possible confounding being removed (P < 0.05). Conclusions Serum sodium and

  5. Prodynorphin-derived peptides are critical modulators of anxiety and regulate neurochemistry and corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Walter; Schunk, Eduard; Rosskothen, Iris; Gaburro, Stefano; Singewald, Nicolas; Herzog, Herbert; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2009-02-01

    Stress and anxiety are mainly regulated by amygdala and hypothalamic circuitries involving several neurotransmitter systems and providing physiological responses to peripheral organs via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other pathways. The role of endogenous opioid peptides in this process is largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that anxiolytic parameters of explorative behavior in mice lacking prodynorphin were increased 2-4-fold in the open field, the elevated plus maze and the light-dark test. Consistent with this, treatment of wild-type mice with selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonists GNTI or norbinaltorphimine showed the same effects. Furthermore, treatment of prodynorphin knockout animals with U-50488H, a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, fully reversed their anxiolytic phenotype. These behavioral data are supported by an approximal 30% reduction in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and central amygdala and an accompanying 30-40% decrease in corticosterone serum levels in prodynorphin knockout mice. Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels were attenuated in prodynorphin knockout mice, they were associated with minor increases in depression-like behavior in the tail suspension and forced swim tests. Taken together, our data suggest a pronounced impact of endogenous prodynorphin-derived peptides on anxiety, but not stress coping ability and that these effects are mediated via kappa-opioid receptors. The delay in the behavioral response to kappa-opioid receptor agonists and antagonist treatment suggests an indirect control level for the action of dynorphin, probably by modulating the expression of CRH or neuropeptide Y, and subsequently influencing behavior. PMID:18800067

  6. Correlation between serum leptin level and thyroid hormones in children with major beta-thalassemia 

    PubMed Central

    Shahramian, I; Noori, NM; Ramezani, AA; Sharafi, E; Akhlaghi, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassemia is the most common hematology disease in human and leptin is one of the hormone that produce by adiposities cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum leptin level and thyroid hormones in children with major beta-thalassemia. Materials and Methods This descriptive-cross sectional study was performed on 90 children aged 6-16 years old with beta-thalassemia. Body Mass Index (BMI ) were meuseurd in all patients and then, after collecting the samples, leptin and thyroid hormones levels of the serum were measured in the patients with thalassemia via ELISA method. Then, all data was analyzed by Pearson correlation test, and x2 statistical tests and P < 0.05 was considered as a significant difference. Results The mean of body mass index and serum leptin level in the patients group was 16.58±2.43 and 1.521 ±2. 49, respectively. The mean serum levels of thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) in patient's groups were7.94 ±3.56, 1.28 ± 0.46, and 2.85 ±3. 44, respectively. There was significant correlation between serum leptin levels and T4 in patients with major thalassemia; also there was no significant correlation between serum leptin level and T3and TSH. There was a significant correlation was between the leptin serum level and BMI in patients (P value=0.008). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that in patients with major thalassemia, there was significant correlation between serum leptin level and thyroxin hormone. Leptin level has more relationship with thyroxin than thyroid- stimulating hormone. PMID:24575288

  7. Time course of saliva and serum melatonin levels after ingestion of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, S; Tsuchiya, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Kotorii, T; Uchimura, N; Sakamoto, T; Yamada, S

    1998-04-01

    Salival and serum melatonin levels after melatonin ingestion were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ingestion of 3 mg melatonin caused a marked increase in serum melatonin (3561+/-1201 pg/mL) within 20 min, followed by a gradual decrease, but the level still remained higher than the basal level at 240 min after the ingestion. The saliva melatonin 60 min after the ingestion showed the highest level (1177+/-403 pg/mL) which was one-third of the plasma level. The saliva melatonin level was highly correlated with the serum level throughout the experimental period (r=0.82, P=0.0001). These data indicate that the measurement of saliva melatonin level may be a suitable indicator for the melatonin secretion into general circulation. PMID:9628188

  8. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  9. Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor decreased in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Zhang, Minling; Xu, Ke; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Liu, Yuping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a group of chronic ketamine abusers in comparison to healthy controls. Methods Eighty-one ketamine abusers who were hospitalized for the treatment of ketamine dependence and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results Serum level of VEGF was significantly lower in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls (64.6 ± 42.1 vs. 92.4 ± 59.4 pg/ml, F = 7.243, p = 0.008). Conclusions Serum level of VEGF decreased in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls. PMID:26003336

  10. Serum VEGF levels are related to the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Kiropoulos, Theodoros; Koutsokera, Angela; Ziogas, Athanasios; Koutroumpas, Athanasios; Sakkas, Lazaros; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Daniil, Zoe D

    2009-01-01

    Background The association between systemic sclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is well recognized. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to play an important role in pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between systolic pulmonary artery pressure, clinical and functional manifestations of the disease and serum VEGF levels in systemic sclerosis. Methods Serum VEGF levels were measured in 40 patients with systemic sclerosis and 13 control subjects. All patients underwent clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and echocardiography. Results Serum VEGF levels were higher in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg than in those with sPAP < 35 mmHg (352 (266, 462 pg/ml)) vs (240 (201, 275 pg/ml)) (p < 0.01), while they did not differ between systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP < 35 mmHg and controls. Serum VEGF levels correlated to systolic pulmonary artery pressure, to diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and to MRC dyspnea score. In multiple linear regression analysis, serum VEGF levels, MRC dyspnea score, and DLCO were independent predictors of systolic pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion Serum VEGF levels are increased in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg. The correlation between VEGF levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure may suggest a possible role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of PAH in systemic sclerosis. PMID:19426547

  11. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  12. Serum uric acid levels in patients with myasthenia gravis are inversely correlated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dehao; Weng, Yiyun; Lin, Haihua; Xie, Feiyan; Yin, Fang; Lou, Kangliang; Zhou, Xuan; Han, Yixiang; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid (UA), the final product of purine metabolism, has been reported to be reduced in patients with various neurological disorders and is considered to be a possible indicator for monitoring the disability and progression of multiple sclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether there is a close relationship between UA and myasthenia gravis (MG), or whether UA is primarily deficient or secondarily reduced because of its peroxynitrite scavenging activity. We investigated the correlation between serum UA levels and the clinical characteristics of MG. We assessed 338 serum UA levels obtained in 135 patients with MG, 47 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 156 healthy controls. In addition, we compared serum UA levels when MG patients were stratified according to disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, age of onset, duration, and thymus histology (by means of MRI or computed tomography). MG patients had significantly lower serum UA levels than the controls (P<0.001). Moreover, UA levels in patients with MG were inversely correlated with disease activity and disease progression (P=0.013). However, UA levels did not correlate significantly with disease duration, age of onset, and thymus histology. Our findings suggest that serum level of UA was reduced in patients with MG and serum UA might be considered a surrogate biomarker of MG disability and progression. PMID:26836463

  13. GABAergic transmission in the rat paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is suppressed by corticosterone and stress.

    PubMed

    Verkuyl, J Martin; Karst, Henk; Joëls, Marian

    2005-01-01

    Parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus receive hormonal inputs mediated by corticosterone as well as neuronal inputs, prominent among which is a GABAergic inhibitory projection. In the present study we examined the functional properties of this GABAergic innervation when corticosteroid levels fluctuate. Frequency, amplitude and kinetic properties of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (mIPSCs), mediated by gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) were studied with whole cell recording in parvocellular neurons. Injection of a high dose of corticosterone in vivo suppressed the frequency but did not change the amplitude and kinetic properties of mIPSCs recorded 1-5 h later in vitro. Similar effects were observed after restraint stress. The corticosteroid actions do not require involvement of extrahypothalamic brain regions, because in vitro administration of 100 nM corticosterone (20 min) directly to a hypothalamic slice also suppressed the frequency of mIPSCs recorded several hours later. Corticosterone administration to hypothalamic slices from restraint rats did not result in stronger reduction of mIPSC frequency than either treatment alone, pointing to a common underlying mechanism. Paired pulse response inhibition was reduced by corticosterone, suggesting that the hormone decreases the release probability of GABA-containing vesicles. Unlike neurosteroids, corticosterone induced no rapid effects on mIPSC properties. These results indicate that increases in glucocorticoid level due to stress can slowly but persistently inhibit the GABAergic tone on parvocellular hypothalamic neurons via a hitherto unknown local mechanism independent of limbic projections. PMID:15654848

  14. A facilitative role for corticosterone in the acquisition of a spatial task under moderate stress.

    PubMed

    Akirav, Irit; Kozenicky, Maya; Tal, Dadi; Sandi, Carmen; Venero, Cesar; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2004-01-01

    Emotionally charged experiences alter memory storage via the activation of hormonal systems. Previously, we have shown that compared with rats trained for a massed spatial learning task in the water maze in warm water (25 degrees C), animals that were trained in cold water (19 degrees C) performed better and showed higher levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Here, we examined whether manipulating the levels of corticosterone can determine the strength of spatial information acquisition and retention. Rats were injected with metyrapone (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg, i.p.) or with corticosterone (10 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) and trained in a massed spatial task in either cold (19 degrees C) or warm (25 degrees C) water. We found that whereas animals injected with vehicle performed well in the spatial task in cold water (moderate stress), rats injected with the intermediate metyrapone dose showed impairment in performance. Moreover, whereas animals injected with vehicle on average did not perform well in warm water (mild stress), rats injected with the lower corticosterone dose showed improvement in performance in warm water. These two mirror experiments of corticosterone blockade and enhancement strongly suggest that corticosterone is instrumental in the acquisition and retention of the spatial learning task. PMID:15054134

  15. Modulation in Wistar Rats of Blood Corticosterone Compartmentation by Sex and a Cafeteria Diet

    PubMed Central

    Romero, María del Mar; Holmgren-Holm, Fredrik; Grasa, Maria del Mar; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2013-01-01

    In the metabolic syndrome, glucocorticoid activity is increased, but circulating levels show little change. Most of blood glucocorticoids are bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which liver expression and circulating levels are higher in females than in males. Since blood hormones are also bound to blood cells, and the size of this compartment is considerable for androgens and estrogens, we analyzed whether sex or eating a cafeteria diet altered the compartmentation of corticosterone in rat blood. The main corticosterone compartment in rat blood is that specifically bound to plasma proteins, with smaller compartments bound to blood cells or free. Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. There were marked sex differences in blood corticosterone compartmentation in rats, which were unrelated to testosterone. The use of a monoclonal antibody ELISA and a polyclonal Western blot for plasma CBG compared with both specific plasma binding of corticosterone and CBG gene expression suggested the existence of different forms of CBG, with varying affinities for corticosterone in males and females, since ELISA data showed higher plasma CBG for males, but binding and Western blot analyses (plus liver gene expression) and higher physiological effectiveness for females. Good cross- reactivity to the antigen for polyclonal CBG antibody suggests that in all cases we were measuring CBG.The different immunoreactivity and binding affinity may help explain the marked sex-related differences in plasma hormone binding as sex-linked different proportions of CBG forms. PMID:23451210

  16. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels. PMID:20945636

  17. Alcohol-induced alterations in serum immunoglobulin e (IgE) levels in human subjects.

    PubMed

    González-Quintela, Arturo; Vidal, Carmen; Gude, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    The association of alcohol intake with total serum IgE concentrations in humans is discussed in the present review. The possible relationship of regular alcohol intake with both the risk of allergic sensitization and serum allergen-specific IgE values is also reviewed. Several studies consistently show that total serum IgE concentrations are increased in alcoholics when compared with healthy controls. Total serum IgE levels decrease after ethanol abstinence in alcoholics. Total serum IgE is increased in moderate alcohol consumers with respect to abstainers. Alcohol consumption in mothers may be associated with increased cord blood IgE levels in their offspring. IgE elevation in alcohol consumers is independent of potential confounders such as age, sex, liver disease, cigarette smoking or atopic status. Experimental studies in animals further support that ethanol administration is followed by an increase in serum IgE concentrations. In atopic patients, regular alcohol consumption is associated with increased serum specific IgE levels against some aeroallergens. Preliminary reports suggest that alcohol intake is associated to variable risk of sensitization to some aeroallergens. The possible mechanisms of alcohol-induced alterations in IgE levels and IgE-mediated diseases are discussed. PMID:11991851

  18. Serum Immunoglobulin and Transferrin Levels After Childhood Splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    IgG, IgA, IgM, and transferrin levels were measured in sera from a group of children who had been subjected to splenectomy in the previous 10 years. In those children splenectomized for hereditary spherocytosis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, or traumatic rupture, mean IgM levels were significantly lower and mean transferrin levels were significantly higher than in sera from control children. Children splenectomized for thalassaemia major had a significantly raised mean IgG level, while children splenectomized for portal hypertension had a raised mean IgA level. However, IgG and IgA levels in patients who had suffered splenic rupture did not differ from control values. The finding of high transferrin levels after splenectomy supports the concept of an immunological function for this protein in addition to its iron-binding capacity. PMID:4191614

  19. CA19-9 serum levels predict micrometastases in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Potrc, Stojan; Mis, Katarina; Plankl, Mojca; Mars, Tomaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We explored the prognostic value of the up-regulated carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) in node-negative patients with gastric cancer as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Patients and methods Micrometastases were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for a subgroup of 30 node-negative patients. This group was used to determine the cut-off for preoperative CA19-9 serum levels as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Then 187 node-negative T1 to T4 patients were selected to validate the predictive value of this CA19-9 threshold. Results Patients with micrometastases had significantly higher preoperative CA19-9 serum levels compared to patients without micrometastases (p = 0.046). CA19-9 serum levels were significantly correlated with tumour site, tumour diameter, and perineural invasion. Although not reaching significance, subgroup analysis showed better five-year survival rates for patients with CA19-9 serum levels below the threshold, compared to patients with CA19-9 serum levels above the cut-off. The cumulative survival for T2 to T4 node-negative patients was significantly better with CA19-9 serum levels below the cut-off (p = 0.04). Conclusions Preoperative CA19-9 serum levels can be used to predict higher risk for haematogenous spread and micrometastases in node-negative patients. However, CA19-9 serum levels lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity to reliably predict micrometastases. PMID:27247553

  20. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  1. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  2. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a protective

  3. Relationship Between Serum Zinc Level and Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Han, Xue-Yao; Zhou, Xiang-Hai; Wu, Jing; Ji, Li-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggested that zinc level was related to a certain diabetic microvascular complication. However, the relationship between zinc level and all the microvascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between zinc level and each diabetic microvascular complication and identify the features related to low serum zinc level. Methods: We included the hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at our department from May 30, 2013 to March 31, 2014. We initially compared the serum zinc levels between patients with specific microvascular complications and those without. We then analyzed the association between zinc level and each microvascular complication. Furthermore, we identified the unique features of patients with high and low serum zinc levels and analyzed the risk factors related to low zinc level. Results: The 412 patients included 271 with microvascular complications and 141 without any microvascular complications. Serum zinc level was significantly lower in patients with diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.001), diabetic nephropathy (DN, P < 0.001), or diabetic peripheral neuropathy (P = 0.002) compared with patients without that specific complication. Lower zinc level was an independent risk factor for DN (odds ratio = 0.869, 95% confidence interval = 0.765–0.987, P < 0.05). The subjects with lower serum zinc level had manifested a longer duration of diabetes, higher level of hemoglobin A1c, higher prevalence of hypertension and microvascular complications, and lower fasting and 2-h C-peptide levels. Conclusions: Lower serum zinc level in T2D patients was related to higher prevalence of diabetic microvascular complications, and represented as an independent risk factor for DN. Patients with lower zinc level were more likely to have a longer duration of diabetes, poorer glucose control, and worse β-cell function. PMID:26668140

  4. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Babinkostova, Zoja; Stefanovski, Branislav; Janicevic-Ivanovska, Danijela; Samardziska, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  6. Is the serum ferritin level a considerable predictor for hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Mehrpour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhagic Transformation (HT) of Ischemic Stroke (IS) is a detrimental complication. This study investigated the association between serum ferritin level and HT in patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery. Methods: Thirty patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. They were divided into two groups based on the serum ferritin level, lower or greater than 164.1ng/ml at the first 24 hours after admission. To investigate the incidence of HT in the two groups, we observed them for two weeks. Results: During the two- week observation, the incidence of HT was two persons (13.3%) in the group with the serum ferritin level of lower than 164.1ng/ml, and eight persons (53.3%) in the other group. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.02). The relative risk of HT was 4 (95% CI: 1.012- 15.8) in the patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery and the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml. Conclusion: This study revealed that the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml in the first 24 hours after admission is a reasonably important predictor for HT of IS. Conducting studies on factors affecting the serum ferritin level are suggested. PMID:27493907

  7. Serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels as a marker for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YA-DI; CHEN, SU-XIAN; REN, LI-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies have produced inconsistent evidence about the association of serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Therefore, the current meta-analysis examined the association between serum BNP levels and AIC by using data from high quality studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scolar and China BioMedicine (CBM). STATA software was used in this meta-analysis for statistical analysis. In addition, the crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest category of serum BNP levels was calculated. A total of 8 independent case-control studies, containing 126 AIC patients and 569 healthy controls, were included for the current meta-analysis. The results indicated a significant difference in serum BNP levels between the cardiotoxic group and normal group, with respect to post-treatment and pretreatment with anthracyclines. Specifically, the serum levels of BNP increased remarkably after treatment with anthracyclines in the cardiotoxic group, compared with the normal group. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. The findings of the present study provide strong evidence that serum BNP levels may be associated with AIC. PMID:27123140

  8. Corticosterone secretion patterns prior to spring and autumn migration differ in free-living barn swallows (Hirundo rustica L.).

