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Sample records for serum glucose levels

  1. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. Results: The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  2. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant. PMID:27612883

  3. Serum Glucose Level in First and Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zannat, M R; Nessa, A; Hossain, M M; Das, R K; Asrin, M; Sufrin, S; Islam, M T; Tajkia, T; Nasreen, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group. Study group was further divided into 100 pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosed case of type I and type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, antipsychotic drug users, regular steroid users were excluded from this study. Serum glucose was evaluated by the glucose-oxidase principle by GOD-PAP method in women with 1st trimester of pregnancy, 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in non pregnant women. Statistical analysis of data was done by unpaired student's t test. The results showed that the serum glucose levels increased significantly in third trimester and the value is not significant in first trimester. The increasing frequency of serum glucose level in third trimester may predispose the women to hyperglycemia of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27277349

  4. Oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine level in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Dai; Nakara, Hiromi; Akagi, Keisuke; Ishii, Toshiya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Nagashima, Yoshikazu; Okaniwa, Azusa

    2004-02-01

    The present communication deals with information regarding the practice of the oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine in laboratory beagles. In the oral glucose tolerance test, a 180-min level was found to be crucial following a gavage administration of 50% glucose solution at 5 mL/kg per body weight under fasting conditions. Serum fructosamine concentration as 'determined by enzymatic assay ranged between 82 and 123 micromol/L (mean of 104 micromol/L), which was about 0.285 to 0.25 times the value obtained by the chemical method described by Johnson and colleagues. Reasons for differences are ascribed to the presence of substances with reducing potential other than fructosamine in the serum. PMID:15018152

  5. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    PubMed Central

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemistry laboratory, those of the new techniques employing reflectance meters all showed excellent correlation (r2 = 0.85 to 0.96). Reagent strips used without meters showed poorer correlation (r2 = 0.69 to 0.90). The instruction given to the patients and one nurse enabled them to obtain more accurate results with one of the meters than nurses not specially trained (r2 = 0.94 and 0.92 v. 0.85 respectively). The mean cost per glucose determination with the new techniques was 75, compared with +1.45 for the laboratory determinations done with automated equipment. It was concluded that the new techniques compared well with the reference method, particularly when reflectance meters were used, and that they were easily applied by the patient, as well as the medical staff, at a reasonable cost. PMID:6689988

  6. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  7. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  8. Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-qi; Ma, Xiao-jing; Hao, Ya-ping; Pan, Xiao-ping; Xu, Yi-ting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yu-qian; Jia, Wei-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Osteocalcin is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models and humans. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 733 postmenopausal women (age range: 41–78 years) with normal blood glucose levels were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Women taking lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The degree of NAFLD progression for each subject was assessed through ultrasonography. The fatty liver index (FLI) of each subject was calculated to quantify the degree of liver steatosis. Results: The median level of serum osteocalcin for all subjects enrolled was 21.99 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.84–26.55 ng/mL). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (18.39 ng/mL; range: 16.03–23.64 ng/mL) compared with those without NAFLD (22.31 ng/mL; range: 18.55–27.06 ng/mL; P<0.01). Serum osteocalcin levels decreased with incre¬mental changes in the FLI value divided by the quartile (P-value for trend<0.01). The serum osteocalcin levels showed a negative correlation with the FLI values, even after adjusting for confounding factors (standardized β=−0.124; P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis identified an individual's serum osteocalcin level as an independent risk factor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.951; 95% confidence interval: 0.911–0.992; P=0.02). Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely correlated with NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels. PMID:26567728

  9. Effect of altered eating pattern on serum fructosamine: total protein ratio and plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S L; Cheah, S H; Husain, R; Duncan, M T

    1989-05-01

    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index. PMID:2774480

  10. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type. PMID:25198797

  11. Colorimetric visualization of glucose at the submicromole level in serum by a homogenous silver nanoprism-glucose oxidase system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yunsheng; Ye, Jingjing; Tan, Kanghui; Wang, Jiajing; Yang, Guang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we design a homogeneous system consisting of Ag nanoprisms and glucose oxidase (GOx) for simple, sensitive, and low-cost colorimetric sensing of glucose in serum. The unmodified Ag nanoprisms and GOx are first mixed with each other. Glucose is then added in the homogeneous mixture. Finally, the nanoplates are etched from triangle to round by H2O2 produced by the enzymatic oxidation, which leads to a more than 120 nm blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the Ag nanoplates. This large wavelength shift can be used not only for visual detection (from blue to mauve) of glucose by naked eyes but for reliable and convenient glucose quantification in the range from 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M. The detection limit is as low as 2.0 × 10(-7) M, because the used Ag nanoprisms possess (1) highly reactive edges/tips and (2) strongly tip sharpness and aspect ratio dependent SPR absorption. Owing to ultrahigh sensitivity, only 10-20 μL of serum is enough for a one-time determination. The proposed glucose sensor has great potential in the applications of point-of-care diagnostics, especially for third-world countries where high-tech diagnostics aids are inaccessible to the bulk of the population. PMID:23706061

  12. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  13. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  14. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor. PMID:26073512

  15. Comparison and Correlation of Glucose Levels in Serum and Saliva of Both Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhumika J; Dave, Bela; Dave, Dilip; Karmakar, Payel; Shah, Mona; Sarvaiya, Bhumi

    2015-01-01

    Background: To detect and compare salivary glucose with plasma glucose level and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were participated in this study. They were divided into two groups, each group consist of 50 patients. Un-stimulated saliva and blood were collected and investigated for glucose levels. Results: FBS, PPBS, plasma glucose levels and salivary glucose levels were higher in diabetic patients than healthy controls. FBS, PPBS, plasma glucose level and salivary glucose levels were significantly correlated with each other in diabetic patients Conclusion: Salivary glucose level can be used for monitoring tool to assess the glycemic status of diabetes mellitus patients as it is noninvasive and diagnostic method. PMID:26464543

  16. WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms correlate with serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein levels in Tibetan gout patients.

    PubMed

    Lan, Bing; Chen, Peng; Jiri, Mutu; He, Na; Feng, Tian; Liu, Kai; Jin, Tianbo; Kang, Longli

    2016-03-01

    Current evidence suggests heredity and metabolic syndrome contributes to gout progression. Specifically, the WDR1 and CLNK genes may play a role in gout progression in European ancestry populations. However, no studies have focused on Chinese populations, especially Tibetan individuals. This study aims to determine whether variations in these two genes correlate with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the WDR1 and CLNK genes were detected in 319 Chinese-Tibetan gout patients and 318 controls. We used one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators, such as albumin, glucose (GLU), triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), creatinine, and uric acid, from fasting venous blood samples. All p values were Bonferroni corrected. Polymorphisms of the WDR1 and CLNK genes affected multiple risk factors for gout development. Significant differences in serum GLU levels were detected between different genotypic groups with WDRI polymorphisms rs4604059 (p = 0.005) and rs12498927 (p = 0.005). In addition, significant differences in serum HDL-C levels were detected between different genotypic groups with the CLNK polymorphism rs2041215 (p = 0.001). Polymorphisms of CLNK also affected levels of albumin, triglycerides, and creatinine. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms in Chinese-Tibetan populations. Our findings provide significant evidence for the effect of genetic polymorphisms on gout-related factors in Chinese-Tibetan populations. PMID:26438387

  17. Effect of Dehulling and Cooking of Lentils (Lens Culinaris, L.)on Serum Glucose and Lipoprotein Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Tibi, Amro Mh; Takruri, Hamed R; Ahmad, Mousa N

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lentils on serum glucose and serum lipid levels in diabetic rats. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, 12 weeks of age weighing 220-290g, were used. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at a level of 35 mg/kg intra-peritoneally. The animals were randomly divided into five groups, eight animals each: a casein diet (control), raw whole lentil (RWL), cooked whole lentil (CWL), raw dehulled lentil (RDL) and cooked dehulled lentil (CDL). Animals were fed with experimental diets for six weeks, sacrificed and blood samples were taken. Serum glucose level of the CDL group (387.9 ± 53.3 mg/dl) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control, RDL and RWL groups (529.0 ± 11.7, 538.6 ± 45.0, 542.1 ± 32.2 mg/dl respectively). In addition, HDL concentration of CWL group (66.3 ± 1.9 mg/dl) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of the control, RWL and RDL groups (54.9 ± 3.5, 50.8 ± 4.2, 54.0 ± 3.4 mg/dl respectively). However, there was no significant difference in serum glucose and serum HDL between the CDL and CWL groups. No significant differences (p>0.05) were detected in triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol among the experimental groups. It is concluded that cooked lentils rather than raw lentils was more effective in lowering blood glucose and improving HDL cholesterol in diabetic rats. There was no difference between whole and dehulled lentils with regard to effects on blood glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. PMID:22691994

  18. The relationship between repressive and defensive coping styles and monocyte, eosinophile, and serum glucose levels: support for the opioid peptide hypothesis of repression.

    PubMed

    Jamner, L D; Schwartz, G E; Leigh, H

    1988-01-01

    The opioid peptide hypothesis of repression (1) predicts that repressive coping is associated with increased functional endorphin levels in the brain, which can result in decreased immunocompetence and hyperglycemia. In a random sample of 312 patients seen at a Yale Medical School outpatient clinic, significant main effects of coping style were found for monocyte and eosinophile counts, serum glucose levels, and self-reports of medication allergies. Specifically, repressive and defensive high-anxious patients demonstrated significantly decreased monocyte counts. In addition, repressive coping was associated with elevated eosinophile counts, serum glucose levels, and self-reported reactions to medications. This behavioral, immunologic, and endocrine profile is consistent with the opioid peptide hypothesis, which provides an integrative framework for relating the attenuated emotional experience of pain and distress characteristic of repressive coping with reduced resistance to infectious and neoplastic disease. PMID:2853404

  19. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  20. Uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid in the urinary bladder increases serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, T

    2003-10-01

    In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs), can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:15241498

  1. The level of serum ionised calcium, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, glucose, betahydroxybutyrate concentrations and blood gas parameters in cows with left displacement of abomasum.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Ok, M; Coskun, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine concentrations of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) and ionised calcium (Ica) in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum (LDA) and to compare these parameters before and after surgical correction of LDA. Eighteen Swiss-Holstein dairy cows with LDA were used in this study. Clinically healthy post parturient cows (n: 10) from a local dairy farm were used as control group. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein from all the cows. Surgery was performed in cows with LDA. Blood samples from cows with LDA were collected 24 hours after surgery. The abomasum was repositioned followed by an omentopexy. Six of the 18 cows with LDA had clinical ketosis as detected with urine dipstick. The mean concentrations of insulin, BOH, glucose and AST in cows with LDA at admission time were increased compared with the healthy cows. But the mean concentration of ICa at admission time was slightly decreased compared with healthy cows. The mean BOH concentration was decreased 24 hours following surgery compared with values on admission time. However, the mean serum AST levels were increased both at admission time and 24 hours after surgery compared with healthy cows. The levels of blood gas parameters in cows with LDA were not significantly different in comparison with healthy cows, although hyperbasemia in six of 18 cows with LDA was determined. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that serum insulin, glucose, AST and BOH levels were increased in dairy cows with LDA. Serum BOH and ICa levels were decreased 24 hours after surgery compared with values on admission time. All cows with LDA used in this study had subclinical/clinical ketosis. We could say that ketosis might be a risk factor for the displacement of the abomasum. PMID:17203740

  2. Serum Glucose and Malondialdehyde Levels in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Supplemented with Methanolic Extract of Tacazzea Apiculata

    PubMed Central

    Gwarzo, M. Y.; Ahmadu, J. H.; Ahmad, M. B.; Dikko, A. U. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tacazzea apiculata is used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of wide range of diseases. The current work investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. Five groups (n=10) of rats were fed on commercial diet. The rats were divided into Group 1 (NUT) as non-diabetic and untreated, group 2 (NDT) as non-diabetic and treated, group 3 (DT) diabetic and treated. Group 4 (DUT) as diabetic and untreated. Group five (CP) were diabetic treated with Chlorpropamide, a drug used in the management of diabetic mellitus, with no known antioxidant property. Diabetic induction was done by intra-peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg b. wt with alloxan. Fasting blood glucose was estimated seven days after induction to determine the severity of glucose elevation among the induced groups. Methanolic extract of T. apiculata leaf was administered to alloxan induced diabetic and non-diabetic control rats at 100mg/kg body weight for four weeks and blood glucose estimated on weekly basis. Malondialdehyde level was also estimated in the sera of the rats. Blood glucose level was monitored for additional 2 weeks post treatment. The results indicated that the extracts possess significant hypoglycemic effect on the diabetic rats (DT) having the mean glucose of (95.2 ± 9.12 mg/dl) compared to the diabetic untreated control group (DUT) with a mean glucose of (238.91 ± 4.42 mg/dl, p<0.05). The effect was sustained even on withdrawal of the extracts for two weeks. This was accompanied by a progressive increase in weight among all treated diabetic rats and non diabetic treated (DT and NDT) compared with diabetic untreated control rat (DUT) (p<0.05). A raised level in malondialdehyde was also observed among the diabetic rat prior to treatment and significantly decreased after the treatment. In conclusion the research demonstrated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of methanolic leaf extract of T

  3. Increased Serum Levels of Anti-Carbamylated 78-kDa Glucose-Regulated Protein Antibody in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lai, Pei-Hsuan; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and titer of anti-carbamylated 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (anti-CarGRP78) antibody in serum from controls, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Thirty-three RA patients, 20 SLE patients, 20 pSS patients, and 20 controls were enrolled from our outpatient clinic. GRP78 was cloned and carbamylated. Serum titers of anti- cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), anti-GRP78, and anti-CarGRP78 were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No differences in serum titers of anti-GRP78 antibody in patients with RA, SLE, or pSS compared with the controls were observed. Serum levels of anti-carGRP78 antibody in patients with RA, but not SLE or pSS, were significantly higher compared with the controls (OD405 0.15 ± 0.08 versus 0.11 ± 0.03, p = 0.033). There was a positive correlation between the serum levels of anti-GRP78 antibody, but not anti-CarGRP78 antibody, with the levels of anti-CCP antibody in patients with RA. Both anti-GRP78 and anti-carGRP78 antibodies failed to correlate with C-reactive protein levels in patients with RA. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of anti-CarGRP78 antibody in patients with RA. In addition, the serum titer of anti-CarGRP78 antibody was significantly elevated in patients with RA compared with the controls. Anti-CarGRP78 antibody could also be detected in patients with SLE or pSS. PMID:27618024

  4. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

  5. Higher serum uric acid level increases risk of prehypertension in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, but not pre-diabetes and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-H; Wu, J-S; Sun, Z-J; Lu, F-H; Chang, C-S; Chang, C-J; Yang, Y-C

    2016-08-01

    Although the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and prehypertension has been reported in previous studies, it is unknown whether their relationship is similar in subjects with diabetes, pre-diabetes and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This study thus aimed to investigate the relationship between SUA and prehypertension in subjects with different glycemic status, including NGT, pre-diabetes and diabetes. A total of 12 010 participants were included after excluding subjects with blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg, history of hypertension, leukaemia, lymphoma, hypothyroidism, medication for hypertension and hyperuricemia and missing data. Subjects were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles (male Q1: ⩽345.0, Q2: 345.0-392.6, Q3: 392.6-440.2, Q4: ⩾440.2 μmol l(-1) and female Q1: ⩽249.8, Q2: 249.8-285.5, Q3: 285.5-333.1, Q4: ⩾333.1 μmol l(-1)). Diabetes, pre-diabetes and NGT were assessed according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Normotension and prehypertension were defined according to the JNC-7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) criteria. The SUA was significantly higher in prehypertensive subjects as compared with normotensive subjects. SUA, as a continuous variable, was positively associated with prehypertension in subjects with NGT but not pre-diabetes and diabetes. Besides, NGT subjects with the highest quartile of SUA exhibited a higher risk of prehypertension after adjustment for other confounding factors. In pre-diabetes and diabetes groups, none of SUA quartiles was significantly related to prehypertension. SUA was significantly associated with an increased risk of prehypertension in subjects with NGT but insignificantly in subjects with pre-diabetes and diabetes. PMID:26911534

  6. Supplementary effect by harvest period of Lentinus edodes on the levels of blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic KK mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Lentinus edodes which were harvested at different times of maturity on blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic mice. The diabetic KK mice were fed diet supplemented with Lentinus edodes harvested early (LE) or late (LL) for eight weeks, and ...

  7. Serum Prolactin Level of Subfertile Women.

    PubMed

    Anwary, S A; Fatima, P; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Rahman, M M; Bari, N

    2016-01-01

    Subfertility is a major reproductive health problem all over the world as well as Bangladesh, and the problem is increasing day by day. This study was done to estimate the serum prolactin concentration in primary and secondary subfertile women. Laboratory investigation included serum prolactin level, as well as LH, FSH, TSH blood glucose (2 hours after 75 gm glucose load) of 50 women who attended infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2009 and February 2010. In most cases, common age group 26-30 years (52%), primary subfertility (74%), duration of marriage >5 years (60%), trying to conceive duration ≤5 years (54%), BMI >25 kg/m² (60%), menstrual cycle regular (58%), history of abortion absent (90%), and history of menstrual regulation absent (94%). Common investigation findings was normal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 82%, normal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 50%, normal serum prolactin 1.9-25.0 ng/ml in 36%, normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-4.0 μIU/ml in 56%, and normal blood glucose level (2 hours after breakfast) (<7.8 mmol/) in 66% women. Ultrasonographic finding of lower abdomen was normal in 14% women. Common finding of semen analysis husbands of the study women was normozoospermia in 88% cases. Serum prolactin concentration may have role to play in subfertility of women. PMID:26931256

  8. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Zendehbad, Bamdad; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Golshan, Alireza; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesity gene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP) was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC) for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P<0.001), food intake reduction in male rats (P<0.05), LDL reduction in female rats (obese (P<0.05) and diabetic (P<0.001)), and glucose level decline in the female diabetic rats (P<0.001). However, total protein concentration, LFT (liver function tests), urea and creatinin concentrations among different groups did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: Leptin caused some discrepant results, especially regarding the LDL and glucose levels in diabetic female rats. PMID:26949493

  9. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  10. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-01

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels. PMID:26162700

  11. Lack of an effect of dietary selenium on serum albumin, glucose and urea nitrogen in ewes.

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, E A; Hidiroglou, M; Mitchell, D

    1978-01-01

    The results of a study on the effect of dietary selenium administered with vitamin E on serum levels of albumin, glucose and urea nitrogen in ewes are reported. In October, at the onset of breeding, after ten months on a dystrophogenic diet, mean serum levels of albumin (g/dl), glucose (mg/dl) and urea nitrogen (mg/dl) were respectively 3.5, 52.9 and 12.8, in 65 Se-deficient ewes and 3.6, 51.7 and 14.3 in 65 Se-adequate ewes. Despite a significant difference in the serum level of urea nitrogen between Se-deficient and Se-adequate groups, no consistent effect of dietary selenium was apparent. PMID:688079

  12. Applications of ultrasensitive wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry to noninvasive glucose detection in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Mandelis, Andreas; Zinman, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR) has been designed for noninvasive glucose measurements in the mid-infrared (MIR) range. Glucose measurements in human blood serum in the physiological range (20-320 mg/dl) with predicted error <10.3 mg/dl demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy to meet wide clinical detection requirements, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. The glucose sensitivity and specificity of WM-DPTR stem from the subtraction of the simultaneously measured signals from two excitation laser beams at wavelengths near the peak and the baseline of the strongest interference-free glucose absorption band in the MIR range. It was found that the serum glucose sensitivity and measurement precision strongly depend on the tunability and stability of the intensity ratio and the phase shift of the two laser beams. This level of accuracy was favorably compared to other MIR techniques. WM-DPTR has shown excellent potential to be developed into a clinically viable noninvasive glucose biosensor. PMID:22930666

  13. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on glucose-induced human serum albumin glycation.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Hagerman, A E

    2015-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plant-based foods and beverages such as green tea. Although EGCg can eliminate carbonyl species produced by glucose autoxidation and thus can inhibit protein glycation, it is also reported to be a pro-oxidant that stimulates protein glycation in vitro. To better understand the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant features of EGCg, we evaluated EGCg-mediated bioactivities in a human serum albumin (HSA)/glucose model by varying three different parameters (glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure to EGCg). Measurements of glycation-induced fluorescence, protein carbonyls, and electrophoretic mobility showed that the level of HSA glycation was positively related to the glucose level over the range 10-100 mM during a 21-day incubation at 37°C and pH: 7.4. Under mild glycemic pressure (10 mM), long exposure to EGCg enhanced HSA glycation, while brief exposure to low concentrations of EGCg did not. Under high glycemic pressure (100 mM glucose), long exposure to EGCg inhibited glycation. For the first time we showed that brief exposure to EGCg reversed glycation-induced fluorescence, indicating a restorative effect. In conclusion, our research identified glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure as critical factors dictating EGCg bioactivities in HSA glycation. EGCg did not affect HSA glycation under normal physiological conditions but had a potential therapeutic effect on HSA severely damaged by glycation. PMID:25794449

  14. Effect of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Glucose-Induced Human Serum Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Hagerman, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plant-based foods and beverages such as green tea. Although EGCg can eliminate carbonyl species produced by glucose autoxidation and thus can inhibit protein glycation, it is also reported to be a pro-oxidant that stimulates protein glycation in vitro. To better understand the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant features of EGCg, we evaluated EGCg-mediated bioactivities in a human serum albumin (HSA)/glucose model by varying three different parameters (glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure to EGCg). Measurements of glycation-induced fluorescence, protein carbonyls, and electrophoretic mobility showed that the level of HSA glycation was positively related to the glucose level over the range 10 to 100 mM during a 21-day incubation at 37 °C and pH 7.4. Under mild glycemic pressure (10 mM), long exposure to EGCg enhanced HSA glycation, while brief exposure to low concentrations of EGCg did not. Under high glycemic pressure (100 mM glucose), long exposure to EGCg inhibited glycation. For the first time we showed that brief exposure to EGCg reversed glycation-induced fluorescence, indicating a restorative effect. In conclusion, our research identified glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure as critical factors dictating EGCg bioactivities in HSA glycation. EGCg did not affect HSA glycation under normal physiological conditions but had a potential therapeutic effect on HSA severely damaged by glycation. PMID:25794449

  15. Serum neopterin levels in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Milena-Abril, A; González-García, C

    1993-09-01

    Serum neopterin levels have been determined by RIA in 105 patients affected by chronic alcoholic liver disease, 68 of them cirrhotics, and in 12 controls. Serum Neopterin was significantly higher in patients than in controls, correlated with Pughs' score and Child's classification, and also with serum laminin and type III collagen N-terminal propeptide, and with histomorphometrically determined liver fibrosis. Serum neopterin levels were higher in patients who died than in survivors, serum neopterin levels over 19.15 nmol/l being associated with higher mortality rates. PMID:8261879

  16. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] − 149.6; R2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels. PMID:26898598

  17. Correlation of hemoglobin A1C level with surgical outcomes: Can tight perioperative glucose control reduce infection and cardiac events?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Palma; Saleem, Taimur; Gahtan, Vivian

    2014-12-01

    "Optimal" control of serum glucose levels is an important principle in the successful management of diabetes mellitus. Conversely, poorly controlled serum glucose levels are associated with negative sequelae, including accelerated progression of cardiovascular disease, increased mortality, and increased perioperative complications. The importance of glycemic control as a part of appropriate perioperative management is reviewed and target values are recommended. PMID:26073825

  18. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  19. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of cancers of the oral cavity, periodontal diseases, HIV, heart diseases etc. The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy non diabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Materials & Methods: A total of 30 individuals of which 20 patients were diabetic patients and on medication and 10 patients were healthy non diabetic individuals were included in the study. Blood and saliva were collected under resting conditions and were subjected to glucose estimation. Results: Salivary and blood glucose concentrations were determined in non diabetic healthy individuals (n=10) and Type II Diabetes mellitus patients (n=20). Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c was also determined in both Type II diabetic patients and Control group and a significant correlation (r=0.73) and (r=0.46) was found between HbA1c and serum glucose concentrations in diabetic and control group respectively. A significant correlation (r=0.54) and (r=0.45) was found between fasting blood glucose and fasting salivary glucose for diabetic group and control group respectively. A positive correlation (r=0.39) and (r=0.38) was found between fasting salivary glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and control group respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the saliva can be used in the assessment of the blood glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus patients. How to cite the article: Satish BN, Srikala P, Maharudrappa B, Awanti M, Kumar P

  20. Selection of the most informative near infrared spectroscopy wavebands for continuous glucose monitoring in human serum.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Saeys, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    By controlling the blood glucose levels of diabetics permanent diabetes-related problems such as blindness and loss of limbs can be delayed or even avoided. Therefore, many researchers have aimed at the development of a non-invasive sensor to monitor the blood glucose level continuously. As non-invasive measurements through the skin, the ear lobe or the gums have proven to be either unreliable or impractical, attention has recently shifted to minimally invasive sensors which measure the glucose content in serum or interstitial fluid. Thanks to the development of on-chip spectrometers minimally invasive, implantable devices are coming within reach. However, this technology does not allow to acquire a large number of wavelengths over a broad range. Therefore, the most informative combination of a limited number of variables should be selected. In this study, Interval PLS (iPLS), Variable Importance in Projection (VIP), Uninformative Variable Elimination (UVE), Bootstrap-PLS coefficients, Moving window, CorXyPLS, Interval Random Frog-PLS and combinations of these methods were used in order to address the question whether the short wave band (800-1500 nm), first overtone band (1500-1800 nm), the combination band (2050-2300 nm) or a combination of them is the most informative region for glucose measurements and which wavebands should be measured within these wavelength ranges. The three different data sets employed focus on the determination of (1) glucose in aqueous solutions over the 1-30 mM range in presence of urea and sodium D-lactate, (2) glucose in aqueous solutions over the 2-16 mM range in presence of icodextrin and urea and (3) glucose in human serum samples. The best results for the first, second and third data sets were obtained by selecting 40, 130 and 20 variables resulting in a PLS model with an RMSEP of 0.56, 0.59 and 1.5mM, respectively. It was found that the first overtone band is most informative for aqueous solutions, while for glucose measurement of

  1. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Methods Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Results At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Conclusions Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151 PMID:27124282

  2. Cyclic AMP infusion and blood sugar, serum insulin and serum nonesterified fatty acid responses to glucose in recent experimental hyperthyroid dogs.

    PubMed

    Renauld, A; Garrido, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent experimental hyperthyroid (REH) dogs exhibit poor "in vivo" insulin responses to glucose probably due to a failure somewhere in cAMP-adenylate cyclase system. The actions of exogenous cAMP on these responses and on the regulation of blood sugar (BS) and serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) during glucose infusion tests (GIT) in REH and normal dogs were studied here. Hyperthyroidism was induced by 1-thyroxine administration (100 micrograms/kg body wt./die, 10 days). GIT consisted of i.v. glucose-priming followed by glucose i.v. continuous infusion (60 min). cAMP (0, 33 or 66 mg/kg body wt./min) was infused alone (30 min) and then overlapped to gluco-se infusion (60 min). Peripheral veins were used for infusions and blood sample withdrawal. BS, serum inmunoreactive insulin (IRI) and serum NEFA concentrations, basally and throughout the test, were measured. Basally, there was neither action nor interaction of hyperthyroidism and exogenous cAMP on these variables. During the GIT, the BS levels remained unaffected by hyperthyroidism; cAMP increased them, but failed to interact with hyperthyroidism. cAMP noninfused normal dogs responded to hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia, whereas REH dogs noninfused the nucleotide did not. cAMP administration at a high dose promoted their response in normal and REH dogs, particularly in the former; in the latter, the response was still lower than in cAMP noninfused normal controls. Although recent hyperthyroidism increased serum NEFA basal level, it exerted neither action nor interaction with the infused cAMP on serum NEFA during GIT. Results are discussed on the basis that the abolished insulin secretion "in vivo" characterizing the REH dogs, related to beta-adrenergic deficiency, can be for the most part restored by exogenous cAMP administration, despite which some glucose and triglyceride metabolism impairments are developed. PMID:1343982

  3. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  4. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  5. Relationship of serum adiponectin and resistin to glucose intolerance and fat topography in south-Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wasim, Hanif; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Chetty, Raja; McTernan, Phillip G; Barnett, A H; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2006-01-01

    Objectives South-Asians have lower adiponectin levels compared to Caucasians. It was not clear however, if this intrinsic feature is related to aspects of glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and adipocytokine in South-Asian subjects by measuring serum adipocytokines, adiposity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance levels. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 150 South-Asians (80 males, 70 females) were included, 60 had NGT (Control group, Age 51.33 ± 11.5, BMI 27 ± 2.3), 60 had IGT (Age 57.7 ± 12.5, BMI 27.2 ± 2.7), 30 had type 2 DM (Age 49.5 ± 10.9, BMI 28 ± 1.7). Measures of adiposity, adipocytokines and other metabolic parameters were determined. Parameters were measured using the following: a) Plasma glucose by glucose oxidase method b) CRP by immunoturbidimetric method (Roche/Hitachi analyser) c) insulin by Medgenix INS-ELISA immunoenzymetric assay by Biosource (Belgium) d) Leptin, Adiponectin by radioimmunoassay kits by Linco Research (St. Charles MO) e) Resistin by immunoassay kits by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals INC (530 Harbor Boulevard, Belmont CA 94002, USA). Results Adiponectin concentrations were highest in NGT, decreased in IGT and lowest in DMT2, (both p < 0.01). Leptin was significantly higher in DMT2 than IGT and NGT p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively. There was a significant positive relationships between log adiponectin and 2-hr insulin values, p = 0.028 and history of hypertensions and a ischemic heart disease p = 0.008 with R = 0.65. There was a significant inverse correlation between log adiponectin and resistin, p < 0.01. Conclusion Resistin levels had an inverse correlation with adiponectin levels, indicating an inverse relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin. Adiponectin levels were related to glucose tolerance. PMID:16669997

  6. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-02-01

    Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated.The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels.In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4.At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month.In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with

  7. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month. In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively

  8. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts. PMID:11297848

  9. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  10. Serum Potassium and Glucose Regulation in the ADDITION-Leicester Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrice; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Quinn, Lauren M.; Zaccardi, Francesco; Webb, David R.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Previous observational studies have shown conflicting results between plasma K+ concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. To help clarify the evidence we aimed to determine whether an association existed between serum K+ and glucose regulation within a UK multiethnic population. Methods. Participants were recruited as part of the ADDITION Leicester study, a population based screening study. Individuals from primary care between the age of 40 and 75 years if White European or 25 and 75 years if South Asian or Afro Caribbean were recruited. Tests for associations between baseline characteristics and K+ quartiles were conducted using linear regression models. Results. Data showed individuals in the lowest K+ quartile had significantly greater 2-hour glucose levels (0.53 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.70, P ≤ 0.001) than those in the highest K+ quartile. This estimation did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. Conversely, participants in the lowest K+ quartile had a 0.14% lower HbA1c (95% CI −0.19 to −0.10: P ≤ 0.001) compared to those in the highest K+ quartile. Conclusion. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrated that lower K+ was associated with greater 2 hr glucose. The data supports the possibility that K+ may influence glucose regulation and further research is warranted. PMID:25883988

  11. Serum estradiol levels in male cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Dalen, J E

    1984-11-01

    Serum estradiol levels were compared in smoking and nonsmoking men in two separate samples. Sample I consisted of 41 young adult male volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 24 years. Twenty-three men smoked an average of 24.5 +/- 6.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 5.2 +/- 2.2 years. Sample II consisted of 35 husbands who had been evaluated for infertility; they ranged in age from 19 to 49 years. Eighteen men smoked an average of 21.6 +/- 7.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 11.5 +/- 4.5 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly between smokers and nonsmokers within either group. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in smokers compared with nonsmokers in both groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.0001 in Samples I and II, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum estradiol levels and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, or with the duration of smoking in either sample. The differences in serum estradiol levels between smokers and nonsmokers could not be attributed to the differences in marijuana and alcohol use that existed between the smokers and nonsmokers in each sample. The recent reports of elevated serum estradiol levels as a possible risk factor in coronary heart disease are discussed in view of the known relationship of cigarette smoking to coronary heart disease. PMID:6496540

  12. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV–visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  13. Low serum levels of ghrelin are associated with gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Bermejo-Martínez, Luisa; Villa, Antonio R; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Zamora-Valdés, Daniel; Pichardo-Bahena, Raúl; Barredo-Prieto, Blanca; Uribe-Ramos, Martha H; Ramos, Martha H; Baptista-González, Héctor A; Uribe, Misael

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of ghrelin in gallstone disease. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 150 subjects, 38 with gallstones (cases) and 112 controls. We also did a real-time PCR-RT study in twenty gallbladder samples each. Body mass index (BMI), serum insulin, ghrelin, and serum lipids were measured. Logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariate) were conducted to estimate the probability of gallstone disease associated with serum ghrelin concentrations. RESULTS: Cases were statistically different from controls in gender distribution (P = 0.01), age (53 vs 44 yr, P = 0.002), BMI (28 vs 25; P = 0.004), and glucose (5.26 vs 4.98 mmol/L; P = 0.05). The prevalence of ghrelin serum levels above the third tercile was lower in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model, we found a protective effect, when ghrelin values were higher than the median value (OR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.82, P = 0.02). Twenty (20%) gallbladder specimens expressed ghrelin mRNA. CONCLUSION: Serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with a protective effect of GD. PMID:16718795

  14. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  15. Measurements of serum glucose using the luciferin/Luciferase system and a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Idahl, L.A.; Sandstroem, P.E.; Sehlin, J.