    PubMed

    Raja-aho, Sari; Lehikoinen, Esa; Suorsa, Petri; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Vainio, Minna; Vosloo, Dalene; Eeva, Tapio

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies of long-distance migratory birds show that behavioural and physiological changes associated with predictable or unpredictable challenges during the annual cycle are distinctively regulated by hormones. Corticosterone is the primary energy regulating hormone in birds. Corticosterone levels are elevated during stresses but they are also modulated seasonally according to environmental conditions and life-history demands. We measured the baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica L.) just before spring and autumn migrations in South Africa and Finland, respectively. Barn swallows completing their pre-breeding moult had low body condition (residual body mass) and high baseline corticosterone levels in the wintering grounds. In contrast, baseline corticosterone levels in Finland were low and not related to residual mass. These data contradict the first prediction of the migration modulation hypothesis (MMH) by showing no association with baseline corticosterone levels and pre-migratory fuelling. Yet, the adrenocortical response to the capture and handling stress was notably blunted in South Africa compared to a strong response in Finland. Further, individuals that had started fuelling in Finland showed a reduced response to the handling stress. Taken together, elevated baseline corticosterone levels and high residual mass may blunt the adrenocortical response in long-distance migrants and aerial feeders such as the barn swallow. This observation lends support to the second prediction of the MMH. PMID:23649753

  9. Serum neuron specific enolase levels correlate with patient prognosis for advanced lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Feng; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Liyan; Wang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and prognostic value of neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels in serum of advanced lung cancer patients, we analyzed serum NSE level of 110 advanced lung cancer patients (case group), 100 benign lung disease patients (benign disease group), and 100 healthy persons (control group). Case group patients were divided by NSE level into ≥25 ng/mL (52 cases) and <25 ng/mL (58 cases) groups to analyze overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The results showed the serum NSE levels of case group patients were significantly higher than those of control or benign disease group patients (P<0.05). Serum NSE levels of small cell lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those of patients with other tumor pathologies (all P<0.05). Median OS significantly differed between patients with NSE levels ≥25 ng/mL (23.7 months) and <25 ng/mL (31.4 months) (P<0.05). Median PFS also significantly differed between patients with NSE levels ≥25 ng/mL (13.5 months) and <25 ng/mL (17.6 months) (χ 2=9.992; P<0.05). Tumor pathology (RR=4.136), patient performance status score (RR=2.903), and serum NSE level (RR=2.338) were factors influencing OS (P<0.05). Patient performance status score (RR=2.903), number of chemotherapy lines (RR=1.776), and serum NSE level (RR=2.075) were influencing factors in patients’ PFS (P<0.05). In brief, serum NSE level significantly correlates with advanced lung cancer patient prognosis and may be useful as an auxiliary index to predict prognosis. PMID:26309614

  10. Increased serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women with altered thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Nardo, S; Gargano, L; Franchi, A; Sibilla, R; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F; Centanni, M

    2003-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism have significant effects on the female reproductive system. However, little in the way of data is available on the relationship between ovarian paracrine control and thyroid function. This study was aimed at characterising the serum levels of inhibin B in relation to altered thyroid function. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were measured in 91 women (51 regularly cycling and 40 postmenopausal). The mean serum concentration of inhibin B in euthyroid cycling women (0.025 +/- 0.018 microg/l) was similar to that observed in hyper- and hypothyroid patients (0.022 +/- 0.015 and 0.018 +/- 0.014 microg/l, respectively, p=ns). Inhibin B levels were obviously reduced (-72%) in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In contrast, in hyper- and hypothyroid postmenopausal women, inhibin B levels remained substantially at the premenopausal level. So far, serum inhibin B appeared to be significantly increased in both hyperthyroid patients (0.025 +/- 0.014 microg/l; p<0.0001) and in hypothyroid patients (0.016 +/- 0.006 microg/l; p=0.0006). Altered thyroid function did not affect FSH levels at fertile age. However, a significant decrease of FSH levels was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid (-52% and -43%, respectively) postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, these FSH levels remained in the postmenopausal range. These results indicate that an altered thyroid function affects serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:12953168

  11. Racial Differences in Serum Adipokine and Insulin Levels in a Matched Osteoarthritis Sample: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Sharma, Anirudh; Kapoor, Mohit; Sundararajan, Kala; Perruccio, Anthony V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In an attempt to correlate biomarkers with disease, serum-based biomarkers often are compared between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) and control subjects. However, variable results have been reported. Some studies have suggested an association between certain adipokines and insulin and OA. We know that there are racial differences in OA prevalence and incidence, and from general population-based studies, those of Asian race consistently demonstrate a unique adipokine/insulin serum concentration profile as compared to Caucasians. Whether similar racial differences exist within OA samples is unknown and may have implications for selecting appropriate controls in comparative studies. Methods. Serum levels of adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin, along with insulin, were determined by ELISA in patients scheduled for total hip or knee replacement surgery for OA. Fifteen Asian patients were matched 1 : 1 on age (±2 years), gender, body mass index (±1.5 kg/m2), and surgical joint with Caucasian patients. Differences in serum concentrations were tested using paired t-tests. Results. Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly higher in Asians compared to Caucasians (p < 0.05). While serum adiponectin levels were lower among Asians, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.12). Conclusion. Findings from this work suggest that when studying serum biomarker concentrations in OA versus controls, race may be an important factor to consider. Our findings warrant confirmation in larger studies.

  12. Corticosterone enhances the potency of ethanol against hippocampal long-term potentiation via local neurosteroid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; O’Dell, Kazuko A.; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Corticosterone is known to accumulate in brain after various stressors including alcohol intoxication. Just as severe alcohol intoxication is typically required to impair memory formation only high concentrations of ethanol (60 mM) acutely inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular memory mechanism, in naïve hippocampal slices. This LTP inhibition involves synthesis of neurosteroids, including allopregnanolone, and appears to involve a form of cellular stress. In the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, we examined whether a lower concentration of ethanol (20 mM) inhibits LTP in the presence of corticosterone, a stress-related modulator, and whether corticosterone stimulates local neurosteroid synthesis. Although low micromolar corticosterone alone did not inhibit LTP induction, we found that 20 mM ethanol inhibited LTP in the presence of corticosterone. At 20 mM, ethanol alone did not stimulate neurosteroid synthesis or inhibit LTP. LTP inhibition by corticosterone plus ethanol was blocked by finasteride, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase, suggesting a role for neurosteroid synthesis. We also found that corticosterone alone enhanced neurosteroid immunostaining in CA1 pyramidal neurons and that this immunostaining was further augmented by 20 mM ethanol. The enhanced neurosteroid staining was blocked by finasteride and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV). These results indicate that corticosterone promotes neurosteroid synthesis in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and can participate in ethanol-mediated synaptic dysfunction even at moderate ethanol levels. These effects may contribute to the influence of stress on alcohol-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:26190975

  13. [Assessment of serum estrogen levels by RIA with HPLC during hormone replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Uemura, H; Yoneda, N; Irahara, M; Aono, T; Sunahara, S; Hata, K

    1995-07-01

    We studied the serum estradiol and estrone levels in 146 peri and postmenopausal women, and in 38 women who had complained of various climacteric disturbance symptoms during daily hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 2.5 mg. Serum estradiol and estrone were measured before treatment, and at 6 months, and after one year of the HRT therapy by HPLC-radioimmunoassay. In 146 peri and postmenopausal women, the serum level of estradiol was from 3 to 6pg/ml. The serum level of estradiol in 38 women after HRT significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 3.34 to 23.6 pg/ml at 6 months, and 21.5 pg/ml at 12 months. The serum level of estrone significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 26.6pg/ml to 156.7pg/ml at 6 months, and 137.2pg/ml at 12 month. These results are very useful for deciding on the doses of hormones and the expected serum estradiol level in HRT for Japanese women. PMID:7636337

  14. Serum copper and zinc levels in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-ou; Wang, Jia-liang; Bjørklund, Geir; Zhao, Wei-na; Yin, Chang-hao

    2014-10-22

    Trace elements play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in Chinese children with ASD. Sixty patients (48 males, 12 females) diagnosed with ASD and 60 healthy sex-matched and age-matched control participants were assessed for serum Zn and Cu content at admission. The severity of ASD was also evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score. The results indicated that the mean serum Zn levels and Zn/Cu ratio were significantly lower in children with ASD compared with normal cases (P<0.001, respectively), whereas serum Cu levels were significantly higher (P<0.001). There was a significant negative association between Zn/Cu and CARS scores (r=-0.345, P=0.007). On the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off value of serum levels of Zn/Cu as an indicator for an auxiliary diagnosis of autism was projected to be 0.665, which yielded a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 91.7%; the area under the curve was 0.968 (95% confidence interval, 0.943-0.993). In conclusion, these results suggested an association between serum levels of Zn and Cu and ASD among Chinese patients, and the Zn/Cu ratio could be considered a biomarker of ASD. PMID:25162784

  15. Usefulness of Measuring Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationships between serum procalcitonin, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) have not been completely determined. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum procalcitonin levels to assess disease activity and infection stage in patients with IBD and intestinal BD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 129 patients with IBD and intestinal BD for whom serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured between January 2006 and February 2013. Results The median serum procalcitonin levels in the IBD and intestinal BD with septic shock or sepsis (n=8), with localized infection (n=76), and without infection (n=45) were 3.46 ng/mL (range, 0.17 to 63.66 ng/mL), 0.22 ng/mL (range, 0.05 to 140.18 ng/mL), and 0.07 ng/mL (range, 0.00 to 31.50 ng/mL), respectively (p=0.001). The serum CRP levels in the IBD and intestinal BD patients did not differ according to the infection stage. Variations in serum procalcitonin levels were not observed in the IBD and intestinal BD patients with different disease activities. Conclusions Serum procalcitonin levels may not be affected by IBD and intestinal BD activity itself, although they may be affected by concomitant infection. Serum procalcitonin measurements could be more useful than CRP in determining the infection stage that reflects the severity of infection in IBD and intestinal BD patients. PMID:26780089

  16. Clinical implication of VEGF serum levels in cirrhotic patients with or without portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nimer, Assy; M, Paizi; D, Gaitini; Y, Baruch; G, Spira

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels correlates with the severity of liver cirrhosis and whether portal hypertension impacts on the expression of serum VEGF protein. METHODS: Fifty-three patients (mean age 56 ± 2 years) with HCV (n = 26), HBV (n = 13), and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis (n = 14) (Child-Pugh-s class A: 24, B: 19 and C: 12) and normal renal function constitute the patient population, who were all diagnosed by clinical, histological and radiological findings. Six healthy people and six patients with acute hepatitis served as controls. Severity of liver disease was evaluated by the CP score. Serum levels of IGF-1 and VEGF were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA, respectively. Portal hypertension was assessed using pulsed Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: The mean serum VEGF levels in all cirrhotic patients (73 ± 58) were significantly lower than those of healthy controls (360 ± 217, P < 0.01) and acute hepatitis (1123 ± 1261, P < 0.01) respectively. No significant difference in median serum VEGF levels were noted among the different Child-Pugh-s classes (class A: median, 49.4 ng/L, range, 21-260 ng/L, Class B: median 59.9 ng/L; range 21-92, and Class C: median 69; range 20-247 ng/L). A significant correlation was noted between serum VEGF and two accurate parameters of portal hypertension: portal blood flow velocity (r = 06) and spleen size (r = 0.55). No correlation was found between VEGF serum levels and serum albumin, IGF-1, platelets count and aminotrasnferases (r = 0.2, r = 0.1, r = 0.2 and r = 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: Circulating VEGF level in patients with liver cirrhosis could not serve as an indicator of the progression of chronic liver disease but rather, they may reflect increased portal hypertension or decreased hepatic regenerative activity or the combination of both. PMID:11819451

  17. Serum Selenium Level in Patients with Gastric Non-Cardia Cancer and Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini Nezhad, Zahra; Darvish Moghaddam, Sodaif; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Hayatbakhsh, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Ebrahimi Meimand, Farzane; Nazari, Mahdieh

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in Iran. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) accounts as one of the main risk factors for gastric non-cardia cancer (GNCC). It is suggested that high serum selenium level may have a protective role in GNCC. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the serum Se level and the status of H. pylori infection in two populations with GC and functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods The enrolled patients were 85 (27 women, 58 men) with recent pathologically proven GNCC (adenocarcinoma) and 85 (34 women, 51 men) FD patients. Serum Se was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. H. pylori IgG antibody was detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Results The mean age in the GNCC and FD patients were 62.85±14.6 and 58.9±14.7 years, respectively (P=0.08). The serum selenium levels were 111.6±27.7 and 129.9±32.1 μg/L (mean±SD) in GNCC and FD patients, respectively (P<0.001). The frequency of H. pylori infection was 49.4% (n=42) and 68.2% (n=58) in GNCC and FD patients (P=0.013). The crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) between GNCC and the linear effect of serum selenium level were 0.98 and 0.982, respectively (P=0.002). This means that each unit increase in serum selenium level decreases the odds of cancer by 2%. Conclusion Serum selenium level was significantly lower in GNCC cases. It suggests that lower serum selenium might have some association with the risk of GNCC. H. pylori infection does not play a significant impact on this association. PMID:25999620

  18. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Methods Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Results At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Conclusions Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151 PMID:27124282

  19. The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis).

    PubMed

    Owen, Jennifer C; Nakamura, Ayaka; Coon, Courtney Ac; Martin, Lynn B

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between stress and disease is thought to be unambiguous: chronic stress induces immunosuppression, which likely increases the risk of infection. However, this link has not been firmly established in wild animals, particularly whether stress hormones affect host responses to zoonotic pathogens, which can be transmitted to domesticated animal, wildlife and human populations. Due to the dynamic effects of stress hormones on immune functions, stress hormones may make hosts better or poorer amplifying hosts for a pathogen contingent on context and the host species evaluated. Using an important zoonotic pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) and a competent host, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), we tested the effects of exogenous corticosterone on response to WNV infection. Corticosterone was administered at levels that individuals enduring chronic stressors (i.e., long-term inclement weather, food shortage, anthropogenic pollution) might experience in the wild. Corticosterone greatly impacted mortality: half of the corticosterone-implanted cardinals died between five - 11 days post-inoculation whereas only one of nine empty-implanted (control) birds died. No differences were found in viral titer between corticosterone- and empty-implanted birds. However, cardinals that survived infections had significantly higher average body temperatures during peak infection than individuals that died. In sum, this study indicates that elevated corticosterone could affect the survival of WNV-infected wild birds, suggesting that populations may be disproportionately at-risk to disease in stressful environments. PMID:22520572

  20. Baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels predict bevacizumab-based treatment response in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Gerald W; Braemswig, Kira H; Martel, Alexandra; Unseld, Matthias; Heinze, Georg; Brodowicz, Thomas; Scheithauer, Werner; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) affects tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell survival and by inducing tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate baseline CEA serum levels to predict bevacizumab-based therapy effect and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Two hundred and ninety eight mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus either bevacizumab or cetuximab were analyzed in a retrospective study. Disease control (DC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were assessed and related to pretreatment CEA serum levels. Patients with baseline CEA serum levels below the statistical median of 26.8 ng/mL (group I) were compared with patients with higher CEA levels (group II). The cetuximab-based treatment cohort was analyzed for specificity assessment of CEA to predict the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor effect in mCRC. Baseline CEA serum levels inversely correlated with therapeutic response in patients receiving bevacizumab-based treatment (disease control rate, 84% vs 60%), inversely correlated with median PFS leading to a median PFS benefit of 2.1 months for patients in group I when compared with group II, as well as inversely correlated with median overall survival (37.5 months vs 21.4 months). In an independent cohort of 129 patients treated with cetuximab-based therapy, no association of therapeutic response or PFS with CEA serum levels was found. As expected, baseline CEA levels were prognostic for mCRC. These data give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy in patients with mCRC. Previously, we found that CEA induces angiogenesis independent of VEGF. The data presented here now give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels in patients might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:24850362

  1. Effect of fluoride exposure on serum glycoprotein pattern and sialic acid level in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Gulay; Cenesiz, Sena; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Nisbet, Ozlem; Nisbet, Cevat; Cenesiz, Metin; Guvenc, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the effects of fluoride exposure on the protein profile, glycoprotein pattern, and total sialic acid concentration of serum in rabbits. For this aim; 20 healthy New Zealand rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups each with ten animals according to their weighing: control group and experimental group. The rabbits in control group were given drinking tap water containing 0.29 mg/l sodium fluoride and experimental group received the same tap water to which was added 40 mg/l sodium fluoride for 70 days. Blood samples were taken from each rabbit on day 70. Serum fluoride concentrations were measured by a fluoride-specific ion electrode in serum. The fluoride levels in the serum were found as 18.4 (+/-1.58) microg/L in control and 301.3 (+/-52.18) microg/L in fluoride exposed rabbits. The sialic acid levels were found as 69.2 (+/-0.32) mg/dL in control and 43.4 (+/-0.13) mg/dL in fluoride exposed group. The electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins, glycoproteins, and total sialic acid concentration were determined. Fifteen different protein fractions with molecular weights ranging from 22 to 249 kDa were displayed in the serum protein electrophoretic gel of both groups. The raw concentrations of the protein fractions decreased in fluoride exposed rabbits as compared with the control rabbits. The serum glycoprotein pattern revealed seven major protein bands from 47 to 167 kDa in experimental and control groups. The slight decrease of raw concentration of the protein bands in glycoprotein pattern of serum was observed in fluoride toxication comparing to control. The results suggest that serum TSA determination and serum protein electrophoresis can be used to evaluate prognosis of fluoride exposure as a supplementary laboratory test in combination with clinical and other laboratory findings of fluorosis. PMID:19904501

  2. Association Between Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein and Free Thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Shih, Shyang-Ron; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) has been shown to be a biomarker of body weight change and atherosclerosis. Changes in thyroid function are associated with changes in body weight and risks of cardiovascular diseases. The association between AFABP and thyroid function status has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the serum AFABP concentrations in hyperthyroid patients and those in euthyroid individuals, and to evaluate the associations between serum AFABP and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. For this study, 30 hyperthyroid patients and 30 euthyroid individuals at a referral medical center were recruited. The patients with hyperthyroidism were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated. No medication was given to the euthyroid individuals. The body weight, body mass index, thyroid function, serum levels of AFABP, and biochemical data of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Associations between AFABP and fT4 levels were also analyzed. At the baseline, the hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum AFABP levels than the euthyroid individuals (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.8 [19.4, 30.6] ng/mL vs 18.6 [15.3, 23.2] ng/mL; P = 0.038). With the antithyroid regimens, the AFABP serum levels of the hyperthyroid patients decreased to 16.6 (15.0, 23.9) ng/mL at the 6th month. No difference in the AFABP level was found between the hyperthyroid and the euthyroid groups at the 6th month. At baseline, sex (female vs male, ß = 7.65, P = 0.022) and fT4 level (ß = 2.51, P = 0.018) were significantly associated with AFABP levels in the univariate regression analysis. At the 6th month, sex and fT4 level (ß = 8.09, P < 0.001 and ß = 3.61, P = 0.005, respectively) were also significantly associated with AFABP levels. The associations between sex and fT4 level with AFABP levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both at baseline and at