    1986-05-15

    A single-step assay for serum glucose measurements is described. The assay is based on the phosphorylation of D-glucose by glucokinase and the measurement of ATP consumption by firefly luciferase. The luminescence is recorded in an ordinary liquid scintillation spectrometer. The use of stable reagents and a stable final signal (light emission) makes it possible to analyze a large number of samples in each assay run. The assay is of particular value when repeated serum glucose determinations are performed on samples from small laboratory animals.

  16. Employing FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase within a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell operating in human serum.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Lim, Koun; Hickey, David P; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-12-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) is emerging as an oxygen-insensitive alternative to glucose oxidase (GOx) as the biocatalyst for bioelectrodes and bioanodes in glucose sensing and glucose enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs). Glucose EFCs, which utilize oxygen as the oxidant and final electron acceptor, have the added benefit of being able to be implanted within living hosts. These can then produce electrical energy from physiological glucose concentrations and power internal or external devices. EFCs were prepared with FAD-GDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOx) to evaluate the suitability of FAD-GDH within an implantable setting. Maximum current and power densities of 186.6±7.1 μA cm(-2) and 39.5±1.3 μW cm(-2) were observed when operating in human serum at 21 °C, which increased to 285.7±31.3 μA cm(-2) and 57.5±5.4 μW cm(-2) at 37 °C. Although good stability was observed with continual near-optimal operation of the EFCs in human serum at 21 °C for 24 h, device failure was observed between 13-14 h when continually operated at 37 °C. PMID:25890695

  17. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  18. Measurement of tear glucose levels with amperometric glucose biosensor/capillary tube configuration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qinyi; Peng, Bo; Su, Gang; Cohan, Bruce E; Major, Terry C; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    An amperometric needle-type electrochemical glucose sensor intended for tear glucose measurements is described and employed in conjunction with a 0.84 mm i.d. capillary tube to collect microliter volumes of tear fluid. The sensor is based on immobilizing glucose oxidase on a 0.25 mm o.d. platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) wire and anodically detecting the liberated hydrogen peroxide from the enzymatic reaction. Inner layers of Nafion and an electropolymerized film of 1,3-diaminobenzene/resorcinol greatly enhance the selectivity for glucose over potential interferences in tear fluid, including ascorbic acid and uric acid. Further, the new sensor is optimized to achieve very low detection limits of 1.5 ± 0.4 μM of glucose (S/N = 3) that is required to monitor glucose levels in tear fluid with a glucose sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.02 nA/μM (n = 6). Only 4-5 μL of tear fluid in the capillary tube is required when the needle sensor is inserted into the capillary. The glucose sensor was employed to measure tear glucose levels in anesthetized rabbits over an 8 h period while also measuring the blood glucose values. A strong correlation between tear and blood glucose levels was found, suggesting that measurement of tear glucose is a potential noninvasive substitute for blood glucose measurements, and the new sensor configuration could aid in conducting further research in this direction. PMID:21961809

  19. Serum fucose level in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K

    2010-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions. PMID:21131761

  20. Effect of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout on serum glucose-lowering in animal model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Jang, Ik Soon; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Yoon, So-Jung; Baek, Sujeong; Lee, Joo Yong; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Chung, Keun-Yook; Woo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the anti-diabetic effects of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout in type 2 diabetes mouse model. The rutin content in tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) is five times higher than that found in common buckwheat sprout (CBS) as evident from high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Administration of either rutin or TBS ethanolic extract to diabetes mice decreased the serum glucose level significantly. Rutin down-regulated the expression levels of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B; it is negative regulator of insulin pathway, both transcriptionally and translationally in myocyte C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, rutin can play a critical role in down-regulation of serum glucose level in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27279072

  1. Serum magnesium levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Dipankar; Osta, Manish; Mandal, Tridibeswar; Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Ray, Debes; Gautam, Divyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Hypomagnesemia has been reported to occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control. Many studies have been undergone to find out the precipitated factors of retinopathy such as duration and type of diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypomagnesemia and increased urinary total protein levels. Aim: This study was carried out to study the correlation between serum magnesium levels, glycosylated hemoglobin and urinary total protein levels in diabetic patients with retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 30 type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy as Group 2, 30 type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy as Group 3 in the age group 45-75 years as cases and 60 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls (Group 1). Determination of Serum Magnesium (photometric xylidyl blue method), glycosylated hemoglobin, Hb1C (IFCC), fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose (glucose oxidase method) and urine total protein (Pyrogallol red method) was carried out. The statistical software SPSS 11.0 and Systat 8.0 were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Hypomagnesemia was observed in cases compared with both Group 2 and Group 3. FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, Urine total protein levels were increased in cases (without retinopathy and with retinopathy) compared with controls. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia and albuminuria individually or in conjunction serve as indicators for dysglycemia and could be used as marker for the risk of development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23633845

  2. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Soliman, M; Abdelhady, S; Fattouh, I; Ishioka, K; Kitamura, H; Kimura, K; Saito, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep. PMID:11714034

  3. Serum electrolyte levels in relation to macrovascular complications in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in China is increasing rapidly. However, scarce data are available on serum electrolyte levels in Chinese adults with diabetes, especially in those with cardiovascular complications. This study measured serum electrolyte levels and examined their relationship with macrovascular complications in Chinese adults with diabetes. Methods The three gender- and age-matched groups were enrolled into this analysis, which were 1,170 subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 389 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 343 with diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum electrolyte levels were measured. Data collection included ankle brachial index results. Results Serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were significantly decreased compared to the NGR group (sodium: 141.0 ± 2.4 vs. 142.1 ± 2.0 mmol/l; magnesium: 0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.07 mmol/l, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was significantly increased (2.36 ± 0.11 vs. 2.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were negatively correlated with FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c (sodium: Std β = −0.35, -0.19, -0.25; magnesium: Std β = −0.29, -0.17, -0.34, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was positively correlated with HbA1c (Std β = 0.17, P < 0.05). In diabetic subjects, serum sodium, magnesium and potassium levels were decreased in the subjects with the elevation of estimated glomerular filtration rates (P < 0.05). ANCOVA analysis suggested that serum magnesium level in subjects with diabetic macrovascular complications was significantly decreased compared with diabetic subjects without macrovascular complications after the effect of some possible confounding being removed (P < 0.05). Conclusions Serum sodium and

  4. Evaluation of Correlation of Blood Glucose and Salivary Glucose Level in Known Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Padmavathi, B.N.; Rajan, S.Y.; Mamatha, G.P.; Kumar, Sandeep; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogenous disease in which there is dysregulation of carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism; leading to elevated blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between blood glucose and salivary glucose levels in known diabetic patients and control group and also to evaluate salivary glucose level as a diagnostic tool in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods A total number of 250 patients were studied, out of which 212 formed the study group and 38 formed the control group. Result Among 250 patients, correlation was evaluated between blood glucose and salivary glucose values which on analysis revealed Pearson correlation of 0.073. The p-value was 0.247, which was statistically non significant. Conclusion Salivary glucose values cannot be considered as a diagnostic tool for diabetic individuals. PMID:26155553

  5. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  6. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  7. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  8. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  9. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  10. Effects of basal insulin application on serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI-DONG; XING, LIN; TENG, JUN-RU; LI, SHUO; MI, NA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of basal insulin application on the serum visfatin and adiponectin (APN) levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 200 patients with T2DM, who were diagnosed in The Third People's Hospital of Jinan (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7%), were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The patients used only oral hypoglycemic drugs and had never received insulin therapy. In the treatment group, basal insulin was administered in combination with the original application of oral hypoglycemic drugs, whereas the control group maintained the original use of oral hypoglycemic drugs or took other oral hypoglycemic agents. The body mass index and fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, visfatin, APN and blood lipid levels of the patients were examined prior to the treatment and six months later. The drug and insulin doses in the treatment group were adjusted according to the patients' blood glucose, which allowed the fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to attain the standards. The fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in the control group also achieved the standards. It was found that the six-month application of basal insulin could significantly decrease the glycosylated hemoglobin and significantly increase the serum APN levels; the serum visfatin levels, however, remained unchanged. The immediate application of basal insulin could facilitate the attainment of glycosylated hemoglobin standards in T2DM and could increase the plasma APN levels, preventing diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26136963

  11. Single Cell "Glucose Nanosensor" Verifies Elevated Glucose Levels in Individual Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Raphael A S; Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Mak, Wai Han; Mulato, Marcelo; Singaram, Bakthan; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-02-10

    Because the transition from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism is a hallmark of cancer progression, approaches to identify single living cancer cells by their unique glucose metabolic signature would be useful. Here, we present nanopipettes specifically developed to measure glucose levels in single cells with temporal and spatial resolution, and we use this technology to verify the hypothesis that individual cancer cells can indeed display higher intracellular glucose levels. The nanopipettes were functionalized as glucose nanosensors by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) covalently to the tip so that the interaction of glucose with GOx resulted in a catalytic oxidation of β-d-glucose to d-gluconic acid, which was measured as a change in impedance due to drop in pH of the medium at the nanopipette tip. Calibration studies showed a direct relationship between impedance changes at the tip and glucose concentration in solution. The glucose nanosensor quantified single cell intracellular glucose levels in human fibroblasts and the metastatic breast cancer lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 and revealed that the cancer cells expressed reproducible and reliable increases in glucose levels compared to the nonmalignant cells. Nanopipettes allow repeated sampling of the same cell, as cells remain viable during and after measurements. Therefore, nanopipette-based glucose sensors provide an approach to compare changes in glucose levels with changes in proliferative or metastatic state. The platform has great promise for mechanistic investigations, as a diagnostic tool to distinguish cancer cells from nonmalignant cells in heterogeneous tissue biopsies, as well as a tool for monitoring cancer progression in situ. PMID:26752097

  12. Maternal mid-pregnancy glucose levels and risk of congenital heart disease in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Priest, James R; Yang, Wei; Reaven, Gerald; Knowles, Joshua W.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There is a well-described association between maternal diabetes and risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) in offspring. Though the clinical diagnoses of Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes are strong risk factors for CHD, sub-clinical abnormalities of glucose and insulin metabolism are common within the general population and could also confer risk for CHD. Objective We explored the potential association of two different CHD phenotypes in offspring with midpregnancy measures of glucose and insulin. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a case-control study from a cohort of 277 pregnant women in southern and central California carrying infants with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) (n=55), d-transposition of the great arteries (dTGA) (n=42), or normal infants without CHD (n=180), Exposures Measurement of blood analytes related to maternal glucose metabolism taken from random non-fasting second trimester blood samples. Main Outcome and Measures We hypothesize that continuous measures of blood analytes related to maternal diabetes are related to odds of cardiac malformations. We measured serum insulin by a validated radioimmunoassay and glucose levels. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the association between these levels and case status. Results Relative to maternal blood glucose levels of infants without cardiac malformations, we observed that maternal blood glucose levels in models including insulin were strongly associated with odds of ToF (adjusted Odds Ratio 7.54, 95%CI 2.30–24.69), but not with dTGA (adjusted OR 1.16, 95%CI 0.28–4.79). Conclusions & Relevance These results represent a direct correlation of glucose as a continuous variable to odds of specific cardiac malformations. The association between serum glucose and odds of ToF indicates the need for additional epidemiological and mechanistic investigations into the risk conferred by insulin signaling and glucose metabolism during early pregnancy. PMID:26457543

  13. Hepatic Carboxylesterase 1 Is Induced by Glucose and Regulates Postprandial Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiesi; Yin, Liya; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan; Zalzala, Munaf; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and is important for lipid metabolism. Our previous data show that over-expression of mouse hepatic CES1 lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. In the present study, we determined the physiological role of hepatic CES1 in glucose homeostasis. Hepatic CES1 expression was reduced by fasting but increased in diabetic mice. Treatment of mice with glucose induced hepatic CES1 expression. Consistent with the in vivo study, glucose stimulated CES1 promoter activity and increased acetylation of histone 3 and histone 4 in the CES1 chromatin. Knockdown of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), an enzyme that regulates histone acetylation, abolished glucose-mediated histone acetylation in the CES1 chromatin and glucose-induced hepatic CES1 expression. Finally, knockdown of hepatic CES1 significantly increased postprandial blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the present study uncovers a novel glucose-CES1-glucose pathway which may play an important role in regulating postprandial blood glucose levels. PMID:25285996

  14. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  15. The effect of Malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ruzaidi, A; Amin, I; Nawalyah, A G; Hamid, M; Faizul, H A

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of cocoa extract on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cocoa extract (contained 285.6 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140 degrees C, 20 min) beans by extracting using 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1-10. The extract of three dosages (1, 2, and 3%) was fed to normal and diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. In hyperglycaemic group, cocoa extract (1 and 3%) diets were found to significantly lower (p<0.05) the serum glucose levels compared to the control. Furthermore, supplementation of 1 and 3% cocoa extract had significantly reduced (p<0.05) the level of total cholesterol in diabetic rats. In addition, 1, 2, and 3% cocoa extract diets had significantly lowered (p<0.05) the total triglycerides. Interestingly, this study found that serum HDL-cholesterol had increased significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats fed with 2% cocoa extract, while the LDL-cholesterol had decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the 1% treated group. These results indicate that cocoa extract may possess potential hypoglycaemic and hypocholestrolemic effects on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles, respectively. The results also found that the effect of cocoa extract was dose-dependent. PMID:15763363

  16. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  17. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. PMID:18391475

  18. Serum Response Factor Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells Against High-Glucose Damage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Hongbing; Tian, Ying; Liang, Houcheng; Ma, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Serum response factor (SRF), which encodes the MADS-box family of related proteins, is a common transcription factor related to the expression of genes associated with cell survival. However, SRF's role in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after high-glucose injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the protective role of SRF after high-glucose injury and its underlying mechanism. The in vitro RGC model subjected to high glucose was established by employing a 50 mmol/L glucose culture environment. As detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, SRF was significantly upregulated in RGCs treated with high glucose. Overexpression of SRF significantly promoted survival among RGCs exposed to high glucose and inhibited RGC apoptosis. Knockdown of SRF exerted an inverse effect. Moreover, SRF upregulation enhanced expression of an antioxidant protein, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), via control of the Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). SRF upregulation also affected RGC survival after high-glucose treatment. Our findings showed that overexpression of SRF promoted survival of RGCs after high-glucose injury by regulating Fra-1 and Nrf2. PMID:26803311

  19. Serum thrombopoietin level in various hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Usuki, K; Tahara, T; Iki, S; Endo, M; Osawa, M; Kitazume, K; Kato, T; Miyazaki, H; Urabe, A

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the pathophysiological role of thrombopoietin (TPO) in thrombopoiesis, we measured its serum levels in 15 healthy individuals, 84 patients with various hematological diseases and 2 patients with liver cirrhosis using an enzyme immunoassay procedure. The TPO level was 0.84 +/- 0.40 f mol/ml in normal individuals. TPO levels were considerably elevated in patients with myelosuppression after intensification chemotherapy of acute leukemia in complete remission (postchemotherapy group; n = 18; 18.46 +/- 9.70 f mol/ml). When the data of normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group were combined, TPO levels were inversely correlated with the platelet count in this combined group. We compared these data of normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group with various hematological disease states. In aplastic anemia (n = 13; 16.03 +/- 9.44 f mol/ml), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 5; 10.36 +/- 5.57 f mol/ml), malignant lymphoma (n = 6; 2.79 +/- 2.27 f mol/ml), multiple myeloma (n = 3; 3.34 +/- 0.20 f mol/ml) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2; 1.71 +/- 3.91 f mol/ml), the relationship of serum TPO levels and platelet counts was almost the same as in the combined group with normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group. However, the TPO levels were slightly higher in myeloproliferative disorders (n = 12; 1.99 +/- 1.47 f mol/ml) and lower in acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 8; 2.27 +/- 1.25 f mol/ml), hypoplastic leukemia (n = 3; 2.76 +/- 2.23 f mol/ml), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2; 0.42 +/- 0.60 f mol/ml), liver cirrhosis (n = 2; 1.50 +/- 0.92 f mol/ml) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 12; 2.08 +/- 1.41 f mol/ml), when compared to the regression line for the combined group with normal individuals and postchemotherapy group. These findings suggest that TPO might play an important role in regulation of the platelet count in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:8888496

  20. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  1. Resveratrol Supplementation in Schizophrenia Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Serum Glucose and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zortea, Karine; Franco, Viviane C.; Francesconi, Lenise P.; Cereser, Keila M. M.; Lobato, Maria Inês R.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) are generally overweight or obese and have several metabolic disorders. Additionally, such patients have a lower life expectancy and the main cause of their increased mortality is cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on serum glucose and CVD risk factors in individuals with SZ. Methods and Results: This is a four-week randomized, double-blind controlled trial (registration No.: NCT 02062190) in which 19 men with a diagnosis of SZ, aged 18 to 65, were assigned to either a resveratrol supplement group (200 mg/day) or a placebo group (200 mg/day). In short, we did not observe significant changes after resveratrol supplementation. In the placebo group, we found a significant increase in total cholesterol levels (p = 0.024) and in LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.002), as well as a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.038). The placebo group also showed an increase in triglycerides (9.19%) and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol (4.88%). In the resveratrol group, triglycerides decreased (7.64%). Conclusion: In summary, oral resveratrol in reasonably low dosages (200 mg daily) brought no differences to body weight, waist circumference, glucose, and total cholesterol. It was possible to note that the lipid profile in the placebo group worsened and, although no significant differences were found, we can assume that resveratrol might prevent lipid profile damage and that the intervention affected the lipoprotein metabolism at various levels. PMID:26840331

  2. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  3. Influence of thyroid dysfunction on serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 6.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ahn, Hwa Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 6 (ANGPTL6) is a novel metabolic regulator that modulates energy expenditure as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Thyroid hormone can induce metabolic changes that are similar to those induced by ANGPTL6. Herein, we investigated whether circulating ANGPTL6 levels change according to thyroid hormone status in humans. We measured the serum levels of ANGPTL6 and metabolic parameters in 150 drug-naïve subjects with overt hyperthyroid, subclinical hyperthyroid, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid, or overt hypothyroid status (n=30 in each group). Serum ANGPTL6 levels were significantly higher in patients with overt hypothyroidism than in the other subjects. Women had significantly higher serum levels of ANGPTL6 than men. ANGPTL6 levels correlated positively with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and negatively with serum free thyroxine (T4) level. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that sex, TSH, free T4, and ALT were independent predictors of serum ANGPTL6 levels. In summary, serum ANGPTL6 levels increased in patients with a hypothyroid status, and both TSH and free T4 levels are associated with ANGPLT6 levels, suggesting a possible association between thyroid function and ANGPTL6 levels. Whether the upregulated ANGPTL6 level in the hypothyroid status is primarily owing to a direct association or a compensatory mechanism remains to be determined. PMID:26189599

  4. Alteration of serum bilirubin level in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Semnani, Yousef; Nazemi, Farzad; Azariyam, Aileen; Ardakani, Mohammad Javad Ehsani

    2010-11-01

    Abstract Objective. Alteration of serum bilirubin level in acute episodes of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia has been reported but the pattern of this alteration is controversial. Methods. Patients diagnosed as schizophrenia (162, group S) or bipolar disorder (155, group B) entered the study. The control group consisted of 95 patients admitted to cardiac care unit who had no personal or family history of major psychiatric disorders. Pre- and post-admission levels of bilirubin were measured and compared within and between the groups. Patients were examined to exclude all other causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Group S and B participants were also evaluated using positive and negative syndrome subscale (PANSS) both at admission and discharge. Results. The mean admission bilirubin levels of all the groups were in the normal range (significantly higher in group S than groups B and C) and were affected by the score of general psychopathology subscale rather than the scores of positive symptoms subscale. Conclusions. Although bilirubin decreased in all three groups at discharge, the rate of decrease was significantly higher in group S. The reason for this is not clear and needs further study. PMID:24917437

  5. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  6. Raised Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Sen, Oishimaya; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Banerjee, Anindita

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8–10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77 ± 14.29 versus 17.02 ± 5.74 U/L; P < 0.0001). Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.657; P < 0.0001) level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r = −0.203; P = 0.180). However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects. PMID:24453844

  7. Raised serum adenosine deaminase level in nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Ghosh, Arindam; Sen, Oishimaya; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Banerjee, Anindita

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8-10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77 ± 14.29 versus 17.02 ± 5.74 U/L; P < 0.0001). Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.657; P < 0.0001) level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r = -0.203; P = 0.180). However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects. PMID:24453844

  8. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  9. Exenatide Treatment Causes Suppression of Serum Ghrelin Levels following Mixed Meal Test in Obese Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Topyildiz, Figen; Kiyici, Sinem; Gul, Zulfiye; Sigirli, Deniz; Guclu, Metin; Kisakol, Gurcan; Cavun, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of exenatide treatment on serum ghrelin levels in obese female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. Fourteen female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin and exenatide were enrolled. A mixed meal test was applied to the patients while continuing with their daily medications. Blood samples were taken before and at 60, 120, and 180 minutes following mixed meal test to measure serum total ghrelin, glucose, and insulin levels. The following week, exenatide treatment of the patients was paused for 24 hours and the same experimental procedures were repeated. Results. Serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 180 minutes with exenatide treatment compared with baseline (294.4 ± 57.5 versus 234.5 ± 59.4 pg/mL) (p < 0.001). Serum ghrelin levels at 180 minutes were statistically different when percentage change in serum ghrelin levels after mixed meal tests with and without exenatide usage were compared (p = 0.001). Estimated total area under the curve values for serum ghrelin concentrations was also significantly lower with exenatide compared with omitted treatment (p = 0.035). Conclusion. These results suggest that the effect of exenatide on weight loss may be related with the suppression of serum ghrelin levels, which is an orexigenic peptide. PMID:26998491

  10. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and β-cell functions in nondiabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, M; Niwa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M; Hanyu, N; Nakayama, T

    2014-12-01

    High serum uric acid (UA) levels are believed to be an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum UA concentrations and early-phase insulin secretion following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic subjects. We enrolled 570 Japanese subjects (354 males and 216 females, aged 50.5 ± 8.9 years and 52.6 ± 7.3 years, respectively), who underwent the 75 g OGTT during their annual health examination. The OGTT confirmed their nondiabetic status. Insulin secretion was estimated by the disposition index (DI) [(Δ insulin/Δ glucose (0-30 min) × (1/HOMA-IR)], which is an adjusted measure of β-cell function relative to variations in insulin sensitivity. Simple linear regression analysis showed negative correlations between serum UA levels and DI, when examined in the whole study population and female subjects only (r = -0.209, p < 0.001 and r = -0.232, p < 0.001, respectively). However, in male subjects, UA levels did not correlate with DI. In females, multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that serum UA levels were the major predictors of DI, explaining 16.4% of its variation (p < 0.001). Serum UA levels significantly correlate with early-phase insulin secretion in nondiabetic Japanese women. It may be an independent risk factor for predicting β-cell function in women. PMID:25295417

  11. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  12. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  13. Altered serum levels of adipokines and insulin in probable Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Bandyopadhyay, Kausik; Bir, Aritri; Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Biswas, Atanu; Basu, Debasis; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral hypometabolism of glucose, weight loss, and decreased food intake are characteristic features of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic study on the serum levels of adipokines and insulin, the major hormones regulating energy metabolism, food intake, and body weight, in sporadic AD is necessary. The present study compares the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin, measured by commercially available immuno-assay kits, between controls and sporadic AD subjects. The results show a conspicuous decrease in the level of leptin, a dramatic rise in the level of adiponectin, and also a statistically significant increase in insulin level, in the blood of AD subjects, with respect to controls. The changes in the serum levels of adiponectin and insulin in AD are positively correlated with the severity of dementia. Likewise, the serum level of leptin in AD subjects is negatively correlated with the degree of dementia. The changes in the levels of adipokines and insulin have implications in the amyloid pathology, neurodegeneration, and hypometabolism of glucose existing in the AD brain. PMID:24625795

  14. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Cağlayan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  15. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:22528775

  16. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  17. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Serum Magnesium, Potassium, and Sodium Concentrations Identify Six Loci Influencing Serum Magnesium Levels

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Felix, Janine F.; Leak, Tennille S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Qiong; Dehghan, Abbas; Aspelund, Thor; Katz, Ronit; Homuth, Georg; Kocher, Thomas; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Prucha, Hanna; Pfeufer, Arne; Meitinger, Thomas; Coresh, Josef; Hofman, Albert; Sarnak, Mark J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Uitterlinden, André G.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Köttgen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p<5×10−8) or suggestive associations (p<4×10−7) were evaluated for replication in an additional 8,463 subjects of European descent. The association of common variants at six genomic regions (in or near MUC1, ATP2B1, DCDC5, TRPM6, SHROOM3, and MDS1) with serum magnesium levels was genome-wide significant when meta-analyzed with the replication dataset. All initially significant SNPs from the CHARGE Consortium showed nominal association with clinically defined hypomagnesemia, two showed association with kidney function, two with bone mineral density, and one of these also associated with fasting glucose levels. Common variants in CNNM2, a magnesium transporter studied only in model systems to date, as well as in CNNM3 and CNNM4, were also associated with magnesium concentrations in this study. We observed no associations with serum sodium or potassium levels exceeding p<4×10−7. Follow-up studies of newly implicated genomic loci may provide additional insights into the regulation and homeostasis of human serum magnesium levels. PMID:20700443

  18. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Neveen; Abbas, Amal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to T score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal T score versus controls (P < 0.001). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar T score (r = −0.69, P < 0.001) and femur T score (r = −0.64, P < 0.001) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. PMID:23878759

  19. [Clinical research on improvement of glucose metabolic marker level by coffee drinking-validity of saliva caffeine concentration measurement].

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kono, Suminori; Shimazoe, Takao

    2010-05-01

    We measured both serum and saliva caffeine concentration using HPLC and assessed the correlation between them in volunteers with mild obesity. Significant correlation was shown between saliva and serum caffeine concentration. It may be necessary to measure caffeine metabolite concentration because its metabolites may also have an improving effect of glucose metabolism. In summary, we found that saliva caffeine concentration measurement was useful to assess caffeine intake level. Moreover, it will be helpful to know whether caffeine has an improving effect of glucose metabolism. PMID:20460869

  20. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  1. Preoperative Serum Levels of Mesothelin in Patients with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bostancı, Özgür; Kemik, Özgür; Kemik, Ahu; Battal, Muharrem; Demir, Uygar; Purisa, Sevim; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Screening for biochemical markers is important for diagnosing colon cancer. In this study, the reliability of serum mesothelin levels as a potential diagnostic and screening instrument was evaluated concerning colon cancer. Methods. Ninety-five patients who had undergone colonoscopic examination and who were diagnosed with colon cancer were included in the study. The serum mesothelin levels were measured with the ELISA kits and were evaluated in terms of significant difference when compared between colon cancer and control group. Results. Patients with colon cancer had significantly higher mesothelin serum levels (P < 0.001) than the control groups. We found significant associations between serum levels and tumor grade, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion (resp., P < 0.001). Conclusion. Evaluating the serum levels of mesothelin has a potential to detect and screen the colon cancer in affected patients. Our data suggest that mesothelin exhibits effects towards colon cancer and serves as a biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:25477701

  2. Fasting glucose levels within the high normal range predict cardiovascular outcome

    PubMed Central

    Shaye, Kivity; Amir, Tirosh; Shlomo, Segev; Yechezkel, Sidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is still not clear whether glucose levels can predict CVD risk among patients without diabetes. The primary aim of this study is to assess whether normoglycemic fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is associated with increased risk of CVD outcomes in healthy patients. Methods We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examination, and medical and lifestyle information from 10,913 men and women who were evaluated in the Institute for Preventive Medicine of Sheba Medical Center. Enrolled were participants with FPG <100 mg/dL as well as 100 to 125 mg/dL, who were free of diagnosis of CVD. The participants were actively screened for coronary disease using a stress test. Primary end points were coronary heart disease or self-reported cerebral vascular disease. Results A total of 1,119 incident cases of CVD occurred during a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Subjects with fasting glucose levels in the high normal range (95–99 mg/dL) had an increased CVD risk when compared with levels <80 mg/dL, (HR 1.53;CI 95% [1.22–1.91], P < .001). A multivariate model, adjusted for age, sex, family history of CVD, blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, pharmacologic treatment, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, revealed an independent increased risk of CVD with rising FPG levels in the normal range. Conclusion Elevated CVD risk is strongly and independently associated with glucose levels within the normoglycemic range. Fasting plasma glucose may help in identifying apparently healthy persons with early metabolic abnormalities who are at increased risk for CVD before progression to prediabetes and overt diabetes mellitus. PMID:22795290

  3. Trueness Assessment for Serum Glucose Measurement Using Commercial Systems through the Preparation of Commutable Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Xia, ChangYu; Liu, Ou; Wang, LanZhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Commutable reference materials (RMs) are suitable for end-users for evaluating the metrological traceability of values obtained using routine measurement systems. We assessed the performance of 6 routine measurement systems with validated secondary RMs. Methods We tested the homogeneity, stability, and commutability of 5 minimally processed human serum pools according to the standard guidelines. The serum pools were assigned values as per the reference procedure of the United States Centers for Disease Control and were used to evaluate the trueness of results from 6 commercial measurement systems based on enzymatic methods: 3 glucose oxidase (GOD) and 3 hexokinase (HK) methods. Results The prepared RMs were validated to be sufficiently homogenous, stable, and commutable with the patient samples. Method bias varied for different systems: GOD01, -0.17 to 2.88%; GOD02, 1.66 to 4.58%; GOD03, -0.17 to 3.14%; HK01, -3.48 to -0.85%; HK02, -3.83 to -0.11%, and HK03, -1.82 to -0.27%. Conclusions We observed that the prepared serum glucose RMs were qualified for trueness assessment. Most of the measurement systems met the minimal quality specifications. PMID:22779064

  4. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0

  5. Relationship Between Serum Zinc Level and Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Han, Xue-Yao; Zhou, Xiang-Hai; Wu, Jing; Ji, Li-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggested that zinc level was related to a certain diabetic microvascular complication. However, the relationship between zinc level and all the microvascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between zinc level and each diabetic microvascular complication and identify the features related to low serum zinc level. Methods: We included the hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at our department from May 30, 2013 to March 31, 2014. We initially compared the serum zinc levels between patients with specific microvascular complications and those without. We then analyzed the association between zinc level and each microvascular complication. Furthermore, we identified the unique features of patients with high and low serum zinc levels and analyzed the risk factors related to low zinc level. Results: The 412 patients included 271 with microvascular complications and 141 without any microvascular complications. Serum zinc level was significantly lower in patients with diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.001), diabetic nephropathy (DN, P < 0.001), or diabetic peripheral neuropathy (P = 0.002) compared with patients without that specific complication. Lower zinc level was an independent risk factor for DN (odds ratio = 0.869, 95% confidence interval = 0.765–0.987, P < 0.05). The subjects with lower serum zinc level had manifested a longer duration of diabetes, higher level of hemoglobin A1c, higher prevalence of hypertension and microvascular complications, and lower fasting and 2-h C-peptide levels. Conclusions: Lower serum zinc level in T2D patients was related to higher prevalence of diabetic microvascular complications, and represented as an independent risk factor for DN. Patients with lower zinc level were more likely to have a longer duration of diabetes, poorer glucose control, and worse β-cell function. PMID:26668140

  6. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED. PMID:26302884

  7. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  8. Serum estrogen levels in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Haffajee, C I; Hochman, J S; Sacks, G M; Dalen, J E

    1982-12-01

    Serum estradiol and serum estrone levels were assessed in 29 men in 14 men in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out; in 12 men without apparent coronary heart disease but hospitalized in an intensive care unit; and in 28 men who were not hospitalized and who acted as control subjects. (The 12 men who were hospitalized but who did not have coronary heart disease were included to control for physical and emotional stress of a severe medical illness.) Ages ranged from 21 to 56 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly among groups. Blood samples were obtained in the patient groups on each of the first three days of hospitalization. The serum estrone level was significantly elevated in all four patient groups when compared with that in the control group. Estrone level, then, did not differentiate patients with and without coronary heart disease. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in the groups with myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and in the group in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out. However, estradiol levels were not significantly elevated in the group in the intensive care unit without coronary heart disease when compared to the level in the normal control group. Serum estradiol levels, then, were elevated in men with confirmed or suspected coronary heart disease but were not elevated in men without coronary heart disease even under the stressful conditions found in an intensive care unit. Serum estradiol levels were significantly and positively correlated (p less than 0.03) with serum total creatine phosphokinase levels in the patients with myocardial infarction. The five patients with myocardial infarction who died within 10 days of admission had markedly elevated serum estradiol levels. The potential significance of these serum estradiol elevations is discussed in terms of estradiol's ability to enhance adrenergic neural activity and the resultant increase in myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7148879

  9. Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schauder, P; Matthaei, D; Henning, H V; Scheler, F; Langenbeck, U

    1981-08-01

    The effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) on serum levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), i.e. alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KICA), alpha-keto-isovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta methyl-n-valeric acid (KMVA) as well as on serum insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose levels was determined in uremic patients and in healthy control subjects. In controls, blood levels of KICA, KMVA and KIVA declined significantly following oral administration of 100 glucose. In uremic patients no decline of KICA was observed. The fall of KMVA was diminished, while suppression of KIVA blood levels in response to the oGGT remained unimpaired. Although serum insulin and C-peptide levels in uremic patients were not significantly different from the controls before and throughout the oGTT, six out of eight displayed abnormal glucose tolerance. It is suggested that the response of blood BCKA levels to an oGTT is altered in uremia, an abnormality restricted primarily to KICA and possibly explained by insulin antagonism and/or by insufficient insulin secretion. PMID:7021997

  10. Malnutrition Markers and Serum Ghrelin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Gorgij, Farnia; Akbari, Ommolbanin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of study was to investigate the changes levels of serum ghrelin in HD patients and its relationship to some malnutrition markers compared with healthy controls. Methods. Forty-five patients on hemodialysis and forty healthy controls were studied. Biochemical parameters and serum ghrelin levels were measured. Both daily dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) assessments were performed for evaluation of nutritional status. Results. Ghrelin concentrations were significantly reduced in patients undergoing hemodialysis when compared to healthy controls (5 ± 0.68 (1.1–18.5) pg/mL versus 7.8 ± 0.84 (2.4–18.3) pg/mL; P = 0.004). BMI and serum albumin in HD patients were markedly reduced compared to controls. The patients with an insufficient intake of energy and protein demonstrated slightly lower levels of serum ghrelin. A negative correlation between serum ghrelin concentration with age (r = −0.34, P = 0.02), BUN (r = −0.26, P < 0.01), and serum creatinine (r = −0.27, P < 0.01) was observed in HD patients. Conclusions. The findings suggest that decreased ghrelin levels in HD patients might be associated with anorexia. Further studies are needed to determine changes in serum ghrelin levels during dialysis and to clarify whether the decrease in ghrelin levels contributes to the malnutrition that is common in these patients.