  3. Lack of stress responses to long-term effects of corticosterone in Caps2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Yuriko; Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Kojima, Masami; Wakana, Shigeharu; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is associated with anxiety and depressive disorders, and can cause weight gain. Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is involved in insulin release. Caps2 knockout (KO) mice exhibit decreased body weight, reduced glucose-induced insulin release, and abnormal psychiatric behaviors. We chronically administered the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), which induces anxiety/depressive-like behavior and normally increases plasma insulin levels, via the drinking water for 10 weeks, and we examined the stress response in KO mice. Chronic CORT exposure inhibited stress-induced serum CORT elevation in wild-type (WT) mice, but not in KO mice. Poor weight gain in CORT-treated animals was observed until week 6 in WT mice, but persisted for the entire duration of the experiment in KO mice, although there is no difference in drug*genotype interaction. Among KO mice, food consumption was unchanged, while water consumption was higher, over the duration of the experiment in CORT-treated animals, compared with untreated animals. Moreover, serum insulin and leptin levels were increased in CORT-treated WT mice, but not in KO mice. Lastly, both WT and KO mice displayed anxiety/depressive-like behavior after CORT administration. These results suggest that Caps2 KO mice have altered endocrine responses to CORT administration, while maintaining CORT-induced anxiety/depressive-like behavior. PMID:25754523

  4. Changes in Serum Levels of Myokines and Wnt-Antagonists after an Ultramarathon Race

    PubMed Central

    Kerschan-Schindl, Katharina; Thalmann, Markus M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Tsironi, Maria; Föger-Samwald, Ursula; Meinhart, Johann; Skenderi, Katerina; Pietschmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular physical activities have a positive effect on the muscular skeletal system but overstrenuous exercise may be different. Transiently suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption after participation in a 246-km ultradistance race has been demonstrated. Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze effects of the Spartathlon race on novel musculoskeletal markers. Methods Venous blood samples were obtained before and immediately after the race from 19 participants of the Spartathlon. From 9 runners who were available 3 days after the start blood was drawn for a third time. Serum levels of myostatin, an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation, and its opponent follistatin as well as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, both of them inhibitors of the wnt signaling pathway, and markers of bone turnover were determined. Results Serum levels of myostatin were significantly higher after the race. Serum follistatin only showed a transient increase. Sclerostin levels did not significantly differ before and after the race, whereas dickkopf-1 levels were significantly decreased. At follow-up a decrement of sclerostin and dickkopf-1 levels was seen. Serum cathepsin K levels did not change. Conclusion The increase of serum levels of myostatin appears to reflect muscle catabolic processes induced by overstrenuous exercise. After the short-term uncoupling of bone turnover participation in an ultradistance race seems to initiate a long-term positive effect on bone indicated by the low-level inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26147574

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are elevated in South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rajasree, S; Rajpal, K; Kartha, C C; Sarma, P S; Kutty, V R; Iyer, C S; Girija, G

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to a possible relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Animal experiments and observational studies in humans suggest vitamin D to be arteriotoxic and an association of high intake of vitamin D with increased incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The major source of vitamin D in adults is vitamin D synthesized in the skin through exposure to the sun. In tropical environment there is a possibility of high level of solar exposure and enhanced serum levels of vitamin D in the population. We explored the relation between serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and IHD in a case-control study involving 143 patients with either angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease or patients with acute myocardial infarction and 70 controls, all men in the age group of 45-65 years. Fasting blood samples were collected, serum separated and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured by protein binding radioligand assay. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate were also determined. Prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and smoking history were noted. Statistical comparisons of variables between cases and controls were done using chi2-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association of IHD with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 controlling for selected variables. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcium, inorganic phosphate, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides were elevated in a higher proportion of patients, compared to controls. Serum levels of 25-OH-D3 above 222.5 nmol/l (89 ng/ml) was observed in 59.4% of cases compared to 22.1% in controls (p < 0.001; unadjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-10.21). When controlled for age and selected variables using the multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR relating elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (> or = 222.5 nmol

  6. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels as clinical markers for patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; TASTEKIN, DIDEM; ERTURK, KAYHAN; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its essential binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) exhibit significant roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in numerous malignancies, including lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical roles of the serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in lung cancer patients. A total of 80 patients with lung cancer were enrolled in the study. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations were determined by ELISA methods. The median age of patients was 58.5 years old, with a range of 36–80 years. The majority of the patients had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (85%) and metastatic disease (56%). No significant differences were observed in serum IGF-1 levels between lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (P=0.403). However, baseline serum IGFBP-3 levels of the lung cancer patients were significantly lower compared to the control group (P<0.001). The male patients had elevated serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to females (P=0.025). Furthermore, patients with NSCLC histology and metastatic stage in NSCLC had elevated serum IGF-1 (P=0.022 and P=0.039, respectively) and IGFBP-3 (P=0.005 and P=0.043, respectively) levels compared with those with SCLC histology and non-metastatic stage in NSCLC. However, none of the other clinical variables, including age of patient, tumor histology and chemotherapy responsiveness, were observed as correlated with serum assays of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (P>0.05). There was a significant association found between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in lung cancer patients (P<0.001). Neither serum IGF-1 nor IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with outcome (P=0.552 and P=0.471, respectively). In conclusion, serum concentrations of IGFBP-3 may have a diagnostic predictor in patients with lung cancer compared to serum IGF-1 concentrations. However, predictive and prognostic values of the two serum assays were not observed. PMID:27123256

  7. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its association with bone mineral density and serum parathyroid hormone levels during winter in urban males from Guiyang, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Shi, Lixin; Peng, Nianchun; Xu, Shujing; Zhang, Miao; Zhang, Song; Li, Hong; Zhuang, Huijun; Gong, Mingxian; Wu, Danrong; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-28

    Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) may influence serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD). In the present study, we assessed serum 25OHD concentration and its association with PTH and BMD in urban males from Guiyang (N26.57°), the capital city of Guizhou province, Southwest China. We recruited 634 males aged >20 years from the Guiyang Health Measures Survey, and stratified them into three groups according to age: young (20-39 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and older (60-79 years). We measured serum concentrations of 25OHD, PTH levels and BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck and total hip. In addition, we also explored the relationship between 25OHD and lifestyle, socio-economic characteristics and medical history by applying covariance analysis and locally weighted regression plots. The results showed that serum 25OHD was 75 nmol/l in 12·6 % of the subjects. Higher level of serum PTH was detected in relation to lower concentrations of serum 25OHD up to 50 nmol/l. A negative correlation between serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations was observed (r -0·207, P=0·003). Mean concentration of serum PTH increased gradually and plateaued while concentrations of serum 25OHD decreased to 50 nmol/l. Gradual increase in serum PTH was observed as 25OHD concentration was <25 nmol/l (P=0·004). BMD values at all sites were greater in the higher serum 25OHD concentration group. This study shows that low concentrations of serum 25OHD were common in males, and bone health was likely to be improved when serum 25OHD values were between 30 and 50 nmol/l. PMID:26843386

  8. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. PMID:25461561

  9. The Prognostic Value of C-Reactive Protein Serum Levels in Patients with Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Schwameis, Richard; Grimm, Christoph; Petru, Edgar; Natter, Camilla; Staudigl, Christine; Lamm, Wolfgang; Koelbl, Heinz; Krainer, Michael; Brodowicz, Thomas; Reinthaller, Alexander; Polterauer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) has previously been shown to serve as a prognostic parameter in women with gynecologic malignancies. Due to the lack of valid prognostic markers for uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) this study set out to investigate the value of pre-treatment CRP serum levels as prognostic parameter. Methods Data of women with ULMS were extracted from databases of three Austrian centres for gynaecologic oncology. Pre-treatment CRP serum levels were measured and correlated with clinico-pathological parameters. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed. Results In total, 53 patients with ULMS were included into the analysis. Mean (SD) CRP serum level was 3.46 mg/dL (3.96). Solely, an association between pre-treatment CRP serum levels and tumor size (p = 0.04) but no other clinic-pathologic parameter such as tumor stage (p = 0.16), or histological grade (p = 0.07), was observed. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses revealed that CRP serum levels (HR 2.7 [1.1–7.2], p = 0.037) and tumor stage (HR 6.1 [1.9–19.5], p = 0.002) were the only independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with ULMS. Patients with high pre-treatment CRP serum levels showed impaired OS compared to women with low levels (5-year-OS rates: 22.6% and 52.3%, p = 0.007). Conclusion High pre-treatment CRP serum levels were independently associated with impaired prognosis in women with ULMS and might serve as a prognostic parameter in these patients. PMID:26248232

  10. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  11. Postmortem serum erythropoietin levels in establishing the cause of death and survival time at medicolegal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Quan, L; Zhu, B-L; Ishikawa, T; Michiue, T; Zhao, D; Li, D-R; Ogawa, M; Maeda, H

    2008-11-01

    Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) is mainly produced in the kidneys, depending on blood oxygen level. The present study investigated the postmortem serum EPO levels with regard to the cause of death and survival time. Serial medicolegal autopsy cases of postmortem time within 48 h (n = 536) were examined. Serum EPO levels were within the clinical reference range in most cases. Uremic patients with medical administration of an EPO agent (n = 11) showed a markedly high level (140-4,850 mU/ml; median, 1,798 mU/ml). Otherwise, an elevation in serum EPO level (>30 mU/ml) was mainly seen in protracted deaths due to blunt injury and fire fatality, depending on the survival time (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.45, p < 0.0001, respectively), and in subacute deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding and infectious diseases. However, mildly to moderately elevated serum EPO levels were sporadically found in acute deaths due to mechanical asphyxiation, fire fatality, and acute ischemic heart disease, and in fatal hypothermia cases, especially for elderly subjects. Protracted deaths due to mechanical asphyxiation and ischemic heart disease did not show any survival time-dependent increase in serum EPO level (p > 0.05). EPO was immunohistochemically detected in the tubular epithelia and interstitial cells, showing no evident difference among the causes of death, independent of survival time or serum level. These findings suggest that serum EPO can be used as a marker for investigating anemia and/or hypoxia as a consequence of fatal insult in subacute or prolonged deaths, or a predisposition to traumatic deaths or fatal heart attacks in acute deaths. PMID:18682967

  12. Serum Phosphorus Levels in Premature Infants Receiving a Donor Human Milk Derived Fortifier

    PubMed Central

    Chetta, Katherine E.; Hair, Amy B.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    An elevated serum phosphorus (P) has been anecdotally described in premature infants receiving human milk fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier (HMDF). No studies have prospectively investigated serum P in premature infants receiving this fortification strategy. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, extremely premature infants ≤1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet receiving HMDF and serum P levels were obtained. We evaluated 93 infants with a mean gestational age of 27.5 ± 2.0 weeks (Mean ± SD) and BW of 904 ± 178 g. Seventeen infants (18.3%) had at least one high serum P level with a mean serum P of 9.2 ± 1.1 mg/dL occurring at 19 ± 11 days of life. For all infants, the highest serum P was inversely correlated to the day of life of the infant (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.175) and positively correlated with energy density of HMDF (p = 0.035). Serum P was not significantly related to gender, BW, gestational age, or days to full feeds. We conclude that the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was mild and transient in this population. The risk decreased with infant age and was unrelated to gender, BW, or ethnicity. PMID:25912036

  13. Serum phosphorus levels in premature infants receiving a donor human milk derived fortifier.

    PubMed

    Chetta, Katherine E; Hair, Amy B; Hawthorne, Keli M; Abrams, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    An elevated serum phosphorus (P) has been anecdotally described in premature infants receiving human milk fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier (HMDF). No studies have prospectively investigated serum P in premature infants receiving this fortification strategy. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, extremely premature infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet receiving HMDF and serum P levels were obtained. We evaluated 93 infants with a mean gestational age of 27.5 ± 2.0 weeks (Mean ± SD) and BW of 904 ± 178 g. Seventeen infants (18.3%) had at least one high serum P level with a mean serum P of 9.2 ± 1.1 mg/dL occurring at 19 ± 11 days of life. For all infants, the highest serum P was inversely correlated to the day of life of the infant (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.175) and positively correlated with energy density of HMDF (p = 0.035). Serum P was not significantly related to gender, BW, gestational age, or days to full feeds. We conclude that the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was mild and transient in this population. The risk decreased with infant age and was unrelated to gender, BW, or ethnicity. PMID:25912036

  14. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  15. Suspected Interaction of Cranberry Juice Extracts and Tacrolimus Serum Levels: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Jones

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 inhibition through fruit supplement interactions often results in increased serum levels of calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus. Cranberry extract is a supplement often used for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common in renal allograft recipients. To our knowledge, a decrease in serum levels of tacrolimus as a result of cranberry extract interaction is unreported. A 40-year-old renal transplant patient taking cranberry extract capsules for her recurrent cystitis presented asymptomatically with low serum levels of tacrolimus. Dose increase had little effect on the level, and cessation of the cranberry extract returned levels to desired range. Cranberry extracts are an adjunctive therapy used in the management of recurrent UTIs. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent, is metabolized intestinally by isoenzymes of the P450 cytochrome. Cranberry extracts may alter this metabolism and lead to sub-therapeutic serum levels of tacrolimus. This interaction is heretofore unreported. Cranberry extracts should be carefully monitored in allograft recipients due to interactions with serum tacrolimus levels. PMID:27335715

  16. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  17. An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmar, Jana; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fernström, Anders; Luman, Merike; Jankowski, Joachim; Fridolin, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Survival among hemodialysis patients is disturbingly low, partly because vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent. Elevated serum phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels play an essential role in the formation of VC events. The purpose of the current study was to reveal optical monitoring possibilities of serum P and Ca values during dialysis. Twenty-eight patients from Tallinn (Estonia) and Linköping (Sweden) were included in the study. The serum levels of Ca and P on the basis of optical information, i.e., absorbance and fluorescence of the spent dialysate (optical method) were assessed. Obtained levels were compared in means and SD. The mean serum level of Ca was 2.54 ± 0.21 and 2.53 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P levels varied between 1.08 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 0.48 mmol/L, measured in the laboratory and estimated by the optical method respectively. The levels achieved were not significantly different (p = 0.5). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two methods varied from −0.19 to 0.19 for Ca and from −0.37 to 0.37 in the case of P. In conclusion, optical monitoring of the spent dialysate for assessing the serum levels of Ca and P during dialysis seems to be feasible and could offer valuable and continuous information to medical staff. PMID:25734785

  18. Increased Interleukin-17 and decreased BAFF serum levels in drug-free acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Mtiraoui, Ahlem; Letaief, Leila; Hannachi, Neila; Ayachi, Mouna; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

    2015-01-30

    Hypotheses regarding an immune-cytokine basis of schizophrenia have been postulated with controversial findings and a lack of data related to many cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess serum levels of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and B-cell Activating Factor (BAFF) in schizophrenic patients and to determine correlations between cytokine levels and clinical parameters. Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA techniques in 60 neuroleptic-free patients on acute phase of the disease (BPRS≥40) and 28 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Current symptoms were assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). No significant difference was found between patients and controls regarding IFN-γ serum levels. IL-4 was not detected in both groups. Patients exhibited significantly higher IL-17 and lower BAFF serum levels. IL-17 and BAFF levels were negatively correlated in schizophrenic patients. SANS global score was negatively correlated with IL-17 and positively correlated with IFN-γ serum levels. These results argue against the involvement of Th1 or Th2 population cells in schizophrenia. IL-17 and BAFF could be valuable markers for schizophrenia. PMID:25453636

  19. Assessment of serum and urine ghrelin levels in patients with acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seyhanli, Eyyup Sabri; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Aydın, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide hormone consisted of 28 amino-acid. In the plasma, it exists in two major molecular forms, acylated and des-acyled ghrelin, filtered in glomeruli or secreted by nephrons. Primary biological effects of hormones are regulating appetite, foods intake and energy metabolism. We investigated the changing and relationships between serum and urine ghrelin levels in acute stroke patients to provide more information whether diagnostic parameter. Methods: Thirty acute stroke patients and thirty consecutive volunteers included in study prospectively. To analyze serum and urine ghrelin levels, at the time of diagnose, all of participant blood and fresh urine (1 ml serum, 2 ml urine respectively) samples were obtained. Serum ghrelin levels analyzed ELISA technique, and urine ghrelin levels studied by validation technique. To compare quantitative data student’s t test, and for qualitative data chi-square and Fisher’s Exact Chi-square test was used. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Urine acyl ghrelin levels found statistically significant between patient and control groups (P=0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences between both groups (P>0.05) in serum acyl gherelin, des-acyl ghrelin and urine des-acyle ghrelin levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that urine acyl ghrelin levels may be considered as a diagnostic parameter in acute ischemic stroke patients. Further studies delineating the mechanism of these observed results are warranted. PMID:25785049

  20. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  1. Serum osteoprotegerin and sex steroid levels in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-Garcia, Rebeca; Avilés Perez, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez Ramírez, Amanda Rocio; Mijan, Jose Luis; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between sex steroids and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with prostate cancer is not well established. Our aim was to evaluate serum OPG levels in patients with prostate cancer and its relationship with sex steroids, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and fractures. We performed a cross-sectional study including 91 patients with prostate cancer. We determined: bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone turnover markers, serum levels of sex steroids and osteoprotegerin, and prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures. Serum OPG levels were higher in patients with vertebral fractures (8.02 ± 2.0 vs 4.91 ± 0.28 pmol/L; P < .05). OPG level and the duration of hormonal therapy were related (r = 0.299, P = .004), but this association did not persist after adjustment for age. In patients without androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total testosterone (r = 0.508, P = .001) and bioavailable testosterone (r = 0.311, P = .037). In patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with levels of total estradiol (r = 0.199, P = .18), bioavailable estradiol (r = 0.37, P = .009), and free estradiol (r = 0.349, P = .016). In conclusion, in patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, and free estradiol. Our hypothesis is that in patients with androgen deprivation therapy, the higher relative estrogen levels could stimulate OPG production in response to the higher resorption state. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of OPG in androgen deprivation therapy-mediated bone loss. PMID:21903971

  2. Correlation of serum homocysteine levels with the severity of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijetha; Mehendale, Veena; Prabhu, Krishnananda; Shetty, Ranjan; Rao, Pragna

    2014-07-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become the most common cause of mortality in the entire world. Homocysteine is implicated as an early atherosclerotic promoter. We studied the relationship between levels of serum homocysteine with severity of coronary artery disease. Total of 70 subjects who scheduled for coronary angiogram consented to participate in this study. In all the patients Gensini scoring system was used to assess the severity of CAD. Venous samples were taken from the patients in fasting state before angiography. Homocysteine levels in patients were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbant method and were compared with respective Genseni scores of participants. Fasting serum homocysteine levels in CAD patients were significantly higher than patients without coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Also Homocyseine levels correlated significantly with increasing severity of CAD (p < 0.001). Serum homocysteine levels correlated well with the severity of CAD. PMID:24966483

  3. Soluble serum interleukin 2 receptor levels in leprosy patients

    PubMed Central

    Tung, K. S. K.; Umland, Edith; Matzner, P.; Nelson, K.; Schauf, Victoria; Rubin, L.; Wagner, D.; Scollard, D.; Vithayasai, Prakong; Vithayasai, Vicharn; Worobec, Sophie; Smith, T.; Suriyanond, Vinai

    1987-01-01

    Soluble interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) in sera of leprosy patients from Chiang Mai, Thailand, were quantified with a solid phase enzyme immunoassay using two monoclonal antibodies to the IL-2R. The IL-2R levels of untreated lepromatous, borderline lepromatous or midborderline patients and treated lepromatous and borderline lepromatous or treated borderline tuberculoid and tuberculoid patients were comparable to those of the Thai household or nonhousehold contacts; and they were significantly higher than the levels of USA control subjects. In contrast, IL-2R of untreated tuberculoid or borderline tuberculoid patients were significantly reduced. Patients with ongoing reversal reaction had very high circulating IL-2R, the levels of which correlated with fever and extent of skin lesions. Although erythrema nodosum leprosum patients also had elevated IL-2R levels, they were significantly below those of patients with reversal reaction. When treated with corticosteroid, precipitous reduction of IL-2R was noted in all patients with reversal reaction but not in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. PMID:3115652

  4. [A case of subacute combined degeneration with normal serum vitamin B12 level].

    PubMed

    Nagaishi, Akiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuo; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2003-09-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Two months later she complained of rapidly progressive gait disturbance and numbness in the distal part of limbs. She also told that her hair had turned totally gray in the third decade. Neurologically, mental state, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were normal. Superficial sensations were impaired below the lower thoracic level and deep sensations were completely lost in the lower limbs. Moderate weakness was found in the lower limbs, symmetrically. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs. Babinski's reflex was positive bilaterally. MR images of the spinal cord showed hyperintensity in the posterior column below the thoracic cord. Although the serum level of vitamin B12 was within normal range, serum homocysteine level was elevated markedly. Under the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) due to possible vitamin B12 deficiency, the treatment with intravenous injections of 500 micrograms/day of mecobalamin was undertaken. Muscle strength and sensory impairment improved progressively and she became able to walk with a cane. The coloration of her gray hair was also noted. After treatment, pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia also markedly improved. Vitamin B12 became high in serum concentration and the serum level of homocysteine became normal. These clinical and laboratory findings support the diagnosis of SCD with normal serum level of vitamin B12 in our case, suggesting that the level of vitamin B12 in serum does not always correlate with that in tissue and, therefore, SCD should not be excluded just only by the reason of normal serum vitamin B12 level. PMID:14727562

  5. Clinical significance of serum claudin-1 and claudin-7 levels in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    KARABULUT, MEHMET; ALIS, HALIL; BAS, KORAY; KARABULUT, SENEM; AFSAR, CIGDEM USUL; OGUZ, HILAL; GUNALDI, MERAL; AKARSU, CEVHER; KONES, OSMAN; AYKAN, NURI FARUK

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the serum levels and clinical relevance of claudin (CLDN) 1 and CLDN7 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 140 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of CRC were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of CLDN1 and CLDN7 were determined using the solid-phase sandwich ELISA method. A total of 40 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were included in the analysis. The median age of the patients was 60 years (range, 24–84 years). The localization of the tumor in the majority of the patients was the colon (n=81, 58%). Of the 55 metastatic patients who received palliative chemotheraphy, 31% were chemotherapy-responsive. The baseline median serum CLDN1 and CLDN7 levels were significantly lower in non-metastatic and metastatic patients compared with those in healthy controls (CLND1, P=0.008 and 0.002; and CLND7, P=0.002 and 0.002, respectively). Moreover, known clinical variables, including poor performance status and high carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were found to be associated with lower serum CLDN1 concentrations for all patients (P=0.03 and P=0.03, respectively). High T stage and high CEA levels were found to be correlated with lower serum CLDN7 concentrations for all patients (P=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). A correlation was identified between CLDN1 and CLDN7 levels in non-metastatic and metastatic CRC patients (both P-values <0.001). Our study results did not reveal any statistical significance for serum CLDN1 or CLND7 concentrations regarding progression-free and overall survival rate. Therefore, reduced serum levels of CLDN1 and CLND7 may be useful markers in the differential diagnosis of CRC. PMID:26807230

  6. Study of Serum Haptoglobin Level and its Relation to Erythropoietic Activity in Beta Thalassemia Children

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M.; Safan, Manal A.; Badr, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum haptoglobin (Hp) is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state. Objective We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods Twenty two β-thalassemia major (TM),20 β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered. Serum ferritin, Hp and transferrin receptor levels (sTfR) (by ELISA ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (by colorimetric method) were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were done by PCR. Results The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl), 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl) and 122 ± 18.5(mg/dl) for TM, TI and the controls respectively. Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001) with significant lower level in TM compared to TI children ( P= 0.034). Significant inverse correlations were found between serum Hp and sTfR levels ( reflecting the erythropoietic activity) in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI) as well as among HCV infected children. STfR was the only significant independent predictor for serum Hp level (t= −5.585, P<0.0001). Among HCV infected patients, no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases. Conclusion Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of sTfR without significant relation to HCV infection. Extensive multicenter studies are recommended. PMID:25745546

  7. The Relationship between Serum Zinc Level and Preeclampsia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Shen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    The association between serum zinc level and preeclampsia (PE) remains controversial. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant available articles. The articles were limited to those in English from January 1990 to April 2015. Observational studies evaluating the association between serum zinc level and PE were included. The I2 was used to assess heterogeneity and the random effect model (REM) was adopted as the pooling method. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the association between serum zinc level and PE. Seventeen observational studies were included. Compared with healthy pregnancy controls, PE patients have lower serum zinc level in 14 studies about total PE (SMD (95% CI): −0.587 (−0.963, −0.212), Z = 3.06, p for Z = 0.002; I2 = 88.4%, p for I2 < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, a lower serum zinc level in PE patients compared with healthy pregnancy controls was observed in studies conducted in Asia, studies with zinc level measured in serum, and studies involving fasting participants. The SMD did not differ significantly between studies with healthy pregnancy controls matched by individual age (yes or no), and by individual gestational age (yes or no), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that serum zinc level in PE patients is significantly lower than that in healthy pregnancy controls. A moderate amount of zinc supplementation during pregnancy is advocated to reduce the incidence of PE. PMID:26389947

  8. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and adropin levels in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal; Aydin, Süleyman; Yilmaz, Musa; Ölmez, Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and adropin in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS Ninety-eight AMD patients were included in the study. Seventy-eight age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. Fundus florescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were performed to assess the posterior segment details. Serum VEGFR-2 and adropin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and compared between the study groups. RESULTS AMD group had significantly increased foveal retinal thickness, serum LDL and HDL levels and significantly decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness (P =0.01, 0.047, 0.025 and <0.001, respectively). Serum VEGFR-2 level revealed a significant decrease in AMD patients compared to controls (26.48±6.44 vs 30.42±7.92 ng/mL, P<0.001). There was an insignificant increase in serum adropin level in AMD patients (6.17±3.19 vs 5.79±2.71 ng/mL, P=0.4). Serum level of VEGFR-2 in AMD patients had a significant negative correlation with foveal retinal thickness (r=-0.226, P=0.025) and a significant positive correlation with subfoveal choroidal thickness (r=0.2, P=0.048). CONCLUSION The current study demonstrated that the decreased serum VEGFR-2 level may be considered in the development of AMD. Adropin does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:27162728

  9. Serum Chromium Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Its Association with Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, Senthil; Nair, Lal Devayanivasudevan; Karuthodiyil, Rajendran; Vijayarajan, Nikhilan; Gnanasekar, Rajiv; Kapil, Vivian V.; Mohamed, Azeem S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chromium is an essential micronutrient which is required for the normal functioning of insulin and regulation of blood sugar levels. It acts as a vital antioxidant for maintaining insulin homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the free radical production is increased and levels of antioxidants like chromium, vanadium, selenium and manganese are reduced. There have been previous studies to suggest that low serum levels of chromium are associated with poorer glycaemic control. Aim To study the level of serum chromium in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with glycaemic control. Materials and Methods Serum chromium concentration was determined by using inductively coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectophotometry in 42 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without any pre-existing complications. They were divided into 2 groups – well controlled (HbA1c ≤7.0%) and uncontrolled groups (HbA1c >7.0%). Results Mean serum chromium concentration measured in uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (0.065 ± 0.03 mcg/L vs 0.103 ± 0.04 mcg/L, p< 0.05). There was a statistically significant inverse linear correlation of the HbA1c values and the serum chromium concentration (r= -0.6514, p < 0.0001). There was also a decrease in chromium levels across both the groups with advancing age and the decrease being significant beyond 40 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of our study describes the relationship between serum chromium levels and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Significant reduction in chromium levels are probable indicators of metabolic response to oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further large scale studies relating serum chromium and type 2 diabetes mellitus may help to understand more about the exact relationship. PMID:26676175

  10. Correlation between serum CEA levels and EGFR mutations in Chinese nonsmokers with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo; Dong, Yu; Wang, Hui-min; Huang, Jin-su; Han, Bao-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in Chinese nonsmokers with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: We sequenced exons 18–21 of the EGFR gene in 98 cases. The patients were divided into two groups based on their pre-treatment serum CEA levels (below or above 5 ng/mL) for analyzing the correlations with EGFR mutations. Results: Sixty-seven cases harbored EGFR mutations. The rates of EGFR mutations and exon 19 mutations in the high-CEA group (78.2% and 49.1%, respectively) were significantly higher those in the low-CEA group (55.8% and 20.9%, respectively). Serum CEA levels were found to be the only independent predictor of EGFR mutation (OR 2.837; 95% CI: 1.178–6.829) and exon 19 mutation (OR 3.618; 95% CI: 1.319–9.918). Furthermore, a higher serum CEA level was associated with a higher EGFR mutation rate and a higher exon 19 mutation rate: patients with serum CEA levels <5 ng/mL, ≥5 and <20 ng/mL, ≥20 ng/mL showed the EGFR mutation rate of 55.8%, 74.1%, 82.1%, respectively, and the exon 19 mutation rate of 20.9%, 40.7%, 57.1%, respectively. Patients with EGFR mutations displayed a significantly higher incidence of abnormal serum CEA levels (>5 ng/mL) than patients without EGFR mutations (64.2% vs 38.7%). Conclusion: Elevated serum CEA levels predict the presence of EGFR gene mutations in Chinese nonsmokers with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:24487967

  11. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels Predict Mortality in Patients With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Yeong; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Kang, Shin Wook; Kim, Nam Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level has been considered marker of oxidative stress as well as liver function. Serum GGT level has been reported to be associated with the mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, it is not well established whether serum GGT level is associated with all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum GGT levels and all-cause mortality in PD patients. PD patients were included from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease cohort, a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Patients were categorized into 3 groups by tertile of serum GGT levels as follows: tertile 1, GGT < 16 IU/L; tertile 2, GGT = 16 to 27 IU/L; and tertile 3, GGT > 27 IU/L. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. A total of 820 PD patients were included. The median follow-up period was 34 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the all-cause mortality rate was significantly different according to tertiles of GGT (P = 0.001, log-rank). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher tertiles significantly associated with higher risk for all-cause mortality (tertile 2: hazard ratio [HR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.72, P = 0.013; tertile 3: HR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.04–3.22, P = 0.035) in using tertile 1 as the reference group after adjusting for clinical variables. Our study demonstrated that high serum GGT levels were an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in PD patients. Our findings suggest that serum GGT levels might be a useful biomarker to predict all-cause mortality in PD patients. PMID:26252286

  12. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-bing; Huang, Rong-dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = —0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  13. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Wu, Yun-Li; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Huang, Rong-Dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  14. Increased serum osteopontin levels in autistic children: relation to the disease severity.

    PubMed

    Al-ayadhi, Laila Y; Mostafa, Gehan A

    2011-10-01

    Autoimmunity to brain may play an etiopathogenic role in autism. Osteopontin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases. Osteopontin induces IL-17 production by T-helper 17 lymphocytes, the key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Anti-osteopontin treatment reduces the clinical severity of some autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases by reducing IL-17 production. We are the first to measure serum osteopontin levels, by ELISA, in 42 autistic children in comparison to 42 healthy-matched children. The relationship between serum osteopontin levels and the severity of autism, which was assessed by using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), was also studied. Autistic children had significantly higher serum osteopontin levels than healthy controls (P<0.001). Increased serum osteopontin levels were found in 80.95% (34/42) of autistic children. Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum osteopontin levels than patients with mild to moderate autism (P=0.02). Moreover, serum osteopontin levels of autistic patients had significant positive correlations with CARS (P=0.007). In conclusions, serum osteopontin levels were increased in many autistic children and they were significantly correlated to the severity of autism. Further wide-scale studies are warranted to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in autism and to investigate its relation to IL-17 and brain-specific auto-antibodies, which are indicators of autoimmunity, in these patients. The therapeutic role of anti-osteopontin antibodies in amelioration of autistic manifestations should also be studied. PMID:21521652

  15. A possible mechanism for the decrease in serum thyroxine level by phenobarbital in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Haraguchi, Koichi; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo; Degawa, Masakuni

    2010-12-15

    Effects of phenobarbital (PB) on the levels of serum thyroid hormones such as total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine were examined in male mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs. One day after the final administration of PB (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once daily for 4 days), significant decreases in the levels of the serum total T{sub 4} and free T{sub 4} occurred in mice, hamsters, and rats, while a significant decrease in the level of serum triiodothyronine was observed in hamsters and rats among the animals examined. In addition, a significant decrease in the level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was observed in only hamsters among the rodents examined. Significant increases in the level and activity of hepatic T{sub 4}-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A) after the PB administration occurred in mice, hamsters, and rats, while the increase in the amount of biliary [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}-glucuronide after an intravenous injection of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} to the PB-pretreated animals occurred only in rats. In mice, rats, and hamsters, but not guinea pigs, PB pretreatment promoted the clearance of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} from the serum, led to a significant increase in the steady-state distribution volumes of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}, and raised the concentration ratio (Kp value) of the liver to serum and the liver distribution of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}. The present findings indicate that the PB-mediated decreases in the serum T{sub 4} level in mice, hamsters, and rats, but not guinea pigs, occur mainly through an increase in the accumulation level of T{sub 4} in the liver.