  11. Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Reichert, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the “A+B region” of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion, and the more aqueous microenvironment provided greater stability for the enzyme. PMID:23024461

  12. Effect of pure zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin and glucagon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.Y.; Grandjean, C.J.; Hart, M.H.; Erdman, S.H.; Pour, P.; Vanderhoof, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance was investigated using intragastric force-feeding to obviate decreased food intake and altered eating patterns. Three groups of weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified powdered zinc-deficient diet: zinc-deficient ad libitum fed animals (ZDA); zinc-replete gavage force-fed controls (ZRF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in water with zinc (25 ppm); zinc-deficient gavage force-fed animals (ZDF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in distilled water. A fourth group of zinc-supplemented rats fed the diet ad libitum was included to determine caloric intake for ZDF and ZRF gavage fed groups. After 8 days of feeding, the zinc concentration in the serum and pancreas were lower in both zinc-deficient groups, but the difference was much greater in the ZDF rats than in the ZDA. The ZDF group had impaired glucose tolerance curves, yet blood insulin and glucagon levels were normal. The ZDA group had normal glucose tolerance with low insulin levels compared to the ZRF group. The islet cell morphology among the three dietary groups were similar. These results suggest that the glucose intolerance observed in ZDF rats is not due to altered blood insulin and glucagon levels but rather to peripheral resistance to insulin action.

  13. Serum nitric oxide is associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in women: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tahmasebi Nejad, Zhale; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    Background and aim This study was conducted to investigate the association between serum nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We recruited 3462 and 2504 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), for a cross-sectional and prospective analysis, respectively. Serum NOx concentrations were measured at baseline (2006-2008), and demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and again after 3 years (2009-2011). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD were defined. Association between serum NOx and CKD in the cross-sectional phase and the predictability of NOx in CKD occurrence were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. Results Mean age of participants was 45.0 ± 15.9 years at baseline and 40.5% were male. The prevalence of CKD was 17.9% (13.4% in men, 21.0% in women) at baseline, at which point, marginally significant odds of CKD in the highest tertile of serum NOx in men (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.96-2.45, p for trend = 0.047) and a significant odds of CKD in women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.76-3.49, p for trend = 0.001) were observed. After a 3-year follow-up, in women, risk of CKD was higher in the highest compared to the lowest NOx tertiles (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10-3.14, p for trend = 0.032) but no significant association was observed in men. Conclusion Serum NOx level was found to be an independent predictor of CKD in women; it could be a valuable surrogate for prediction of renal dysfunction in women and help to identify high-risk subjects. PMID:26956540

  14. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hamuro, Akihiro; Tachibana, Daisuke; Misugi, Takuya; Katayama, Hiroko; Ozaki, Koji; Fujino, Yuji; Yoshihiro, Nakamura; Shintaku, Haruo; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. PATIENTS AND METHODS Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval (n = 12), and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes (n = 13). Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 (P < 0.05 each). CONCLUSION Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval. PMID:26568687

  15. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition. PMID:26985979

  16. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  17. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  18. β-3AR W64R Polymorphism and 30-Minute Post-Challenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Hasibe; Tulgar Kınık, Sibel; Yılmaz Yalçın, Yaprak; Muratoğlu Şahin, Nursel; Yazıcı, Ayşe Canan; Ataç, F. Belgin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of W64R polymorphism of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene (β-3AR) with childhood obesity and related pathologies. Methods: β-3AR gene W64R genotyping was carried out in 251 children aged 6-18 years. Of these subjects, 130 were obese (62 boys) and 121 were normal-weight (53 boys). In the obese group, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 75 of the obese patients. Results: The frequency of W64R genotype was similar in obese and non-obese children. In obese children, relative body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were not different between Arg allele carriers (W64R and R64R) and noncarriers (W64W). In 75 obese children, OGTT results showed that Arg allele carriers had significantly higher 30-minute glucose levels (p=0.027). Conclusion: W64R polymorphism of the β-3AR gene is not associated with obesity and waist-to-hip ratio in Turkish children. Although there were no relationships between the genotypes and lipid, glucose/insulin levels or HOMA-IR, the presence of W64R variant seemed to have an unfavorable influence on early glucose excursion after glucose loading. PMID:25800470

  19. Daily walking decreases casual glucose level among pregnant women in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Kusaka, Momoko; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the number of steps walked daily, as evaluated by accelerometer, among Japanese women in the second trimester of pregnancy. This longitudinal study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, from August 2012 to January 2013. Healthy pregnant women at 14 to 18 gestational weeks were recruited. Participants wore accelerometers on the waist for 4 weeks. Casual glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were compared between two groups based on whether participants habitually walked ≥ 6,000 steps/day or < 6,000 steps/day. Fifty-one pregnant women were included in the present study; data from 35 were analyzed. There were 22 women in the group that habitually walked ≥ 6,000 steps/day and 13 in the group habitually walking < 6,000 steps/day. Although the median serum casual glucose level at the end of the investigation was 90.0 mg/dL in the group walking < 6,000 steps/day, the level in the group walking ≥ 6000 steps/day was 83.5 mg/dL (p = 0.01). HbA1c levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that walking as a daily habitual physical activity is effective for controlling casual glucose levels in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27594297

  20. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    PubMed

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine. PMID:27228466

  1. Cofilin Phosphorylation Decreased by Serum-free Starvation with Low Glucose in the L6 Myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee-Young; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Park, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Tae-Whan; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] Many studies have been using cell culture models of muscle cells with exogenous cytokines or glucocorticoids to mimic atrophy in in vivo and in vitro tests. However, the changes in the phosphorylation of atrophy-related cofilin are still poorly understood in starved skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we first examined whether or not phosphorylation of cofilin is altered in L6 myoblasts after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum-free starvation with low glucose. [Methods] We used Western blotting to exam protein expression and phosphorylation in atrophied L6 myoblasts. [Results] L6 cell sizes and numbers were diminished as a result of serum-free starvation in a time-dependent manner. Serum-free starvation for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours significantly decreased the phosphorylation of cofilin, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that starvation-induced atrophy may be in part related to changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin in L6 myoblasts. PMID:25364107

  2. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qilin; An, Yarui; Tang, Linlin; Jiang, Xiaoli; Chen, Hua; Bi, Wenji; Wang, Zhongchuan; Zhang, Wen

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the risk of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The biosensor was constructed by a three-step method. First, a poly-thionine (PTH) film was assembled on the surface of glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric electropolymerization of thionine, which serves as an electron transfer mediator (ETM). Second, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH facilitating the electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOx), cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and electrode. Finally, the enzymes, GOx, cholesterol esterase (ChE), and ChOx, were covalently attached to the PTH layer through a chitosan (CH) linker. The PTH coupled with GNPs provides good selectivity, high sensitivity and little crosstalk for the dual enzymatic-biosensor. The developed biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibiting a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level did not change obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was induced with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, which is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. This study provides useful further evidences for the development of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:22027130

  3. A reusable robust radio frequency biosensor using microwave resonator by integrated passive device technology for quantitative detection of glucose level.

    PubMed

    Kim, N Y; Dhakal, R; Adhikari, K K; Kim, E S; Wang, C

    2015-05-15

    A reusable robust radio frequency (RF) biosensor with a rectangular meandered line (RML) resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate by integrated passive device (IPD) technology was designed, fabricated and tested to enable the real-time identification of the glucose level in human serum. The air-bridge structure fabricated by an IPD technology was applied to the RML resonator to improve its sensitivity by increasing the magnitude of the return loss (S21). The resonance behaviour, based on S21 characteristics of the biosensor, was analysed at 9.20 GHz with human serum containing different glucose concentration ranging from 148-268 mg dl(-1), 105-225 mg dl(-1) and at a deionised (D) water glucose concentration in the range of 25- 500 mg dl(-1) for seven different samples. A calibration analysis was performed for the human serum from two different subjects and for D-glucose at a response time of 60 s; the reproducibility, the minimum shift in resonance frequency and the long-term stability of the signal were investigated. The feature characteristics based on the resonance concept after the use of serum as an analyte are modelled as an inductor, capacitor and resistor. The findings support the development of resonance-based sensing with an excellent sensitivity of 1.08 MHz per 1 mg dl(-1), a detection limit of 8.01 mg dl(-1), and a limit of quantisation of 24.30 mg dl(-1). PMID:25459060

  4. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  5. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  6. The GLUT9 Gene Is Associated with Serum Uric Acid Levels in Sardinia and Chianti Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Andrea; Busonero, Fabio; Usala, Gianluca; Mulas, Antonella; Lai, Sandra; Dei, Mariano; Orrù, Marco; Albai, Giuseppe; Bandinelli, Stefania; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Guralnik, Jack; Naitza, Silvia; Crisponi, Laura; Cao, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Chen, Wei-Min; Nagaraja, Ramaiah

    2007-01-01

    High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatory–state gout crystal arthropathy and place individuals at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide scans in the genetically isolated Sardinian population identified variants associated with serum uric acid levels as a quantitative trait. They mapped within GLUT9, a Chromosome 4 glucose transporter gene predominantly expressed in liver and kidney. SNP rs6855911 showed the strongest association (p = 1.84 × 10−16), along with eight others (p = 7.75 × 10−16 to 6.05 × 10−11). Individuals homozygous for the rare allele of rs6855911 (minor allele frequency = 0.26) had 0.6 mg/dl less uric acid than those homozygous for the common allele; the results were replicated in an unrelated cohort from Tuscany. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in GLUT9 could affect glucose metabolism and uric acid synthesis and/or renal reabsorption, influencing serum uric acid levels over a wide range of values. PMID:17997608

  7. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  8. The Serum Lead level in Patients With Retained Lead Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammad Alibeigi, Faramarz; Sayadi, Masoud; Poorya Mofrad, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Soleiman; Darvishi, Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, who survived from shotgun injuries, often have some retained lead pellets in their bodies. Several cases of lead toxicity have been reported regarding these patients. Objectives: This study seeks to compare the serum lead level in patients who have retained lead pellets in their bodies with the control group. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we gathered the serum lead levels of 25 patients with some retained lead pellets in their bodies due to shotgun and 25 volunteers without similar lead exposure and compared them in view of the age, gender, and living place. Results: While the mean serum lead level in both groups was lower than the standard level (i.e. 40 µg/dL) , the mean ± SD of serum lead level were 29 ± 12.8 µg/dL and 25.3 ± 6.4 µg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively without any significant difference (P = 0. 30) . However, a positive relationship was seen between serum lead level, and the number of retained lead pellets (r = 0.447, P = 0. 025) . Conclusions: Although extensive surgery to remove the lead pellets is not recommended in patients injured with shotguns, those with many retained lead pellets in their bodies should be considered at risk for lead poisoning and monitored carefully. PMID:25147780

  9. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  10. Clinical significance of serum adipokines levels in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kerenidi, Theodora; Lada, Martha; Tsaroucha, Agori; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Mystridou, Parthena; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2013-06-01

    Adipokines have a significant effect on metabolism, immunoinflammatory responses as well as on carcinogenesis; therefore, we aimed at evaluating their potential predictive and prognostic significance in lung cancer. Eighty patients--mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years--with previously untreated lung cancer (61 NSCLC and 19 SCLC) of all stages and 40 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured using human Radioimmunoassay kits. Serum leptin levels in lung cancer patients were lower compared to control (p < 0.0001), while adiponectin and ghrelin levels were significantly increased in patients (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0043, respectively). Additionally, the leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly lower in the patients group compared to controls (p < 0.0001]. There was no association between serum levels of adipokines and any of the patient clinicopathological characteristics or response to therapy. Nevertheless, patients with lower values of serum leptin had shorter overall survival (p = 0.014), whereas multivariate analysis revealed leptin levels as an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.024, HR 0.452, CI 95 % 0.232-0.899). These results suggest that adipokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, while leptin serum levels might provide useful prognostic information. PMID:23430445

  11. Anger, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and glucose levels in healthy women: the mediating role of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe; Malkin, Amy R; Boyle, Stephen; Vaitkus, Mark; Barko, William; Franco, Edward

    2002-02-01

    The association between anger, lipid profiles, and glucose levels were examined in this study of 103 middle aged, healthy women. A principal component factor analysis of Spielberger's Trait Anger and Anger Expression scales yielded two anger factors: Impulsive Anger-Out and Neurotic Anger. Impulsive anger-out significantly predicted a negative lipid profile (high total serum cholesterol (TSC), low density lipoproteins (LDL), TSC/HDL (high density lipids), and triglyceride levels) and heightened glucose levels, but only in physically unfit women. Neurotic anger did not predict lipid and glucose levels. These findings parallel previous findings regarding the two anger dimensions and CHD, with only impulsive anger-out predicting CHD. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the protective effect of physical fitness, previously documented for men, also occurs in women. PMID:11845555

  12. Serum homocysteine level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Başkan, Bedriye Mermerci; Sivas, Filiz; Aktekin, Lale Akbulut; Doğan, Yasemin Pekin; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-10-01

    In this study serum homocystein (Hcy) level was measured and its relationship with disease activity criteria and treatment protocols was investigated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Ninety-two AS patients and 58 healthy individuals were recruited. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein were determined. Bath AS disease activity index and Bath AS functional index were calculated. Serum Hcy levels >15 micromol/l were considered as hyperhomocysteinemia. The mean serum homocysteine levels were 14.40 and 12.60 micromol/l in patients with AS and the control group, respectively, and the difference between two groups was significant. While there was no significant difference between the sulfasalazine (SSZ) group with 14.25 micromol/l mean Hcy level and the methotrexate (MTX)/SSZ group with 16.05 micromol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the Hcy levels of these two groups and Hcy level of 12.15 micromol/l of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group, and 12.60 micromol/l Hcy level of the control group. Mean serum Hcy level was 13.65 micromol/l in patients with active AS and 14.60 micromol/l in patients with inactive AS, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In our study serum Hcy level was found to be significantly higher in patients with AS than in healthy control subjects. Especially for the AS patients receiving MTX and SSZ treatment without folic acid supplementation, addition of folic acid to their therapy may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease which in turn decreases the mortality in these patients, but further prospective studies are needed for supporting these results. PMID:19288264

  13. Levels of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Tih-Shih

    2016-08-01

    Recent meta-analyses of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have reported lower levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies did not consider the potential confounding effects of time of collection, age, sex, smoking, and obesity. Here, we sought to examine differences in serum BDNF between medicated patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects, taking into consideration the potential confounders of serum BDNF. Serum was obtained from a sample of fasted blood collected from all participants, and BDNF was assayed on a commercially available kit. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no statistically significant difference between cases and control subjects (p = 0.261). In the model, body mass index emerged as the most significant predictor of serum BDNF (β = 0.22, p = 0.009). The present study did not support a role for serum BDNF as a biomarker in schizophrenia. This could be due to the nonspecific nature of serum BDNF and its association with both mental and physical conditions. PMID:27479612

  14. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P Reed; Holst, Jens J; Badman, Michael K; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B

    2009-09-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 +/- 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 +/- 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2-h post-meal glucose (r = -0.59, P < 0.003) and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = -0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB. PMID:19360006

  15. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  16. The Effects of Reduction Mammaplasty on Serum Leptin Levels and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Baltu, Yahya; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Öztürk Kaymak, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Background. The reduction mammaplasty has been a well-executed and known procedure in which considerable amount of fatty tissue is removed from the body. The authors aimed to show the effects of the reduction mammaplasty on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Methods. 42 obese female patients who had gigantomastia were operated on. We recorded patients' demographic and preoperative data, including age, weight, height, and body mass index. Fasting serum leptin, glucose, and insulin levels were noted. Homeostasis model assessment scores were calculated. At the postoperative 8th week, patients were reevaluated in terms of above parameters assessing the presence of any difference. Results. Serum leptin levels were decreased postoperatively and the decrease was statistically significant. We were able to show a decrease in homeostasis model assessment score, which indicated an increase in insulin sensitivity, and this change was statistically significant. A significant correlation between body mass index and leptin change was found postoperatively. Conclusion. Reduction mammaplasty is not solely an aesthetic procedure but it decreases serum leptin levels and increases insulin sensitivity, which may help obese women to reduce their cardiovascular risk. PMID:26550014

  17. The Effects of Reduction Mammaplasty on Serum Leptin Levels and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Baltu, Yahya; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Öztürk Kaymak, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Background. The reduction mammaplasty has been a well-executed and known procedure in which considerable amount of fatty tissue is removed from the body. The authors aimed to show the effects of the reduction mammaplasty on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Methods. 42 obese female patients who had gigantomastia were operated on. We recorded patients' demographic and preoperative data, including age, weight, height, and body mass index. Fasting serum leptin, glucose, and insulin levels were noted. Homeostasis model assessment scores were calculated. At the postoperative 8th week, patients were reevaluated in terms of above parameters assessing the presence of any difference. Results. Serum leptin levels were decreased postoperatively and the decrease was statistically significant. We were able to show a decrease in homeostasis model assessment score, which indicated an increase in insulin sensitivity, and this change was statistically significant. A significant correlation between body mass index and leptin change was found postoperatively. Conclusion. Reduction mammaplasty is not solely an aesthetic procedure but it decreases serum leptin levels and increases insulin sensitivity, which may help obese women to reduce their cardiovascular risk. PMID:26550014

  18. Functionalized graphene oxide for clinical glucose biosensing in urine and serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Shin, Hyunkyung; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A novel clinical glucose biosensor fabricated using functionalized metalloid-polymer (silver-silica coated with polyethylene glycol) hybrid nanoparticles on the surface of a graphene oxide nanosheet is reported. The cyclic voltammetric response of glucose oxidase modification on the surface of a functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a surface-confined reaction and an effective redox potential near zero volts, with a wide linearity of 0.1–20 mM and a sensitivity of 7.66 μA mM−1 cm−2. The functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a better electrocatalytic response toward oxidation of H2O2 and reduction of oxygen. The practical applicability of the functionalized graphene oxide electrode was demonstrated by measuring the peak current against multiple urine and serum samples from diabetic patients. This new hybrid nanoarchitecture combining a three-dimensional metalloid-polymer hybrid and two-dimensional graphene oxide provided a thin solid laminate on the electrode surface. The easy fabrication process and retention of bioactive immobilized enzymes on the functionalized graphene oxide electrode could potentially be extended to detection of other biomolecules, and have broad applications in electrochemical biosensing. PMID:23269871

  19. Functionalized graphene oxide for clinical glucose biosensing in urine and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Shin, Hyunkyung; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A novel clinical glucose biosensor fabricated using functionalized metalloid-polymer (silver-silica coated with polyethylene glycol) hybrid nanoparticles on the surface of a graphene oxide nanosheet is reported. The cyclic voltammetric response of glucose oxidase modification on the surface of a functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a surface-confined reaction and an effective redox potential near zero volts, with a wide linearity of 0.1-20 mM and a sensitivity of 7.66 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a better electrocatalytic response toward oxidation of H(2)O(2) and reduction of oxygen. The practical applicability of the functionalized graphene oxide electrode was demonstrated by measuring the peak current against multiple urine and serum samples from diabetic patients. This new hybrid nanoarchitecture combining a three-dimensional metalloid-polymer hybrid and two-dimensional graphene oxide provided a thin solid laminate on the electrode surface. The easy fabrication process and retention of bioactive immobilized enzymes on the functionalized graphene oxide electrode could potentially be extended to detection of other biomolecules, and have broad applications in electrochemical biosensing. PMID:23269871

  20. Serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yolbas, Servet; Kara, Murat; Yilmaz, Musa; Aydin, Suleyman; Koca, Suleyman Serdar

    2016-06-01

    Adropin, a secreted protein, is encoded by the energy homeostasis associated (ENHO) gene. It has been implicated in the several physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate serum adropin levels and ENHO gene expressions in systemic sclerosis (SSc) characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation, and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. The study includes 27 patients with SSc, 39 patients with Behçet's disease (BD), and 20 healthy controls (HC). Serum adropin levels and ENHO gene expressions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by ELISA method and by real-time PCR, respectively. The serum adropin levels were higher in the SSc and BD groups than in the HC group (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of ENHO gene expressions (p ANOVA = 0.149). There was no significant difference between the limited and diffuse cutaneous subtypes of SSc in terms of serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression. Moreover, serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression were not associated with the disease activity and severity indexes. ENHO gene expression was correlated with the triglyceride levels in the BD group (r = -0.426, p = 0.027). The augmented serum adropin levels may be expected in the chronic inflammatory disease and seem not to be characteristic of only SSc. However, further studies are needed to explain the precise role of adropin in SSc. PMID:27079850

  1. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  2. The relationship between maternal serum magnesium level and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khani, S; Shokrzadeh, M; Karamoddini, P K; Shahmohammadi, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm birth. This Nested case-control study carried out on 20 with preterm birth and 20 women at term birth at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari/Iran in 2008. The women with singleton gestation and intact fetal membrane suspected to preterm labor (case group), 10 cc blood samples were drawn into syringes and sent to laboratory of the hospital immediately. Sampling for control group was same as the case group. These samples recognized as control group just as birth occurring after week 37. Finally, serum magnesium level measured. Data analyzed using chi2, t-test and OR (Odd's Ratio). There was a relationship between the number of prenatal visits (p = 0.008) and stressful events associated with preterm birth (p < 0.02). Serum magnesium level was associated with preterm birth OR = 4.75, CI 95% = (0.48-46.91), Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of serum magnesium for preterm birth was 95, 50, 66.5 and 83.33%, respectively. Although, there was a correlation between serum magnesium levels and preterm birth, due to methodology of the study, a cohort study with the same cut off point and supplementation of magnesium in RTC studies is recommended. PMID:20836289

  3. A new biosensor for glucose determination in serum based on up-converting fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianhong; Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Jialan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Zhihong

    2011-10-15

    In this work, a new glucose sensor based on up-converting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (UC-FRET) was developed. Up-converting phosphors (UCPs, NaYF(4): Yb, Er), which were covalently labeled with Concanavalin A (ConA), were used as the energy donor with thiolated β-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CDs) functionalized gold nanoparticles as the energy acceptor. Due to the combination between ConA and SH-β-CDs, the energy donor and the acceptor were brought to close proximity, resulting in the quenching of the fluorescence of UCPs by gold nanoparticles. In the presence of glucose which competed with SH-β-CDs towards the binding sites of ConA, the biosensor (UCPs-ConA-SH-β-CDs-Au) was decomposed and the energy donor was separated from the acceptor. Therefore, the fluorescence of UCPs was restored dependent on the concentration of glucose. The increase of UCPs fluorescence intensity was proportional to glucose concentration within the range from 0.4 μM to 10μM in aqueous buffer, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.043 μM. A same linear range of glucose concentration was obtained in a human serum matrix (which was pretreated and thus contained no glucose) with a slightly higher LOD (0.065 μM). The glucose sensor was applied to real human serum samples with the results consistent with that of a classic hexokinase (HK) method, indicating that the UC-FRET biosensor was competent for directly sensing glucose in serum samples without optical interference, which benefited from the near infrared (NIR) excitation nature of UCPs. The results of this work suggested that the UC-FRET technique could be a promising alternative for detecting biomolecules in complex biological sample matrixes for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21852101

  4. Clinical significance of serum claudin-1 levels in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Erturk, Kayhan; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Claudins are the most important structural and functional components of tight-junction integral membrane proteins. They play roles in major cellular functions including growth and adhesion and are responsible for regulating the paracellular transport of molecules. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of claudin-1, an oldest and important member of the claudin family, in melanoma patients. A total of 98 patients with a pathologically confirmed melanoma were enrolled into this study. Serum claudin-1 concentrations were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Age-matched and sex-matched 43 healthy controls were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, ranging from 16 to 85 years. The majority of the patients were male (61%) and had axial localized (54%) and metastatic disease (61%). Moreover, most of the patients with metastatic disease had M1c (73%). The baseline serum claudin-1 levels of the melanoma patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects (median values 9.17 vs. 13.82 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.001). However, known clinical variables including age of the patient, sex, site of lesion, histology, lymph node involvement, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and response to chemotherapy were not found to be correlated with serum claudin-1 concentrations (P>0.05). Similarly, serum claudin-1 concentration was found to have no prognostic role in survival (P=0.524). In conclusion, serum levels of claudin-1 may have a diagnostic value in melanoma patients. However, its predictive and prognostic value has not been determined. PMID:26886788

  5. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  6. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all treated groups. FBS level in all treated groups, decreased significantly and reach to normoglycemic level (P<0.05). Except Jujube, other plant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (P<0.05) with no effect on total cholesterol and LDL-C. Serum adiponectin level increased in all treated groups. These beneficial effects of C. sativus, B. vulgaris and Z. jujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level. PMID:26639503

  7. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood. PMID:21290101

  8. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  9. Human monocytes and macrophages undergo M1-type inflammatory polarization in response to high levels of glucose.

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, Israel; Arroyo-Camarena, Úrsula D; Martínez-Reyes, Camilo P; Gómez-Arauz, Angélica Y; Dueñas-Andrade, Yareth; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín; Béjar, Yadira L; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Terrazas, Luis I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Escobedo, Galileo

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data suggest that elevated glucose may promote inflammatory activation of monocytic lineage cells with the ability to injure vascular endothelial tissue of diabetic patients, however evidence in primary human monocytes and macrophages is still insufficient. We investigated the effect of high glucose concentration on the inflammatory capacity of human macrophages in vitro and examined whether similar responses were detectable in circulating monocytes from prediabetic patients. Primary monocytes were isolated from healthy blood donors and differentiated into macrophages. Differentiated macrophages were exposed to normal levels of glucose (NG), high glucose (HG) or high mannitol as osmotic pressure control (OP) for three days. Using PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that HG macrophages showed overexpression of CD11c and inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as down-regulation of arginase-1 and interleukin (IL)-10 with respect to NG and OP macrophages. Consistent with in vitro results, circulating monocytes from hyperglycemic patients exhibited higher levels of CD11c and lower expression of CD206 than monocytes from normoglycemic controls. In subjects with hyperglycemia, elevation in CD11c(+) monocytes was associated with increased obesity, insulin resistance, and triglyceridemia as well as low serum IL-10. Our data suggest that human monocytes and macrophages undergo M1-like inflammatory polarization when exposed to high levels of glucose on in vitro culture conditions and in patients with hyperglycemia. These results demonstrate that excess glucose has direct effects on macrophage activation though the molecular mechanisms mediating such a response remain to be elucidated. PMID:27269375

  10. Maternal Serum Meteorin Levels and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, María F.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luisa F.; Simanca, Elkin L.; González, Iván; Leal, Luis G.; Mora, José A.; Bedoya, Andrés; Alzate, Juan P.; Sánchez, Ángel Y.; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.; Franco-Vega, Roberto; Parra, Mario O.; Ruíz—Parra, Ariel I.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meteorin (METRN) is a recently described neutrophic factor with angiogenic properties. This is a nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort study that describes the serum profile of METRN during different periods of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Moreover, we explore the possible application of METRN as a biomarker. Methods and Findings Serum METRN was measured by ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 37 healthy pregnant women, 16 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle with the aim of assessing serum METRN levels and its correlations with other metabolic parameters. Immunostaining for METRN protein was performed in placenta. A multivariate logistic regression model was proposed and a classifier model was formulated for predicting preeclampsia in early and middle pregnancy. The performance in classification was evaluated using measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In healthy pregnant women, serum METRN levels were significantly elevated in early pregnancy compared to middle and late pregnancy. METRN levels are significantly lower only in early pregnancy in preeclamptic women when compared to healthy pregnant women. Decision trees that did not include METRN levels in the first trimester had a reduced sensitivity of 56% in the detection of preeclamptic women, compared to a sensitivity of 69% when METRN was included. Conclusions The joint measurements of circulating METRN levels in the first trimester and systolic blood pressure and weight in the second trimester significantly increase the probabilities of predicting preeclampsia. PMID:26121675

  11. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Xiaomin; Liu, Yuan; Yin, Geng; Xie, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and evaluate whether serum 25(OH)D is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our results suggested that serum 25(OH)D in RA groups has significant lower level (35.99 ± 12.59 nmol/L) than that in the normal groups (54.35 ± 8.20 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Based on the DAS28, patients with RA were divided into four subgroups, and no differences were found in the four groups (P > 0.05). The 25(OH)D levels in complete remission, low disease activity, middle disease activity, and high disease activity group were 32.86 ± 12.26, 33.97 ± 13.28, 38.41 ± 10.64, and 38.94 ± 13.35 nmol/L, respectively. Based on the serum 25(OH)D levels, patients with RA were divided into inadequate group and normal group, and there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and disease activity in the two groups. Our results showed that serum 25(OH)D levels in the inadequate group are significantly lower than those in the normal group. However, no correlations were found between 25(OH)D levels and disease activity among 116 patients with RA. The present findings will help to understand the association between 25(OH)D and disease activity of RA. PMID:26064964

  12. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

  13. High Serum Irisin Level as an Independent Predictor of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Hye; Ahn, Song Vogue; Choi, Jung Hye; Koh, Sang Baek; Chung, Choon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has been suggested to regulate energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, it remains unclear whether circulating irisin plays a role in the development of DM in human. We investigated the possible association between circulating irisin levels and incident DM in a 2.6-year longitudinal study of a population-based cohort comprised of rural Korean subjects. We conducted a longitudinal study within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KoGES-ARIRANG) study from November 2005 to January 2008. Cases (n=85) were patients with incident DM during the follow-up period and controls (n = 85) were matched to incident DM cases based on sex and age at baseline. The relative risk of serum irisin/adiponectin level for incident DM was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis. Baseline irisin_ENREF_1 levels were significantly higher in subjects who developed DM than in subjects who did not. The serum irisin level was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial glucose. Irisin was negatively associated with adiponectin (R = –0.189, P = 0.014). After adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index, the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for incident DM increased in a graded manner as the serum irisin level increased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 vs Quartile 3 vs Quartile 4 = 1 vs 0.80 [0.28–2.35] vs 3.33 [1.11–10.00] vs 4.10 [1.35–12.44], respectively), whereas the odds ratios for incident DM decreased in a graded manner as the serum adiponectin level increased. High serum irisin was independently associated with the development of DM, indicating that irisin may be a useful predictor of DM in Korean adults. PMID:27281072

  14. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP. PMID:24497087

  15. Serum Levels of Choline-Containing Compounds Are Associated with Aerobic Fitness Level: The HUNT-Study

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian T.; Giskeødegård, Guro F.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Bathen, Tone F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of people at risk is continuously growing. New methods for early risk prediction are therefore needed to actuate prevention strategies before the individuals are diagnosed with CVD. Several studies report that aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality in healthy people. Based on this, we wanted to study differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO2max-level to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have potential as early biomarkers of CVD risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum samples from 218 healthy individuals with a low VO2max (n = 108, 63 women) or high VO2max (n = 110, 64 women) were analysed with MR metabolomics. In addition, standard clinical-chemical analyses for glucose, lipids, liver enzymes, micro-CRP, and colorimetric analysis on circulating choline were performed. Individuals in the low VO2max-group had increased serum levels of free choline, decreased phosphatidylcholine, increased glucosę and decreased unsaturated fatty acids compared to the individuals in the high VO2max–group. Conclusions/Significance Aerobic fitness dependent differences in serum levels of free choline and phosphatidylcholine are observed. They should be further studied as potential early markers of CVD risk. PMID:22860113

  16. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  17. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  18. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period.After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05).Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  19. Relationship between High Serum Cystatin C Levels and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaping; Huang, Yajuan; Liu, Fang; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Aims Serum cystatin C (CysC) has recently been shown to be associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and progression to the pre-diabetic state. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum CysC and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 400 pregnant women including111 with GDM and 289 with normal glucose tolerance at 24–28 weeks of gestation. The subjects were further divided into four groups according to the CysC quartiles, and their clinical characteristics were compared. The serum CysC concentration was measured using immunoturbidimetry and the degree of insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results Serum CysC levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with GDM than in the healthy pregnant women[1.0(0.8–1.8) vs 0.7(0.6–1.0), P<0.01). The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed that serum CysC was positively associated with HOMA-IR(r = 0.118, P<0.05) and the occurrence of GDM(r = 0.348, P<0.01). The pregnant women were divided into quartiles according to their serum CysC concentrations. Compared to the first quartile, pregnant women in Q2 (OR, 2.441; P = 0.025), Q3 (OR, 3.383; P = 0.001) and Q4 (OR, 5.516; P<0.001) had higher risk of GDM after adjusted for age, BMI, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. Further, with a rise in the serum CysC, there was an increasing trend in the HOMA-IR levels (P<0.05). A binary logistic regression analysis after adjusting for other confounding variables revealed a significant and independent association between serum CysC and GDM [OR = 14.269; 95% confidence interval, 4.977–40.908, P<0.01].The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff point for serum CysC to indicate GDM was 0.95mg/L. Conclusions Serum CysC is significantly and independently associated with insulin resistance and GDM. It may be a

  20. Piceatannol lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida-Maruki, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Kurita, Ikuko; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds contained a high amount of piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene), a natural analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential anti-metabolic disorder compound, by its activation of sirtuin and AMP-activated protein kinase. Many reports show that resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether piceatannol also affects diet-induced obesity. We explored the effect of piceatannol on high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that piceatannol did not affect high fat diet-induced body weight gain or visceral fat gain in mice. However, piceatannol did reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Furthermore, to explore the potential of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol as a functional food, passion fruit seed extract was administered in a genetic diabetic mouse model (db/db mice). Single administration of passion fruit seed extract, as well as piceatannol reduced the blood glucose levels of these db/db mice. These results suggest that piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract may have potential application in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25832644

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are inversely associated with systemic inflammation in severe obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Bellia, Alfonso; Garcovich, Caterina; D'Adamo, Monica; Lombardo, Mauro; Tesauro, Manfredi; Donadel, Giulia; Gentileschi, Paolo; Lauro, Davide; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Renato; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is frequently characterized by a reduced vitamin D bioavailability, as well as insulin-resistance and a chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and several circulating inflammatory markers in a cohort of severely obese individuals. Cross-sectional study was carried out among obese patients undergoing a clinical evaluation before bariatric surgery in our University Hospital. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting and post load glucose and insulin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin, adiponectin and lipid profile were collected. Insulin-resistance was assessed by insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Total body fat (FAT kg), total percent body fat (FAT%) and truncal fat mass (TrFAT) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 147 obese subjects (89 women, 37.8 ± 7.1 years) with mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2) were enrolled. Patients in the lowest tertile of 25(OH)D were significantly more obese with a higher amount of TrFAT, more insulin-resistant, and had higher levels of fasting and post-challenge glucose (p < 0.05 for all). In a multivariate regression analysis, serum 25(OH)D was inversely related to significant levels of hs CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α after accounting for age, gender, season of recruitment, BMI, FAT kg and TrFAT (p < 0.01 for all). In extremely obese subjects, 25(OH)D serum concentrations are inversely associated with several biomarkers of systemic inflammation, regardless of the total quantity of fat mass. PMID:21437585

  2. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  3. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  4. Serum cortisol levels in patients with uncomplicated and cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Shwe, T; Khin, M; Min, H; Hla, K K; Win, Y Y; Htwe, K; Thu, T M

    1998-03-01

    Ten patients with uncomplicated malaria, ten with cerebral malaria and 37 controls (blood donors from blood bank) were included in the study. The serum cortisol levels of the patients were determined daily for 7 days while they were at the hospital. A radio-immunoassay method was used for quantitative measurement of cortisol in human serum. The mean serum cortisol level of patients with uncomplicated malaria was 528.2 +/- 123.9 nmol/l, with cerebral malaria was 516.0 +/- 80.5 nmol/l, and in controls was 393.8 +/- 141.0 nmol/l. There was a significant rise of serum cortisol levels in patients with malaria when compared to controls at the day of admission to hospital. There was no significant difference between uncomplicated malaria patients and those with cerebral malaria. There was also no significant difference between the different days of treatment up till day 7. We found no cortisol insufficiency in cases with falciparum malaria during acute and convalescent stages of illness. PMID:9740267

  5. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER.