  16. Serum Procalcitonine Levels as an Early Diagnostic Indicator of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Beqja-Lika, Anila; Bulo-Kasneci, Anyla; Refatllari, Etleva; Heta-Alliu, Nevila; Rucaj-Barbullushi, Alma; Mone, Iris; Mitre, Anila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Prompt and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is of high importance for clinicians. Procalcitonine (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been proposed as markers for this purpose. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of PCT and CRP in early sepsis and its correlation with severity of sepsis. Methods: Levels of PCT and CRP were taken from 60 patients with sepsis criteria and 39 patients with SIRS symptoms from the University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa” in Tirana, Albania during 2010-2012. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for PCT and CRP were calculated. Results: PCT and CRP levels increased in parallel with the severity of the clinical conditions of the patients. The mean PCT level in patients with sepsis was 11.28 ng/ml versus 0.272 ng/ml in patients with SIRS symptoms, with a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 96.6% for PCT >0.5ng/ml. The mean CRP level in septic patients was 146.58 mg/l vs. 34.4 mg/l in patients with SIRS, with a sensitivity of 98.6% for sepsis and a specificity of 75 % for CRP >11mg/l. Conclusion: PCT and CRP values are useful markers to determine early diagnosis and severity of an infection. In the present study, PCT was found to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating SIRS from sepsis and may be helpful in the follow-up of critically ill patients. PMID:23687457

  17. Association between Follicular Fluid Leptin and Serum Insulin Levels in Nonoverweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garruti, G.; de Palo, R.; Rotelli, M. T.; Nocera, S.; Totaro, I.; Nardelli, C.; Panzarino, M. A.; Vacca, M.; Selvaggi, L. E.; Giorgino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We evaluated the links between leptin and visfatin levels and fertilization rates in nonoverweight (NOW) women with PCOS (NOW-PCOS) from Apulia undergoing in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF). Materials and Methodology. We recruited 16 NOW women with PCOS (NOW-PCOS) and 10 normally ovulating NOW women (control-NOW). All women underwent IVF. Androgens, 17-β-estradiol (17β-E2), and insulin levels were measured in plasma and/or serum and leptin and visfatin levels were assayed in both serum and follicular fluid (FF-leptin, FF-visfatin). Results. In NOW-PCOS, both serum and FF-leptin were significantly lower than in control-NOW. In NOW-PCOS, significant correlations were found between BMI and serum leptin and insulinemia and FF-leptin. By contrast, in control-NOW, FF-leptin levels were not correlated with insulinemia. Serum visfatin levels were not significantly different in NOW-PCOS and control-NOW, but FF-visfatin levels were 1.6-fold higher, although not significantly, in NOW-PCOS than in control-NOW. Conclusions. Both serum leptin levels and FF-leptin are BMI- and insulin-related in Southern Italian NOW-PCOS from Apulia. In line with other reports showing that FF-leptin levels are predictive of fertilization rates, lower than normal FF-leptin levels in NOW-PCOS may explain their lower fertilization rate and this may be related to the level of insulin and/or insulin resistance. PMID:24895638

  18. Transdermal delivery of corticosterone in terrestrial amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wack, Corina L; Lovern, Matthew B; Woodley, Sarah K

    2010-12-01

    Stressors elicit allostatic responses that allow animals to cope with changing and challenging environments and also cause release of glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). Compared to other vertebrate classes, relatively little is known about amphibian behavioral and physiological responses to GCs. To understand the effects of elevated plasma GCs in amphibians, exogenous application of GCs is necessary, but traditional methods to elevate GCs require handling and/or anesthesia which themselves are stressors. A less invasive alternative successfully used in birds and reptiles utilizes transdermal delivery by applying GCs via a dermal patch. We asked whether dermal patches containing corticosterone (CORT, the main GC in amphibians) would elevate plasma CORT in terrestrial salamanders and frogs. We explored the use of the dermal patch to deliver CORT in an acute, sustained, and repeated manner. Patches adhered well to the amphibians' moist skin and were easily removed to regulate the time course of CORT delivery. Application of CORT treated patches elevated plasma CORT concentrations compared to vehicle patches in all species. Patches delivered physiological levels of plasma CORT in ecologically relevant time frames. Repeated application and removal of CORT patches were used to simulate exposure to repeated stressors. Application of patches did not represent a stressor because plasma CORT concentrations were similar between animals that received vehicle patches and untreated animals. Thus, transdermal delivery of GCs represents a potentially useful tool to better understand amphibian allostatic responses to stressors, and perhaps amphibian population declines. PMID:20850442

  19. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:22528775

  20. Serum levels of zinc and copper in epileptic children during long-term therapy with anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    Talat, Mohamed A.; Ahmed, Anwar; Mohammed, Lamia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serum levels of zinc and copper in epileptic children during the long-term treatment of anticonvulsant drugs and correlate this with healthy subjects. Methods: A hospital-based group matched case-control study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt between November 2013 and October 2014. Ninety patients aged 7.1±3.6 years were diagnosed with epilepsy by a neurologist. The control group was selected from healthy individuals and matched to the case group. Serum zinc and copper were measured by the calorimetric method using a colorimetric method kit. Results: The mean zinc level was 60.1±22.6 ug/dl in the cases, and 102.1±18 ug/dl in the controls (p<0.001). The mean copper level was 180.1±32.4 ug/dl in cases compared with 114.5±18.5 ug/dl in controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: Serum zinc levels in epileptic children under drug treatment are lower compared with healthy children. Also, serum copper levels in these patients are significantly higher than in healthy people. No significant difference in the levels of serum copper and zinc was observed in using one drug or multiple drugs in the treatment of epileptic patients. PMID:26492112

  1. Raised Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Sen, Oishimaya; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Banerjee, Anindita

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8–10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77 ± 14.29 versus 17.02 ± 5.74 U/L; P < 0.0001). Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.657; P < 0.0001) level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r = −0.203; P = 0.180). However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects. PMID:24453844

  2. Raised serum adenosine deaminase level in nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Ghosh, Arindam; Sen, Oishimaya; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Banerjee, Anindita

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8-10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77 ± 14.29 versus 17.02 ± 5.74 U/L; P < 0.0001). Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.657; P < 0.0001) level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r = -0.203; P = 0.180). However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects. PMID:24453844

  3. Serum estrogen and androgen levels following treatment for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Inskip, P D; Eby, N L; Cookfair, D; Freedman, R S; Richardson, G S; Wactawski-Wende, J; Hoover, R N; Boice, J D

    1994-01-01

    Endogenous sex hormones seem to influence the risk of several common and debilitating diseases. With a view toward better understanding the effects of surgical removal of the ovaries and high-dose pelvic radiotherapy on plasma sex hormone levels, we measured estrogen and androgen concentrations cross-sectionally among 147 women who had been treated for cervical cancer 0.3-18.5 years previously. Pelvic radiotherapy (mean dose to ovaries, 50 Gy) and bilateral ovariectomy were associated with similarly reduced hormone concentrations relative to levels among nonirradiated women with intact ovaries, most of whom had had early-stage disease and were treated by hysterectomy. There was little evidence that radiotherapy in addition to ovariectomy further lowered concentrations below levels associated with ovariectomy alone, such as might be expected if radiation was suppressing adrenal endocrine function. Among women age 50 years or older at the time of blood drawing, the removal or irradiation of the ovaries was associated with approximately 45% lower concentrations of estradiol (mean ratio [MR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.95) and testosterone (MR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.32-0.99), and 25-30% lower concentrations of estrone (MR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.44-1.09) and androstenedione (MR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.47-1.23), relative to the hysterectomy-only group. Among women younger than 50, ovariectomy and radiotherapy, alone or in combination, were associated with 83% lower estradiol concentrations (MR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.31), 46% lower estrone concentrations (MR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37-0.81), 23% lower androstenedione concentrations (MR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.04), and 14% lower testosterone levels (MR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.64-1.15).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8118384

  4. Comparison of Methodologies to Detect Low Levels of Hemolysis in Serum for Accurate Assessment of Serum microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jaynish S.; Soon, Patsy S.; Marsh, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs have emerged as powerful regulators of many biological processes, and their expression in many cancer tissues has been shown to correlate with clinical parameters such as cancer type and prognosis. Present in a variety of biological fluids, microRNAs have been described as a ‘gold mine’ of potential noninvasive biomarkers. Release of microRNA content of blood cells upon hemolysis dramatically alters the microRNA profile in blood, potentially affecting levels of a significant number of proposed biomarker microRNAs and, consequently, accuracy of serum or plasma-based tests. Several methods to detect low levels of hemolysis have been proposed; however, a direct comparison assessing their sensitivities is currently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivities of four methods to detect hemolysis in serum (listed in the order of sensitivity): measurement of hemoglobin using a Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer, visual inspection, the absorbance of hemoglobin measured by spectrophotometry at 414 nm and the ratio of red blood cell-enriched miR-451a to the reference microRNA miR-23a-3p. The miR ratio detected hemolysis down to approximately 0.001%, whereas the Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer was unable to detect hemolysis lower than 1%. The spectrophotometric method could detect down to 0.004% hemolysis, and correlated with the miR ratio. Analysis of hemolysis in a cohort of 86 serum samples from cancer patients and healthy controls showed that 31 of 86 (36%) were predicted by the miR ratio to be hemolyzed, whereas only 8 of these samples (9%) showed visible pink discoloration. Using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, we identified absorbance cutoffs of 0.072 and 0.3 that could identify samples with low and high levels of hemolysis, respectively. Overall, this study will assist researchers in the selection of appropriate methodologies to test for hemolysis in serum samples prior to quantifying expression of microRNAs. PMID:27054342

  5. Comparison of Methodologies to Detect Low Levels of Hemolysis in Serum for Accurate Assessment of Serum microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jaynish S; Soon, Patsy S; Marsh, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs have emerged as powerful regulators of many biological processes, and their expression in many cancer tissues has been shown to correlate with clinical parameters such as cancer type and prognosis. Present in a variety of biological fluids, microRNAs have been described as a 'gold mine' of potential noninvasive biomarkers. Release of microRNA content of blood cells upon hemolysis dramatically alters the microRNA profile in blood, potentially affecting levels of a significant number of proposed biomarker microRNAs and, consequently, accuracy of serum or plasma-based tests. Several methods to detect low levels of hemolysis have been proposed; however, a direct comparison assessing their sensitivities is currently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivities of four methods to detect hemolysis in serum (listed in the order of sensitivity): measurement of hemoglobin using a Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer, visual inspection, the absorbance of hemoglobin measured by spectrophotometry at 414 nm and the ratio of red blood cell-enriched miR-451a to the reference microRNA miR-23a-3p. The miR ratio detected hemolysis down to approximately 0.001%, whereas the Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer was unable to detect hemolysis lower than 1%. The spectrophotometric method could detect down to 0.004% hemolysis, and correlated with the miR ratio. Analysis of hemolysis in a cohort of 86 serum samples from cancer patients and healthy controls showed that 31 of 86 (36%) were predicted by the miR ratio to be hemolyzed, whereas only 8 of these samples (9%) showed visible pink discoloration. Using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, we identified absorbance cutoffs of 0.072 and 0.3 that could identify samples with low and high levels of hemolysis, respectively. Overall, this study will assist researchers in the selection of appropriate methodologies to test for hemolysis in serum samples prior to quantifying expression of microRNAs. PMID:27054342

  6. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  7. Postmortem serum erythropoietin level as a marker of survival time in injury deaths.

    PubMed

    Quan, L; Zhu, B-L; Ishikawa, T; Michiue, T; Zhao, D; Ogawa, M; Maeda, H

    2010-07-15

    Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) is mainly derived from the kidneys, and the serum concentration is rapidly increased in response to anemia and hypoxia. The present study investigated postmortem serum EPO levels in injury death cases (n=185, postmortem time<48 h, survival time <7 days: sharp instrument injury, n=44 and blunt injury, n=141) with regard to survival time, compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation. Serum levels of both markers were independent of postmortem time. A survival time-dependent increase in serum EPO up to about 100 mU/ml was seen within 6h of sharp instrument injury to the heart or a proximal major vessel (thoracic aorta or subclavian/carotid artery) and blunt injury with massive hemorrhages, showing high correlations (r=0.957 and r=0.822, respectively, P<0.0001), whereas the increase was insignificant (P>0.05) for sharp instrument injury to a peripheral vessel or lungs/abdominal viscera and blunt injury with minor hemorrhages over the same survival period. A further increase (>100 mU/ml) was often detected in cases of death about 24h after blunt injury, irrespective of the type of injury. In contrast, a gradual increase in serum CRP level was seen about 12-24h after blunt injury. These findings suggest that serum EPO can be a marker for investigating survival time within 6h of major injury involving acute massive hemorrhaging. PMID:20430543

  8. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Levels Predict Infection-Related Mortality and Hospitalization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seun Deuk; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been reported to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, it is unclear whether serum ALP levels predict infection-related clinical outcomes in PD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between serum ALP levels, infection-related mortality and hospitalization in PD patients. Methods PD patients from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease, a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea, were included in the present study. Patients were categorized into three groups by serum ALP tertiles as follows: Tertile 1, ALP <78 U/L; Tertile 2, ALP = 78–155 U/L; Tertile 3, ALP >155 U/L. Tertile 1 was used as the reference category. The primary outcomes were infection-related mortality and hospitalization. Results A total of 1,455 PD patients were included. The median follow-up period was 32 months. The most common cause of infection-related mortality and hospitalization was PD-related peritonitis. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that patients in the highest tertiles of serum ALP levels were at higher risk of infection-related mortality (HR 2.29, 95% CI, 1.42–5.21, P = 0.008) after adjustment for clinical variables. Higher tertiles of serum ALP levels were associated with higher risk of infection-related hospitalization (Tertile 2: HR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.18–2.19, P = 0.009, tertile 3: HR 1.34, 95% CI, 1.03–2.62, P = 0.031). Conclusions Our data showed that elevated serum ALP levels were independently associated with a higher risk of infection-related mortality and hospitalization in PD patients. PMID:27310428

  9. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun; Lee, Kang Joon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Methods Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77) and control subjects (n=37) were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured. Results Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating. Conclusion Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the correlations between the folate or vitamin B12 levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores were not significant. The pathophysiological

  10. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Semiz, Esra A.; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S.; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones. Methods: Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Result: Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (10.10±4.08 μg/dL and 11.78±3.6 μg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 μg/dL and 143.15±107.92 μg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 μg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77μg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 μg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 μg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT. Conclusion: Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS. PMID:27146618

  11. Thyroxine therapy ameliorates serum levels of eicosanoids in Chinese subclinical hypothyroidism patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Bing-chang; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Zhe; Song, Yong-feng; Zhang, Hai-qing; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Qun-ye; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The eicosanoids derived from phospholipids play key roles in inflammation. However, the profiles of serum eicosanoids in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) patients and the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy (TRT) on these eicosanoids remain unclear. Many studies show that TSH regulates lipid metabolism. As eicosanoids derived from phospholipids play key roles in oxidative stress and immune function and inflammatory process, it was necessary to explore the profiles of serum eicosanoids in SH patients and the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy (TRT) on the eicosanoids. Methods: A total of 50 Chinese SH patients and 22 healthy volunteers were recruited. SH patients received TRT (L-T4, 25 and 50 mcg/d for patients with TSH≤10.0 mIU/L and TSH>10.0 mIU/L, respectively) for 3 months. Serum levels of major eicosanoids and cPLA2 were analyzed using LC-MS and clinical biochemical assays. Results: The serum levels of cPLA2, eicosanoids (8-isoPGF2a, 11-dehydroTXB2 and 12-HETE) and 11-dehydroTXB2/6-Keto-PGF1a were significantly elevated in SH patients. The serum TSH levels were significantly correlated with the levels of cPLA2 (r=+0.65), 11-dehydroTXB2 (r=+0.32) and 11-dehydroTXB2/6-Keto-PGF1a (r=+0.37). After 3-month TRT, the serum levels of TSH, cPLA2 and the above-mentioned eicosanoids in SH patients were significantly decreased. Conclusion: The metabolism of eicosanoids is significantly altered in Chinese SH patients, and TRT can ameliorate the abnormalities of serum eicosanoid levels. PMID:26997566

  12. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. PMID:26408227

  13. [Quantification of levels of serum antirabies antibodies in vaccinated individuals].

    PubMed

    Süliová, J; Benísek, Z; Svrcek, S; Durove, A; Závadová, J

    1994-02-01

    The authors developed a kit for the purpose of assessment of anti-rabies antibodies by the ELISA immunoenzymatic method in human immunized sera. The results of the detection and quantification of anti-rabies antibodies acquired by the ELISA method were compared with those originating from classical procedures (virusneutralizing test on mice, indirect hemagglutination test), and a sufficient correlation and sensitivity of the immunoenzymatic method were detected. By means of the developed test it is possible to detect the particular level of anti-rabies virusneutralizing IgG antibodies. (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 25). PMID:7922630

  14. Bound vitamin B12 absorption in patients with low serum B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Furlong, D; Burrows, B A; Slingerland, D W

    1992-07-01

    In many patients with low serum levels of vitamin B12, the absorption of the free vitamin has been normal. The present study, using a total body counter 57CoB12 absorption method that clearly separated those with intrinsic factor deficiency from controls, found that of 94 patients with low B12 levels and intact stomachs in whom the absorption of free and bound B12 was determined, 44 (47%) had normal absorption of both. However, 20 of the 94 (21%) with normal absorption of free B12 had low absorption of bound B12. The remainder (32%) had low absorption of both free and bound B12. All patients with high serum gastrin levels had low bound B12 absorption, but so did 21% of those patients with normal serum gastrin levels. PMID:1609768

  15. Changes in serum copper and zinc levels in peripartum healthy and subclinically hypocalcemic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Baoyu; Liu, Guowen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum copper and zinc in subclinically hypocalcemic peripartum dairy cows in comparison to healthy animals. Blood samples were taken from 219 multiparous Holstein cows near parturition (from 4 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum) and 51 cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. The results showed that the serum copper concentration increased gradually at 1 week prepartum and remained high for the first 4 weeks postpartum in the healthy periparturient dairy cows. The serum zinc concentration reached a nadir at 1 week postpartum and subsequently increased gradually to baseline. The serum zinc concentration was significantly decreased (P<0.01) in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with healthy cows. There was no significant difference in the serum copper concentration between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and healthy cows. These data demonstrate that the concentrations of copper and zinc in serum change dramatically during the peripartum period in dairy cows, which is a tremendous challenge for the body and for the maintenance of dairy cow health. The present study further suggests that a decreased serum zinc concentration could be a cause of decreased productive performance and increased susceptibility to other diseases due to immunosuppression in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. Additionally, this decreased zinc concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical hypocalcemia. PMID:24859816

  16. The serum level of interleukin-6 in patients with intellectual disability and refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lehtimäki, Kai A; Liimatainen, Suvi; Peltola, Jukka; Arvio, Maria

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to study the influences of active epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID) on the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) by determining levels in 74 patients with developmental disorder with epilepsy and 63 healthy controls. The patients showed significantly higher IL-6 levels than the controls (4.1±4.5pg/ml vs. 2.1±1.0pg/ml; p<0.001). High seizure frequency and severe intellectual disability emerged as predictors for elevated serum levels of IL-6. PMID:21530175

  17. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary. PMID:24550655

  18. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Level and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    SHARIF, Mohammad Reza; MADANI, Mahla; TABATABAEI, Fatemeh; TABATABAEE, Zakieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental health disorders. In recent years, the impacts of various micronutrients on ADHD have been studied. However, vitamin D has received much less attention. This study was aimed at evaluating the association and level of serum vitamin D in children with ADHD. Materials & Methods This case-control study was carried out, in 2012, on 6 to 12 yr-old children. Thirty-seven were children with ADHD in the cases group and another 37 healthy children were in the control group. Venous blood sample was drawn from each child to measure the serum level of vitamin D. Other variables were compared as well. Results The mean serum vitamin D level of children with ADHD (19.11±10.10 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that of the control group (28.67±13.76 ng/ml) (P<0.001). Conclusion Deficiency of vitamin D has been proved in various psychiatric diseases. This study evidenced a significantly low level of serum vitamin D in children with ADHD. This suggests the need for regularly monitoring of serum vitamin D levels and treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiencies. PMID:26664441

  19. Increased IL-35 serum levels in systemic sclerosis and association with pulmonary interstitial involvement.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Andréa Tavares; Gonçalves, Sayonara Maria Calado; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Gonçalves, Rafaela Silva Guimarães; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the serum IL-35 level and its association with clinical manifestations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). IL-35 serum levels were measured by ELISA from 56 patients with SSc and 53 healthy controls. Association of IL-35 serum levels were sought with clinical parameters. Serum IL-35 levels were significantly higher in SSc patients (5.08 ± 0.76 pg/ml) than in healthy individuals (1.89 ± 0.69 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). Patients with lung fibrosis had higher IL-35 levels than those without fibrosis (7.75 ± 1.36 and 3.08 ± 0.70 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.0022). IL-35 is elevated in the serum of patients with SSc and is associated with lung fibrosis. Our findings suggest that this cytokine can have a role in fibrotic diseases, but further studies are needed to address the role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of SSc. PMID:26160266

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children with recurrent tonsillitis living in Milan.

    PubMed

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Iofrida, E; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the etiopathogenesis of tonsillar disease in children is still debated; this study assesses possible differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between 309 Caucasian children (58.1% males; mean age 55.7 ± 31.0 months) living in Milan with a history of recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and healthy controls. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly reduced in the children with a history of RT (22.0 ± 8.7 ng/mL vs 24.6 ± 7.8 ng/mL; p=0.03), and the proportion of children with insufficient or deficient serum 25(OH)D levels was higher in the RT group (81.5% and 6.5% respectively) than in the control group (75.1% and 3.5%) (not significant). The multivariable model created to test the independent association between serum 25(OH)D levels and a history of RT after adjusting for age and season showed that the association was not significant. Our study failed to find any significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels after adjustment for age and season in a case series of children with RT in comparison with healthy controls, which suggests that vitamin D does not play a relevant role in the etiology of pediatric tonsillar infections. PMID:26753657

  1. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p < 0.001). Acute prepubertal immobilization stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group. PMID:26930799

  2. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and β-cell functions in nondiabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, M; Niwa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M; Hanyu, N; Nakayama, T

    2014-12-01

    High serum uric acid (UA) levels are believed to be an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum UA concentrations and early-phase insulin secretion following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic subjects. We enrolled 570 Japanese subjects (354 males and 216 females, aged 50.5 ± 8.9 years and 52.6 ± 7.3 years, respectively), who underwent the 75 g OGTT during their annual health examination. The OGTT confirmed their nondiabetic status. Insulin secretion was estimated by the disposition index (DI) [(Δ insulin/Δ glucose (0-30 min) × (1/HOMA-IR)], which is an adjusted measure of β-cell function relative to variations in insulin sensitivity. Simple linear regression analysis showed negative correlations between serum UA levels and DI, when examined in the whole study population and female subjects only (r = -0.209, p < 0.001 and r = -0.232, p < 0.001, respectively). However, in male subjects, UA levels did not correlate with DI. In females, multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that serum UA levels were the major predictors of DI, explaining 16.4% of its variation (p < 0.001). Serum UA levels significantly correlate with early-phase insulin secretion in nondiabetic Japanese women. It may be an independent risk factor for predicting β-cell function in women. PMID:25295417

  3. Sex Difference in the Association between Serum Homocysteine Level and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Won, Bo-Youn; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Moon-Jong; Park, Kye-Seon; Kim, Young-Sang; Haam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Yuk; Kim, Hye-Jung; Park, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 150 men and 132 women who participated in medical examination programs in Korea from January 2014 to December 2014. Patients were screened for fatty liver by abdominal ultrasound and patient blood samples were collected to measure homocysteine levels. Patients that consumed more than 20 grams of alcohol per day were excluded from this study. Results The homocysteine level (11.56 vs. 8.05 nmol/L) and the proportion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (60.7% vs. 19.7%) were significantly higher in men than in women. In men, elevated serum homocysteine levels were associated with a greater prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (quartile 1, 43.6%; quartile 4, 80.6%; P=0.01); however, in females, there was no significant association between serum homocysteine levels and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age and potential confounding parameters, the odds ratio for men was significantly higher in the uppermost quartile (model 3, quartile 4: odds ratio, 6.78; 95% confidential interval, 1.67 to 27.56); however, serum homocysteine levels in women were not associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the crude model or in models adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Serum homocysteine levels were associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in men. PMID:27468343

  4. Serum Interleukin-33 level in Saudi children with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Saadah, Omar I; Al-Harthi, Sameer E; Al-Mughales, Jamil A; Bin-Taleb, Yagoub Y; Baeshen, Raed S

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine that belongs to the interleukin-1 family and has been shown to be associated with mucosal inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the serum level of IL-33 in children with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and to correlate the level with the disease progression. In this cross sectional prospective study, we enrolled 50 children with IBD from KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and 34 healthy control subjects between June 2012 and December 2012. Serum IL-33 was assessed by ELISA and CRP by immunonephelometric assay. Results from our study showed 32 CD and 18 UC patients included. The median age was 13.5 years for CD patients, 11.9 years for UC patients and 11.2 years for controls. Females constituted 53%, 66.7% and 59% of CD, UC and control subjects respectively. The median serum IL-33 in UC patients of 55.5 pg/mL was significantly higher than the median IL-33 level of 41 pg/mL in the healthy control (P=0.04) but no significant difference was found between the median IL-33 level in the sera of CD and the control group (P=0.7). A higher median IL-33 level was also found in active disease (P=0.03). In our cohort, the serum level of IL-33 was positively correlated with hs-CRP (r=0.48, P < 0.001). To conclude, our results support that serum IL-33 level is increased in children with UC as compared with control. Serum level is correlated with the disease activity; therefore it could be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring the severity of the disease in children with UC. PMID:26884875

  5. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  6. Serum Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ando, Takashi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(P)RR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(P)RR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258) than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P < 0.0001). Clearance of s(P)RR and creatinine were 56.9 ± 33.5 and 147.6 ± 9.50 ml/min, respectively. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in those with ankle-brachial index (ABI) of < 0.9, an indicator of severe atherosclerosis, than those with ABI of ≥ 0.9 (32.2 ± 5.9 and 30.1 ± 6.2 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). An association between low ABI and high serum s(P)RR levels was observed even after correction for age, history of smoking, HbA1c, and LDL-C. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(P)RR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(P)RR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(P)RR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27367528

  7. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesized that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in narcolepsy patients than in healthy controls (64.2±3.9 ng/ml vs. 47.3±2.6 ng/ml, P<0.01), while there were no significant differences in NGF levels. As expected, narcolepsy patients had higher BMI compared to controls, but BMI did not correlate with the serum BDNF levels. The change in BDNF levels was not related to disease duration and sleep parameters did not correlate with BDNF in narcolepsy patients. The mechanisms behind the marked increase in BDNF levels in narcolepsy patients remain unknown. PMID:23570723

  8. Altered serum levels of adipokines and insulin in probable Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Bandyopadhyay, Kausik; Bir, Aritri; Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Biswas, Atanu; Basu, Debasis; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral hypometabolism of glucose, weight loss, and decreased food intake are characteristic features of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic study on the serum levels of adipokines and insulin, the major hormones regulating energy metabolism, food intake, and body weight, in sporadic AD is necessary. The present study compares the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin, measured by commercially available immuno-assay kits, between controls and sporadic AD subjects. The results show a conspicuous decrease in the level of leptin, a dramatic rise in the level of adiponectin, and also a statistically significant increase in insulin level, in the blood of AD subjects, with respect to controls. The changes in the serum levels of adiponectin and insulin in AD are positively correlated with the severity of dementia. Likewise, the serum level of leptin in AD subjects is negatively correlated with the degree of dementia. The changes in the levels of adipokines and insulin have implications in the amyloid pathology, neurodegeneration, and hypometabolism of glucose existing in the AD brain. PMID:24625795

  9. Dairy fat blend improves brain DHA and neuroplasticity and regulates corticosterone in mice.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Bonhomme, C; Le Ruyet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the breast milk lipid composition appears to be necessary for infant formula to cover the brain's needs in n-3 PUFA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial replacement of vegetable oil (VL) in infant formula by dairy fat (DL) on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain level, neuroplasticity and corticosterone in mice. Mice were fed with balanced VL or balanced DL diets enriched or not in DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) from the first day of gestation. Brain DHA level, microglia number, neurogenesis, corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor expression were measured in the offsprings. DL diet increased DHA and neuroplasticity in the brain of mice at postnatal day (PND) 14 and at adulthood compared to VL. At PND14, ARA and DHA supplementation increased DHA in VL but not in DL mice brain. Importantly, DHA and ARA supplementation further improved neurogenesis and decreased corticosterone level in DL mice at adulthood. In conclusion, dairy lipids improve brain DHA level and neuroplasticity. PMID:27269711

  10. Serum pantetheinase/vanin levels regulate erythrocyte homeostasis and severity of malaria.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Rihet, Pascal; Atwell, Scott; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Chasson, Lionel; Beaumont, Carole; Chimini, Giovanna; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Viallat, Annie; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Therefore, scoring pantetheinase in serum may serve as a severity marker in malaria infection. This disease triggers an acute stress in erythrocytes, which enhances cytoadherence and hemolysis. We speculated that serum pantetheinase might contribute to erythrocyte resistance to stress under homeostatic conditions. We show that mutant mice with a reduced serum PA are anemic and prone to phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. A cytofluorometric and spectroscopic analysis documented an increased frequency of erythrocytes with an autofluorescent aging phenotype. This is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and shear stress-induced hemolysis. Red blood cell transfer and bone marrow chimera experiments show that the aging phenotype is not cell intrinsic but conferred by the environment, leading to a shortening of red blood cell half-life. Therefore, serum pantetheinase level regulates erythrocyte life span and modulates the risk of developing complicated malaria. PMID:26343328

  11. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A.; Huang, Hanlin; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that TCE exposure would also affect Ig levels in humans. We measured serum levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in TCE-exposed workers (n = 80) and unexposed controls (n = 45), matched by age and gender, in a cross-sectional, molecular epidemiology study of occupational exposure to TCE in Guangdong, China. Exposed workers had about a 17.5% decline in serum levels of IgG compared with unexposed controls (P = 0.0002). Similarly, serum levels of IgM were reduced by about 38% in workers exposed to TCE compared with unexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of both IgG and IgM were significantly decreased in workers exposed to TCE levels below 12 p.p.m., the median exposure level. Adjustment for B-cell counts had minimal impact on our findings. IgE levels were not significantly different between exposed and control subjects. These results provide further evidence that TCE is immunotoxic at relatively low exposure levels and provide additional biologic plausibility for the reported association of TCE with NHL. PMID:23276795

  12. Are birds stressed during long-term flights? A wind-tunnel study on circulating corticosterone in the red knot.

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindström, Ake; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    During endurance flight most birds do not feed and have to rely on their body reserves. Fat and protein is catabolised to meet the high energetic demands. Even though the hormonal regulation of migration is complex and not yet fully understood, the adrenocortical hormone corticosterone crystallizes to play a major role in controlling physiological traits in migratory birds during flight. However, results from field studies are partially equivocal, not least because data from birds during endurance flight are hard to get and present mostly a momentary shot. A wind-tunnel experiment offered the possibility to measure repeatedly under controlled conditions the effect of long flights on the stress hormone corticosterone. In a long-distance migrating shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, we measured plasma concentrations of corticosterone within 3 min and after a restraint time of 30 min directly after 2h and 10h non-stop flights, respectively, and during rest. Baseline corticosterone levels were unchanged directly after the flights, indicating that endurance flight did not affect corticosterone levels. The adrenocortical response to restraint showed the typical rise in birds during rest, while birds after a 2 or 10h flight substantially decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations. We suggest that the negative adrenocortical response to restraint after flight is part of the mechanism to reduce the proteolytic effect of corticosterone to save muscle protein and to avoid muscle damaging effects. PMID:19481083

  13. Preoperative serum docosahexaenoic acid level predicts prognosis of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TASAKI, SHINSUKE; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; ASANO, TAKAKO; KURODA, KENJI; SATO, AKINORI; ASAKUMA, JUNICHI; ITO, KEIICHI; ASANO, TOMOHIKO; ASAKURA, HIROTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery and clinical development of targeted agents have expanded treatment options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, metastatic RCC remains a lethal disease. Complete response is rare and treatment with targeted agents eventually fails in the majority of the patients. Therefore, there is a need for developing a prognostic tool and a novel therapeutic agent for RCC to improve the follow-up strategy after surgical treatment. Clinical data, including patient characteristics, serum fatty acid profile, clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome, were obtained from 112 patients with RCC prior to surgical treatment. Preoperative fatty acid levels were grouped according to patient characteristics, such as performance status, body mass index or pathological parameters, and were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Cancer-specific survival in the high and low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) level groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the independent prognostic factors associated with shortened cancer-specific survival. The serum DHA level in patients with metastasis was significantly lower compared with that in patients without metastasis (P=0.047). Low serum DHA level, presence of metastasis and cachexia were independent predictors of shortened cancer-specific survival in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model (P=0.033, hazard ratio = 4.43). Patients with a serum DHA level below the median value exhibited significantly shorter cancer-specific survival compared with those with a higher serum DHA level (P=0.008). Thus, according to our results, the preoperative serum DHA level may be able to predict the surgical outcome of RCC. However, this finding requires validation by large-scale prospective studies. PMID:27330769

  14. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  15. Relationships of serum estradiol levels, menopausal duration, and mood during hormonal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Vogel, W; Peterson, L G; Snyder, M B

    1997-10-01

    A study was undertaken in 38 menopausal women on-cyclic HRT (estropipate) and estropipate + nor-ethindrone). Serum estradiol levels during treatment were related to mood changes and platelet MAO activity. The relationship between serum estradiol levels and mood changes was found to be a function of the duration of menopause. Women with a short duration of menopause (12.9 months +/- 6.1) were compared to women with a long duration of menopause (76.6 months +/- 52.3). Women with a short duration of menopause had significantly lower mean serum estradiol levels during HRT compared to women with a long duration of menopause (216.9 +/- 62.3 vs. 291.13 +/- 118.12, respectively, p < .02). It had previously been reported that estrogen treatment in menopausal women had a positive effect on mood, whereas the combination of estrogen plus a progestin had a negative effect on mood. We found that the women with a long duration of menopause and higher treatment serum estradiol levels had significantly more dysphoria when receiving a combination of estrogen plus progestin than did the women with a short duration of menopause and lower serum estradiol levels. However, both short and long duration menopausal groups showed improvement in mood when estrogen was administered alone. Platelet MAO levels, a marker of adrenergic and serotonergic function thought to relate to mood, were negatively correlated with serum estradiol levels during HRT. We suggest that these paradoxical findings may be secondary to a prolonged estrogen deficiency state in women with a long duration of menopause. PMID:9373888

  16. Serum Vitamin D3 Level in Patients with Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Jarahi, Lida; Dolatkhah, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women, characterized by diffuse nonscarring hair loss in frontal, central, and parietal areas of the scalp. Pathophysiology of FPHL is still not well known, and it is probably a multifactorial genetic trait. FPHL is also observed in women without increased androgen levels, which raises the likelihood of androgen-independent mechanisms and explains the lack of response to antiandrogen treatments in some patients. Vitamin D is a factor that has recently been considered in dealing with these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of Vitamin D in patients with FPHL and compare it with healthy controls. Methods: In this case-control study, 45 women with FPHL were evaluated as well as the same number of healthy women matched for age, hours spent under sunlight per day, and body mass index. Serum 25(OH) D3 level was measured using ELISA. Results: 60% of FPHL patients were in 15–30 years old age group with the mean standard deviation (SD) age of 29.11 (7.30) years. In the majority of patients (66.7%), severity of hair loss was Ludwig I. Mean (SD) serum Vitamin D3 level in patient and control group was 13.45 (8.40) and 17.16 (8.96), respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of Vitamin D3 serum levels (P = 0.04). Conclusions: This study indicated the correlation between the incidence of FPHL and decreased serum levels of Vitamin D3. It is recommended to evaluate serum Vitamin D3 levels as well as other hormone assays in these patients. PMID:27625563

  17. Serum zinc levels in 368 patients with oral mucosal diseases: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels in patients with common oral mucosal diseases by comparing these to healthy controls. Material and Methods A total of 368 patients, which consisted of 156 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients, 57 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, 55 burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, 54 atrophic glossitis (AG) patients, 46 xerostomia patients, and 115 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum zinc levels were measured in all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean serum zinc level in the healthy control group was significantly higher than the levels of all other groups (p < 0.001). No individual in the healthy control group had a serum zinc level less than the minimum normal value. However, up to 24.7% (13/54) of patients with AG presented with zinc deficiency, while 21.2% (33/156) of patients with RAS, 16.4% (9/55) of patients with BMS, 15.2% (7/46) of patients with xerostomia, and 14.0% (8/57) of patients with OLP were zinc deficient. Altogether, the zinc deficiency rate was 19.02% (70/368) in the oral mucosal diseases (OMD) group (all patients with OMD). The difference between the OMD and healthy control group was significant (p <0.001). Gender differences in serum zinc levels were also present, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of common oral mucosal diseases. Zinc supplementation may be a useful treatment for oral mucosal diseases, but this requires further investigation; the optimal serum level of zinc, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases, remains to be determined. Key words:Oral mucosal diseases, Zinc deficiency, pathogenesis. PMID:27031065

  18. β-Hexachlorocyclohexane levels in serum and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; Factor, Stewart A; O'Suilleabhain, Padraig; German, Dwight C

    2011-10-01

    Pesticide exposure has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have identified specific pesticides. Previously, we identified elevated serum levels of the organochlorine pesticide β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) in PD patients from a small clinical sample. Here, we conducted a case-control study to confirm the association between β-HCH and PD in a larger sample size (n=283) with serum samples of PD patients and controls obtained from UT Southwestern Medical Center and Emory University. Samples were obtained from two discrete periods at both sites, 2001-2003 and 2006-2008, and were analyzed for β-HCH levels. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD were estimated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. The mean serum β-HCH level across all cohorts in this study was 22.3 ng/mg cholesterol (range: 0-376.7), and the levels were significantly higher and samples collected in 2001-2003 vs. 2006-2008. After controlling for age and gender, the OR for increased risk of PD for every 1 ng/mg increase in serum β-HCH ranged from 1.02 to 1.12 across the four different cohorts, and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00-1.07, p value=0.031) in the pooled analysis. Furthermore, the OR for increased risk of PD of subjects having serum β-HCH levels above the inter-quartile range of 39.08 ng/mg cholesterol was 2.85 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.48; p value<0.001). These data are consistent with environmental decreases in β-HCH levels between 2001 and 2008, but they indicate that elevated levels of serum β-HCH are still associated with heightened risk for PD. PMID:21620887