    PubMed

    Soundravally, Rajendiran; Sherin, Jacob; Agieshkumar, Balakrishna Pillai; Daisy, Mariya Samadanam; Cleetus, Cherupanakkal; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Sujatha, Sistla; Harichandrakumar, Kottyen Thazhath

    2015-01-01

    The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs), and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI), used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue. PMID:26422155

  6. Effects of low-dose thiazide diuretics on fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium-a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mukete, Bertrand N; Rosendorff, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the metabolic profile (fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium) of low-dose thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. The meta-analysis involved 10 randomized controlled clinical trials with a total sample size of 17,636 and 17,947 for the potassium and glucose arms respectively. The random effect model was used to calculate the odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval. The cumulative mean change of fasting plasma glucose was +0.20 mmol/L (+3.6 mg/dL) for the diuretic arm versus +0.12 mmol/L (+2.2 mg/dL) for the comparator arm. The cumulative mean change of serum potassium was -0.22 mmol/L (-0.22 mEq/L) for the diuretic arm versus +0.05 mmol/L (+0.05 mEq/L) for the comparator arm. The aggregate odds ratio for having higher fasting plasma glucose in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 1.22 (1.11 to 1.33; P < .01). The odds ratio for having a lower serum potassium in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 0.36 (0.27 to 0.49; P < .01). The magnitude of the observed change in fasting plasma glucose associated with low-dose thiazide diuretic use, while statistically significant, does not appear to place patients at clinically significant risk. On the other hand, the observed change in serum potassium was also statistically significant, and may be clinically significant in patients whose baseline potassium concentration is low or low-normal, and could predispose at-risk patients, such as those with ischemic heart disease, to ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:23800570

  7. [The blood glucose content in newborn rats depending on level and pattern of spontaneous motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, S V; Selina, E N; Kuznetsova, N N

    2011-01-01

    from the observed one in the rest state. In the case of the appearance of the minute rhythm, the glucose concentration amounts to 5.8 +/- +/- 0.3 mmol/l. The obtained data indicate that reproduction of the minute and decasecond rhythms recorded in composition of SPMA is accompanied by a change in the blood serum glucose level. The degree of a decrease of its concentration correlates with a certain activity rhythm: at the decasecond one the fall is 9, 13, 3, and 7 %, whereas at the minute rhythm--11, 13, 14, and 2% (for the 3-, 5-, 7- and 10-day old rats, respectively). In id to be noted that a certain effect on the activity pattern is produced by the degree of satiety of the rat pups, the gastric emptying being accompanied by an increase in expression of the decasecond rhythm and of brief jerks. Besides, there occur the significant seasonal oscillations of the blood serum glucose concentration in the newborn rat pups--at the summer period it is statistically significantly higher than at the winter-spring period. PMID:21938915

  8. The Association Between Serum Selenium Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Na; Han, Fang; Lin, Xiaojun; Tang, Chun; Ye, Jinghua; Cai, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between serum selenium (Se) levels with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through a meta-analysis approach, the aim of the present study is to clarify the relationship between serum Se levels with RA. We searched literatures that met our predefined criteria in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and OVID published as of September 2015. Ten eligible articles with 14 case-control studies involving 716 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum levels of Se than the healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -1.347, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = [-1.872, -0.823], p < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum Se levels than healthy controls in Europe (SMD = -1.063, 95 % CI = [-1.571, -0.556], p < 0.001) and Asia (SMD = -3.254, 95 % CI = [-4.687, -1.821], p < 0.001) but not in USA (SMD = -0.322, 95 % CI = [-0.657, 0.012], p = 0.059). The serum Se levels were lower in RA than healthy controls measured by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (SMD = -1.026, 95 % CI = [-1.522, -0.530], p < 0.001), electrothermal absorption spectrometry (EAS) (SMD = -1.197, 95 % CI = [-2.373, -0.020], p < 0.05), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) (SMD = -0.681, 95 % CI = [-1.049, -0.313], p < 0.001), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) (SMD = -11.707, 95 % CI = [-15.189, -8.224], p < 0.001) but not by neutron activation analysis (NAA) (SMD = -0.674, 95 % CI = [-1.350, 0.003], p = 0.051). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between low serum Se concentration with RA. However, this finding needs further confirmation by a trans-regional multicenter study to obtain better understanding of causal relationship between serum Se with RA of different human

  9. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  10. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  11. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, L.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Smith, S.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Gerthoux, P.M.; Brambilla, P.; Mocarelli, P.

    1999-02-01

    Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one`s temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. The authors believe that the latter measure is the ``gold standard.`` In this article they present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

  12. Association between serum fetuin-A level and erectile function.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Gunay, M; Aktas, B K; Hirik, E; Aydın, M; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that ED is an early symptom of atherosclerosis. Fetuin-A, a glycoprotein secreted by the liver, kidneys and choroid plexus, has been linked to systemic fibrosis and calcification in human and rat studies. Deficiency of this compound may play a role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease progression. The aim of the study was to examine whether serum fetuin-A level is related to erectile function or severity of ED. Sixty ED patients without cardiovascular disease were assigned to one of the three groups (mild, moderate or severe ED) depending on ED severity. Twenty healthy volunteers were included as the control group. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire was used to measure erection quality in all four groups. Mean age, body mass index, total testosterone, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not significantly differ between the three erectile dysfunction and control groups (P > 0.05). The group with severe ED had a significantly lower mean fetuin-A level than the mild ED and control groups. For both mild and moderate ED groups, the mean serum fetuin-A level was significantly lower in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Serum fetuin-A level may be used as a supplemental biochemical parameter in preliminary evaluation of ED. PMID:26685713

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  14. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  15. Serum immunoglobulin levels and humoral immune competence in coalworkers

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.D.; Boyd, J.E.; Collins, H.P.; Davis, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured in 788 coalworkers and 121 nonmining controls for comparison with the radiological category of pneumoconiosis after taking into account age and smoking habit. In addition a simple assessment of humoral immune competence was made by estimating the titre of serum antibody against the common gut commensal Escherichia coli. Smoking was found to depress serum IgA and IgM while levels of IgG and IgA increased slightly with age. Men with radiological signs of coalworkers pneumoconiosis (CWP) had significantly raised levels of IgA and IgG with increasing pneumoconiosis category. Even coalworkers with less than category 1 simple pneumoconiosis had raised levels of IgA, suggesting that increased production of this immunoglobulin occurs before radiologically identifiable pathological changes have occurred in the lung tissue. No association between reduced humoral immune competence and radiological category of pneumoconiosis was found. Whether high Ig levels in men exposed to coal dust are merely a passive response to dusted lung tissue or whether they indicate that an immunological process is important in the development of pneumoconiotic lesions remains uncertain.

  16. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Karagün, Ebru; Baysak, Sevim; Erden, Gönül; Aktaş, Habibullah; Ekiz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570). Conclusions It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo. PMID:27605903

  17. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  18. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of < 3.50 ng/mL were excluded from analysis. Correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters were determined. Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P < 0.001), PSA (r = 0.510, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose level (r = 0.186, P = 0.007), but not with BMI, testosterone, insulin level, or insulin resistance (each P > 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P < 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.207, P = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = -0.221, P = 0.001), but not with age, prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P < 0.001) and increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.023). In non-DM BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, fasting glucose level is an independent risk factor for prostate hyperplasia. PMID:21949470

  19. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Pediatric Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sobouti, Behnam; Riahi, Aina; Fallah, Shahrzad; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh; Shafiee Sabet, Azin; Ghavami, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have implicated the important and active role of vitamin D in the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children with burn injuries. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 118 patients with various degrees of burn injuries were enrolled. A checklist consisting of demographic data, total body surface area (TBSA) affected by burn, degree of burn, serum level of 25(OH)D, total protein, albumin, electrolytes, and parathyroid hormone was recorded for each patient. Results Sixty-eight (57.6%) males and 50 (42.4%) females with a mean age of 4.04 years (SD = 3.04) were evaluated. The mean level of 25(OH)D was 14.58 ng/mL (SD = 6.94). Levels of 25(OH)D in four (3.39%) cases were higher than 30 ng/mL, while 95 (81.35%) cases had levels lower than 20 ng/mL, and 19 (16.10%) cases had levels of 21 - 30 ng/mL. The level of 25(OH)D was below recommended levels in 96.61% of cases, while 81.34% had vitamin D deficiency and 16.1% had insufficiency. We found a significant correlation between vitamin 25(OH)D and total protein, albumin, and total and ionized calcium (P < 0.001). There was also a significant negative correlation between 25(OH)D and TBSA affected by burn (P = 0.001). Conclusions The levels of 25(OH)D in children suffering from severe burns were low. Supplementation might be useful in patients with very low levels of serum vitamin D. PMID:27218060

  20. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients. PMID:26329996

  1. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Prevents Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Berlier, J L; Kharroubi, I; Zhang, J; Dalla Valle, A; Rigutto, S; Mathieu, M; Gangji, V; Rasschaert, J

    2015-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) are able to differentiate into cells of connective tissue lineages, including bone and cartilage. They are therefore considered as a promising tool for the treatment of bone degenerative diseases. One of the major issues in regenerative cell therapy is the biosafety of fetal bovine serum used for cell culture. Therefore, the development of a culture medium devoid of serum but preserving hBMSC viability will be of clinical value. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has an anti-apoptotic action in insulin-producing cells. Interestingly, GIP also exerts beneficial effects on bone turnover by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We therefore evaluated the ability of GIP to prevent cell death in osteoblastic cells cultured in serum-free conditions. In hBMSC and SaOS-2 cells, activation of the GIP receptor increased intracellular cAMP levels. Serum deprivation induced apoptosis in SaOS-2 and hBMSC that was reduced by 30 and 50 %, respectively, in the presence of GIP. The protective effect of GIP involves activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and inhibition of caspases 3/7 activation. These findings demonstrate that GIP exerts a protective action against apoptosis in hBMSC and suggest a novel approach to preserve viability of hBMSC cultured in the absence of serum. PMID:26254594

  2. Neopterin and interferon gamma serum levels in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Khoss, A E; Balzar, E; Steger, H; Howanietz, H; Wladika, W; Hamilton, G; Woloszczuk, W

    In the follow-up of children receiving renal allografts the early differential diagnosis of infections and rejection episodes is the main problem. Serum levels of neopterin (N), a pteridine released from stimulated macrophages, was determined by radioimmunoassay. Also interferon-gamma (IF) serum levels, a marker of T lymphocyte activity, were determined with an immunoradiometric assay in 19 kidney-transplanted children. Both, infections and rejection episodes, are accompanied by distinct increases in N. The IF are elevated 1-3 days earlier than N, the median values during infections being significantly (p less than or equal to 0.001) higher than those during rejection crises. The routine measurement of N and IF allow the simple, quick and reliable monitoring of the immune status, which seems to be of a high relevance for the daily monitoring of transplant recipients. PMID:3150820

  3. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  4. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  5. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with increased serum CYFRA 21-1 level.

    PubMed

    Kashihara, T; Ohki, A; Kobayashi, T; Sato, T; Nishizawa, H; Ogawa, K; Tako, H; Kawakami, F; Tsuji, M; Tamaoka, K

    1998-06-01

    CYFRA 21-1 is a fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CK 19). Four patients with large intrahepatic (or peripheral) cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and high serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 (normal, < or = 2 ng/ml) are reported. CYFRA 21-1 levels exceeded 9 ng/ml in all 4 patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was high in 1 (CEA; normal range, < or = 5.0 ng/ml) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was high in 3 (CA19-9; normal range, < or = 36 U/ml). We also measured serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 in 13 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) more than 5 cm in diameter. Levels of CYFRA 21-1 exceeded 2 ng/ml in 9 of the HCC patients and were higher than 9 ng/ml in 2 of the HCC patients. Levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and/or protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA II) were elevated in all HCC patients (AFP, PIVKA II, respectively; normal range, < or = 10.0 ng/ml and < or = 0.1 AU/ml) CYFRA 21-1 levels were measured twice or three times during the clinical course in 2 CC patients and in 6 HCC patients, and increased gradually with tumor growth in the 2 CC patients and in 3 of the 6 HCC patients. Marked increases in serum CYFRA 21-1 levels in patients with large liver cancers, particularly in those with normal levels of AFP and PIVKA II, would suggest the existence of intrahepatic CC rather than HCC. PMID:9658330

  6. Role of admission serum albumin levels in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Kaustubh; Yang, Ju Dong; Hinduja, Archana

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels have been reported to be an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in multiple disease conditions. The aim of our study was to identify the impact of low serum albumin levels on mortality and outcomes at discharge in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed our prospective database of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage from January 2010 to December 2011. Patients were dichotomized into two groups based on their serum albumin levels upon admission. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin levels ≤3.4 g/dl. The two groups were compared using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables. Poor outcome was defined as death or discharge to a long-term nursing facility (modified Rankin Score 4-6). Out of 97 patients admitted with intracerebral hemorrhage, 90 met our inclusion criteria (42 had normal levels and 48 had hypoalbuminemia). The baseline characteristics, risk factors, etiology, location and volume of intracerebral hemorrhage, admission blood glucose, white cell count, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and complications were similar between both groups. Although admission hypoalbuminemia did not impact in-hospital mortality (28 vs 24 %, p = 0.635), there was a significant increase in poor outcomes at discharge (59 vs 31 %, p = 0.009) (OR 1.8; 95 % CI; 1.2-2.8). Similar to other diseases, hypoalbuminemia was associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This will need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies before adopting therapeutic and preventive strategies in future. PMID:26133948

  7. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease. PMID:19390788

  8. Serum endocan levels in women with restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Kenan; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet A; Halac, Gulistan; Kilic, Elif; Ayhan, Siddika; Ozaras, Nihal; Yildiz, Kemal; Yildiz, Rabia S; Zorlu, Mehmet; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Kiskac, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocan is a recently introduced marker of endothelial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to compare serum endocan levels in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and control subjects in order to elucidate whether RLS is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods A total of 31 drug naïve female patients with RLS and 31 age- and BMI-matched women were included in the study. Patients with pathological or physiological conditions or with a history of medication use that could potentially influence endothelial functions were excluded, as well as those with alcohol or drug abuse history. The two groups were compared with routine blood tests and serum endocan levels. Results Patients with RLS had lower serum endocan levels than the controls (P=0.037). There was a negative bivariate correlation between RLS severity score and serum endocan levels (r=−0.406, P=0.023). While white blood cell count was significantly higher in RLS group, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, vitamin B12, transferrin saturation rate, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower. Creatininemia and diastolic blood pressure were also marginally insignificantly lower in RLS group. Due to the presence of differences between two groups in these variables, a linear regression analysis was performed that showed a positive association between endocan and creatininemia (β=0.310, P=0.022), and a negative association between endocan and RLS (β=−0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion The results of this study seem to suggest that patients with RLS may have better endothelial functions when compared with the general population and that these patients may be better protected against atherosclerosis. PMID:26640378

  9. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  10. Effect of a modified guar gum preparation on glucose and lipid levels in diabetics and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Smith, U; Holm, G

    1982-10-01

    Six healthy volunteers and 17 diabetics (6 insulin-dependent and 11 diet- and tablet-treated) were treated with a special processed, palatable guar gum (10 g b.i.d. immediately before meals) for periods of one or three weeks or, in some cases, up to 13 weeks. A standardized test meal was given to study the effect of the fiber on postprandial glucose levels. Ten g guar was stirred in water and taken immediately before the test meal. The postprandial blood glucose levels were similar in the healthy volunteers but significantly lower in the diabetics following treatment with guar for one and three weeks, respectively. Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the diabetics after three, but not one, weeks of treatment. The lower postprandial glucose levels were coupled with attenuated and delayed insulin levels in accordance with an effect of guar gum on the rate of carbohydrate absorption. The cholesterol levels were on average reduced with 14% in the diabetics following three weeks' treatment with guar. The higher the initial cholesterol level, the greater the reduction in cholesterol; 26% reduction was achieved in four patients with initial levels above 7 mM. The alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly changed, thus an increase in the alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol/total serum cholesterol ratio was obtained. Neither plasma triglycerides nor body weights altered during treatment. The reported side-effects were as expected and were usually mild and transient (e.g. increased flatulence). The data show that guar gum also reduces postprandial glucose levels on a long-term basis and may improve the diabetic control. Additionally, treatment with this fiber leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in cholesterol levels. PMID:6297515

  11. Serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: the Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Lin, Huandong; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiaoming; He, Wanyuan; Jin, Xuejuan; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Naiqing; Song, Binbin; Pan, Boshen; Gao, Xin

    2015-10-14

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of CVD: the increased serum ferritin level may be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A total of 1178 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60·8 years) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses were performed for each participant. Bilateral CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) were measured using ultrasonography, and the presence of carotid plaques was assessed. Serum ferritin was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The results showed that serum ferritin was 181·9 (sd 65·8) ng/ml in the postmenopausal women. Multivariate, linear, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age (standardised β = 0·233, P< 0·001), alanine transaminase (standardised β = 0·194, P< 0·001), log homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (standardised β = 0·181, P< 0·001), TAG (standardised β = 0·083, P= 0·003), Hb (standardised β = 0·080, P= 0·004) and PPG (2-h glucose levels following a 75-g oral glucose challenge) (standardised β = 0·079, P= 0·004) were independently associated with serum ferritin. Compared with the ferritin level of subjects in the first quartile, that in the fourth quartile had greater CIMT, and higher prevalence of carotid plaque. After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, Hb, leucocytes, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio and liver function, the ferritin level of postmenopausal women in the fourth quartile had a 1·587-fold increased risk of carotid plaques relative to those in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis. PMID:26395322

  12. Sensing Glucose in Urine and Serum and Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Cells by Use of a Novel Boronate Nanoprobe Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Wang, Hao; Schultz, Zachary D; Camden, Jon P

    2016-07-19

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is known as a key molecule in a variety of biological processes, as well as a crucial byproduct in many enzymatic reactions. Therefore, being able to selectively and sensitively detect H2O2 is not only important in monitoring, estimating, and decoding H2O2 relevant physiological pathways but also very helpful in developing enzymatic-based biosensors for other analytes of interest. Herein, we report a plasmonic probe for H2O2 based on 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MPBA) modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which is coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to yield a limit of detection (LOD) of 70 nM. Our probe quantifies both exogenous and endogenous H2O2 levels in living cells and can further be coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx) to achieve quantitative and selective detection of glucose in artificial urine and human serum. PMID:27356266

  13. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  14. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R.; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0–500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26941791

  15. Kinetics of glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin by glucose, fructose and ribose and its prevention by food components.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. PMID:25407721

  16. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0-500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26941791

  17. Blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Safar; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. Results No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). Conclusion The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls. PMID:23875163

  18. Correlation of serum ghrelin levels with body mass index and carbohydrate metabolism in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Palik, E; Birkás, K D; Faludi, G; Karádi, I; Cseh, K

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome is higher in patients with schizophrenia than in the normal population. Atypical antipsychotic drugs are used in psychiatry since the beginning of 1990. These drugs differ from the "typical" antipsychotics used previously, as they have less extrapyramidal side effects, and because of this they are tolerated better, but are associated with weight-gain and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Ghrelin is an orexigen hormone partaking in body weight regulation. It is produced in the enteroendocrine P/D1 cells of the gastric mucosa and secreted to the circulation. The aim of our study was to determine ghrelin levels of atypical antipsychotic-treated patients in relationship with their body mass index (BMI) and carbohydrate metabolism. We measured the fasting serum ghrelin levels in 56 patients (male/female: 16/40, age mean+/-S.D.: 50.6+/-5.6 years) treated with atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidon and quetiapine), and in 75 healthy control subjects, age and gender matched (RIA Linco, USA) in relationship with their BMI and their fasting and 75 g OGTT 120 min blood glucose values. The serum ghrelin levels of the patient group were notably higher (1333+/-659 pg/ml) than in the control group (368+/-103, p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney). We found no difference among the four antipsychotics in weight-gain, diabetes prevalence and the serum ghrelin levels. The BMI of the patient group was significantly higher (29.3+/-7.2 kg/m2 versus 24.3+/-3.7 kg/m2, p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney); 32% of them had blood glucose abnormality (18/56). There was no difference between the ghrelin levels in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. We found a significant negative linear correlation between the serum ghrelin and BMI (r=-0.35, p=0.0078; Spearman), the ghrelin and fasting blood glucose (r=-0.32, p=0.015) and OGTT 75 g 120 min blood glucose levels (r=-0.27, p=0.036). The orexigen effect of elevated serum ghrelin levels can

  19. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Materials and Methods: Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr. Results: SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE (30-500 𝜇g/mL) significantly increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6, 12 and 18 hr. A significant increase in cell apoptosis was seen in cells under SGD condition after 12hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE significantly decreased cell apoptosis subsequent SGD conditionafter12hr at concentration of 60, 125 and 250. Conclusion: These data showed that HSE had a protective property under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that H. sabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26101756

  20. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    PubMed

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  1. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has harmful effects on health and that recent vitamin D intake recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower extremity function, dental health, risk of falls, fractures, cancer prevention, incident hypertension and mortality. For all endpoints, levels in the deficient range (< 50 nmol/l; < 20 ng/ml) are associated with no benefit or adverse effects, while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 microg) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day for all adults may bring 97% of the population to level of at least 50 nmol/l and about 50% up to 75 nmol/l. Thus, higher doses of vitamin D than currently recommended are needed to bring most individuals to75 nmol/l. While estimates suggest that 1600 to 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day may successfully and safely achieve this goal, the implications of higher doses for the total adult population need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25207384

  2. No Interactions Between Previously Associated 2-Hour Glucose Gene Variants and Physical Activity or BMI on 2-Hour Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert A.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Grarup, Niels; Manning, Alisa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Shungin, Dmitry; Tönjes, Anke; Yesupriya, Ajay; Barnes, Daniel; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Glazer, Nicole L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lagou, Vasiliki; Marek, Diana; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Aadahl, Mette; Arking, Dan E.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brunner, Eric; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Brage, Soren; Carlson, Olga D.; Chen, Han; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Couper, David J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Dowling, Nicole F.; Egan, Josephine S.; Ekelund, Ulf; Erdos, Michael R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Fox, Caroline S.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grässler, Jürgen; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Hingorani, Aroon; Holloway, John W.; Hu, Frank B.; Isomaa, Bo; Jameson, Karen A.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jonsson, Anna; Jørgensen, Torben; Kivimaki, Mika; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lecoeur, Cécile; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Li, Guo; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Lyssenko, Valeri; Marmot, Michael; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morken, Mario A.; Müller, Gabriele; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Payne, Felicity; Prokopenko, Inga; Psaty, Bruce M.; Renström, Frida; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybin, Denis; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Sayer, Avan A.; Shrader, Peter; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Siscovick, David S.; Stančáková, Alena; Stumvoll, Michael; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Waeber, Gérard; Williams, Gordon H.; Witte, Daniel R.; Wood, Andrew R.; Xie, Weijia; Boehnke, Michael; Cooper, Cyrus; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif; Kao, W.H. Linda; Vollenweider, Peter; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M.; Pedersen, Oluf; Meigs, James B.; Ingelsson, Erik; Barroso, Inês; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.; Dupuis, Josée; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Gene–lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13–0.31], P = 1.63 × 10−6). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06–0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10−7), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene–lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions. PMID:22415877

  3. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control. PMID:16154305

  4. The effect of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin levels in late elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Jin, Young-Yun; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin in late elementary school children. [Methods] Those who (n = 220) completed the 7-day physical activity monitoring underwent a second round of measurements including body fat, serum glucose and insulin, and serum IL-6 and vaspin. One way ANOVAs followed by LSD post hoc tests were used to test for significant differences in dependent variables across incremental physical activity levels at p=0.05. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for serum IL-6 and vaspin levels at p=0.05. [Results] The results showed significant inverse linear trends for body fat parameters across incremental physical activity levels (from low to high); the lower the body fat, the higher the physical activity levels. On the other hand, there were no significant linear trends for insulin resistance markers or dietary intake across incremental physical activity levels. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for individual variations in serum IL-6 and vaspin in the study population. We found that body mass index (p=0.002) and low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.002 and p=0.0045, respectively) were significant determinants of serum IL-6. In addition, low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.01 & p=0.022, respectively) were significant determinants of serum vaspin levels in this study population. [Conclusion] In summary, the findings of the current study suggest that promotion of physical activity along with a healthy diet should be key components of lifestyle interventions to improve serum cytokine profiles associated with insulin resistance syndrome in late elementary school children. PMID:26244128

  5. Postoperative enteral hyperalimentation results in earlier elevation of serum branched-chain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Moss, G; Naylor, E D

    1994-07-01

    To objectively document the immediate maintenance and successful exploitation of postoperative gastrointestinal (GI) function, elemental diet was infused into the more distal duodenum of 30 cholecystectomy patients at 300 kcal per hour, beginning on arrival at the recovery room. Approximately 4,600 kcal and 190 grams of amino acids were absorbed during the initial 16 hours. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) had risen above basal levels at 4 hours, statistically significant only for leucine (+64%). The higher concentrations had reached statistical significance for all BCAAs by 6 hours, when leucine had risen by 83%, isoleucine by 54%, and valine by 47%. The elevated BCAA and glucose levels sustained throughout the hyperalimentation period objectively verify that postoperative GI function can be safely exploited, and may contribute to improved wound healing and sepsis resistance. PMID:8024096

  6. Blood glucose levels in diabetic patients following corticosteroid injections into the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jeffrey G.; London, Daniel A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify diabetic patients’ change in blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injection for common hand diseases and to assess which patient-level risk factors may predict an increase in blood glucose levels. Methods Patients were recruited for this case-crossover study in the clinic of fellowship-trained hand surgeons at a tertiary care center. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 receiving a corticosteroid injection recorded their morning fasting blood glucose levels for 14 days after their injection. Fasting glucose levels on days 1–7 after injection qualified as “case” data with levels on days 10–14 providing control data. A mixed model with a priori contrasts were used to compare post-injection blood glucose levels to baseline levels. A linear regression model was used to determine patient predictors of a post-injection rise in blood glucose levels. Results Forty of 67 patients (60%) recruited for the study returned completed blood glucose logs. There was a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels following injection limited to post-injection days 1 and 2. Among patient risk factors in our linear regression model, type 1 diabetes and use of insulin each predicted a post-injection increase in blood glucose levels from baseline while higher HbA1c levels did not predict increases. Discussion Corticosteroid injections in the hand transiently increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetics are more likely to experience this transient rise in blood glucose levels. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III PMID:24679910

  7. Identification of Glucose-Binding Pockets in Human Serum Albumin Using Support Vector Machine and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ranganarayanan, Preethi; Thanigesan, Narmadha; Ananth, Vivek; Jayaraman, Valadi K; Ramakrishnan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been suggested to be an alternate biomarker to the existing Hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) marker for glycemic monitoring. Development and usage of HSA as an alternate biomarker requires the identification of glycation sites, or equivalently, glucose-binding pockets. In this work, we combine molecular dynamics simulations of HSA and the state-of-art machine learning method Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict glucose-binding pockets in HSA. SVM uses the three dimensional arrangement of atoms and their chemical properties to predict glucose-binding ability of a pocket. Feature selection reveals that the arrangement of atoms and their chemical properties within the first 4Å from the centroid of the pocket play an important role in the binding of glucose. With a 10-fold cross validation accuracy of 84 percent, our SVM model reveals seven new potential glucose-binding sites in HSA of which two are exposed only during the dynamics of HSA. The predictions are further corroborated using docking studies. These findings can complement studies directed towards the development of HSA as an alternate biomarker for glycemic monitoring. PMID:26886739

  8. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  9. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  10. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes.

    PubMed

    Morato-Conceicao, Yvelise T; Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Arruda, Talita A; Lopes, Jose C; Fontes, Cor J F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18-69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with type

  11. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  12. Low serum levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Michael; Al Samie, Abdul Rahim; Winkler, Heide-Maria; Nemeth, Johannes; Grasnek, Andreas; Indra, Alexander; Bieglmayer, Christian; Winkler, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37 possesses antituberculous activity, its association with other mycobacterial diseases, such as leprosy, is unknown. We studied serum cathelicidin and 25OH-vitamin D3 levels in 29 leprosy patients and 19 healthy individuals from Yemen. Cathelicidin levels were significantly lower in both treated (n=15) and untreated leprosy patients (n=14) when compared to controls (P<0.001). Within leprosy patients, levels were lower in those who very recently developed disease (untreated group) when compared to already treated patients (P<0.05). 25OH-vitamin D3 levels were not different between groups. The results suggest a potential association of cathelicidin LL-37 with Mycobacterium leprae infection. PMID:20887706

  13. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  14. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183

  15. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  16. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  17. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  18. Disproportionately elevated proinsulinemia is observed at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Hanley, Anthony J; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate disproportional proinsulinemia in the pre-diabetic state by analyzing the cross-sectional differences between proinsulin (PI) ratios across the entire range of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose. The study sample was 1,016 participants in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study, who had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) and acute insulin response (AIR) were measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting intact and split PI-to-insulin ratios (PI/I, SPI/I), intact and split PI-to-C-peptide ratios (PI/C-pep, SPI/C-pep), and SI-adjusted AIR were assessed as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose levels. SI-adjusted AIR was decreased (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 120-131 mg/dl) and SPI/C-pep increased at modestly elevated fasting glucose and 2-h glucose within the normal glucose tolerance range (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 132-142 mg/dl). PI/I was not increased until plasma glucose values were in the diabetic range of fasting glucose (>126 mg/dl) or the impaired glucose tolerance range of 2-h glucose (143-156 mg/dl). SPI/I and PI/C-pep as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose were situated between the curves for SPI/C-pep and PI/I. In conclusion, inappropriate amounts of PI and conversion intermediaries are demonstrated at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range. Ratios that use SPI in the numerator or C-pep in the denominator (and especially SPI/C-pep) are more sensitive to early glycemic excursions than PI/I. Disordered processing of PI may accompany derangements in early insulin secretory response. PMID:24532116

  19. Alteration in plasma glucose levels in Japanese encephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Apurva; Singh, Aditi; Atrishi, Ekta; Saxena, S K; Mathur, Asha

    2002-02-01

    A unique factor, human T cell hypoglycaemic factor (hTCHF), has been shown to produce hypoglycaemia during the convalescent stage in the plasma of patients with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. The present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of T cells from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of such patients to produce hTCHF. The PBMC, as well as the individual subpopulations, were cultured for 24 h and the culture supernatants (CS) were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity. The activity was observed in the CD8+ T cells. The hypoglycaemia in JE-confirmed patients coincided with the gradual rise in circulating glucagon level, with no significant alterations in insulin, growth hormone and cortisol levels. The hTCHF was purified by ion exchange chromatography and the purified protein was observed as a approximately 25 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. Secretory hTCHF in the sera of patients and T cell CS was present in 88% of convalescent serum samples. We conclude that during the convalescent stage of JEV infection, a unique factor, hTCHF, is secreted by activated CD8+ T cells from patients and that this is responsible for the development of hypoglycaemia. PMID:12059908

  20. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  1. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. PMID:26940240

  2. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  3. Pyoderma gangrenosum with increased levels of serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Kana; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoko; Itoh, Eriko; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented after an episode of accidental trauma with a painful ulcer on her scalp which rapidly enlarged in size, accompanied by central necrosis and undermining ulceration. The patient's past history was negative for underlying systemic disease, although she had had a similar post-traumatic intractable leg ulcer 3 years prior, which was unresponsive to surgical management but successfully treated with systemic steroids. A biopsied specimen from the scalp showed marked neutrophilic infiltrates in the dermis, compatible with a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The large ulcerative lesion responded very well to oral steroid therapy, showing rapid epithelialization. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated prior to treatment, with decrease to normal levels after treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels were within normal limits. The significance and pathogenic role of cytokine burst in PG is reviewed and discussed. PMID:26047254

  4. Effects of gliclazide add on metformin on serum omentin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Alrubai, Haidar F.; Suliaman, Sammar M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omentin is a newly identified adipokine that has beneficial influence against cardiovascular disorders. Hence, considering the impact of anti-diabetic drug on omentin levels may provide an adjuvant strategy to protect diabetic patients against valuable clinical hazards. Aim of the Study: To investigate the influence of metformin alone or in combination with gliclazide on the level of serum omentin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods: A total of 70 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind prospective study, and divided into two equal groups based on treatment regimen in which Group 1 treated with metformin (1000 mg) and Group 2 treated with metformin (1000 mg) plus gliclazide (80 mg). Blood glucose levels, HbA1C, insulin levels, and serum omentin-1 were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result: Use of gliclazide as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with T2DM result in better glycemic control evidenced by significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose levels and HbA1C and much more improvement in insulin sensitivity evidenced by significant decreased in insulin resistance index, whereas it has adverse impact on serum omentin-1 levels evidenced by significant decrement in omentin-1 level in comparison to their pretreatment levels among Group 2 patients. Conclusions: Adding of gliclazide to metformin in treatment of patients with T2DM might extend the therapeutic action of metformin in regarding much better controlling of glycemic indices, but, at the same time, it might attenuate the cardioprotective effects of metformin by its adverse influence on serum omentin-1 levels. PMID:27042415

  5. Complement levels in acute infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, J. C.; Leader-Williams, Lesley K.

    1972-01-01

    The level of the third component of complement was measured in serial specimens of serum taken from thirty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis. Fourteen of the thirty-one patients were positive for the hepatitis-associated antigen. A characteristic fluctuation was observed in twenty-nine of the thirty-one patients. This consisted of an initial fall of the level of C3, followed by an increase to a higher than normal level and then a gradual return to normal. No difference was observed between the patients who were positive and those who were negative for the hepatitis-associated antigen. These results support the view that immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. PMID:4624985

  6. Association Between Serum B12 and Serum Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Patients on Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and metformin both can lower serum B12 (s.B12). Raised serum Homocysteine (s.Hcy) is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. Aim The study aimed to check whether homocysteine levels are more sensitive indicator of s. B12 deficiency or not among diabetics using metformin. Materials and Methods Mean s.B12 and s.Hcy levels of 30 cases (diabetics on metformin <5years) were compared with 30 diabetic controls not on metformin and 31 nondiabetic controls and statistically analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy. Conclusion In this study neither metformin nor T2DM could be identified as a cause for s.B12 lowering and raised s.Hcy in the scenario of low normal levels of s.B12 (<300pmol/L). If B12 deficiency recognized early using s. Hcy, consequences due to B12 deficiency can be prevented or delayed among nondiabetics as well as among diabetics and metformin users. PMID:27190787

  7. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and intestinal microflora in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether orally administered Korean grain larvae ethanol extract (GLE) had a bifidogenic effect in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a negative control group (CO) and GLE orally administered (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg/100 g body weight) groups. Thymus and spleen weights dosedependently increased by 128.58 percent and 128.58 percent, respectively, but abdominal fat decreased by 19.18 percent after GLE administration compared with that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose decreased by 30.26 percent, 7.33 percent, 27.20 percent, and 6.96 percent, respectively, whereas highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 129.93 percent in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). IgG, IgM, IgA in the GLE groups increased 203.68 percent, 181.41 percent, and 238.25 percent, respectively, compared to that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus increased by 115.74 percent and 144.28 percent, whereas Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Streptococcus decreased by 17.37 percent, 17.46 percent, 21.25 percent, and 19.16 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Total organic acids, acetic acid, and propionic acid increased by 151.40 percent, 188.09 percent, and 150.17 percent, whereas butyric acid and valeric acid decreased by 40.65 percent and 49.24 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups as compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that Korean GLE improves the bifidogenic effect by increasing cecal organic acids and modulating gut microflora via a selective increase in Bifidobacterium in normal rats. PMID:26333397

  8. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  9. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  10. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  11. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6). PMID:16242609

  12. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP+-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP+ treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP+ induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP+ at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP+-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP+ depending on extracellular glucose levels. PMID:26412968

  13. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (P<0.0001). The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the blood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. PMID:25073916

  14. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  15. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  16. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  17. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with normal serum lactate dehydrogenase level].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideaki; Hangaishi, Akira; Saika, Makoto; Morioka, Takehiko; Ando, Yayoi; Kida, Michiko; Usuki, Kensuke

    2015-11-01

    We herein report two cases of AIHA (autoimmune hemolytic anemia), a 25-year-old woman and a 77-year-old man, who presented with normal serum LDH values. Though in these two cases, low hemoglobin and haptoglobin, high total bilirubin and positive direct Coombs' test results led to the diagnosis of AIHA, both patients had normal LDH levels (218 and 187 IU/l). Both cases were successfully treated with prednisone. In the diagnosis of AIHA, elevated LDH is usually used as a marker of hemolysis. However, medical records of 24 AIHA patients collected in our institute from January 2001 to August 2012 revealed LDH levels to have been normal in 25% of these cases. This report indicates the importance of obtaining complete information about the blood testing of patients and taking these data into account when considering the diagnosis of AIHA. PMID:26666722

  18. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (p<0.01-0.0001). Fatal diabetic ketoacidosis cases had evidently high glucose levels at each site; whereas in the non-diabetic group, blood glucose level was higher in fatal alcohol abuse, saltwater drowning, electrocution, cerebrovascular disease and sudden cardiac death due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  19. Lipoprotein(a) Serum Levels in Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Gagliano, Caterina; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Michele; Leonardi, Daniela Giovanna; Motta, Massimo; Drago, Filippo; Avitabile, Teresio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Atherogenic lipoproteins, such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, are associated with progression of retinopathy. Aim. To evaluate the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 145 diabetic consecutive patients (82 females, 63 males; mean age 66.8 ± 12 years, mean duration of diabetes 9.4 ± 6.8 years). Presence and severity of retinopathy were evaluated. Serum lipid profile, including Lp(a) level, was assessed. Results. High Lp(a) levels have been observed in 54 (78.3%) subjects and normal levels in 13 (18.85%) subjects as regards diabetic patients with retinopathy. Lp(a) levels were high in 15 subjects (21.75%) and normal in 63 subjects (91.35%) as regards patients without retinopathy. Conclusions. Lp(a) levels are increased in a significant percentage of patients with retinopathy compared to diabetic patients without retinopathy. The impact of Lp(a) levels on diabetic retinopathy needs to be further investigated. PMID:23862162

  20. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongmei; Yin, Quhua; Yan, Xiaoli; Song, Huaidong; Gao, Guanqi; Liang, Jun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Methods: We screened 1607 euthyroid subjects aged 35-65 years old. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups (i.e., TPOAb-positive group, n=205; TPOAb-negative group, n=1402) according to the level of TPOAb. The subjects were then subgrouped according to serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; those with a TSH level of 0.3-0.99 mIU/L, 1.0-1.89 mIU/L, and 1.9-4.80 mIU/L were classified into the low-normal, mid-range, and high-normal TSH subgroups, respectively). Each TSH group further subdivided into TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative subgroup. Data regarding the subjects’ height, body weight, blood pressure, and levels of serum TSH, TPOAb, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. Results: Compared with TPOAb-negative subjects, TPOAb-positive patients had higher levels of TSH, TC, and HDL-C (P=0.001, P=0.012, and P=0.049 respectively) with a tendency for increased LDL-C levels (P=0.053). In the low-normal TSH subgroup, subjects with and without TPOAb had similar levels of TSH, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P>0.05). In mid-range TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher HDL-C levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P=0.008) and a tendency for increased TC levels (P=0.121). In the high-normal TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher TSH and TC levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P<0.001 and P=0.046 respectively). Conclusions: High TPOAb levels above the normal range appears in euthyroid population, dyslipidemia have begun. PMID:26885115

  1. Association between Glucose Levels and Intraocular Pressure: Pre- and Postprandial Analysis in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Luis Guilherme Milesi; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; da Silva, Leticia Sant'Ana Cardoso; Souza, Aline Katia Siqueira; Prata, Tiago Santos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between glucose levels and intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Seventeen nondiabetic and 20 diabetic subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, capillary glucose testing, and applanation tonometry in two distinct situations: first, fasting for at least 8 hours and, second, postprandial measurements. Baseline glucose levels were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.001). Postprandial IOP was significantly higher than baseline IOP in diabetic (P < 0.001) and nondiabetic patients (P = 0.006). Postprandial glucose levels were significantly higher than baseline measurements in both diabetic (P = 0.005) and nondiabetic patients (P = 0.015). There was a significant association between glucose levels variation and IOP change in both diabetic patients (R2 = 0.540; P < 0.001) and nondiabetic individuals (R2 = 0.291; P = 0.025). There is also a significant association between the baseline glucose levels and IOP change in diabetic group (R2 = 0.445; P = 0.001). In a multivariable model, the magnitude of glucose level change remained significantly associated with IOP variation even including age, baseline IOP, ancestry, and gender as a confounding factor (P < 0.001). We concluded that there is a significant association between blood glucose levels and IOP variation, especially in diabetic patients. PMID:25642344

  2. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition. PMID:25555007

  3. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  4. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model. PMID:24634595

  5. Association of Tumor Growth Factor-β and Interferon-γ Serum Levels With Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolreza; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Yusefi, Alireza; Zabetian, Hassan; Zareian, Parvin; Hakimelahi, Hossein; Madani, Abdolhossien; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is related to change in glucose metabolism and insulin production. The aim of our study was to determine the association of serum IFN-γ and TGF- β levels with insulin resistance during normal pregnancy. This cross sectional study was carried out on 97 healthy pregnant (in different trimesters) and 28 healthy non-pregnant women. Serum TGF-β and IFN- γ level were measured by ELISA method. Pregnant women had high level TGF-β and low level IFN-γ as compared non-pregnant women. Maternal serum TGF-β concentration significantly increased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Maternal serum IFN-γ concentration significantly decreased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women exhibited higher score of HOMA IR as compared non-pregnant women. There were association between gestational age with body mass index (r=0.28, P=0.005), TGF-β (r=0.45, P<0.001) and IFN-γ (r=-0.50, P<0.001). There was significant association between Insulin resistance and TGF-β (r=0.17, p=0.05). Our findings suggest that changes in maternal cytokine level in healthy pregnant women were anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, Tumor Growth Factor-β appears has a role in induction insulin resistance in healthy pregnant women. However, further studies needed to evaluate role of different cytokines on insulin resistance in normal pregnancy. PMID:26755467

  6. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities. PMID:25314375

  7. Association of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Miao, Xiao; Wang, Hongshen; Wang, Yifei; Li, Fulun; Yang, Qiong; Cui, Rutao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High levels of serum uric acid (SUAC) are frequently detected in patients with psoriasis. However, the relationship between psoriasis and hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the SUAC levels in subjects with psoriasis and to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. A comprehensive search of the literature from January 1980 to November 2014 across 7 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, and 4 Chinese databases) was conducted to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. Among the 170 identified reports, 14 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant higher SUAC level (MD 0.68, 95% CI 0.26–1.09; P = 0.002) in patients with psoriasis in Western Europe, but no significant differences were found between the East Asia and India subgroup (MD 1.22, 95% CI –0.13–2.56; P = 0.08) or the Middle East subgroup (MD 0.48, 95% CI –0.49–1.44; P = 0.33). Similar results were obtained from the meta-analysis of SUAC levels in subjects with severe psoriasis. Our meta-analysis showed that the correlation between psoriasis and hyperuricemia was either ethnicity- or region-dependent and that patients with psoriasis in Western Europe were more likely to have hyperuricemia. PMID:27175702

  8. Carbohydrate 19.9 Antigen Serum Levels in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, Gaetano; Ardiri, Annalisa Maria; Calvagno, Giuseppe Stefano; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Interlandi, Donatella; Vacante, Marco; Bertino, Nicoletta; Lucca, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Motta, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbohydrate 19.9 antigen (CA19.9) has been used in the diagnosis and followup of gastrointestinal tumours. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was the evaluation of CA19.9 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis hepatitis C virus and B virus correlated. Materials and Methods. 180 patients were enrolled, 116 with HCV-related chronic liver disease (48% chronic hepatitis, 52% cirrhosis) and 64 with HBV-related chronic liver disease (86% chronic hepatitis, 14% cirrhosis). Patients with high levels of CA19.9 underwent abdominal ecography, gastroendoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scan. Results. 51.7% of patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease and 48.4% of those with HBV-related chronic liver disease presented high levels of CA19.9. None was affected by pancreatic or intestinal neoplasia, cholestatic jaundice, or other diseases potentially able to induce Ca19.9 elevations. CA19.9 levels were elevated in 43.3% of HCV chronic hepatitis, in 56.3% of HCV cirrhosis, in 45.1% of HBV chronic hepatitis, and in 58% of HBV cirrhosis. Conclusions. CA19.9 commonly increases in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Elevation of CA 19.9 is not specific for neoplastic disease and is related to the severity of fibrosis and to the viral aetiology of hepatitis. PMID:24282817

  9. ASSOCIATION OF OBESITY AND DIABETES WITH SERUM PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN LEVELS IN JAPANESE MALES

    PubMed Central

    NAITO, MARIKO; ASAI, YATAMI; MORI, ATSUYOSHI; FUKADA, YUKO; KUWABARA, MAYUMI; KATASE, SHIRO; HISHIDA, ASAHI; MORITA, EMI; KAWAI, SAYO; OKADA, RIEKO; NISHIO, KAZUKO; TAMAKOSHI, AKIKO; WAKAI, KENJI; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with diabetes have been reported to be at an increased risk for cancers of the pancreas, liver, and colon; however, recent studies have suggested that men with diabetes are at a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Previous studies have found that obese men have lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations than do non-obese men. Further understanding of how obesity and diabetes affect the PSA concentration may improve our ability to detect clinically relevant prostate tumors. This study examined the relationships among serum PSA level, obesity, and diabetes in apparently healthy Japanese males. We analyzed the baseline data from 2,172 Japanese males (age, 56.8 ± 6.1 years [mean ± SD]) who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Diabetes was defined as the presence of both a hemoglobin A1c (JDS) of ≥6.1% and a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL, or a positive medical history. After adjusting for age, the PSA levels were elevated among males with a higher normal BMI (ranging from 23.0 to 24.9) and lowered among men with a BMI of ≥25.0. In the stratified analysis, these significant differences in BMI categories were absent among diabetics. The mean PSA levels were significantly lower in diabetics than in non-diabetics among subjects aged 60 and over. Our findings suggest that the pre-overweight men had increased PSA levels, and the diabetes was associated with a reduction of PSA levels in elderly. PMID:23092101

  10. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  11. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  12. Relevance and clinical significance of serum resistin level in obese T2DM rhesus monkey models.

    PubMed

    Qi, S-D; He, Z-L; Chen, Y; Ma, J; Yu, W-H; Li, Y-Y; Yang, F-M; Wang, J-B; Chen, L-X; Zhao, Y; Lu, S-Y

    2015-09-01

    Resistin is a type of hormone-like adipocytokines, which is secreted specifically by adipocytes. It may be a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from obesity- associated insulin resistance due to results that show that it has a close relationship with insulin resistance in rodents. We utilized the rhesus monkeys as study objects to preliminarily test the association with glucose metabolism and to conduct a correlation analysis for clinical parameters and serum resistin levels in obese rhesus monkey models of T2DM. The results suggested that resistin was significantly increased in T2DM monkeys (P <0.01), and that resistin had a positive correlation respectively with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FPI) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Insulin resistance index (HOA-IR), but a negative correlation with islet β-cell function (HOMA-β). In the course of glucose metabolism, reverse release change of resistin and insulin in T2DM monkeys occurred, but the phenomenon that was not observed in the control group, these findings indicated that resistin negatively regulated and interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in T2DM monkey models. The character of the releasing change of resistin might be a unique process in T2DM. Therefore, all of the results could provide references for clinical diagnostic criteria for human cases of T2DM, and could have clinical significance for obese T2DM diagnosis and degree of insulin resistance. PMID:26069076

  13. Enhanced Soluble Serum CD40L and Serum P-Selectin Levels in Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Petramala, L; Iacobellis, G; Carnevale, R; Marinelli, C; Zinnamosca, L; Concistrè, A; Galassi, M; Iannucci, G; Lucia, P; Pignatelli, P; Ciardi, A; Violi, F; De Toma, G; Letizia, C

    2016-07-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is one of the most frequent forms of secondary hypertension, associated with atherosclerosis and higher risk of cardiovascular events. Platelets play a key role in the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the platelet activation by measuring serum levels of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and P-selectin (sP-selectin) in consecutive PA patients [subgroup: aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (IHA)], matched with essential hypertensive (EH) patients. The subgroup of APA patients was revaluated 6-months after unilateral adrenalectomy. In all PA group, we measured higher serum levels of both sP-selectin (14.29±9.33 pg/ml) and sCD40L (9.53±4.2 ng/ml) compared to EH patients (9.39±5.3 pg/ml and 3.54±0.94 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.001). After removal of APA, PA patients showed significant reduction of blood pressure (BP) values, plasma aldosterone (PAC) levels and ARR-ratio, associated with a significant reduction of sP-selectin (16.74±8.9 pg/ml vs. 8.1±3.8 pg/ml; p<0.01) and sCD40L (8.6±1 ng/ml vs. 5.24±0.94 ng/ml; p<0.001). In PA patients, we found a significant correlation between sP-selectin and sCD40L with PAC (r=0.52, p<0.01; r=0.50, p<0.01, respectively); this correlation was stronger in APA patients (r=0.54; p<0.01 r=0.63; p<0.01, respectively). Our results showed that PA is related to platelet activation, expressed as higher plasma values of sCD40L and sP-selectin values. Surgical treatment and consequent normalization of aldosterone secretion was associated with significant reduction of sCD40L and sP-selectin values in APA patients. PMID:27101095

  14. Comparison of Serum Adipocytokine Levels according to Metabolic Health and Obesity Status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Won Seon; Han, Ki Joong; Lee, Shin Yeoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chae, Hyun Beom; Jang, Choel Min; Yoo, Kyung Mo; Park, Hae Jung; Lee, Min Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Oh, Hyung Geun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic health is an emerging concept that is highly correlated with various metabolic complications, and adipocytokines have been causally linked to a wide range of metabolic diseases. Thus, this study compared serum adipocytokine levels according to metabolic health and obesity status. Methods Four hundred and fifty-six nondiabetic subjects (mean age, 40.5 years) were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUHNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). Being metabolically healthy was defined as the presence of fewer than two of the following five metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and being in the highest decile of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. Obesity status was assessed using body mass index (BMI), with obesity defined as a BMI higher than 25 kg/m2. Levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) were also evaluated. Results Of the 456 subjects, 247 (54.2%) were in the MHNO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MHO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MUHNO group, and 77 (16.9%) were in the MUHO group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 or MCP-1 levels among the groups, but levels of TNF-α and A-FABP were significantly higher in the MUHNO group compared to the MHNO group. Conclusion High TNF-α and A-FABP levels are significantly associated with metabolically unhealthiness in nonobese Korean individuals. PMID:25325281

  15. In vitro study of PET tumor tracers at normal and elevated media glucose levels

    SciTech Connect

    Torizuka, T.; Clavo, A.C.; Wahl, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    FDG uptake in tumors is decreased by hyperglycemia. Little is known about the effect of hyperglycemia on non-FDG PET tracer uptake in tumors. This study was designed to determine if PET tumor tracers are affected by chronic exposure of tumor cells to high media glucose levels. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma (HTB77IP3) cells normally grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose were grown in media with 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. At 20, 26 and 38 days after initial culture (6-7 days after subculture), uptakes of 3H-labeled FDG, Thymidine (Thy), Methionine (Met) and Leucine (Leu) into the cells (n=4) were determined at the same glucose level as growth media. Tracer uptake per 1 million cells was measured after a 60 min uptake period. Presented are percentage of tracer uptake of cells grown at 300 mg/dl of glucose relative to uptake of cells grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose (mean {plus_minus} SD of 20, 26, and 38 days culture). Paired t-tests were used to compare tracer uptake of cells grown and assayed at both glucose levels. P values <0.05 were considered significant. FDG uptake of cells grown and assayed at 300 mg/dl of glucose was significantly decreased, compared with uptake of cells grown and assayed at 100 mg/dl of glucose. By contrast, uptake of Thy, Met and Leu were not different between cells grown and assayed at 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. These results indicate that tumor uptake of Thy, Met and Leu do not depend on media glucose level and suggest that these tracers labeled with C-11 are suitable for hyperglycemic patients, in whom tumor FDG uptake is expected to be impaired.

  16. Measurement of Physiologic Glucose Levels Using Raman Spectroscopy in a Rabbit Aqueous Humor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Borchert, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have elecited a reliable glucose signature in mammalian physiological ranges using near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm and multivariate analysis. In a recent series of experiments we measured glucose levels in an artificial aqueous humor in the range from 0.5 to 13X normal values.

  17. Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret; Prince, Jonathan A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex which may clarify conflicting prior evidence. Design A 16-year prospective cohort study of health and cognitive aging. Participants 819 adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 50 years and older at the first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. Measurements Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span. Baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, apoA1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident prior to age 65. In women higher HDL and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities over age, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction: i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline. In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. Conclusions Elevated lipids may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, while for men the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. PMID:20398119

  18. Serum resistin levels in children with primary snoring.

    PubMed

    Zicari, A M; Cutrera, R; Occasi, F; Carbone, M P; Cesoni Marcelli, A; De Castro, G; Indinnimeo, L; Tancredi, G; Galandrini, R; Giuffrida, A; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    Primary Snoring (PS) has been positioned at the milder end of the Sleep-Disordered Breathing severity continuum characterized by snoring and it is usually underestimated. PS is defined as snoring without apnea, frequent arousals, or gas exchange abnormalities and recent studies demonstrated that children with PS have increased blood pressure and reduced arterial distensibility. The association between adipokines and SDB has been recently investigated, though most of the studies were focused on OSAS where intermittent hypoxia characterizing the disease may lead to an inflammatory cascade and to the release of several adipokines, contributing to oxidative stress. Resistin, initially described s an adipokine increasing insulin resistance, has been recently identified as a novel important member of the cytokine family involved in the regulation of inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate circulating resistin levels in normal weight children with PS. Sixty-five children of normal weight aged between 4 and 14 years of age were selected for habitual snoring. Children with positive polysomnography were excluded from the study. Serum resistin levels were detected in all children with PS. Thirty-three healthy non-snorer children with similar age, sex and BMI were selected as a control group. A significantly higher level of resistin was observed in patients with PS compared to the control group (4.67±1.91 ng/ml vs 3.98±1.58 ng/ml; p<0.01). Patients with inconclusive pulse oximetry showed significantly higher resistin levels than those with negative recordings recordings (5.29±1.91 ng/ml vs 4.20±1.93 ng/ml; p<0.008). Moreover, there was a significant increasing trend between sieric adipokine level and the frequency of snoring (p<0.006). Our results suggest that systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may also play a significant role in the pathophysiology of PS. PMID:25280038

  19. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. RESULTS There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. CONCLUSIONS Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  20. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  1. Serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Preti, Paola; Zoppi, Annalisa; Fogari, Elena; Rinaldi, Andrea; Corradi, Luca; Mugellini, Amedeo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in the elderly. We studied 356 non-diabetic, non-smoking, non-obese men aged 60 to 80 years and untreated for hypertension. All subjects were evaluated in the morning after an overnight fast. Evaluation included measurements of the following: BP (by mercury sphygmomanometer, Korotkoff I and V), body weight, height and free testosterone (T) plasma levels (by radioimmunoassay). According to the BP values, the subjects were classified as normotensives (NT; n=112; SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg), systolic and diastolic hypertensives (HT; n=127; SBP/DBP>140/90 mmHg), and isolated systolic hypertensives (ISH; n=117; SBP>140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg). T values decreased with increasing age in all 3 groups and was significantly lower in HT (-15%) and ISH men (-21%) than in NT men (p<0.05). In each group, the T levels showed a highly significant negative correlation with BMI (p<0.001). A significant negative correlation was also found between T levels and SBP in NT (r=-0.35, p<0.001), ISH (r=-0.67, p<0.001), and HT (r=-0.19, p<0.05) men, whereas a negative correlation with DBP was observed only in the NT men (r=-0.19, p<0.05). Adjusting for the BMI confirmed a significant difference in plasma T levels between ISH and NT men, but not between HT and NT men. Multiple regression analysis employing BP as a dependent variable confirmed a strong relationship between T levels and SBP in all 3 groups, whereas a significant relationship between T levels and DBP was found only in NT men. In conclusion, although further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between plasma T levels and BP, our findings suggest that in elderly men with ISH, the reduced plasma levels of testosterone might contribute to the increased arterial stiffness typical of these subjects. PMID:16392765

  2. The Clinical and Biochemical Parameters in Relation to the Serum Neopterin Levels in Indian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nageswara Rao G., Srinivasa; Gurumurthy, Prema; E., Sruti; Cherian, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An adverse pattern of blood lipids and cardiovascular abnormalities starts in obese children during childhood and neopterin serves as a marker for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the data for children and adolescents, particularly, in the Indian population, are scarce. The present study aimed at evaluating the levels of serum neopterin in obese and overweight children and adolescents of the Indian population. Methods: The study groups included 296 school going children and adolescents. (96 obese and 97 overweight subjects were compared with 103 normal controls who were aged between 10-17 years). The anthropometric variables, the lipid profile, the fasting serum glucose which was analyzed by using an autoanalyzer and the serum neopterin levels were assayed by HPLC (Shimazdu) by using the method of Palfrey et al., 1993. The serum insulin levels were measured by using ELISA kits. Results: The serum neopterin levels (nmol/l) were elevated significantly in the obese (7.4±1.4) and overweight (6.4±0.8) (p<0.001) children and adolescents than in the controls (4.9±0.9). The serum neopterin levels showed a positive correlation with the BMI (r=0.79), WHR (r=0.5), systolic (r=0.44) and diastolic blood pressures (r= 0.25), insulin (r=0.57), HOMAIR (r=0.55), total cholesterol (r=0.35), triglycerides (r=0.20) and LDL-C (r=0.27) and they showed a negative correlation with HDL-C (r=-0.15) and fasting glucose (r= -0.3). Conclusion: This study revealed a good relationship between serum neopterin and the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. We, therefore, aim to conduct regular camps at schools to counsel and advise the identified overweight and obese children to go for physical exercise and a balanced diet. The implementation of preventive measures from early childhood will have far reaching benefits, as even the prevalence of other obesity related disorders could decline. PMID:23730631

  3. Simultaneous detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose in human serum with upconversion luminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Lu, Lili; Li, Aiqin; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shiguo; Xu, Suying; Wang, Leyu

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a green upconversion photoluminescence (UCPL) system for the highly sensitive and selective detection of H2O2 and glucose in human sera was developed by utilizing the excellent optical properties of NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). In the presence of H2O2, the colorless 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) was oxidized into blue oxidized TMB (oxTMB) by assistance of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). And the green UCPL of UCNPs was quenched by the oxTMB linearly over the range of 100 nM-4.0 μM with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 45.0 nM for H2O2. Based on the transformation of glucose into H2O2 by means of glucose oxidase, the TMB-UCNPs-HRP system was further exploited for the highly sensitive detection of glucose in the range of 0.1-5.0 μM with a LOD of 64.0 nM in human sera independent of preconcentration and purification. The results are in good agreement with the clinical data, suggesting that this UCPL nanosensor is highly practical. PMID:25569878

  4. Serum interleukin-15 levels in cancer patients with cachexia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Pedro L; Hernanz-Macías, Ángel; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Grande-Aragón, Cristina; Feliu-Batlle, Jaime; Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Martínez-Muñoz, Isabel; Zurita-Rosa, Laura; Villarino-Sanz, Marta; Prados-Sánchez, Concepción; Sánchez García-Girón, Joaquín

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has important anabolic effects on muscle protein metabolism through a decrease in the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. The role of IL-15 in human cancer cachexia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between interleukin-15 (IL-15) in cancer patients with cachexia at diagnosis of malignancy and 8 weeks later. An observational study of 21 cancer patients (with and without cachexia) and 8 healthy subjects was conducted. Body composition was measured by leg-to-leg impedance. Serum IL-15 levels were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. Baseline IL-15 values were similar in cancer patients and in healthy subjects. Cancer patients with lower baseline levels of IL-15 (<2 pg/ml) had significantly higher fat mass (%) along the study. Eighteen patients completed the study: five patients showed an increase of 3.7 kg at the end of the study (5.4% of body weight) and showed a mean increase of IL-15 of 1.32 pg/ml (121%) at 4 weeks and 2.32 pg/ml (197%) at 8 weeks, as compared with mean decrease of -4.1 kg (-5.3%) and -0.09 pg/ml (-2.5%) and 0.6 pg/ml (40.8%) in the 13 patients who lost weight (P=0.001 and P=0.022, respectively). Changes of IL-15 at 4 and 8 weeks were directly associated with changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass and muscle mass (P<0.05), and indirectly associated with percentage of weight loss (P<0.05). In summary, although the results indicate that IL-15 does not have a role in cancer cachexia pathogenesis, the association during evolution between serum IL-15 and changes in weight and muscle mass suggests a possible role of IL-15 as a marker of the body composition response in cancer patients who are losing weight at the time of diagnosis. PMID:22825570

  5. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. PMID:27393799

  6. Comparison of Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Inflammatory Markers Between Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy Pregnant Control

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Jalali, Mohammad-Taha; Shahbazian, Nahid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Azadegan, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D appears to be involved in regulation of glycemic and inflammatory responses in gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), inflammatory biomarkers and glycemic profile between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, fasting serum levels of 25(OH)D, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and TNF-α were measured in 45 GDM and 45 NGT women at week 20-30 gestation whom referred to Reference Medical Laboratory of Ahvaz, Iran in 1394. Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.003 ) in the GDM group compared to the NGT group which remained even after controlling for confounders. Insulin and TNF-α levels were not statistically different between groups (p > 0.05). However, in unadjusted model, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly different between groups that disappeared in adjusted model. In the GDM group, there was a negative significant correlation between 25 (OH) D and fasting blood sugar (p = 0.009) and pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001). Levels of 25(OH)D were also negatively correlated with pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001) and hs-CRP levels (p = 0.003) in the NGT group. Conclusion: The lower level of vitamin D may be responsible for impairments of some glycemic and inflammatory markers in pregnant women. This is more important in overweight pregnant women. However, further studies with larger sample size are recommended in this regards. PMID:27385967

  7. Effects of high levels of glucose on the steroidogenesis and the expression of adiponectin receptors in rat ovarian cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabrolle, Christine; JeanPierre, Eric; Tosca, Lucie; Ramé, Christelle; Dupont, Joëlle