  19. Corticosterone regulates the expression of neuropeptide Y and reelin in MLO-Y4 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiangnan; Li, Xianxian; Fu, Jing; Shen, Jiefei; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hang

    2012-06-01

    Osteocytes that have a dendritic appearance are widely believed to form a complex cellular network system and play crucial roles in mechanotransduction as a principal bone mechanosensor, which is the basis of their neuronallike biology, as previously reported. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and reelin mRNA, which are brain-specific neurogenic markers, have been identified in osteocytes. However, changes in the production of NPY and reelin in response to specific biochemical stimulation are unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of corticosterone, one of the endogenous glucocorticoids, on the expression of NPY and reelin in the MLO-Y4 osteocyte cell line. Cells were treated with corticosterone at different concentrations (10(-9) M-10(-5) M) for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. As revealed, corticosterone reduced the MLO-Y4 cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner based on an MTT assay and a Vi-CELL analyzer. The cells were then incubated with corticosterone (10(-6) μM), and the NPY and reelin expression levels were detected at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. These results demonstrated that at the gene and the protein levels, corticosterone significantly upregulated the NPY and reelin expression in a time-dependent manner. The application of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, reversed the reduced cell viability and the increased expression of NPY and reelin that were caused by corticosterone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to verify that corticosterone regulates the NPY and reelin expression in osteocytes. PMID:22610366

  20. Elevated Levels of IFN-γ in CSF and Serum of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Gao, Lina; Zang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the levels of IFN-γ in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in ALS patients and to analyze the correlations between the IFN-γ levels and disease progression. Methods CSF and serum samples were obtained from 52 ALS patients and 31 non-ALS patients. The levels of IFN-γ in CSF and serum were assessed, and disease progression parameters, including the disease interval (months from onset, MFO), the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-r) score and the disease progression rate (DPR) were analyzed by registered neurologists. All samples were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using Prism software. Results Compared to the non-ALS patients, the ALS patients displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-γ in both CSF and serum, and these values consistently correlated with disease progression. Conclusions These results demonstrated that IFN-γ in CSF may serve as a biomarker of ALS differentiation and progression. CSF IFN-γ was a more reliable biomarker of disease diagnosis and progression than serum IFN-γ. PMID:26332465

  1. Clinical and prognostic value of serum procollagen levels in chronic alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Brajin-Rodríguez, M M; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Batista-López, N; Alvarez-Argüelles, H; Milena, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, A

    1990-02-01

    Liver fibrogenesis involves the synthesis of collagen fibrils and proteoglycans by various types of liver cells, including Ito cells, transitional cells, myofibroblasts and hepatocytes. Synthesis of collagen fibrils follows a complex metabolic pathway with intermediate products such as type III procollagen (III-PC). Serum levels of III-PC may reflect the activity of the fibrogenetic process. We analysed the relationship between the serum levels of III-PC (N-terminal peptide) and diverse clinical, biochemical and histological parameters of 77 alcoholic patients (27 cirrhotics), comparing them with those of 15 age- and sex-matched controls. A highly significant difference was obtained between controls and patients (P less than 0.0001), but no differences were observed between cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics. Serum III-PC significantly correlated with clinical and biochemical data of liver function derangement (prothrombin activity, serum albumin, bilirubin, gynecomastia, ascites, encephalopathy, edema, splenomegaly); with the duration of ethanol addiction and with MCV. Sixty patients were followed up for a period ranging between 3 and 1056 days (mean = 356 days); 9 of them died. Patients with III-PC levels above 38 ng/ml had a significantly higher mortality (P = 0.006) than those with levels under 38 (log rank test). Thus, serum III-PC may be a useful tool in the clinical evaluation and prognostic assessment of patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. PMID:2323314

  2. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541-18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  3. Association between serum cystatin C levels and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Triki, Sonia; Fekih, Ons; Hellara, Ilhem; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Hamda, Khaldoun Ben; Maatouk, Faouzi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2013-01-01

    Serum cystatin C concentration was recently reported as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the present study, we evaluated the association between the increase of serum cystatin C levels and the risk of CVD in type 2 diabetes. 42 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the present study; 27 of them have CVD. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adults. Cystatin C, creatinine, microalbuminuria and CRP were measured on Cobas 6000(TM). Cystatine C level was significantly higher in patients with CVD. A significant difference in serum cystatin C was found in patients with and without CVD among albuminuria. No difference in serum cystatin C levels was found according to number of affected vessels. A cystatin C level above 1.10 mg/L was associated with increase of risk of CVD with significant difference (OR = 42.52; IC 95% 1.455 to 1242.827 and p = 0.029). Our results suggested that the increase of serum cystatin C concentrations is a potential marker for CVD in diabetes. PMID:23906571

  4. Association of Ficolin-2 Serum Levels and FCN2 Genetic Variants with Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Sundaravadivel, Pandarisamy; Tong, Hoang Van; Meyer, Christian G.; Jalli, Reshma D.; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the neglected tropical diseases, is endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Ficolins are circulating serum proteins of the lectin complement system and involved in innate immunity. Methods We have estimated ficolin-2 serum levels and analyzed the functional variants of the encoding gene FCN2 in 218 cases of VL and in 225 controls from an endemic region of India. Results Elevated levels of serum ficolin-2 were observed in VL cases compared to the controls (adjusted P<0.0001). The genetic analysis revealed that the FCN2 structural variant +6359 C>T (p.T236M) was associated with VL (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.23-7.25, P=0.008) and with high ficolin-2 serum levels. We also found that the FCN2*AAAC haplotype occurred more frequently among healthy controls when compared to cases (OR=0.59, 95%CI=0.37-0.94, P=0.023). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the FCN2 variant +6359C>T is associated with the occurrence of VL and that ficolin-2 serum levels are elevated in Leishmania infections. PMID:25965808

  5. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541–18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  6. Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor as a potential tumor marker in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Rainer; Muendlein, Axel; Volbeding, Lennart; Drexel, Heinz; Richtig, Erika; Wehkamp, Ulrike; Painsi, Clemes; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard; Hauschild, Axel; Egberts, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Serum markers can be important tools for prognostic classification and treatment monitoring in cancer patients. The MAP-kinase pathway, which is upregulated in the majority of melanoma patients, can be activated by hepatocyte-growth factor (HGF) through the proto-oncogene c-MET. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of circulating HGF in terms of treatment outcome and survival compared with a widely established serum marker, protein S-100B, in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. HGF and S-100B were measured in serum samples of 101 patients with metastatic melanoma (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV) before and after treatment and 50 patients with stage I/II melanoma. HGF and S-100B correlated significantly with the stage of disease (P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). In stage IV melanoma patients, baseline serum levels of HGF and S-100B were significantly associated with treatment response (P=0.012 and 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, the Cox regression analysis confirmed that serum levels of HGF and S-100B proved to have a significant prognostic impact on progression-free survival (hazard ratio=1.39 and 1.29, respectively) and overall survival (hazard ratio=1.27 and 1.29, respectively) in advanced metastatic melanoma patients. In melanoma patients, serum levels of HGF and S-100B correlate significantly with the stage of disease. In stage IV melanoma, both markers are prognostic factors and correlate significantly with progression-free survival and overall survival. Measurement of serum HGF levels might be a useful additional tool in the management of melanoma patients. PMID:27206057

  7. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  8. Evaluation and comparison of postoperative levels of serum bilirubin, serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase in laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus open cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Rajinder Pal; Sandhu, Karamjot; Singh, Bir; Bhatia, Gaurav; Khatri, Abhishek; Sharma, Bhanu Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) requires the creation of a pneumoperitoneum via insufflations of carbon dioxide; resulting in increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) and intraperitoneal pressure which leads to the changes in pulmonary function and hemodynamic measurements. Hypercarbia leads to visceral organ ischemia including liver and venous stasis/thromboembolism or both due to impaired flow. The present study has been undertaken to see the changes in liver function tests (LFTs) after laparoscopic/open cholecystectomy (OC), the incidences of such change, their relation to age, sex, duration of surgery and to know the clinical significances of such disturbances. Aims and objectives To compare and correlate the serum level of bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in patients who underwent LC to those who underwent OC. Materials and methods The present study was conducted in the Department of Surgery at MMIMSR, MM University, Mullana, Ambala. A total number of 200 patients diagnosed as cholelithiasis were included in the study from May 2012 to May 2014. These cases were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) consisting of 100 cases each. LC was performed in group A patients and OC was done in group B patients. Three blood samples were taken: (I) pre-operatively; (II) after 24 hours of surgery; and (III) after 72 hours of surgery for comparison of the enzyme level alterations. Results In LC patients, there were rise in the levels of serum bilirubin, AST and ALT after 24 hrs of surgery from the preoperative value and then again fall was noted (near to normal value) after 72 hrs of surgery except in that of ALP. ALP levels showed slight fall after 24 hrs of surgery and then slight rise after 72 hrs which was within the normal limit. Whereas in OC patients, there were slight variations in the liver enzymes (which were within the normal range). Conclusions Transient elevation of serum

  9. Corticosterone administration in drinking water decreases high-fat diet intake but not preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2016-04-15

    One of the mechanisms through which regular exercise contributes to weight maintenance could be by reducing intake and preference for high-fat (HF) diets. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that wheel-running rats robustly reduced HF diet intake and preference. The reduced HF diet preference by wheel running can be so profound that the rats consumed only the chow diet and completely avoided the HF diet. Because previous research indicates that exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases circulating levels of corticosterone, this study tested the hypothesis that elevation of circulating corticosterone is involved in wheel running-induced reduction in HF diet preference in rats.Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone levels under sedentary and wheel-running conditions in the two-diet-choice (high-carbohydrate chow vs. HF) feeding regimen. The results revealed that plasma corticosterone is significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels of running in wheel-running rats with two-diet choice.Experiments 2 and 3 determined whether elevated corticosterone without wheel running is sufficient to reduce HF diet intake and preference. Corticosterone was elevated by adding it to the drinking water. Compared with controls, corticosterone-drinking rats had reduced HF diet intake and body weight, but the HF diet preference between groups did not differ. The results of this study support a role for elevated corticosterone on the reduced HF diet intake during wheel running. The elevation of corticosterone alone, however, is not sufficient to produce a robust reduction in HF diet preference. PMID:26818055

  10. [Hydronephrosis associated with elevated serum levels of CA 125 antigen. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Miglionico, L; Pellegrino, M; De Meco, C; Scianname, N; Castriota Scanderbeg, A

    1996-01-01

    High level of the CA 125 serum antigen is typically associated with ovarian malignancies. However the CA 125 antigen can also be found in association with inflammation or neoplasms of tissues other than ovaries, i.e. mesothelial cells, mullerian duct derivatives and gastroenteric tract. Therefore the marker is not specific for ovarian neoplasms. In childhood there is not a large experience about clinical meaning of high CA 125 serum levels. We report a case in a 14-year-old patient, female, affected by hydronephrosis. Our case confirms that high CA 125, especially in childhood, is not necessarily associated with ovarian or pelvic diseases. Moreover the review of literature suggests the opportunity to investigate CA 125 serum levels in children affected by hydronephrosis. PMID:8965765

  11. Gastric Cancer with a Very High Serum CA 19-9 Level.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuya; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Kawakami, Takako; Nagase, Atsushi; Matsuda, Minoru; Onodea, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Higuchi, Mineko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a sensitive marker for pancreatic and hepatobiliary malignancies. The highest frequency of elevated serum CA 19-9 levels is found among patients with pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 has recently been demonstrated to be a marker of digestive tract malignancies. We report the case of a patient with a gastric cancer and a very high serum CA 19-9 level. During laparotomy, a large mass was found in the antrum. A distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection of the lymph nodes was performed. Histological examination, including immunohistochemistry, revealed an adenocarcinoma of the stomach producing CA 19-9. To the best of our knowledge, no patient with an extremely high serum CA 19-9 level resulting from a gastric adenocarcinoma has been reported previously. PMID:21577374

  12. Interleukin-18 and CD30 serum levels in patients with moderate-severe depression.

    PubMed

    Merendino, Rosaria Alba; Di Rosa, Antonio Enrico; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Mangraviti, Carmela; Costantino, Antonella; Ruello, Antonella; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2002-08-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the T-cell-helper type 1 response, is a new member of the family of cytokines produced in the brain. CD30 is a marker of T-cell-helper type 2 lymphocytes. We evaluated IL-18 and CD30 serum levels in 10 patients affected by moderate-severe depression (MSD). We demonstrated for the first time that serum IL-18 levels of MSD patients were significantly higher than those of healthy donors. On the contrary, no significant difference was found between serum CD30 levels of MSD patients compared with those of healthy donors. These data strengthen the hypothesis that MSD disease is associated with an inflammatory response, mainly T-cell-helper type 1, and suggest an important role for IL-18 in the pathophysiology of MSD. PMID:12396479

  13. Correlation between Serum Osteopontin and miR-181a Levels in Allergic Rhinitis Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenlong; Zeng, Qingxiang; Luo, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Osteopontin (OPN) has been proved to be associated with allergic airway inflammation. However, the roles of OPN and its regulation in childhood allergic rhinitis (AR) are poorly understood. Objective. This study aims to evaluate the expression of OPN and miR-181a in children with AR and their association with Th1/Th2 immune response. Methods. Children who suffered from AR were included along with control subjects. Serum was collected to examine the level of OPN and Th1/Th2 cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the level of miR-181a by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results. Children with AR had significantly higher serum levels of OPN and lower serum levels of miR-181a than healthy controls. Furthermore, serum levels of OPN were positively correlated with Th2 cytokine and negatively correlated with Th1 cytokine. On the contrary, miR-181a level had a negative correlation with IL-4/IL-5 and positive correlation with IFN-γ/IL-12. More importantly, there was also significant negative correlation between OPN and miR-181a. Conclusion. The OPN protein and miR-181a levels may serve as predictors of disease severity in childhood AR and appear to be promising targets for modulating AR. PMID:27199509

  14. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  15. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  16. Increased serum levels of apoptosis in deficit syndrome schizophrenia patients: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Beyazyüz, Murat; Küfeciler, Tarkan; Bulut, Leyla; Ünsal, Cüneyt; Albayrak, Yakup; Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Baykal, Saliha; Kuloglu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, the etiology of which remains unclear. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that might be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum levels of apoptosis among deficit schizophrenia (DS) syndrome patients, nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, and healthy controls (HCs). Patients and methods After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 23 DS patients, 46 NDS patients, and 33 HCs were included in the study. The serum apoptosis levels were measured using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay with human monoclonal antibodies directed against DNA and histones. Results There was a significant difference among the three groups in terms of the levels of apoptosis (F2,96=16.58; P<0.001). The serum apoptosis levels in the DS and NDS groups were significantly higher than those in the HC group. Furthermore, the serum apoptosis levels in the DS group were significantly higher than the levels in the NDS group. Conclusion This study suggests that increased levels of apoptosis may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DS syndrome. However, further studies are needed to support the role of apoptosis in DS. PMID:27307738

  17. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE)

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Andriana I.; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Manali, Effrosyni D.; Papadaki, Georgia; Roussou, Aneza; Spathis, Aris; Mazioti, Argyro; Tomos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Ilias; Loukides, Stelios; Chainis, Kyriakos; Karakitsos, Petros; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Serum surfactant proteins (SPs) A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival. Methods 122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE) and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year. Results SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively). In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05) and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05). SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons). In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI). Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively). SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042). In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL) presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials. PMID:27337142

  18. Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Yuuki; Suzuki, Naoko; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound that has a strong anti-oxidant capacity. A previous study in rats fed a PQQ-depleted diet showed that elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) decreased after PQQ supplementation. However, there is only one study reporting the effects of PQQ on serum lipid levels, such as those of TG and cholesterol, in humans. In this study, the effects of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on serum TG and cholesterol levels in humans after 6 and 12 wk of treatment at an oral dosage of 20 mg/d were examined. This trial was conducted according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded protocol. A total of 29 healthy Japanese adults, ranging from 40 to 57 y old, with normal to moderately high TG levels (110-300 mg/dL) as measured by a recent blood examination, were included in this study. In eleven volunteers out of 29, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) levels at baseline were high (≥140 mg/dL). After 12 wk, the mean serum TG levels had not changed; however, a marginally significant decrease in the mean LDL-chol (from 136.1 to 127.0 mg/dL) was observed in the PQQ group. In the stratification analysis of the high LDL-chol subgroup (baseline LDL-chol level ≥140 mg/dL), the mean LDL-chol levels decreased significantly from the baseline values in the PQQ group compared to the placebo group. Our study findings suggest that PQQ suppressed the LDL-chol level, which is an important finding, because a high level of this lipid is a risk factor for various lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26226960

  19. Association between serum selenium level and conversion of bacteriological tests during antituberculosis treatment* **

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Delogo, Karina Neves; Miranda, Pryscila Fernandes Campino; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes; Ruffino-Netto, Antônio; de Almeida, Paulo César; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; de Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum selenium levels are associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in patients diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis after eight weeks of standard treatment. Methods: We evaluated 35 healthy male controls and 35 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the latter being evaluated at baseline, as well as at 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment. For all participants, we measured anthropometric indices, as well as determining serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and selenium. Because there are no reference values for the Brazilian population, we used the median of the serum selenium level of the controls as the cut-off point. At 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment, we repeated the biochemical tests, as well as collecting sputum for smear microscopy and culture from the patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.4 ± 11.4 years. Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) described themselves as alcoholic; 20 (57.0%) were smokers; and 21 (60.0%) and 32 (91.4%) presented with muscle mass depletion as determined by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle area, respectively. Of 24 patients, 12 (39.2%) were classified as moderately or severely emaciated, and 15 (62.5%) had lost > 10% of their body weight by six months before diagnosis. At baseline, the tuberculosis group had lower serum selenium levels than did the control group. The conversion of bacteriological tests was associated with the CRP/albumin ratio and serum selenium levels 60 days after treatment initiation. Conclusions: Higher serum selenium levels after 60 days of treatment were associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. PMID:25029650