    2008-01-01

    Background Reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic female rat is associated with altered folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of steroid production have not been described. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has insulin-sensitizing actions including stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle and suppression of glucose production in liver. Adiponectin acts via two receptor isoforms – AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 – that are regulated by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in liver and muscle. We have recently identified AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in rat ovary. However, their regulation in ovaries of diabetic female rat remains to be elucidated. Methods We incubated rat primary granulosa cells in vitro with high concentrations of glucose (5 or 10 g/l) + or - FSH (10-8 M) or IGF-1 (10-8 M), and we studied the ovaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) in vivo. The levels of oestradiol and progesterone in culture medium and serum were measured by RIA. We used immunoblotting to assay key steroidogenesis factors (3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase, StAR), and adiponectin receptors and various elements of signalling pathways (MAPK ERK1/2 and AMPK) in vivo and in vitro. We also determined cell proliferation by [3H] thymidine incorporation. Results Glucose (5 or 10 g/l) impaired the in vitro production in rat granulosa cells of both progesterone and oestradiol in the basal state and in response to FSH and IGF-1 without affecting cell proliferation and viability. This was associated with substantial reductions in the amounts of 3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase and StAR proteins and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, glucose did not affect the abundance of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 proteins. In vivo, as expected, STZ treatment of rats caused hyperglycaemia and insulin, adiponectin and resistin deficiencies. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were also reduced in STZ rats. However, the amounts of 3beta HSD

  8. High fasting serum insulin level due to autoantibody interference in insulin immunoassay discloses autoimmune insulin syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Sault, Corinne; Renard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Insulin-antibodies are a cause of misleading results in insulin immunoassays. They may also mediate deleterious blood glucose variations. A patient presented with overtiredness, recurrent episodes of sweating, dizziness and fainting fits. A fasting serum insulin assay performed on a Modular platform (Modular analytic E170, Roche Diagnostic, Meylan, France) showed a highly elevated value of 194.7 mIU/L, whereas on the same sample glucose and C-peptide levels were normal. Other immunometric insulin assays were performed, as well as antibodies anti-insulin radiobinding assay (RBA) and gel filtration chromatography (GFC). While complementary insulin assays yielded closer to normal fasting levels, the free insulin concentration assessed after PEG precipitation was 14.0 mIU/L and the RBA was positive. GFC revealed that most of the insulin was complexed with a 150 kDa molecule, corresponding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG). A high fasting serum insulin level in a patient with neuroglucopenic symptoms was related to a high insulin-antibody level, suggesting an insulin autoimmune syndrome. PMID:27492703

  9. The association between abdominal obesity and serum cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas; Joshaghani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum cholesterol level and abdominal obesity in adult men and women in the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on the 1956 subjects (990 men and 966 women) between 25 and 65 years old chosen by cluster sampling. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12 h fast and determined by auto-analyzer. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) was defined by a total plasma cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. Waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women were defined as abdominal obesity. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 considered as statistical significance. Results: Averagely, the mean of age was 44.2 years and mean ± standard deviation of plasma total cholesterol level was 203 ± 11.3 mg/dl. The HC was seen in 50.8% of subjects with a more common in women than in men. Compared with normal subjects, in abdominal obese people, the odds ratio (OR) of HC was (OR = 4.208 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.939–9.130]) and (OR = 3.956 [95% CI: 1.821–8.592]) in men aged 25–35 and 35–45 years, respectively. In women aged 25–35 years, it was (OR = 3.444 [95% CI: 1.959–6.056]) in abdominal obese compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia was revealed as a major health problem among adults, and it was associated with abdominal obesity especially in the early middle-age in the north of Iran. This association was not significant in men and women after the age of 45 and 35, respectively. PMID:26097812

  10. High Serum Irisin Level as an Independent Predictor of Diabetes Mellitus: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Huh, Ji Hye; Ahn, Song Vogue; Choi, Jung Hye; Koh, Sang Baek; Chung, Choon Hee

    2016-06-01

    Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has been suggested to regulate energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, it remains unclear whether circulating irisin plays a role in the development of DM in human. We investigated the possible association between circulating irisin levels and incident DM in a 2.6-year longitudinal study of a population-based cohort comprised of rural Korean subjects.We conducted a longitudinal study within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KoGES-ARIRANG) study from November 2005 to January 2008. Cases (n=85) were patients with incident DM during the follow-up period and controls (n = 85) were matched to incident DM cases based on sex and age at baseline. The relative risk of serum irisin/adiponectin level for incident DM was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis.Baseline irisin_ENREF_1 levels were significantly higher in subjects who developed DM than in subjects who did not. The serum irisin level was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial glucose. Irisin was negatively associated with adiponectin (R = -0.189, P = 0.014). After adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index, the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for incident DM increased in a graded manner as the serum irisin level increased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 vs Quartile 3 vs Quartile 4 = 1 vs 0.80 [0.28-2.35] vs 3.33 [1.11-10.00] vs 4.10 [1.35-12.44], respectively), whereas the odds ratios for incident DM decreased in a graded manner as the serum adiponectin level increased.High serum irisin was independently associated with the development of DM, indicating that irisin may be a useful predictor of DM in Korean adults. PMID:27281072

  11. Serum Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Independently Associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhui; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been described as a metabolic hormone critical for glucose and lipid metabolism. Previously, high levels of FGF21 were observed in patients with coronary heart disease and non-acute myocardial infarction (non-AMI). In this study, we investigated the changes in FGF21 levels in Chinese patients with AMI. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA to measure circulating FGF21 levels in 55 AMI patients and 45 non-AMI control patients on the 1st day after syndrome onset. All patients were followed-up within 30 days. FGF21 levels in AMI patients were significantly higher than those in non-AMI controls (0.25 (0.16–0.34) vs. 0.14 (0.11–0.20) ng/mL, P < 0.001). FGF21 levels reached the maximum within approximately 24 h after the onset of AMI and remained at high for 7 days, and the FGF21 level (OR: 16.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65–108.05; P = 0.003) was identified as an independent factor associated with the presence of AMI. On the 7th day, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in the patients who subsequently developed re-infarction within 30 days than in the patients who did not develop re-infarction (with vs. without re-infarction: 0.45 (0.22–0.64) vs. 0.21 (0.15–0.29) ng/mL, P = 0.014). Conclusions/Significance The level of serum FGF21 is independently associated with the presence of AMI in Chinese patients. High FGF21 levels might be related to the incidence of re-infarction within 30 days after onset. PMID:26091256

  12. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongtao; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), and bone mineral density (BMD), making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis. Materials and methods A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years) were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Results The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001), and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001). People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that no association was found among total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, postprandial blood glucose and BMD. Conclusion The present study further confirmed that factors such as age, sex, weight, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes are significant predictors of osteoporosis in the Chinese people

  13. [Diagnosis of an increased serum level of ferritin].

    PubMed

    Lorcerie, B; Audia, S; Samson, M; Millière, A; Falvo, N; Leguy-Seguin, V; Berthier, S; Bonnotte, B

    2015-08-01

    The discovery of a hyperferritinemia is most of the time fortuitous. The diagnostic approach aims at looking for the responsible etiology and at verifying if an iron hepatic overload is present or not. Three diagnostic steps are proposed. The clinical elements and a few straightforward biological tests are sufficient at first to identify one of the four main causes: alcoholism, inflammatory syndrome, cytolysis, and metabolic syndrome. None of these causes is associated with a significant iron hepatic overload. If the transferring saturation coefficient is raised (>50%) a hereditary hemochromatosis should be discussed. Secondly, less common disorders will be discussed. Among these, only the chronic hematological disorders either acquired or congenital are at risk of iron hepatic overload. Thirdly, if a doubt persists in the etiologic research, and the serum ferritin level is very high or continues to rise, it is essential to verify that there is no iron hepatic overload. For that purpose, the MRI with study of the iron overload is the main test, which will guide the therapeutic attitude. Identification of more than a single etiology occurs in more than 40% of the cases. PMID:25640247

  14. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  15. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  16. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  17. Zuclopenthixol decanoate in schizophrenia: serum levels and clinical state.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, A; Aaes-Jørgensen, T; Gravem, A; Amthor, K F; Dencker, S J; Rosell, I; Baastrup, P C; Buckhave, J; Gram, L F

    1985-01-01

    Serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol were determined in a group of 20 patients treated with a depot preparation, zuclopenthixol decanoate in Viscoleo. Clinical assessments according to a Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Comprehensive Psychological Rating Scale (CPRS), 16-item subscale for schizophrenia, and the UKU side effect scale were performed on 3 consecutive days of injection. The serum concentrations showed a limited individual variation and a high and significant correlation between dose and serum concentration. One patient had a particularly high serum concentration of zuclopenthixol. This patient also had an elevated concentration of the N-dealkyl metabolite, but a low concentration of the sulphoxide. For serum concentrations versus clinical state and side effects some significant correlations were found. All correlations were positive, which means that the higher the serum concentration the poorer the clinical state of the patient. We think that this probably reflects a common clinical pattern of increasing the dose, when the antipsychotic response is unsatisfactory. The study also showed that for moderately ill patients, who were given the optimum dose of drug, the subgroup of patients not experiencing side effects had significantly lower serum concentrations than the subgroup with side effects. PMID:2867572

  18. Effect of sodium valproate on phenobarbital serum levels in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fernandez de Gatta, M R; Alonso Gonzalez, A C; Garcia Sanchez, M J; Dominguez-Gil Hurle, A; Santos Borbujo, J; Monzon Corral, L

    1986-01-01

    The influence of sodium valproate on serum levels of phenobarbital during combination treatment was studied in 29 children and 50 adults with epilepsy. Steady-state drug levels in serum were determined immediately prior to drug administration using immunoenzymatic analysis. The serum level/dose ratio of phenobarbital increased significantly (p less than 0.001) when sodium valproate was added to the treatment. The increase had a mean value of 50.9% in adults and 112.5% in children, suggesting marked interindividual variability in the intensity of the interaction. Almost half of the patients required a decrease in the dose of phenobarbital prescribed. The interaction was more pronounced in patients with high serum levels of phenobarbital, while the dose of phenobarbital and the serum levels and dose of sodium valproate did not seem to affect the extent of the interaction. Close monitoring of the serum levels of phenobarbital is recommended during simultaneous treatment with sodium valproate. PMID:3103264

  19. Insulin induces an increase in cytosolic glucose levels in 3T3-L1 cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Helena H; Kreft, Marko; Jensen, Jørgen; Zorec, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. PMID:25279585

  20. Fraction SX of maitake mushroom favorably influences blood glucose levels and blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Fu, Jia; Perricone, Nicholas V; Bagchi, Debasis; Kaylor, Mark; Zhuang, Cun

    2012-10-01

    We assessed whether fraction SX derived from maitake mushroom could play a beneficial role in the treatment of a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes by decreasing circulating glucose levels and lowering blood pressure (BP). We injected 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) to produce a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes. SD were divided into four groups of 12 SD. A control group ate straight pulverized rat chow. To three treatment groups, we added into the pulverized rat chow: gliclazide (10 mg/kg), pioglitazone (10-30 mg/kg), or maitake SX (2.5 g/kg). In addition to measuring BW, circulating glucose level, and BP, the following procedures were also carried out: insulin challenge (insulin sensitivity), losartan challenge (renin-angiotensin system activity), Nw-nitro-L arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (LNAME) challenge (nitric oxide [NO] system activity), and evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. All treatments compared with control generally decreased circulating glucose levels, but only the maitake SX consistently enhanced measured insulin sensitivity. We found that maitake SX could significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in diabetic SD. In general, only SD receiving maitake SX, not the two drugs, showed decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and increased NO system activity compared with control under the conditions examined. Our results suggest that maitake SX may be useful for treating perturbations in glucose-insulin metabolism and elevated BP in type-1 diabetes. PMID:22873755

  1. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27432092

  2. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  3. High blood glucose level and increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Sanjib; Bista, Sukirti

    2007-03-01

    102 patients, 38 from ICU and 64 from postoperative ward were evaluated. Out of these, 49 of the patients had random blood glucose level < 100 mg/dl, 46 had in the range 100 to 140 mg/dl and 7 had > 140 mg/dl. The mean random blood glucose level in medical patients was 146 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 20 and that in the post operative patients was 94.3 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 10. There was an overall mortality of 13.7% (14 patients), of which medical patients were 78.6% (11 patients) and surgical patients were 21.4% (3 patients). Amongst the dead, 81.8% had random blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl and all were medical patients. However all 3 deaths (18.2%) in surgical patients had their random blood glucose level < 110 mg/dl. Higher blood glucose level was observed in critically ill medical patients and mortality was higher among patients with random blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl. PMID:17593678

  4. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. PMID:24924647

  5. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: Any correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.; Okunade, Kehinde S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study assessed whether low maternal serum cholesterol during early pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study involving pregnant women at gestational age of 14-20 weeks over a period of 12 months. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analysed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: Low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery. Optimal maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit, therefore pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet. PMID:25298606

  6. Glucose-Insulin Therapy, Plasma Substrate Levels and Cardiac Recovery After Cardiac Ischemic Events

    PubMed Central

    Van Wezel, H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The potential usefulness of glucose-insulin therapy relies to a large extent on the premise that it prevents hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia following cardiac ischemic events. Methods In this review we evaluate the literature concerning plasma glucose and free fatty acids levels during and following cardiac ischemic events. Results The data indicate that hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia most likely occur during acute coronary ischemic syndromes in the conscious state (e.g. acute myocardial infarction) and less so during reperfusion following CABG reperfusion. This is in accordance with observations that glucose-insulin therapy during early reperfusion post CABG may actually cause hypolipidemia, because substantial hyperlipidemia does not appear to occur during that stage of cardiac surgery. Discussion Considering recent data indicating that hypolipidemia may be detrimental for cardiac function, we propose that free fatty acid levels during reperfusion post CABG with the adjunct glucose-insulin therapy need to be closely monitored. Conclusion From a clinical point of view, a strategy directed at monitoring and thereafter maintaining plasma substrate levels in the normal range for both glucose (4–6 mM) and FFA (0.2–0.6 mM) as well as stimulation of glucose oxidation, promises to be the most optimal metabolic reperfusion treatment following cardiac ischemic episodes. Future (preclinical and subsequently clinical) investigations are required to investigate whether the combination of glucose-insulin therapy with concomitant lipid administration may be beneficial in the setting of reperfusion post CABG. PMID:18266096

  7. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  8. Relationships between polysomnographic variables, parameters of glucose metabolism, and serum androgens in obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Gideon; Schlüter, Bernhard; Menke, Thomas; Trowitzsch, Eckardt; Andler, Werner; Reinehr, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare polysomnographic variables of obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) to those of healthy controls and to analyse whether polysomnographic variables correlate to parameters of body weight/body composition, to serum androgens and to parameters of glucose metabolism. Thirty-one obese adolescents with PCOS (15.0 years ± 1.0, body mass index 32.7 kg per m(2) ± 6.2) and 19 healthy obese adolescents without PCOS (15.2 years ± 1.1, body mass index 32.4 kg per m(2) ± 4.0) underwent polysomnography to compare apnoea index, hypopnoea index, apnoea-hypopnoea index, the absolute number of obstructive apnoeas, percentage sleep Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, percentage of REM sleep, TIB, total sleep time (TST), sleep-onset latency, total wake time (TWT), wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency. Furthermore, we correlated polysomnographic variables to parameters of body weight/body composition, to serum androgens and to parameters of glucose metabolism. We found no differences between the two groups concerning the respiratory indices, percentage sleep Stages 2, 3 and 4 of NREM sleep, TIB and sleep-onset latency. The girls with PCOS differed significantly from the controls regarding TST, WASO, TWT, sleep efficiency, percentage Stage 1 of NREM sleep and percentage of REM sleep. We found a weak significant correlation between insulin resistance and apnoea index and between insulin resistance and apnoea-hypopnoea index. Concerning the respiratory variables, adolescents with PCOS do not seem to differ from healthy controls; however, there seem to be differences concerning sleep architecture. PMID:21199038

  9. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Bae, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Wakisaka, Takuya; Matsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Masao; Yasunaga, Koichi

    2014-11-14

    Elevated postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Green tea catechin possesses antidiabetic properties and antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we examined the acute and continuous effects of ingestion of catechin-rich green tea on postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned into the placebo (P, n 11) or green tea (GT, n 11) group. The GT group consumed a catechin-rich green tea (catechins 615 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. The P group consumed a placebo (catechins 92 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. At baseline and after 4 weeks, participants of each group consumed their designated beverages with breakfast and consumed lunch 3 h after breakfast. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose concentrations were 3 % lower in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). Serum concentrations of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites increased after meals (P< 0·05), but no effect of catechin-rich green tea intake was observed. Conversely, serum postprandial thioredoxin concentrations were 5 % higher in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). These findings indicate that an acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose and redox homeostasis in postmenopausal women. PMID:25230741

  10. Dietary factors associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women with the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se Young

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Serum ferritin levels are significantly increased after menopause and greatly affect women's health. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with high ferritin levels in postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Among adult women in 2010-2012, qualified postmenopausal women (n = 3880) were separated into quartiles of serum ferritin. The variable differences among the quartiles of ferritin were determined using either procsurvey chi-square test (χ2-test) among categorical variables, or GLM (Generalized Linear Model) among continuous variables. The odds ratio for high ferritin in relation to dietary factors was also determined using procsurvery logistic analysis. RESULTS Age, obesity, drinking habit, and blood glucose levels were found to be significant indicators of high serum ferritin level after adjusting for all confounding factors. Among the food groups, grain, milk, vegetable, and seaweed intakes were significantly associated with high ferritin levels, but after adjusting for all confounding factors, only grains and vegetables remained significant factors. Among the nutrient groups, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intake were significant factors, but after adjustment, none of the nutrient groups analyzed were associated with a high risk of ferritin. CONCLUSION Age, obesity, drinking habit, and glucose levels, as well as inadequate intakes of grains and vegetables, were found to be significantly associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:26865920

  11. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis: correlations with insulin resistance and disease activity scores.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Hodson, James; Sandoo, Aamer; Smith, Jacqueline; Kitas, George D

    2015-09-01

    Vascular abnormalities predisposing to atherosclerosis are present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and associate with excess cardiovascular risk. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity, has been recognised as novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare SDMA levels in RA patients and controls and to investigate whether they are influenced by demographic, inflammatory or metabolic factors. Serum SDMA levels were measured in 197 RA individuals [median age: 67 years (quartiles: 59-3), 153 (78 %) females] and 82 controls [median age: 44 years [quartiles: 33-55, 50 (61 %) females]. Routine biochemistry tests, lipid profile, glycemic profile [glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)], as well as inflammatory markers were measured in all patients. Paired analysis was employed for the comparison of SDMA in two groups and multivariable regression models were performed to identify predictors of SDMA in the RA cohort. SDMA was significantly lower in RA than control patients in both unpaired and paired analyses (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), with the magnitude of the difference being similar in both models. QUICKI (P = 0.005) and disease activity score-28 (P = 0.007) were positively related to SDMA in the RA cohort, whilst a negative correlation with renal function (eGFR) was detected (P = 0.005). The molecular explanation of lower serum SDMA is unclear, but the established relationships with indices of disease activity and insulin resistance, may underline the pathogenetic role of the L-arginine/NO pathway dysregulation in the development of atherosclerosis in RA. The biological and clinical importance of SDMA in RA remains to be evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. PMID:25772817

  12. D-Xylose as a sugar complement regulates blood glucose levels by suppressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and by enhancing glucose uptake in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequently diagnosed and is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. D-Xylose, a sucrase inhibitor, may be useful as a functional sugar complement to inhibit increases in blood glucose levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of D-xylose both in vitro and stretpozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA)-induced models in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: (i) normal control; (ii) diabetic control; (iii) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 5% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose; and (iv) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 10% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose. These groups were maintained for two weeks. The effects of D-xylose on blood glucose levels were examined using oral glucose tolerance test, insulin secretion assays, histology of liver and pancreas tissues, and analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) expression in liver tissues of a STZ-NA-induced experimental rat model. Levels of glucose uptake and insulin secretion by differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were analyzed. RESULTS In vivo, D-xylose supplementation significantly reduced fasting serum glucose levels (P < 0.05), it slightly reduced the area under the glucose curve, and increased insulin levels compared to the diabetic controls. D-Xylose supplementation enhanced the regeneration of pancreas tissue and improved the arrangement of hepatocytes compared to the diabetic controls. Lower levels of PEPCK were detected in the liver tissues of D-xylose-supplemented rats (P < 0.05). In vitro, both 2-NBDG uptake by C2C12 cells and insulin secretion by INS-1 cells were increased with D-xylose supplementation in a dose-dependent manner compared to treatment with glucose alone. CONCLUSIONS In this study, D-xylose exerted anti-diabetic effects in vivo by

  13. Effects of calorie restriction and weight loss on glucose and insulin levels in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Kaiser, D L

    1985-01-01

    The relative contributions of weight loss vs calorie restriction in the improvement of glucose tolerance in obese subjects has not been well studied. We measured fasting and stimulated glucose and insulin levels in seven obese subjects at 4 time periods: on a regular diet before weight loss, on a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) after 4 days and after 6 weeks, and after 4 days back on a regular diet. Fasting glucose and insulin levels fell significantly after only 4 days of calorie restriction and did not change after 6 weeks. With return to a regular diet, these levels rose toward baseline even through body weight remained well below baseline. Stimulated glucose and insulin levels during an insulin tolerance test, intravenous glucose tolerance test, and standard meal demonstrated a similar pattern, although the changes due to either diet or weight loss were minimal. We conclude that calorie restriction has a greater effect on glucose and insulin levels than does weight loss in obese subjects who are losing weight. PMID:3900179

  14. The usefulness of serum troponin levels in evaluating cardiac injury.

    PubMed

    Collins, J N; Cole, F J; Weireter, L J; Riblet, J L; Britt, L D

    2001-09-01

    The diagnosis and clinical significance of blunt cardiac injury remains controversial. Cardiac troponin I is not found in skeletal muscle and has a high sensitivity for myocardial ischemia or injury. We hypothesized that normal troponin levels 4 to 6 hours postinjury would effectively exclude the diagnosis of cardiac contusion. A prospective evaluation of all blunt trauma patients older than 16 and admitted with the possible diagnosis of blunt cardiac injury was undertaken. Patients in whom this diagnosis was considered had an electrocardiogram (EKG) on admission, serum troponin, CPK and isoenzymes 4 to 6 hours postinjury, and admission with overnight telemetry. Other laboratory data and radiographic imaging was obtained as indicated. Seventy-two patients met criteria for entry into the study. Data was incomplete or inaccurately obtained on six patients, and they were excluded. Forty patients had normal troponins and normal EKG's on admission and were discharged the following day without any untoward effect. Sixteen patients were admitted with abnormal EKGs. All of these 16 patients had normal troponins 4 to 6 hours after their injury. They all did well and were discharged the following day. Ten patients had elevated troponins 4 to 6 hours after injury. One died two days later from refractory cardiogenic shock. Another was noted to have severely depressed left ventricular function by echocardiography. The other eight patients sustained no cardiac sequelae and were discharged once recovered from injuries. In the hemodynamically stable patient a normal troponin 4 to 6 hours after injury excludes clinically significant blunt cardiac injury. This holds true whether the admission EKG is normal or not. An elevated troponin does not definitively diagnose a clinically significant contusion. However, these patients should be monitored at least for 24 hours. Patients suspicious for cardiac contusions who have normal troponins and no other serious injuries may be safely

  15. [Comparative analysis of dependence of saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Morenkova, S A

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of determination of sorbitol and fructosamine in saliva has been studied in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes. The dependence of these metabolites levels in saliva on blood glucose level was demonstrated. It is concluded that saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels measurements may be used as diagnostic tests in diabetes and serve as indicators of efficacy of therapy in diabetes. PMID:15707277

  16. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  17. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients. PMID:26225965

  18. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose. PMID:26448271

  19. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, P A; Welty, E; Steele, G; Steinberg, K

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.08) when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level (r = -0.21) and serum albumin (r = -0.24) and total bilirubin (r = 0.30) with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn. PMID:3104024

  20. Correlation between serum cystatin C level and elderly hypertensive patients combined coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Su, Xianming; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; He, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the correlation between serum cystatin C level and elderly hypertension with coronary heart disease patients. Methods: 500 hypertensive patients combined coronary heart disease were selected by coronary angiography. 321 of them were elderly patients with hypertension (male 204, female 117), and 400 of them were elderly patients with coronary heart disease (male 257, female 143), The serum cystatin C level of all patients were detected by immunoturbidimetry, and analyzed the correlation between the serum cystatin C level and different degree of blood pressure and the degree of coronary artery stenosis in elderly patients. Results: The serum cystatin C level was closely related with the blood pressure and the degree of the coronary artery stenosis. The higher the blood pressure level and the more serious the coronary artery stenosis, the higher the serum cystatin C level; The serum cystatin C level of hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease patients (Group D) were markedly higher than the level of the patients without hypertension and coronary heart disease patients (Group A), and the level of the patients with coronary heart disease (Group B) and the hypertension group (Group C) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The serum cystatin C level of elderly patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease were closely related with the degree of blood pressure and coronary arteries stenosis. The serum cystatin C maybe a predictor of disease severity in elderly hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:26131241

  1. Relationships of metabolic hormones and serum glucose to growth and reproductive development in performance-tested Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Hallford, D M; Keisler, D H; Obeidat, B S; Morrison, C D; Hernandez, J A; Bryant, W D; Flores, R; Lopez, R; Narro, L

    2002-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms that regulate growth and reproduction are important for improving selection strategies in cattle. In this study, Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls (n = 7 per breed) of similar age were selected from a group of 65 weanlings. Bulls were evaluated after weaning (i.e., approximately 6 mo of age) for 112 d for serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and glucose, growth, and reproductive traits. Performance data and blood sera were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112. Sera were also collected in periods from d 50 to 59 (56D) and 103 to 112 (112D). Angus bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) throughout the study than Brahman bulls and were heavier than Brangus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112. Initial and final BW for Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls were 292.7, 260.6, and 230.4 and 468.3, 435.6, and 350.7 +/- 12 kg, respectively. Conversely, Brahman bulls had greater hip height (P < 0.05) than Brangus, and Brangus were taller (P < 0.05) than Angus. Angus bulls had the greatest (P < 0.05) scrotal circumference (SC) and Brahman bulls the least. Mean SC across days was 31.5, 29.7, and 25.0 +/- 0.6 cm for the three respective breeds. Serum testosterone was greater (P < 0.01) in Angus and Brangus bulls (10.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) than in Brahman bulls (4.0 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) throughout the study. After d 112, 100, 86, and 57% of the Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls passed a breeding soundness exam (P = 0.51). Serum concentrations of IGF-I and leptin were greater (P < or = 0.06) in Angus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112 than in Brangus and Brahman bulls. Serum concentrations of GH (P < 0.08) and glucose (P < 0.03) were greater in Brangus bulls than in Angus or Brahman bulls throughout the study. Prediction analyses suggested that serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict (P < or = 0.08) BW and SC (R2 > 0.82) in the 56D and 112D periods among these breeds. Leptin was also useful in predicting (P < or = 0.09) serum concentrations of GH and testosterone in

  2. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels are Associated With Concomitant Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Hypertensive Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangsu; Kim, Do Hoon; Nam, Hyo Yun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum GGT levels and CVD risk factors in Korean hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011 to 2012. The analysis included 1541 hypertensive participants. Study participants were divided into groups according to tertiles of serum GGT with cutoff points of 20 and 35 U/L. Serum GGT levels were positively associated with the components of MetS (P value < 0.05, except for systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). After adjusting for possible confounders, serum GGT levels were associated with an increased risk of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglyceride level, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P = 0.001). In hypertensive patients, serum GGT levels are positively associated with major cardiovascular risk factors such as MetS, DM, and urinary albumin excretion. PMID:26683926

  3. PERFORMANCE AND SERUM GLUCOSE, INSULIN, IGF-1, AND NEFA CONCENTRATIONS OF CALVES NURSING BEEF COWS CONSUMING HIGH-LINOLEATE OR HIGH-OLEATE SAFFLOWER SEED SUPPLEMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three-year-old Angus ' Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 or 6 at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of dietary lipid supplementation on suckling calf ADG and calf serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and NEFA. Beg...

  4. Association of Serum Vitamin D Levels with Bacterial Load in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, B.; Kumar, S. Vinod; Kadhiravan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is known to have diverse effects on various systems in the body. There is evidence to suggest that a link exists between the serum vitamin D status and tuberculosis. The present study was designed to assess the alterations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in newly diagnosed sputum acid fast bacilli (AFB) positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and to study the association, if any, between serum vitamin D levels and different levels of sputum smear positivity. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were estimated in 65 sputum AFB positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 65 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D in tuberculosis patients were not statistically different from the levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D in healthy controls. However, among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D and levels of sputum positivity. Conclusion Serum vitamin D levels negatively correlates with bacterial load in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27433175

  5. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  6. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m(2); all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  7. Serum uric acid levels in patients with infections of central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Min; Wang, Xuan; Yi, Huan; Xu, Li; Zhong, Xiu-Feng; Peng, Fu-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The lower levels of serum uric acid (UA) correlated with meningitis have been reported. However, comparison of UA levels among different kinds of infections of central nervous system (CNS) and changes of UA levels before and after treatment are unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the antioxidant status of serum UA in five common types of CNS infections. We retrospectively evaluated serum UA levels of 399 patients with different types of CNS infections including viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis (VM), brain cysticercosis (BC), tuberculous meningitis or meningoencephalitis (TM), cryptococcus meningitis or meningoencephalitis (CM) and bacterial meningitis or meningoencephalitis (BM), and 119 healthy controls. The changes of serum UA were examined and analyzed. The serum levels of UA in patients with CNS infections were significantly lower than those in normal subjects and among in TM, CM and BM groups were apparently lower when compared with VM and BC groups; otherwise, after effective therapy, serum UA levels were obviously higher than before. Our findings showed that patients with CNS infections had lower serum UA levels, which was independent of the classification and the serum UA levels increased obviously after valid treatment, the variation of UA levels might be considered as an indicator of clinical curative effect in patients with CNS infections. PMID:26612048

  8. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  9. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun; Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  10. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  11. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. PMID:25481356

  12. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Fei; Hou, Xiangshu; Xu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H2O2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core-shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum.

  13. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fei; Hou, Xiangshu; Xu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H2O2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core-shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum. PMID:26376788

  14. A case of low serum insulin levels in a patient with insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ding-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Summary Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. Traditionally, inappropriately elevated levels of insulin in the face of hypoglycemia are the key to diagnosis. However, contradictory levels of insulin and C-peptide do not necessarily exclude the diagnosis. A 50-year-old female was brought to our emergency department because of conscious disturbance on the previous night. She had no history of diabetes mellitus, and was not using any medications or alcohol. Laboratory data showed low sugar, a significantly low insulin level, and elevated C-peptide. After admission, she had multiple episodes of spontaneous hypoglycemia after overnight fasts without discomfort. It was considered that a neuroendocrine tumor was the source of her hypoglycemia. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 1.1cm hypervascular nodule in the pancreatic tail. Elective laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was incorporated into her treatment course. A 1.2×1.0cm homogenous well-encapsulated tumor was resected. We monitored her glucose levels in the outpatient clinic every month for a period of six months. She did not have another episode of spontaneous hypoglycemia. Learning points Insulinoma causes endogenous hypoglycemia – it cannot be ruled out in patients presenting with hypoglycemia and low insulin levels; history and imaging studies should be done for further assessmentA 24-h fast test has the same clinical significance as that of 72-h fast testC-peptide is a useful biochemical marker in addition to serum insulin, which can be used to diagnose insulinomasCT scan is used to measure the tumor size and localize the tumor. However, definitive diagnosis is only achieved through histopathologic evaluation of diseased tissue PMID:27555915

  15. Serum vitamin A levels and associated abnormalities in patients on regular dialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Werb, R; Clark, W F; Lindsay, R M; Jones, E O; Linton, A L

    1979-08-01

    Multivitamin preparations are commonly administered to regular dialysis treatment (RDT) patients. Serum Vitamin A was measured in 72 patients on RDT. Elevated serum Vitamin A levels (102.29 +/- 26.95 microgram/dl [3.57 +/- 0.94 mumoles/l]) were found in the dialysis population (normal 40.98 +/- 6.71 microgram/dl [1.43 +/- 0.23 mumoles/l]; P less than 0.0005). Serum Vitamin A levels increased with duration (months) of dialysis but not with frequency of dialysis (twice or thrice weekly). Patients taking a VitaminA-containing multivitamin preparation had higher serum Vitamin A levels than those on a non-Vitamin A supplemented diet. Bilaterally nephrectomized patients had the highest serum Vitamin A levels while patients with obstructive uropathy had the lowest levels. Serum Vitamin A levels did not correlate with symptoms of uremia. Positive correlations were found with serum levels of calcium, cholesterol and triglycerides. Patients receiving a Vitamin A supplement had higher serum cholesterol levels than non-supplemented patients. Vitamin A might be a factor in the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in RDT patients. We therefore advise discontinuing the long-term administration of Vitamin A-containing multivitamin supplements to patients on RDT. PMID:527272

  16. Comparative Serum Levels and Protective Activity of Parenterally Administered Cephalosporins in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Fare, Louis R.; Actor, Paul; Sachs, Carl; Phillips, Lillian; Joloza, MacDonald; Pauls, John F.; Weisbach, Jerry A.