  20. Serum adiponectin levels may be associated with the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong-Rong; Gu, Xiao-Lin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the meta-analysis described below was to investigate the correlation between serum levels of adiponectin (ADPN) and the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Relevant studies about serum ADPN levels and the pathogenesis of HCC were identified by searching electric databases and by manual search. The included studies were selected in strict accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed criteria were described in "Materials and methods" section. Statistical analyses were conducted with the STATA 12.0 statistical software (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). A total of nine studies were incorporated into this meta-analysis after careful consideration, including 705 HCC patients and 1390 healthy controls. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the serum ADPN levels in HCC patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.02∼1.93, P < 0.05). The result of subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed that serum ADPN levels in Caucasians and Asians were both obviously higher than those in healthy controls (Caucasians: SMD = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30∼0.73, P < 0.001; Asians: SMD = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.06∼0.91, P < 0.05), but in Africans, the differences between HCC patients and controls had no statistical significance (SMD = 2.64, 95% CI = -3.01∼8.30, P = 0.36). The evidence obtained by this meta-analysis suggests that serum ADPN levels are associated with the pathogenesis of HCC. Further conclusion might be that increased serum levels of ADPN can inhibit tumor growth and play a protective role in the development of HCC. PMID:25492487

  1. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor α and interleukin-2 serum levels in patients with basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Ewa; Zablotna, Monika; Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Malgorzata; Sikorska, Monika; Lange, Magdalena; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an immunogenic neoplasm and the imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokines expression seems to play the major role in pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of the tumour. Aim To investigate the association of soluble interleukin 2α receptor (sIL-2Rα) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) serum concentrations with BCC. Material and methods The study involved 110 individuals with BCC and 60 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα and IL-2 were measured using ELISA test. Results We found significantly (p = 0.027) increased sIL-2Rα serum levels in BCC patients, in comparison to healthy controls. Statistically (p = 0.04) higher sIL-2Rα levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα showed a significant linear (r = 0.24, p = 0.018) correlation with tumour size. The average IL-2 serum levels in BCC patients were statistically (p = 0.039) decreased compared to controls. Significantly (p = 0.0454) lower median IL-2 levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. A negative correlation between sIL-2Rα and IL-2 serum concentrations was revealed (r = –0.22; p = 0.027). Conclusions Our results testify to the importance of the IL-2/sIL-2Rα signalling pathway in pathogenesis of BCC, suggesting that IL-2 and sIL-2Rα might be considered as potential markers of disease and targets for immunotherapy in BCC patients. PMID:27605896

  2. Association of serum VEGF levels with prefrontal cortex volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pillai, A; Howell, K R; Ahmed, A O; Weinberg, D; Allen, K M; Bruggemann, J; Lenroot, R; Liu, D; Galletly, C; Weickert, C S; Weickert, T W

    2016-05-01

    A large body of evidence indicates alterations in brain regional cellular energy metabolism and blood flow in schizophrenia. Among the different molecules regulating blood flow, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is generally accepted as the major factor involved in the process of angiogenesis. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral VEGF levels correlate with changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) volume in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Whole-blood samples were obtained from 96 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 83 healthy controls. Serum VEGF protein levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas quantitative PCR was performed to measure interleukin-6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory marker implicated in schizophrenia) mRNA levels in the blood samples. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained using a 3T Achieva scanner on a subset of 59 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 65 healthy controls, and prefrontal volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer software. As compared with healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia had a significant increase in log-transformed mean serum VEGF levels (t(177)=2.9, P=0.005). A significant inverse correlation (r=-0.40, P=0.002) between serum VEGF and total frontal pole volume was found in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Moreover, we observed a significant positive association (r=0.24, P=0.03) between serum VEGF and IL-6 mRNA levels in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest an association between serum VEGF and inflammation, and that serum VEGF levels are related to structural abnormalities in the PFC of people with schizophrenia. PMID:26169975

  3. Ascorbic acid serum levels are reduced in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J.; Wodzig, Will K.W.H.; Walczak, Mateusz; Germeraad, Wilfred T.V.; Bos, Gerard M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation. PMID:27014565

  4. Correlation between Serum Level of Antiepileptic Drugs and their Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Abbashar; Abdulgalil, Amira; Omer, Faroug; Eltoum, Hassan; Hamad, Ahmed; El-Adil, Omer; Mubarak, Bedraldin; Malkaldar, Mohmad; Idris, Iway; Alwidaa, Yasin; Mahmoud, Esam

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to investigate the relation between serum levels of anticonvulsants and their side effects. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional hospital based study conducted at Al Shaab Teaching Hospital. 120 patients were included in the study. The AEDs used were phenytoin, phenobarbitone, carbamazibine, and sodium valproate. Results The results showed that the side effects among the studied group were not uncommon. Conclusion There was no relationship between serum levels of AEDs and their side effects. PMID:22125692

  5. Serum Estradiol Levels Are Inversely Associated With Cortical Porosity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Lorentzon, Mattias; Sundh, Daniel; Nilsson, Maria E.; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Mellström, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Context: The key role of serum estradiol (E2) for bone health in men is well established. The effect of serum sex steroids on bone microstructure, measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, remains unknown in elderly men. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between serum sex steroids and bone microstructural parameters in older men. Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone microstructure at the tibia was measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 440 men (mean 80 y of age) participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sweden cohort. Serum levels of E2 and T were analyzed with mass spectrometry and free E2 and free T levels were calculated using law-of-mass-action equations. Results: Age-adjusted models demonstrated that E2 and free E2 but not T or free T associated significantly inversely with cortical porosity. The associations between E2 and free E2 and cortical porosity remained significant after further adjustment for height, weight, physical activity, calcium intake, and smoking. Models including both serum E2 and T demonstrated that E2 (standardized β = −.12, P < .05) but not T associated independently with cortical porosity. A similar independent association was found for free E2 (standardized β = −.12, P < .05) but not free T. Free E2 associated significantly with trabecular bone volume fraction in the age-adjusted models, but this association did not remain significant after further adjustment. Conclusions: Serum E2 levels associated inversely with cortical porosity in 80-year-old men. We propose that low serum E2 may reduce cortical bone strength, at least partly, by increasing cortical porosity and thereby increase fracture risk in older men. PMID:24694340

  6. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system. PMID:18975131

  7. A Study on the Association between Low Maternal Serum Magnesium Level and Preterm Labour

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Kehinde S.; Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study was aimed to assess the association between low maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm labour. Methods. It is a cross-sectional case-control study in which eligible participants were pregnant women admitted in labour within the labour ward complex of a Lagos tertiary hospital. Relevant data were extracted from the case records of these women and blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum magnesium levels measured. Results. The study showed that 36% of the study patients had varying degrees of hypomagnesaemia. The relative risk indicates that preterm labour is 1.83 times higher among the patients with low serum magnesium (less than 1.6 mg/dL). The mean difference in serum magnesium levels in both groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion. We can infer that low serum magnesium (hypomagnesaemia) is associated with preterm onset of labour. We can, also from this finding, formulate a proposition that would help in preventing preterm labour and birth with the use of prophylactic oral magnesium supplementation among patients with higher risk for development of preterm labour. PMID:26556421

  8. Association between serum resistin level and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Kristof; Ujszaszi, Akos; Czira, Maria E; Remport, Adam; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mathe, Zoltan; Rhee, Connie M; Mucsi, Istvan; Molnar, Miklos Z

    2016-03-01

    Resistin is an adipocytokine that is associated with inflammation, coronary artery disease, and other types of cardiovascular disease among patients with normal kidney function. However, little is known about the association of resistin with outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. We collected socio-demographic and clinical parameters, medical and transplant history, and laboratory data from 988 prevalent kidney transplant recipients enrolled in the Malnutrition-Inflammation in Transplant-Hungary Study (MINIT-HU study). Serum resistin levels were measured at baseline. Associations between serum resistin level and death with a functioning graft over a 6-year follow-up period were examined in unadjusted and adjusted models. The mean±SD age of the study population was 51 ± 13 years, among whom 57% were men and 21% were diabetics. Median serum resistin concentrations were significantly higher in patients who died with a functioning graft as compared to those who did not die during the follow-up period (median [IQR]: 22[15-26] vs. 19[14-22] ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). Higher serum resistin level was associated with higher mortality risk in both unadjusted and fully adjusted models: HRs (95% CI): 1.33(1.16-1.54) and 1.21(1.01-1.46), respectively. In prevalent kidney transplant recipients, serum resistin was an independent predictor of death with a functioning graft. PMID:26639524

  9. Relationship between serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and prognosis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Huang, Peijun; Wang, Fang; Li, Daqian; Xie, Erfu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the relationship between preoperative serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods The clinicopathological data of 128 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were treated in our center between January 2012 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The relationships between serum CA19-9 and CEA levels and survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. The cut-off values for serum CA19-9 and CEA levels were 39 U/mL and 4.7 ng/mL, respectively. Results Among these 128 patients, the mean age was 62 years, and median survival was 12.2 days. The positive rate of CA19-9 and CEA was 78.1% and 37.5%, respectively. Patients with increased CA19-9 or CEA level suffered a poorer prognosis than those with normal CA19-9 or CEA level (CA19-9: P=0.027; CEA: P=0.036). Cox logistic analysis revealed that lymphatic metastasis, CA19-9 >39 U/mL, and CEA >4.7 ng/mL were independent prognostic factors in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Conclusions Preoperative serum CA19-9 and CEA level are closely related with survival time in PC patients and therefore may be used for evaluating the prognosis for PC. PMID:26734638

  10. Serum Paraoxonase Levels are Correlated with Impaired Aortic Functions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Tolga H; Ertem, Ahmet G; Altunoglu, Alpaslan; Koseoglu, Cemal; Erayman, Ali; Bilgin, Murat; Kurmuş, Özge; Aslan, Turgay; Bilge, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between aortic functions and paraoxonase levels has been previously demonstrated by several earlier studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between serum paraoxonase levels and aortic functions among patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Our study enrolled 46 chronic kidney disease patients and 45 healthy controls. From these patients, serum cholesterol, creatinine, hemoglobin, and paraoxonase-1 levels were analyzed. Results Paraoxonase-1 levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic kidney disease compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Additionally, the extent of aortic stiffness index (%) was significantly higher in chronic kidney disease patients, but aortic strain and aortic distensibility were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). We further found that paraoxonase-1 levels were correlated with aortic stiffness index, aortic strain, and aortic distensibility (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that serum paraoxonase-1 levels were significantly correlated with impaired aortic functions. The results of this study highlight the impact of serum paraoxonase-1 activity on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular adverse events. PMID:27122934

  11. Genetic, anatomic, and clinical determinants of human serum sterol and vitamin D levels

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Ashlee R.; Kozlitina, Julia; Thompson, Bonne M.; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; King, Kevin S.; Russell, David W.

    2014-01-01

    An unknown fraction of the genome participates in the metabolism of sterols and vitamin D, two classes of lipids with diverse physiological and pathophysiological roles. Here, we used mass spectrometry to measure the abundance of >60 sterol and vitamin D derivatives in 3,230 serum samples from a well-phenotyped patient population. Twenty-nine of these lipids were detected in a majority of samples at levels that varied over thousands of fold in different individuals. Pairwise correlations between sterol and vitamin D levels revealed evidence for shared metabolic pathways, additional substrates for known enzymes, and transcriptional regulatory networks. Serum levels of multiple sterols and vitamin D metabolites varied significantly by sex, ethnicity, and age. A genome-wide association study identified 16 loci that were associated with levels of 19 sterols and 25-hydroxylated derivatives of vitamin D (P < 10−7). Resequencing, expression analysis, and biochemical experiments focused on one such locus (CYP39A1), revealed multiple loss-of-function alleles with additive effects on serum levels of the oxysterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, a substrate of the encoded enzyme. Body mass index, serum lipid levels, and hematocrit were strong phenotypic correlates of interindividual variation in multiple sterols and vitamin D metabolites. We conclude that correlating population-based analytical measurements with genotype and phenotype provides productive insight into human intermediary metabolism. PMID:25201972

  12. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A.; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a

  13. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit levels in the serum of cervical compressive myelopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Hayakawa, Kentaro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the serum levels of the phosphorylated form of the high molecular weight neurofilament subunit (pNF-H) in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. pNF-H is becoming increasingly recognized as a biomarker for axonal injury, however, it remains unclear whether serum pNF-H is elevated in chronic spinal cord compression. We examined 26 patients who underwent surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy. Peripheral blood samples were obtained both preoperatively and 1 week after surgery to evaluate the serum pNF-H levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A history of recent aggravation of myelopathy was also investigated. Of the 26 myelopathy patients, the preoperative serum pNF-H level was negative in 20 patients and moderately elevated in six. Patients who were positive for pNF-H were more likely to have had a recent aggravation of myelopathy compared with the pNF-H negative patients (83 versus 25%; p=0.02). All patients who were positive for pNF-H before surgery remained positive after surgery. Two patients who became positive after surgery demonstrated a neurologic deterioration associated with the surgery. In conclusion, the serum pNF-H level was negative in the majority of patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. Our results suggest that an elevated serum level of pNF-H is associated with an acute worsening of myelopathy and that a positive conversion of pNF-H after surgery is a marker of perioperative neural damage. PMID:26195334

  14. The etiological relation between serum iron level and infection incidence in hemodialysis uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Galić, Gordan; Tomić, Monika; Galesić, Kresimir; Kvesić, Ante; Soljić, Martina; Londar, Zdravka; Valencić, Maksim; Martinović, Zeljko; Vuckov, Sime

    2011-03-01

    Through the treatment of anaemia in dialysis patients part of the iron ions remain free in the serum which is at the bacterias disposal for growth and the strengthening of their virulence. The linear relation of the increased serum iron level and tissue iron stores in the body and the infection incidence in dialysed patients has become more emphasised. The need of a clearly defined upper threshold of the serum iron concentration limit has been mentioned in scientific journals intensely, and consequently the demand for more precise professional instructions for anaemia treatment. For the purpose of participating in these professional and scientific discussions, we have observed the relation between the iron overload of the organism and complication incidence in 120 of our haemodialysis uremic patients, with special emphasis on infections. It has been established that the sepses incidence is much higher in patients with a serum ferritin concentration above 500 microg/L, than in those patients with a ferritin level lower than the mentioned value ( 2 = 7.857, p = 0.005). The incidence of vascular access infection is significantly higher in those patients with a serum ferritin level above 500 microg/L than in those patients with a ferritin level lower than the mentioned value (Chi2 = 23.186, p = 0.001). Furthermore, it has been determined that the incidence of total infection in patients is 3.8 episodes per 100 patients months, which is in accordance to the referral values of other authors. CONCLUSION--In the analysis of the achieved results, it has been determined that the infection incidence is significantly higher in dialysed patients with a serum iron level higher than 500 g/L, than in those patients with lower values. PMID:21667534

  15. Serum and Tissue Steroid Hormone Levels in Canine Mammary Tumours: Clinical and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, F L; Pérez-Alenza, D; González-Gil, A; Silván, G; Peña, L; Illera, J C

    2015-10-01

    Hormonal dependency of canine mammary tumours (CMT) has been studied over the last few decades. However, studies assessing the prognostic and predictive potential of serum and/or tissue steroid hormone levels are still scarce in CMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report relating serum and tissue levels of steroid hormones and prognosis in dogs. Serum and tumour tissue from 45 female dogs with spontaneous CMT were included in the study. Moreover, serum and normal mammary tissue from 13 healthy female dogs were also included as controls. Steroid hormones were determined by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Overall, levels of steroid hormones in serum and tissue homogenates were significantly different between malignant and benign mammary tumours (p < 0.01), except for progesterone (P4) serum levels that revealed no statistical differences between groups. In malignant tumours, oestrone sulphate (SO4E1), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and P4 elevated tissue concentrations were significantly associated with tumour relapse and/or distant metastasis during follow-up. A significant association was found between elevated tissue SO4E1 (p = 0.003), 17β-oestradiol (E2) (p = 0.036), DHEA (p = 0.022), A4 (p = 0.001) and P4 (p = 0.013) concentrations and shorter disease-free survival and overall survival in female dogs with malignant mammary tumours. The high levels of tissue steroids found in cases of poor prognosis open the possibility of additional new therapeutic approaches. Future clinical trials will be needed to clarify the usefulness of targeting steroid hormones in the treatment of this neoplastic disease. PMID:26332137

  16. Serum Uric Acid Level and Diverse Impacts on Regional Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Suyan; Guo, Hongyang; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Xiao, Wenkai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Both increased arterial stiffness and hyperuricaemia are associated with elevated cardiovascular risks. Little is known about the relations of serum uric acid (UA) level to regional arterial stiffness and wave reflection. The aim of the study was to investigate the gender-specific association of serum UA and indices of arterial function in a community-based investigation in China. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2374 adults (mean age 58.24 years) who underwent routine laboratory tests, regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse wave analysis measurements were analyzed in a gender-specific manner. None of the participants had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, systemic inflammatory disease, gout, or were under treatment which would affect serum UA level. Results: Men had higher serum UA level than women. Subjects with hyperuricaemia had significantly higher carotid-ankle PWV in both genders (P< 0.05), and the carotid-femoral PWV (PWVc-f) was higher in women (P< 0.001) while the augmentation index was marginally lower in men (P = 0.049). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum UA was an independent determinant only for PWVc-f in women (β = 0.104, P = 0.027) when adjusted for atherogenic confounders. No other independent relationship was found between UA level and other surrogates of arterial stiffness. Conclusions: Serum UA levels are associated with alterations in systemic arterial stiffness that differ in men and women. Women might be more susceptible to large vascular damage associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:23113222

  17. Does extra corticosterone elicit increased begging and submissiveness in subordinate booby (Sula nebouxii) chicks?

    PubMed

    Valla