    1974-01-01

    Six cephalosporin antibiotics were administered subcutaneously to mice at a level of 20 mg/kg. The serum levels of each were determined at five time intervals ranging from 5 to 120 min after dosing. Urinary recovery and the presence of active metabolites in mouse urine were determined. The peak serum levels and serum half-lives in mice were found to be positively correlated with the mean effective dose values obtained after lethal challenge with Escherichia coli. The administration of cefazolin and cephanone resulted in the highest serum level and the best protection. Good protection was obtained with cephaloridine despite somewhat lower serum levels. The cephalosporins with the acetoxy side chain (cephalothin, cephapirin, and cephacetrile) showed lower serum levels and the poorest protection. Cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin serum levels were also determined in dogs, squirrel monkeys, and rabbits. A mixed response was obtained in these species, with cefazolin peak serum levels being highest in rabbits and cephaloridine peak highest in dogs. PMID:15828185

  17. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  18. Effects of individual glucose levels on the neuronal correlates of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Schöpf, Veronika; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Windischberger, Christian; Gerstl, Florian; Wolzt, Michael; Karlsson, Karl Æ.; Moser, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to directly assess the effect of changes in blood glucose levels on the psychological processing of emotionally charged material. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the effect of blood glucose levels on three categories of visually presented emotional stimuli. Seventeen healthy young subjects participated in this study (eight females; nine males; body weight, 69.3 ± 14.9 kg; BMI, 22 ± 2.7; age, 24 ± 3 years), consisting of two functional MRI sessions: (1) after an overnight fast under resting conditions (before glucose administration); (2) after reaching the hyperglycemic state (after glucose administration). During each session, subjects were presented with visual stimuli featuring funny, neutral, and sad content. Single-subject ratings of the stimuli were used to verify the selection of stimuli for each category and were covariates for the fMRI analysis. Analysis of the interaction effect of the two sessions (eu- and hyperglycemia), and the emotional categories accounting for the single-subject glucose differences, revealed a single activation cluster in the hypothalamus. Analysis of the activation profile of the left amygdala corresponded to the three emotional conditions, and this profile was obtained for both sessions regardless of glucose level. Our results indicate that, in a hyperglycemic state, the hypothalamus can no longer respond to emotions. This study offers novel insight for the understanding of disease-related behavior associated with dysregulation of glucose and glucose availability, potentially offering improved diagnostic and novel therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:23734117

  19. Low glucose level and low pH alter the electrochemical function of human parietal pleura.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, V K; Hatzoglou, C; Foroulis, C N; Hevas, A; Gourgoulianis, K I; Molyvdas, P A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low glucose and pH level, which are usually measured in complicated pleural effusions, alter the electrochemical function of healthy human parietal pleura. Parietal pleural pieces were stripped from 66 patients during thoracic surgery and were mounted in Ussing chambers. Krebs' solutions containing different glucose levels (0, 40 and 100 mg) and balanced at different pH levels (7.4, 7.3 and 7.2) were added to the pleural cavity surface of the pieces. Transmesothelial potential difference was measured at various time-points as an electrophysiological variable and transmesothelial resistance (R(TM)) was calculated using Ohm's law. When normal-glucose Krebs at pH 7.45 was used, R(TM) remained unchanged over time, but when low-glucose Krebs was used, R(TM) decreased. Krebs without glucose caused the greatest decrease in R(TM). Use of low-pH Krebs decreased R(TM). The lower the pH of the Krebs, the faster the decrease in R(TM) and the greater the effect. The decrease in R(TM) was greater with low-pH than with low-glucose Krebs. Low glucose and low pH caused an additive decrease in R(TM). Low glucose concentration and low pH cause alteration of the electrochemical function of human parietal pleura and could act as agents that lead to further exudate progression. PMID:17666558

  20. Elevation of serum heat-shock protein levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Hineno, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Chinatsu; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to examine whether the serum levels of HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) are altered in patients with ALS. We included 58 patients diagnosed with ALS and 85 control individuals. Serum HSP levels of patients and controls were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly higher in patients than in controls. In contrast, serum levels of HSP27 did not differ significantly between the patient and control groups. Moreover, serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 in patients remained high throughout the duration of the disease. Taken together, our findings suggest that HSPs might have a role in ALS progression throughout the course of the disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27112486

  1. Association of Tumor Growth Factor-β and Interferon-γ Serum Levels with Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Yusefi, Alireza; Zabetian, Hassan; Zareian, Parvin; Hakimelahi, Hossein; Madani, Abdolhossien; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is related to change in glucose metabolism and insulin production. The aim of our study was to determine the association of serum IFN-γ and TGF-β levels with insulin resistance during normal pregnancy. This cross sectional study was carried out on 97 healthy pregnant (in different trimesters) and 28 healthy non-pregnant women. Serum TGF-β and IFN-γ level were measured by ELISA method. Pregnant women had high level TGF-β and low level IFN-γ as compared non-pregnant women. Maternal serum TGF-β concentration significantly increased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Maternal serum IFN-γ concentration significantly decreased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women exhibited higher score of HOMA IR as compared non-pregnant women. There were association between gestational age with body mass index (r=0.28, P=0.005), TGF-β (r=0.45, P<0.001) and IFN-γ (r=-0.50, P<0.001). There was significant association between Insulin resistance and TGF-β (r=0.17, p=0.05). Our findings suggest that changes in maternal cytokine level in healthy pregnant women were anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, Tumor Growth Factor-β appears has a role in induction insulin resistance in healthy pregnant women. However, further studies needed to evaluate role of different cytokines on insulin resistance in normal pregnancy. PMID:26755467

  2. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; KARABULUT, SENEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value. PMID:27330797

  3. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = -0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = -0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations. PMID:27328642

  4. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = −0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = −0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = −0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = −0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations. PMID:27328642

  5. Placental adiponectin gene DNA methylation levels are associated with mothers' blood glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France; Guay, Simon-Pierre; St-Pierre, Julie; Perron, Patrice; Brisson, Diane

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic profile changes occurring during fetal development in response to in utero environment variations could be one of the mechanisms involved in the early determinants of adult chronic diseases. In this study, we tested whether maternal glycemic status is associated with the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) DNA methylation profile in placenta tissue, in maternal circulating blood cells, and in cord blood cells. We found that lower DNA methylation levels in the promoter of ADIPOQ on the fetal side of the placenta were correlated with higher maternal glucose levels during the second trimester of pregnancy (2-h glucose after the oral glucose tolerance test; r(s) ≤ -0.21, P < 0.05). Lower DNA methylation levels on the maternal side of the placenta were associated with higher insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (r(s) ≤ -0.27, P < 0.05). Finally, lower DNA methylation levels were associated with higher maternal circulating adiponectin levels throughout pregnancy (r(s) ≤ -0.26, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the ADIPOQ DNA methylation profile was associated with maternal glucose status and with maternal circulating adiponectin concentration. Because adiponectin is suspected to have insulin-sensitizing proprieties, these epigenetic adaptations have the potential to induce sustained glucose metabolism changes in the mother and offspring later in life. PMID:22396200

  6. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  7. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  8. Reduced Serum Level of Interleukin-10 is Associated with Cerebral Infarction: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yifei; Yang, Haiqing; Diao, Zengyan; Li, Yi; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    IL-10 expression limits inflammation and restricts the size of CNS damage from stroke. In this study, we examined the correlation between cerebral infarction (CI) and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) using a combination of case-control study and meta-analysis of published data, with an aim of understanding the relevance of serum IL-10 levels to CI development. This study enrolled a total of 169 CI patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between May 2011 and November 2014. During the same period, a group of 145 individuals were recruited at the same hospital as healthy controls after thorough physical examination. Serum IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS 19.0 (IBM, 2010, Chicago, IL, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software were used for data analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) were significantly lower in CI patients when compared to healthy controls (15.36 ± 3.21 vs. 21.64 ± 5.17, t = 13.12, P < 0.001). In addition, patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), and lacunar infarct (LAC) displayed drastically reduced serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) compared to healthy controls (LAAS 14.77 ± 5.21, CEI 15.25 ± 5.10, LAC 16.58 ± 4.92, all P < 0.001). Interestingly, no significant differences were observed in the serum IL-10 levels when pair-wise comparisons were made between these three clinical subtypes of CI (all P > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that, with the exception of triglyceride (TG) and uric acid (UA) levels (both P > 0.05), the other seven parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), strongly correlated with CI development (all P < 0.05). Meta-analysis of pooled data from nine case

  9. Serum amyloid A1 levels and amyloid deposition following a high-fat diet challenge in transgenic mice overexpressing hepatic serum amyloid A1.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo Young; Jeong, Jain; Kim, Seonggon; Kang, Min-Cheol; Sung, Yong Hun; Choi, Minjee; Park, Si Jun; Kim, Myoung Ok; Kim, Sung Hyun; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2016-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase response protein in the liver, and SAA1 is the major precursor protein involved in amyloid A amyloidosis. This amyloidosis has been reported as a complication in chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, lupus, and Crohn's disease. Obesity is also associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation and sustained, elevated levels of SAA1. However, the contribution of elevated circulating SAA1 to metabolic disturbances and their complications is unclear. Furthermore, in several recent studies of transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing SAA1 that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for a relatively short period, no relationship was found between SAA1 up-regulation and metabolic disturbances. Therefore, we generated TG mice overexpressing SAA1 in the liver, challenged these mice with an HFD, and investigated the influence of elevated SAA1 levels. Sustained, elevated levels of SAA1 were correlated with metabolic parameters and local cytokine expression in the liver following 16 weeks on the HFD. Moreover, prolonged consumption (52 weeks) of the HFD was associated with impaired glucose tolerance and elevated SAA1 levels and resulted in systemic SAA1-derived amyloid deposition in the kidney, liver, and spleen of TG mice. Thus, we concluded that elevated SAA1 levels under long-term HFD exposure result in extensive SAA1-derived amyloid deposits, which may contribute to the complications associated with HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:27218680

  10. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  11. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  12. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  13. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Okushima, Ayaka; Miyata, Yu; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Takahashi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP) and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (P < 0.01), and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (P < 0.01). BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring. PMID:24348688

  14. Association Between Serum Levels of Vitamin D and the Risk of Post-Stroke Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowen; Ren, Wenwei; Cheng, Jianhua; Zhu, Beilei; Jin, Qianqian; Wang, Liping; Chen, Cao; Zhu, Lin; Chang, Yaling; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; Lv, Dezhao; Shao, Bei; Zhang, Shunkai; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low levels of serum vitamin D are common in patients with mood disorders and stroke. It has been shown that low levels of serum vitamin D indicate a risk of depression in post-stroke subjects. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D and post-stroke anxiety (PSA). A consecutive series of 226 first acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and followed up for 1 month. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured within 24 hours of admission. Patients with significant clinical symptoms of anxiety and a Hamilton anxiety scale score >7 were diagnosed as having PSA. In addition, 100 healthy subjects were recruited as controls and underwent measurements of serum vitamin D. A total of 60 patients (26.55%) showed anxiety at 1 month. Both PSA patients and non-PSA patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D than healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between PSA and serum levels of vitamin D. Low serum levels of vitamin D (≤38.48 nmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSA (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21–5.13, P = 0.01). Serum vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of anxiety in post-stroke patients and may be an independent risk factor of PSA after 1 month. PMID:27149477

  15. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P

    2012-08-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased β-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and β-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of β-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy. PMID:22935346

  16. Probiotic treatment reduces appetite and glucose level in the zebrafish model

    PubMed Central

    Falcinelli, Silvia; Rodiles, Ana; Unniappan, Suraj; Picchietti, Simona; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Merrifield, Daniel Lee; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota regulates metabolic pathways that modulate the physiological state of hunger or satiety. Nutrients in the gut stimulate the release of several appetite modulators acting at central and peripheral levels to mediate appetite and glucose metabolism. After an eight-day exposure of zebrafish larvae to probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, high-throughput sequence analysis evidenced the ability of the probiotic to modulate the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract. These changes were associated with a down-regulation and up-regulation of larval orexigenic and anorexigenic genes, respectively, an up-regulation of genes related to glucose level reduction and concomitantly reduced appetite and body glucose level. BODIPY-FL-pentanoic-acid staining revealed higher short chain fatty acids levels in the intestine of treated larvae. These results underline the capability of the probiotic to modulate the gut microbiota community and provides insight into how the probiotic interacts to regulate a novel gene network involved in glucose metabolism and appetite control, suggesting a possible role for L. rhamnosus in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and food intake disorders by gut microbiota manipulation. PMID:26727958

  17. Probiotic treatment reduces appetite and glucose level in the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Falcinelli, Silvia; Rodiles, Ana; Unniappan, Suraj; Picchietti, Simona; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Merrifield, Daniel Lee; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota regulates metabolic pathways that modulate the physiological state of hunger or satiety. Nutrients in the gut stimulate the release of several appetite modulators acting at central and peripheral levels to mediate appetite and glucose metabolism. After an eight-day exposure of zebrafish larvae to probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, high-throughput sequence analysis evidenced the ability of the probiotic to modulate the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract. These changes were associated with a down-regulation and up-regulation of larval orexigenic and anorexigenic genes, respectively, an up-regulation of genes related to glucose level reduction and concomitantly reduced appetite and body glucose level. BODIPY-FL-pentanoic-acid staining revealed higher short chain fatty acids levels in the intestine of treated larvae. These results underline the capability of the probiotic to modulate the gut microbiota community and provides insight into how the probiotic interacts to regulate a novel gene network involved in glucose metabolism and appetite control, suggesting a possible role for L. rhamnosus in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and food intake disorders by gut microbiota manipulation. PMID:26727958

  18. Protective Effect of Punica granatum L. against Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Afkhami Goli, Amir; Asadpour, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties have been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) or its active constituents exert pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study we investigated the possible protective effects of different extracts of pomegranate against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Initially, the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pulp hydroalcoholic extract (PHE), pulp aqueous extract (PAE) and pomegranate juice (PJ) for 2 h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 6 and 12 h. SGD caused a significant reduction in cell viability (measured by the MTT assay) after 6 and 12 h, as compared with control cells (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with PHE, PAE, and PJ significantly and concentration-dependently increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6 and 12 h. A significant increase in DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD for 12 h (P < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was seen in DNA damage between PHE, PAE, and PJ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (P > 0.05). PHE, PAE, and PJ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (P < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by PHE, PAE and PJ was found to be concentration dependent. These data indicate that there is a cytoprotective property in PHE, PAE, and PJ under SGD condition in PC12 cells

  19. Elevation of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in androgen-treated and ultraviolet-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ohata, M; Sakagami, Y; Fujita, T

    1977-10-01

    Administration of 4-8 mg testosterone propionate significantly raised 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the ultraviolet irradiated rats compared to the ultraviolet irradiated controls, but failed to influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the non-irradiated animals. Estradiol benzoate and progesterone did not influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels regardless of the ultraviolet irradiation. These findings implicate that testosterone enhances vitamin D biosynthesis induced by ultraviolet irradiation in rats, in accordance with the clinical observation that males often show higher levels of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol than females. PMID:303993

  20. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  1. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  2. PPAR-α Agonist Fenofibrate Decreased Serum Irisin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaomeng; Gao, Xia; Jia, Yumei; Zhang, Heng; Pan, Qingrong; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Ning; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is related to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. The physiologic effects of irisin are partially mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We investigated the effect of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, on serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This study evaluated cross-sectional and interventional studies of 25 type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia (group A) and 40 controls (group B). Group A was treated with fenofibrate (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Serum irisin and clinical characteristics were examined. Serum irisin was significantly higher in group A compared with group B (45.15 ± 10.48 versus 35.38 ± 9.97 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and correlated with body mass index (r = 0.314, P = 0.011), fasting blood glucose (r = 0.399, P = 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.256, P = 0.040), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.247, P = 0.047). In multiple regression analysis after controlling for confounders, only fasting blood glucose (β = 5.615, P < 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 19.483, P < 0.001) were independently related to serum irisin. After 8 weeks of fenofibrate treatment, serum irisin significantly decreased in group A compared with baseline (45.15 ± 10.48 versus 38.74 ± 12.54 ng/ml, P = 0.011). Conclusively, fenofibrate decreased serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia, indicating that PPAR-α agonists may protect against metabolic disorders by improving irisin resistance. PMID:26693220

  3. PPAR-α Agonist Fenofibrate Decreased Serum Irisin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomeng; Gao, Xia; Jia, Yumei; Zhang, Heng; Pan, Qingrong; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Ning; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is related to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. The physiologic effects of irisin are partially mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We investigated the effect of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, on serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This study evaluated cross-sectional and interventional studies of 25 type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia (group A) and 40 controls (group B). Group A was treated with fenofibrate (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Serum irisin and clinical characteristics were examined. Serum irisin was significantly higher in group A compared with group B (45.15 ± 10.48 versus 35.38 ± 9.97 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and correlated with body mass index (r = 0.314, P = 0.011), fasting blood glucose (r = 0.399, P = 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.256, P = 0.040), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.247, P = 0.047). In multiple regression analysis after controlling for confounders, only fasting blood glucose (β = 5.615, P < 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 19.483, P < 0.001) were independently related to serum irisin. After 8 weeks of fenofibrate treatment, serum irisin significantly decreased in group A compared with baseline (45.15 ± 10.48 versus 38.74 ± 12.54 ng/ml, P = 0.011). Conclusively, fenofibrate decreased serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia, indicating that PPAR-α agonists may protect against metabolic disorders by improving irisin resistance. PMID:26693220

  4. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  5. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Association of Serum Magnesium Level with Odds of Prediabetes and Diabetes in a Southern Chinese Population: a Prospective Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chenchen; Wang, Xuebao; Wu, Wenjun; Gu, Xuejiang; Ye, Tingting; Deng, Huihui; Wang, Xianqin; Shen, Feixia

    2016-08-01

    Although emerging clinical evidence supports that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, there are sparse studies concerning the dynamic change of serum magnesium with the risk of diabetes and its early stages. In this nested case-control study, we performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test or a standardized steamed bread meal test in 178 subjects with incident glucose metabolism impairment (33 with type 2 diabetes and 145 with prediabetes) and 178 matched controls at baseline and at 3-year follow-up and determined the associations between baseline serum magnesium levels as well as changes in serum magnesium levels at follow-up and odds of prediabetes and diabetes. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratios of risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the highest quartile of serum magnesium levels were 0.22 (95 % confidence intervals [CI] 0.10-0.49; p for trend <0.001) and 0.02 (95 % CI 0.00-0.29; p for trend = 0.009), respectively, as compared with the lowest quartile. In addition, a significant decline in the serum magnesium level was detected in type 2 diabetes cases (p = 0.015) at 3 years as compared with at baseline. These results suggest that a low magnesium level is an independent risk factor for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, and that the reduction of serum magnesium is associated with type 2 diabetes in a southern Chinese population. PMID:26706038

  7. The short-term effect of mustard gas on the serum immunoglobulin levels.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Abdolhossein; Eslami, Mohammad Bagher; Razavimanesh, Hossein

    2007-03-01

    Mustard gas (MG), as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto) antigenic stimulation of the patients' immune systems. PMID:17303924

  8. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  9. Serum levels of interleukin-6 are not dependent on the kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Nässberger, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin-6, also named B-cell stimulatory factor, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 26 kDa. Increased serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are found in several disease conditions. We investigated the importance of a deteriorated kidney function upon IL-6 serum concentrations. No relation was found between serum levels of IL-6 and s-creatinine, r = 0.004. On the other hand, the serum concentration of complement protein factor D and soluble IL-2 receptor showed a good correlation to s-creatinine, r = 0.92 and 0.79, respectively. In conclusion, serum levels of IL-6 are not dependent upon a reduced kidney function. PMID:18475461

  10. Serum immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate levels in children living along major roads

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, Masayuki; Adachi, Motoaki

    1996-11-01

    To assess the effects of automobile exhaust on human health, we determined serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate in 185 schoolchildren who lived in a district that contained major roads. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in children who had asthma or wheezing, but levels did no t differ with respect to distance of their homes from the major roads. Serum hyaluronate levels were higher in children who lived less than 50 m from the roadside, compared with children who resided a greater distance from roads. The difference, however, was significant only in a subgroup of children in whom immunoglobulin E levels exceeded 250 IU/ml. Our results suggest that serum hyaluronate levels in children reflect the effects of traffic-related air pollution. Children with high immunoglobulin E levels appeared to be particularly susceptible to the effects of automobile exhaust. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Association Studies of Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Polymorphisms with Serum Concentrations of Glucose and Phosphate, and Vascular Calcification in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Céline; Jadoul, Michel; Devuyst, Olivier; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and linked to arterial calcification. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein coupled receptor, plays a pivotal role in extracellular calcium homeostasis and is expressed in the intimal and medial layers of the arterial wall. We investigated whether common CASR gene variants are predictors for aortic and coronary artery calcification or influence risk factors such as serum calcium, phosphate and glucose concentrations in RTRs. Methods Two hundred and eighty four RTRs were investigated for associations between three CASR promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs115759455, rs7652589, rs1501899), three non-synonymous CASR coding region SNPs (A986S, R990G, Q1011E), and aortic and coronary artery calcium mass scores, cardiovascular outcomes and calcification risk factors that included serum phosphate, calcium, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations. Results Multivariate analysis revealed that RTRs homozygous for the minor allele (SS) of the A986S SNP, when compared to those homozygous for the major allele (AA), had raised serum glucose concentrations (8.7±5.4 vs. 5.7±2.1 mmol/L, P<0.05). In addition, RTRs who were heterozygous (CT) at the rs115759455 SNP, when compared to those homozygous for the major allele (CC), had higher serum phosphate concentrations (1.1±0.3 vs. 1.0±0.2 mmol/L, P<0.05). CASR SNPs were not significant determinants for aortic or coronary artery calcification, and were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes or mortality in this RTR cohort. Conclusions Common CASR SNPs may be independent predictors of serum glucose and phosphate concentrations, but are not determinants of vascular calcification or cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25786244

  12. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  13. Evaluation of the effects of various factors on the serum triglyceride level in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, R; Miyoshi, T; Imaki, M; Nakamura, T

    1994-06-01

    The life style of young adults has been receiving attention with a view to its improvement to preventing coronary heart diseases (CHD) in later life. In this study, for determining the influence of different life styles on the serum triglyceride level, we carried out surveys and laboratory studies on the relationships of the nutritional intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption of young adults with their serum triglyceride levels. The nutritional survey indicated a significant correlation between the serum triglyceride level and carbohydrate intake (p < 0.01). In the survey of physical activity, a significant inverse correlation was found between the energy expenditure per kg body weight and the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found of smoking or drinking with the serum triglyceride level. The body mass index was found to have effects on both the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Of the factors examined, carbohydrate intake and energy expenditure per kg body weight had the greatest effects on the serum triglyceride level. Considering the trend for young people to consume large quantities of carbonated drinks, in which most of carbohydrate is sucrose, we tested the affect of a high carbohydrate diet on one group of subjects and found that it caused a significant increase in the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). Another group for whom a mild exercise regimen was prescribed showed slight, but not significant decrease in the serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that at least optimal nutrition and physical activity including weight control during adolescence are important for preventing CHD. PMID:7940529

  14. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  15. Is the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease relationship modified by activity level in older persons?

    PubMed

    Harris, T B; Makuc, D M; Kleinman, J C; Gillum, R F; Curb, J D; Schatzkin, A; Feldman, J J

    1991-08-01

    Although coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of death and disability in old age, the relationship of serum cholesterol level to risk of coronary heart disease in old age is controversial. Data for 2,388 white persons aged 65-74 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) were examined to determine the relationship of serum cholesterol level to coronary heart disease incidence and whether activity level would modify this relationship. While there was no overall relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease risk in either men or women, the relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease differed within activity groups. For persons who were more active, serum cholesterol level was associated with a graded increase in risk of coronary heart disease, from 1.3 (95% CI 0.7, 2.3) in those with serum cholesterol level of 4.7-5.1 to 1.7 in those with serum cholesterol level of 6.2 mmol/L or more (95% CI 1.0, 2.7), when compared with those with serum cholesterol level below 4.7. For the least active persons, all levels of cholesterol were associated with a significant inverse relative risk, including cholesterol of 6.2 mmol/L or more (Relative risk = 0.4 (95% CI 0.2, 0.7]. These data suggest that factors such as activity level may modify the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in old age. The serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in more active older persons resembles that seen in younger populations, whereas the association in less active persons is that of serum cholesterol level and risk of cancer or death. The modification of the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association by activity level may have implications for appropriate clinical management as well as appropriate design of research studies of this association. PMID:2071804

  16. How to control the blood glucose level in the surgical diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Rossini, A A; Hare, J W

    1976-09-01

    This report is a sequel to "Why Control Blood Glucose Levels?" (Arch Surg 111:229, 1976), which linked complications of diabetes mellitus to poor control. Hyperglycemia, increased gluconeogenesis, nitrogen wasting, and increased ketogenesis occur in the perioperative period, partly as a result of contrainvents are aggravated in the diabetic. Zones of levels of blood glucose control are charted, as well as the corresponding insulin needs for each of these zones. Intermediate insulins should provide basic coverage; regular insulin is recommended only as a supplement. Several blood glucose determinations per day are necessary to maintain control. The hazards of dependence on urine testing and the "sliding scale" for control are among a number of caveats discussed. PMID:949254

  17. The Potential Use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Active Monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a diabetes patient receiving a text message on his mobile phone warning him that his blood glucose level is too low or a patient's mobile phone calling an emergency number when the patient goes into diabetic shock. Both scenarios depend on automatic, continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels and transmission of that information to a phone. The development of advanced biological sensors and integration with passive radio frequency identification technologies are the key to this. These hold the promise of being able to free patients from finger stick sampling or externally worn devices while providing continuous blood glucose monitoring that allows patients to manage their health more actively. To achieve this promise, however, a number of technical issues need to be addressed. PMID:20046663

  18. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target. PMID:27179807

  19. Serum Bisphenol A Level in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Step to Male Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Marta Diana; Hermanowicz, Adam; Czyzewska, Urszula; Milewski, Robert; Matuszczak, Ewa; Miltyk, Wojciech; Debek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital birth defect in boys and affects about 2–4% full-term male neonates. Its etiology is multifactorial. Purpose. To evaluate the serum bisphenol A (BPA) levels in boys with cryptorchidism and healthy boys and to assess the risk of environmental exposure to BPA using the authors' questionnaire. The data were acquired from a study on boys with cryptorchidism (n = 98) and a control group (n = 57). Prior to surgery, all patients had BPA serum levels evaluated. The size, position, rigidity of the testis, and abnormality of the epididymis of the undescended testis were assessed. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the risks of exposure to BPA in everyday life. Results. The testes in both groups were similar in size. The turgor of the undescended testis in the group of boys with cryptorchidism was decreased. Free serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The conjugated serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). Total serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Serum total BPA level was related with a positive answer about problems with conception (p < 0.02). Conclusion. Our study indicated that high serum BPA was associated with cryptorchidism. PMID:26491444

  20. Serum Amyloid-Beta Levels are Increased in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xian-Le; Cao, Guo-Qiang; Shen, Lin-Lin; Xiang, Yang; Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hui; Zhu, Chi; Zeng, Fan; Wang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Ye-Ran; He, Yong; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cognitive decline, but the molecular link between COPD and dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate whether serumlevels are correlated with COPD. 77 cognitively normal COPD patients and 45 age- and gender-matched normal controls were admitted to the study. Serum Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were measured using ELISA kits. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT) measurements were done using standard laboratory methods. Pulmonary function tests were performed to assess the pulmonary function and determine the degree of lung damage. Significantly increased levels of serum Aβ40, Aβ42, and total Aβ levels were found in patients with COPD in comparison with normal controls. In COPD patients, serumlevels were higher in subjects with serum CRP, IL-6, and PCT upper the limit of normal. Moreover, serumlevels were dramatically higher in COPD patients with worse pulmonary function. Our study suggests that cognitively normal COPD patients may undergo AD-related pathological changes, and COPD might facilitate AD-type pathogenesis. PMID:26243505

  1. Circadian rhythm of serum sulfate levels in man and acetaminophen pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D A; Wallace, S M; Verbeeck, R K

    1990-01-01

    The circadian variation of serum inorganic sulfate levels was studied in healthy volunteers. The effect of subchronic acetaminophen administration (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) on serum inorganic sulfate levels was investigated and the possible role of fluctuating serum inorganic sulfate levels on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was evaluated. During a 24 h cycle, serum inorganic sulfate levels were lowest in the morning (11.00 h) and typically increased in the afternoon to reach a maximum in the early evening (19.00 h). Average 24 h serum concentrations were 360 microM and the difference between minimum and maximum levels was on average 25.8%. Subchronic administration of acetaminophen (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) significantly reduced serum inorganic sulfate levels to a 24 h average of 253 microM. The circadian rhythm, however, was not affected and the difference between minimum (12.00 h) and maximum (18.50 h) serum concentrations was 31.3%. Subchronic acetaminophen administration lead to a significant decrease in the renal excretion (-51%) and renal clearance (-33%) of inorganic sulfate. No significant differences were found in the disposition kinetics of acetaminophen and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates during two consecutive dosing intervals (08.00-14.00 h, 14.00-20.00 h) on Day 4 of the acetaminophen regimen. PMID:2253663

  2. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  3. Serum and hair zinc levels in breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Tang, Jing; Xie, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between serum/hair zinc levels and breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent. To compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase to identify relevant studies with publication dates up through November 2014. Based on a random effects model, summary standard mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls. Fourteen studies that investigated serum zinc levels and seven studies that assessed hair zinc levels were included. Our study observed no difference in serum zinc levels between breast cancer cases and controls (SMD (95%CI): −0.65[−1.42,0.13]). However, we determined that hair zinc levels were lower in women with breast cancer compared with those of controls (SMD (95%CI): −1.99[−3.46, −0.52]). In conclusion, this study was the first to provide evidence that hair zinc levels in female breast cancer patients are lower than in controls; however, there was no significant difference in serum zinc levels between female breast cancer patients and controls. PMID:26179508

  4. An Invert U-Shaped Curve: Relationship Between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in a Large Health Check-Up Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Zha, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Mengxue; Guo, Rui; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are some published studies focus on the invert U-shaped relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum uric acid (UA), while the threshold value and gender differences of this relationship were still obscure. We aimed to explore the dose–response relation between FPG level and serum UA concentration by conducted this epidemiological research in a large health check-up population in China. A total of 237,703 people were collected from January 2011 to July 2014 in our cross-sectional study; 100,348 subjects age 18 to 89 years and without known diabetes were included for the current analysis. One-way analysis of variance, generalized additive models, and 2-piecewise linear regression model were used. The mean concentration of UA with FPG of <6.1, 6.1 to 6.9, and ≥7.0 mmol/L was 240.9, 260.2, and 259.6 μmol/L in women and 349.0, 360.8, and 331.0 μmol/L in men. An invert U-shape with a threshold FPG of 7.5 (women)/6.5 (men) mmol/L was observed in the regression curve of FPG and UA, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted regression coefficients were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 3.4, P < 0.001) for FPG < 7.5 mmol/L, −3.2 (95% CI: −5.0 to −1.3, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 7.5 mmol/L in women; while 0.8 (95% CI: −0.4 to 2.0, P = 0.19) for FPG < 6.5 mmol/L, −7.1 (95% CI: −8.0 to −6.1, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 6.5 mmol/L in men. Furthermore, the interaction between different FPG level and sex was significant (P < 0.05). An invert U-shape with a threshold of FPG was existed for serum UA level in Chinese adults age 18 to 89 years without known diabetes, and significant gender differences were found. Future researches should pay more attention to this relationship. PMID:27100447

  5. An Invert U-Shaped Curve: Relationship Between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in a Large Health Check-Up Population in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Zha, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Mengxue; Guo, Rui; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-04-01

    There are some published studies focus on the invert U-shaped relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum uric acid (UA), while the threshold value and gender differences of this relationship were still obscure. We aimed to explore the dose-response relation between FPG level and serum UA concentration by conducted this epidemiological research in a large health check-up population in China.A total of 237,703 people were collected from January 2011 to July 2014 in our cross-sectional study; 100,348 subjects age 18 to 89 years and without known diabetes were included for the current analysis. One-way analysis of variance, generalized additive models, and 2-piecewise linear regression model were used.The mean concentration of UA with FPG of <6.1, 6.1 to 6.9, and ≥7.0 mmol/L was 240.9, 260.2, and 259.6 μmol/L in women and 349.0, 360.8, and 331.0 μmol/L in men. An invert U-shape with a threshold FPG of 7.5 (women)/6.5 (men) mmol/L was observed in the regression curve of FPG and UA, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted regression coefficients were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 3.4, P < 0.001) for FPG < 7.5 mmol/L, -3.2 (95% CI: -5.0 to -1.3, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 7.5 mmol/L in women; while 0.8 (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.0, P = 0.19) for FPG < 6.5 mmol/L, -7.1 (95% CI: -8.0 to -6.1, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 6.5 mmol/L in men. Furthermore, the interaction between different FPG level and sex was significant (P < 0.05).An invert U-shape with a threshold of FPG was existed for serum UA level in Chinese adults age 18 to 89 years without known diabetes, and significant gender differences were found. Future researches should pay more attention to this relationship. PMID:27100447

  6. Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

  7. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  8. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  9. Clinical significance of serum protease-activated receptor-1 levels in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; KARABULUT, SENEM; TASTEKIN, DIDEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has a significant role in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and its expression mainly affects the survivals of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum concentrations of PAR-1 in patients with gastric carcinoma. A total of 63 pathologically confirmed gastric cancer patients were enrolled in this study, with a median age of 62 years. Serum PAR-1 concentrations were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and no significant difference in the baseline serum PAR-1 concentrations was found between patients and normal controls (P=0.5). The investigated clinical variables, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histology, grade of pathology, disease stage and serum tumor markers (lactate dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9) were not correlated with serum PAR-1 levels (P>0.05). Furthermore, no association was identified between the serum PAR-1 level and chemotherapy responsiveness (P=0.43). Serum PAR-1 level also had no prognostic role for survival (P=0.27). In conclusion, the serum PAR-1 concentration has no diagnostic, predictive and prognostic values in gastric cancer patients. PMID:27073639

  10. Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days. Results: Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities. PMID:27366348

  11. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose levels of 75 and 100 gram oral glucose tolerance test during gestational diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mert, Meral; Purcu, Serhat; Soyluk, Ozlem; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Karakaya, Pinar; Tamer, Gonca; Adas, Mine; Ekin, Murat; Hatipoglu, Sami; Ure, Oznur Sari; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important issue in terms of prevention of maternal and fetal complications. In our study we aimed to evaluate the relation of HbA1c and blood glucose levels of 75 and 50-100 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant patients who were screened for GDM. Materials and methods: The parameters of 913 pregnant women screened for GDM are evaluated retrospectively. The two steps screening with 50-100 gram OGTT were used in 576 patients. The remaining 337 patients were screened with 75 gram OGTT. Results: The HbA1c levels of patients having high blood glucose (≥153 mg/dl) levels at 2nd hour in 75 gram OGTT were significantly higher than patients having normal blood glucose levels at 2nd hour of 75 gram OGTT (P=0.038). Correlation analyses showed no significant relation between any blood glucose level of 100 gram OGTT and HbA1c level. Whereas in 75 gram OGTT 1st and 2nd hour blood glucose levels were found to have a significant relation with A1c levels (P=0.001, P=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: HbA1c may be used as an important tool in the diagnosis of GDM. But due to the variation of HbA1c in pregnant women and there is not an absolute cut-off level for A1c, it may be more reliable to evaluate HbA1c level together with the blood glucose levels in OGTT. PMID:26550262

  12. Decreased Serum Level of miR-146a as Sign of Chronic Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baldeón R., Lucy; Weigelt, Karin; de Wit, Harm; Ozcan, Behiye; van Oudenaren, Adri; Sempértegui, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric; Grosse, Laura; Freire, Wilma; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is an important determinant in insulin resistance and in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). MicroRNAs constitute a newly discovered system of cell regulation and in particular two microRNAs (miR-146a and miR-155) have been described as regulators and biomarkers of inflammation. Aim To determine a putative association between the levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in serum of T2D patients, clinical parameters and serological indicators of inflammation. Methods We performed quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) of microRNAs from serum (56 Ecuadorian T2D ambulatory patients and 40 non-diabetic controls). In addition, we evaluated T2D-related serum cytokines.chemokines and growth factors using a commercially available multi-analyte cytometric bead array system. We correlated outcomes to clinical parameters, including BMI, HbA1c and lipid state. Results The Ecuadorian non-diabetic controls appeared as overweight (BMI>25: patients 85%, controls 82.5%) and as dyslipidemic (hypercholesterolemia: patients 60.7%, controls 67.5%) as the patients. The serum levels of miR-146a were significantly reduced in T2D patients as compared to these non-diabetic, but obese/dyslipidemic control group (mean patients 0.61, mean controls set at 1; p = 0.042), those of miR-155 were normal. The serum levels of both microRNAs correlated to each other (r = 0.478; p<0.001) and to leptin levels. The microRNAs did not correlate to BMI, glycemia and dyslipidemia. From the tested cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, we found IL-8 and HGF significantly raised in T2D patients versus non-diabetic controls (p = 0.011 and 0.023 respectively). Conclusions This study shows decreased serum anti-inflammatory miR-146a, increased pro-inflammatory IL-8 and increased HGF (a vascular/insular repair factor) as discriminating markers of failure of glucose control occurring on the background of obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:25500583

  13. Assessment of serum prolactin levels in acute myocardial infarction: The role of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Awad, Mohamed S.; Alrifai, Sinan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperprolactinemia may reflect neuroendocrine stress reaction against acute coronary syndromes. Aim: The aim of the present study was evaluation of the serum prolactin level in the acute myocardial infarction (MI) regarding the current pharmacotherapy in management of MI. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional clinical based study. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional clinical study involved all patients with acute MI in a coronary care unit, a total number of 44 patients (45% males and 55% females) with age ranged from 40 to 75 years. A full history for modifiable risk factors and current therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and or metformin, all patients are nonsmokers. The anthropometric measurements; for estimations of body mass index (kg/m2), electrocardiography was obtained. Fasting blood samples were taken in the morning from all patients and the sera used for estimations of routine investigation and determination of ischemic cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and serum prolactin level. Results: This study shows a significant increase in the serum prolactin in acute MI as compared with the control. In acute MI serum cTnI elevation was correlated with serum prolactin increments. In metformin-treated group, there was a lowest prolactin serum level. Conclusions: Serum prolactin level increased in acute MI, and positively correlated with cardiac troponin level and reflects underlying cardiovascular complications. PMID:26904472

  14. Increased serum levels of soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin in patients with systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Guo, Zai-Pei; Cao, Na; Qin, Sha; Li, Meng-Meng; Jia, Rui-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a commonest systemic vasculitis (SV) in childhood characterized by an inflammatory reaction directed at vessels. Endothelial damage and perivascular leukocyte infiltrates are vital in the development of HSP. Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is an endothelial cell-specific adhesion molecule, which plays critical roles in angiogenesis and endothelial integrity. Herein, we investigated the serum levels of soluble VE-cadherin (sVE-cadherin) in patients with HSP and other forms of SV. The serum levels of sVE-cadherin in 30 patients with HSP, together with patients with urticarial vasculitis, allergic vasculitis, Behcet disease, psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and atopic dermatitis (AD) and 26 health controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of sVE-cadherin were significantly increased in patients with HSP in acute stage and patients with other forms of SV but not in patients with PV or AD. Moreover, Serum sVE-cadherin levels in HSP patients were correlated with the severity of this disease and serum concentrations of IgA anticardiolipin antibodies and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, we show firstly that serum sVE-cadherin is abnormally increased in HSP patients. Increased serum levels of sVE-cadherin might be a novel biomarker for evaluating the severity of HSP and useful for identifying the presence of SV in inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:24469639

  15. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine. PMID:25209952

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of a hot-water extract from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed on the blood glucose level in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Mooi, L Y; Inagaki, Y; He, P

    2001-10-01

    Genetically diabetic (type II) KK-Ay mice, male and 5 weeks of age, were divided into one group of 12 mice that were fed on a basal (BAS) diet and three groups of 6 mice each that were fed on the test diets for 4 weeks. Each test diet contained 4.0% of the hot-water extract (HES) from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed, 1.4% of the water eluent fraction (WFH) of HES or 0.7% of the methanol eluent fraction (MFH) of HES from a glass column packed with HP-20 resin. At the end of the feeding period, the BAS group was divided into the MAL and MALH groups which were respectively force-fed with 1 ml per mouse of a 20% maltose solution in water with or without 4.0% HES. The plasma glucose concentration and amount of urinary excreted glucose were lower from the HES and MFH diets than from the BAS and WFH diets. The levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin were lower in the MALH group than in the MAL group. These results indicate that HES and MFH had a reductive effect on the plasma glucose concentration of KK-Ay mice, and this effect is suggested to have been caused by the delayed glucose absorption. PMID:11758931

  17. Posterior Cingulate Glucose Metabolism, Hippocampal Glucose Metabolism, and Hippocampal Volume in Cognitively Normal, Late-Middle-Aged Persons at 3 Levels of Genetic Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Hillary D.; Chen, Kewei; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Alexander, Gene E.; Lee, Wendy; Bandy, Daniel; de Leon, Mony J.; Mosconi, Lisa; Buckley, Shannon; Truran-Sacrey, Diana; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.; Caselli, Richard J.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize and compare measurements of the posterior cingulate glucose metabolism, the hippocampal glucose metabolism, and hippocampal volume so as to distinguish cognitively normal, late-middle-aged persons with 2, 1, or 0 copies of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, reflecting 3 levels of risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease. Design Cross-sectional comparison of measurements of cerebral glucose metabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography and measurements of brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging in cognitively normal ε4 homozygotes, ε4 heterozygotes, and noncarriers. Setting Academic medical center. Participants A total of 31 ε4 homozygotes, 42 ε4 heterozygotes, and 76 noncarriers, 49 to 67 years old, matched for sex, age, and educational level. Main Outcome Measures The measurements of posterior cingulate and hippocampal glucose metabolism were characterized using automated region-of-interest algorithms and normalized for whole-brain measurements. The hippocampal volume measurements were characterized using a semiautomated algorithm and normalized for total intracranial volume. Results Although there were no significant differences among the 3 groups of participants in their clinical ratings, neuropsychological test scores, hippocampal volumes (P=.60), or hippocampal glucose metabolism measurements (P = .12), there were significant group differences in their posterior cingulate glucose metabolism measurements (P=.001). The APOE ε4 gene dose was significantly associated with posterior cingulate glucose metabolism (r=0.29, P=.0003), and this association was significantly greater than those with hippocampal volume or hippocampal glucose metabolism (P<.05, determined by use of pairwise Fisher z tests). Conclusions Although our findings may depend in part on the analysis algorithms used, they suggest that a reduction in posterior cingulate glucose metabolism precedes a reduction in hippocampal volume or

  18. High levels of dietary fat impair glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Panserat, Stéphane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Geurden, Inge; Polakof, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary fat levels on glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout under prolonged hyperglycaemia induced by high carbohydrate intake. Trout were fed identical amounts of one of two iso-energetic diets containing either a low (LFD, 3%) or a high fat level (HFD, 20%) and similar amounts of digestible carbohydrates (26-30%) for 14 days. While a single high fat meal reduced glycaemia compared with a low fat meal, the consumption of a high fat diet for 14 days resulted in prolonged hypergylcaemia and reduced plasma glucose clearance in response to an exogenous glucose or insulin challenge. The hyperglycaemic phenotype in trout was characterised by a reduction of the activities of lipogenic and glucose phosphorylating enzymes with a concomitant stimulation of enzymes involved in glucose production in the liver and reduced glycogen levels in the white muscle. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was further associated with a significant reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein content in muscle, and with a poor response of HFD fed fish to an exogenous insulin load, suggestive of impaired insulin signalling in trout fed with a HFD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a teleost can also develop a high fat-induced IGT, characterised by persistent hyperglycaemia and reduced insulin sensitivity, established symptoms of IGT and the prediabetic insulin-resistant state in mammals. Our results also provide evidence that persistent hyperglycaemia after a high carbohydrate meal stems from a metabolic interaction between dietary macronutrients rather than from high carbohydrate intake alone. PMID:22162865

  19. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  20. Diet restriction in Ramadan and the effect of fasting on glucose levels in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal diet restriction might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes due to metabolic changes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of changes in glucose levels due to Ramadan fasting in Emirati pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 150 women from the United Arab Emirates, (76 during Ramadan and 74 after Ramadan), with uncomplicated pregnancies at a gestational age between 20 and 36 weeks. Results The two groups of pregnant women had similar physiological parameters. Using the oral glucose tolerance test, the mean random blood glucose level after 1 hour of breaking the fast was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in the Ramadan fasting group than in the control group, and this was not affected by the number of fasting days. In 50% of patients after Ramadan and 70.5% during Ramadan, this value was more than 6.7 mmol/l, which is high and not an acceptable postprandial level in pregnancy. Conclusion Caregivers need to consider the 1-hour postprandial glucose level response after fasting in Muslim pregnant women. Research of an interventional design is required to determine remedial actions for this issue. PMID:24962444

  1. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. PMID:25199186

  2. Correlation between serum leptin level and thyroid hormones in children with major beta-thalassemia 

    PubMed Central

    Shahramian, I; Noori, NM; Ramezani, AA; Sharafi, E; Akhlaghi, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassemia is the most common hematology disease in human and leptin is one of the hormone that produce by adiposities cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum leptin level and thyroid hormones in children with major beta-thalassemia. Materials and Methods This descriptive-cross sectional study was performed on 90 children aged 6-16 years old with beta-thalassemia. Body Mass Index (BMI ) were meuseurd in all patients and then, after collecting the samples, leptin and thyroid hormones levels of the serum were measured in the patients with thalassemia via ELISA method. Then, all data was analyzed by Pearson correlation test, and x2 statistical tests and P < 0.05 was considered as a significant difference. Results The mean of body mass index and serum leptin level in the patients group was 16.58±2.43 and 1.521 ±2. 49, respectively. The mean serum levels of thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) in patient's groups were7.94 ±3.56, 1.28 ± 0.46, and 2.85 ±3. 44, respectively. There was significant correlation between serum leptin levels and T4 in patients with major thalassemia; also there was no significant correlation between serum leptin level and T3and TSH. There was a significant correlation was between the leptin serum level and BMI in patients (P value=0.008). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that in patients with major thalassemia, there was significant correlation between serum leptin level and thyroxin hormone. Leptin level has more relationship with thyroxin than thyroid- stimulating hormone. PMID:24575288

  3. A non enzymatic glucose biosensor based on an ultrasensitive calix[4]arene functionalized boronic acid gold nanoprobe for sensing in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Alok; Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Menon, Shobhana K

    2013-04-21

    We developed a new, advanced, simple and non enzymatic approach for the colorimetric detection of glucose based on calix[4]arene/phenyl boronic acid (CX-PBA)functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This molecular receptor proficiently and selectively recognizes glucose due to its ability to reversibly bind diol-containing compounds. The assembly was characterized by transmission electron micrograph (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR spectrometry, which demonstrates the binding affinity for glucose via a boronic acid-diol interaction. The linear range for glucose was found to be 5-100 nM with phosphate buffer pH 10, with a lower detection limit of 4.3 nM. Interference by other saccharides was negligible. The biosensor has been successfully applied to estimate the glucose in human blood serum samples and the results compared well to an automatic analyzer. With the advantages of high sensitivity, selectivity and low sample volume, this method is potentially suitable for the on-site monitoring of glucose. PMID:23476922

  4. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Movahedian, A; Ramezanlou, P; Osooli, F S

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3(rd) day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3(rd) day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13(th) and 30(th) days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  5. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Ramezanlou, P.; Osooli, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3rd day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3rd day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13th and 30th days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  6. Time course of saliva and serum melatonin levels after ingestion of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, S; Tsuchiya, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Kotorii, T; Uchimura, N; Sakamoto, T; Yamada, S

    1998-04-01

    Salival and serum melatonin levels after melatonin ingestion were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ingestion of 3 mg melatonin caused a marked increase in serum melatonin (3561+/-1201 pg/mL) within 20 min, followed by a gradual decrease, but the level still remained higher than the basal level at 240 min after the ingestion. The saliva melatonin 60 min after the ingestion showed the highest level (1177+/-403 pg/mL) which was one-third of the plasma level. The saliva melatonin level was highly correlated with the serum level throughout the experimental period (r=0.82, P=0.0001). These data indicate that the measurement of saliva melatonin level may be a suitable indicator for the melatonin secretion into general circulation. PMID:9628188

  7. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA p< 0.02). In the case of patients treated with M. vulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment. PMID:15636168

  8. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  9. Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor decreased in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Zhang, Minling; Xu, Ke; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Liu, Yuping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a group of chronic ketamine abusers in comparison to healthy controls. Methods Eighty-one ketamine abusers who were hospitalized for the treatment of ketamine dependence and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results Serum level of VEGF was significantly lower in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls (64.6 ± 42.1 vs. 92.4 ± 59.4 pg/ml, F = 7.243, p = 0.008). Conclusions Serum level of VEGF decreased in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls. PMID:26003336

  10. Serum VEGF levels are related to the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Kiropoulos, Theodoros; Koutsokera, Angela; Ziogas, Athanasios; Koutroumpas, Athanasios; Sakkas, Lazaros; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Daniil, Zoe D

    2009-01-01

    Background The association between systemic sclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is well recognized. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to play an important role in pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between systolic pulmonary artery pressure, clinical and functional manifestations of the disease and serum VEGF levels in systemic sclerosis. Methods Serum VEGF levels were measured in 40 patients with systemic sclerosis and 13 control subjects. All patients underwent clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and echocardiography. Results Serum VEGF levels were higher in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg than in those with sPAP < 35 mmHg (352 (266, 462 pg/ml)) vs (240 (201, 275 pg/ml)) (p < 0.01), while they did not differ between systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP < 35 mmHg and controls. Serum VEGF levels correlated to systolic pulmonary artery pressure, to diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and to MRC dyspnea score. In multiple linear regression analysis, serum VEGF levels, MRC dyspnea score, and DLCO were independent predictors of systolic pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion Serum VEGF levels are increased in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg. The correlation between VEGF levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure may suggest a possible role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of PAH in systemic sclerosis. PMID:19426547

  11. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  12. Serum uric acid levels in patients with myasthenia gravis are inversely correlated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dehao; Weng, Yiyun; Lin, Haihua; Xie, Feiyan; Yin, Fang; Lou, Kangliang; Zhou, Xuan; Han, Yixiang; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid (UA), the final product of purine metabolism, has been reported to be reduced in patients with various neurological disorders and is considered to be a possible indicator for monitoring the disability and progression of multiple sclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether there is a close relationship between UA and myasthenia gravis (MG), or whether UA is primarily deficient or secondarily reduced because of its peroxynitrite scavenging activity. We investigated the correlation between serum UA levels and the clinical characteristics of MG. We assessed 338 serum UA levels obtained in 135 patients with MG, 47 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 156 healthy controls. In addition, we compared serum UA levels when MG patients were stratified according to disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, age of onset, duration, and thymus histology (by means of MRI or computed tomography). MG patients had significantly lower serum UA levels than the controls (P<0.001). Moreover, UA levels in patients with MG were inversely correlated with disease activity and disease progression (P=0.013). However, UA levels did not correlate significantly with disease duration, age of onset, and thymus histology. Our findings suggest that serum level of UA was reduced in patients with MG and serum UA might be considered a surrogate biomarker of MG disability and progression. PMID:26836463

  13. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels. PMID:20945636

  14. Alcohol-induced alterations in serum immunoglobulin e (IgE) levels in human subjects.

    PubMed

    González-Quintela, Arturo; Vidal, Carmen; Gude, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    The association of alcohol intake with total serum IgE concentrations in humans is discussed in the present review. The possible relationship of regular alcohol intake with both the risk of allergic sensitization and serum allergen-specific IgE values is also reviewed. Several studies consistently show that total serum IgE concentrations are increased in alcoholics when compared with healthy controls. Total serum IgE levels decrease after ethanol abstinence in alcoholics. Total serum IgE is increased in moderate alcohol consumers with respect to abstainers. Alcohol consumption in mothers may be associated with increased cord blood IgE levels in their offspring. IgE elevation in alcohol consumers is independent of potential confounders such as age, sex, liver disease, cigarette smoking or atopic status. Experimental studies in animals further support that ethanol administration is followed by an increase in serum IgE concentrations. In atopic patients, regular alcohol consumption is associated with increased serum specific IgE levels against some aeroallergens. Preliminary reports suggest that alcohol intake is associated to variable risk of sensitization to some aeroallergens. The possible mechanisms of alcohol-induced alterations in IgE levels and IgE-mediated diseases are discussed. PMID:11991851

  15. Serum Immunoglobulin and Transferrin Levels After Childhood Splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    IgG, IgA, IgM, and transferrin levels were measured in sera from a group of children who had been subjected to splenectomy in the previous 10 years. In those children splenectomized for hereditary spherocytosis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, or traumatic rupture, mean IgM levels were significantly lower and mean transferrin levels were significantly higher than in sera from control children. Children splenectomized for thalassaemia major had a significantly raised mean IgG level, while children splenectomized for portal hypertension had a raised mean IgA level. However, IgG and IgA levels in patients who had suffered splenic rupture did not differ from control values. The finding of high transferrin levels after splenectomy supports the concept of an immunological function for this protein in addition to its iron-binding capacity. PMID:4191614

  16. CA19-9 serum levels predict micrometastases in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Potrc, Stojan; Mis, Katarina; Plankl, Mojca; Mars, Tomaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We explored the prognostic value of the up-regulated carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) in node-negative patients with gastric cancer as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Patients and methods Micrometastases were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for a subgroup of 30 node-negative patients. This group was used to determine the cut-off for preoperative CA19-9 serum levels as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Then 187 node-negative T1 to T4 patients were selected to validate the predictive value of this CA19-9 threshold. Results Patients with micrometastases had significantly higher preoperative CA19-9 serum levels compared to patients without micrometastases (p = 0.046). CA19-9 serum levels were significantly correlated with tumour site, tumour diameter, and perineural invasion. Although not reaching significance, subgroup analysis showed better five-year survival rates for patients with CA19-9 serum levels below the threshold, compared to patients with CA19-9 serum levels above the cut-off. The cumulative survival for T2 to T4 node-negative patients was significantly better with CA19-9 serum levels below the cut-off (p = 0.04). Conclusions Preoperative CA19-9 serum levels can be used to predict higher risk for haematogenous spread and micrometastases in node-negative patients. However, CA19-9 serum levels lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity to reliably predict micrometastases. PMID:27247553

  17. Serum uric acid and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, C. A.; Andrews, Henley Punnen; Vijayasarathi; Pinnelli, Venkata BharatKumar; Shashidharan, Basappaji; Nithin Kumar, H. N.; Vemulapalli, Swaapnika

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to identify the predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). Methods: About fifty Asian Indian patients with type 2 DM patients aged >40 years and fifty sex- and age-matched nondiabetic controls were enrolled for this study. Following complete medical history and baseline clinical data, laboratory investigations were performed to assess fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, lipid profile, blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid levels. Results: Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, serum uric acid, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, very LDL cholesterol were significantly higher among diabetic patients compared to controls. On univariate analysis, serum LDL cholesterol (odds ratio [OR]: 29.67, P < 0.001), serum uric acid (OR: 25.65, P < 0.001), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR: 21.12, P < 0.001), hypertension (OR: 17.06, P < 0.001), family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR: 9.43, P = 0.002), and duration of diabetes (OR: 4.65, P = 0.03) were identified as predictors of CVD among diabetic patients. On multivariate regression, only LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.51, P = 0.002) and serum uric acid (OR: 1.21, P = 0.01) were the independent predictors of CAD among diabetic patients. Significant positive correlation of serum uric acid with duration of diabetes (r = 0.38, P = 0.006), BMI (r = 0.35, P = 0.01), triglycerides (r = 0.356, P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (r = 0.38, P = 0.007), HDL cholesterol (r = −0.514, P < 0.001), and hypertension (r = 0.524, P < 0.001) was observed. Conclusion: Serum LDL cholesterol and hyperuricemia may serve as independent predictors of CAD among Asian Indian subjects with type 2 DM. PMID:27433067

  18. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  19. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  20. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a protective

  1. The effect of dietary starch level on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    A charge made against feeding dry foods to cats is that the high carbohydrate (i.e. starch) content results in high blood glucose levels which over time may have detrimental health effects. The present study determined the post-meal concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin in adult cats (seven males and four females) and dogs (Labrador retrievers; four males and five females) fed dry diets with low-starch (LS), moderate-starch (MS) or high-starch (HS) levels. In a cross-over design with at least 7 d between the test meals, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured following a single meal of a LS, MS and HS diet (209 kJ/kg bodyweight). Only the HS diet resulted in significant post-meal increases in plasma glucose concentration in cats and dogs although the time-course profiles were different between the species. In cats, plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased above the pre-meal concentration from 11 h until 19 h after the meal, while in dogs, a significant increase above baseline was seen only at the 7 h time point. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated in dogs 4-8 h following the MS diet and 2-8 h after the HS diet. In cats, plasma insulin was significantly greater than baseline from 3-7 and 11-17 h after the HS diet. The time lag (approximately 11 h) between eating the HS diet and the subsequent prolonged elevation of plasma glucose concentration seen in cats may reflect metabolic adaptations that result in a slower digestive and absorptive capacity for complex carbohydrate. PMID:22005401

  2. The effect of 6-aminonicotinamide on the levels of brain amino acids and glucose, and their labeling with 14C after injection of (U-14C) glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, M.K.; Lewis, L.P.; Evans, G.; Clapp, A.

    1981-10-01

    The brains of rats paralysed at 4 hr after the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide were found to contain decreased levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyrate. The glucose content of the brain of the treated rats was several fold higher than in controls. The incorporation of 14C into brain amino acids at 30 min after the injection of (U-14C)glucose was decreased by 16%: this was attributed to mainly decreased labeling of glutamate and associated amino acids. The results are discussed in the light of previous findings that the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide resulted in the blockade of the direct oxidation of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway.

  3. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  4. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Babinkostova, Zoja; Stefanovski, Branislav; Janicevic-Ivanovska, Danijela; Samardziska, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  6. Is the serum ferritin level a considerable predictor for hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Mehrpour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhagic Transformation (HT) of Ischemic Stroke (IS) is a detrimental complication. This study investigated the association between serum ferritin level and HT in patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery. Methods: Thirty patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. They were divided into two groups based on the serum ferritin level, lower or greater than 164.1ng/ml at the first 24 hours after admission. To investigate the incidence of HT in the two groups, we observed them for two weeks. Results: During the two- week observation, the incidence of HT was two persons (13.3%) in the group with the serum ferritin level of lower than 164.1ng/ml, and eight persons (53.3%) in the other group. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.02). The relative risk of HT was 4 (95% CI: 1.012- 15.8) in the patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery and the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml. Conclusion: This study revealed that the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml in the first 24 hours after admission is a reasonably important predictor for HT of IS. Conducting studies on factors affecting the serum ferritin level are suggested. PMID:27493907

  7. Serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels as a marker for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YA-DI; CHEN, SU-XIAN; REN, LI-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies have produced inconsistent evidence about the association of serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Therefore, the current meta-analysis examined the association between serum BNP levels and AIC by using data from high quality studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scolar and China BioMedicine (CBM). STATA software was used in this meta-analysis for statistical analysis. In addition, the crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest category of serum BNP levels was calculated. A total of 8 independent case-control studies, containing 126 AIC patients and 569 healthy controls, were included for the current meta-analysis. The results indicated a significant difference in serum BNP levels between the cardiotoxic group and normal group, with respect to post-treatment and pretreatment with anthracyclines. Specifically, the serum levels of BNP increased remarkably after treatment with anthracyclines in the cardiotoxic group, compared with the normal group. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. The findings of the present study provide strong evidence that serum BNP levels may be associated with AIC. PMID:27123140

  8. Protection of seven dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis against serum and glucose deprivation injury in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    E, Qun; Tang, Miao; Zhang, XiaoChuan; Shi, YunWei; Wang, DanDan; Gu, Yun; Li, ShiYing; Liang, XinMiao; Wang, ZhiWei; Wang, CaiPing

    2015-12-01

    Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, the major active components of fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., have been found to have activities that could prevent prostate and thyroid cancer, hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress-induced cerebral injury, etc. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans of Schisandra chinensis and explore the possible mechanisms in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed on serum and glucose deprivation (SGD) injury. The structure-activity relationships were also analyzed. Cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were determined to evaluate cell injury. Inflammation and apoptosis-related protein levels were detected to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Schisantherin A, schizandrin C, and schizandrol B were found to have stronger protective effects than schizandrin A, schizandrin B, and schisanhenol in SH-SY5Y cells against SGD injury. Moreover, the protective effects of these lignans were possibly exhibited by regulating inflammation and apoptosis-related proteins in SH-SY5Y cells after SGD injury, supporting their beneficial effects for the prevention of cell injury in the pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases, including ischemia stroke. The number and position of hydroxyl group and methylenedioxy in these lignans may be required for their effects. PMID:26289388

  9. Serum but not salivary cortisol levels are influenced by daily glycemic oscillations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bellastella, Giuseppe; Maiorino, Maria Ida; De Bellis, Annamaria; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Mosca, Carmela; Scappaticcio, Lorenzo; Pasquali, Daniela; Esposito, Katherine; Giugliano, Dario

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal salivary and plasma cortisol variations are considered valid expression of circadian cortisol rhythmicity. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of salivary and plasma cortisol and if glycemia and glycemic oscillations may interfere with their concentration. Forty-seven type 2 diabetic patients and 31 controls were studied for glycemic profile and diurnal salivary and plasma cortisol variations on two contemporary samples taken at 08:00 a.m.-11:00 p.m (Late Night, LN). Glucose variability was evaluated in diabetic patients by considering the standard deviation of blood glucose (BGSD) readings, by calculating the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA). A significant correlation between LN serum cortisol and morning fasting glycemia (r = 0.78; p = 0.004) was observed in T2DM group but not in the control group (r = 0.09; p = 0.74). While LN serum cortisol significantly correlated with CONGA in diabetic patients (r = 0.50; p < 0.001), LN salivary cortisol did not correlate with any indices of glucose variability. Moreover, a highly significant correlation between LN salivary and LN serum cortisol concentrations was found in control group (r = 0.80; p < 0.001) but not in diabetic patients (r = 0.07; p = 0.62). This study shows for the first time that LN salivary rather than plasma cortisol may give information on the dynamics of adrenal function of type 2 diabetic patients, as it is not significantly influenced by glycemic variations. However, our preliminary results need to be confirmed by further studies with more complete evaluations including many more patients. PMID:26511948

  10. Serum neuron specific enolase levels correlate with patient prognosis for advanced lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Feng; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Liyan; Wang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and prognostic value of neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels in serum of advanced lung cancer patients, we analyzed serum NSE level of 110 advanced lung cancer patients (case group), 100 benign lung disease patients (benign disease group), and 100 healthy persons (control group). Case group patients were divided by NSE level into ≥25 ng/mL (52 cases) and <25 ng/mL (58 cases) groups to analyze overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The results showed the serum NSE levels of case group patients were significantly higher than those of control or benign disease group patients (P<0.05). Serum NSE levels of small cell lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those of patients with other tumor pathologies (all P<0.05). Median OS significantly differed between patients with NSE levels ≥25 ng/mL (23.7 months) and <25 ng/mL (31.4 months) (P<0.05). Median PFS also significantly differed between patients with NSE levels ≥25 ng/mL (13.5 months) and <25 ng/mL (17.6 months) (χ 2=9.992; P<0.05). Tumor pathology (RR=4.136), patient performance status score (RR=2.903), and serum NSE level (RR=2.338) were factors influencing OS (P<0.05). Patient performance status score (RR=2.903), number of chemotherapy lines (RR=1.776), and serum NSE level (RR=2.075) were influencing factors in patients’ PFS (P<0.05). In brief, serum NSE level significantly correlates with advanced lung cancer patient prognosis and may be useful as an auxiliary index to predict prognosis. PMID:26309614

  11. Increased serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women with altered thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Nardo, S; Gargano, L; Franchi, A; Sibilla, R; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F; Centanni, M

    2003-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism have significant effects on the female reproductive system. However, little in the way of data is available on the relationship between ovarian paracrine control and thyroid function. This study was aimed at characterising the serum levels of inhibin B in relation to altered thyroid function. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were measured in 91 women (51 regularly cycling and 40 postmenopausal). The mean serum concentration of inhibin B in euthyroid cycling women (0.025 +/- 0.018 microg/l) was similar to that observed in hyper- and hypothyroid patients (0.022 +/- 0.015 and 0.018 +/- 0.014 microg/l, respectively, p=ns). Inhibin B levels were obviously reduced (-72%) in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In contrast, in hyper- and hypothyroid postmenopausal women, inhibin B levels remained substantially at the premenopausal level. So far, serum inhibin B appeared to be significantly increased in both hyperthyroid patients (0.025 +/- 0.014 microg/l; p<0.0001) and in hypothyroid patients (0.016 +/- 0.006 microg/l; p=0.0006). Altered thyroid function did not affect FSH levels at fertile age. However, a significant decrease of FSH levels was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid (-52% and -43%, respectively) postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, these FSH levels remained in the postmenopausal range. These results indicate that an altered thyroid function affects serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:12953168

  12. Effect of Biochanin A on Serum Visfatin Level of Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Reza; Goodarzi, Mohamad Taghi; Salemi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bioflavonoids are well known for their multi directional biologic activity including antidiabetic effect. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids can act as insulin secretagogue or insulin mimetic agents. Objectives: This experimental study was designed in Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran, to investigate the effects of biochanin A (a bioflavonoid) on fasting blood glucose (FBG), body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum enzymes, and visfatin of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Patients and Methods: We used 24 male Wistar rats and randomly allocated them to four groups of six rats. One group was randomly assigned as control and diabetes was induced in three other groups by administration of streptozocin (35 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneally. The groups received the following treatments: group 1 (control), 5% DMSO; group 2 (diabetic control), 0.5% DMSO; and group 3 and 4, respectively 10 and 15 mg/kg biochanin A for 30 days. Body weight and biochemical parameters including FBG, HbA1c, lipid profile, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and visfatin were measured in all rats. Results: FBG level was significantly reduced in treated diabetic rats (139.8 ± 9.3 and 206 ± 11 mg/dL in groups 3 and 4, respectively) in comparison to the diabetic control (295.1 ± 14 mg/dL) (P < 0.05). Administration of biochanin A significantly decreased HbA1c in group 3 (6.66 ± 0.33) and group 4 (7.11 ± 0.31) in comparison to the diabetic control group (8.26 ± 0.44) (P < 0.05). Levels of serum visfatin were improved to near normal levels in the treated rats (249 ± 35.5 and 161.33 ± 13.07 in groups 3 and 4, respectively) in comparison to the diabetic control (302.17 ± 19.4) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, biochanin A showed a protective effect against weight loss in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). In treated rats, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein

  13. Racial Differences in Serum Adipokine and Insulin Levels in a Matched Osteoarthritis Sample: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Sharma, Anirudh; Kapoor, Mohit; Sundararajan, Kala; Perruccio, Anthony V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In an attempt to correlate biomarkers with disease, serum-based biomarkers often are compared between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) and control subjects. However, variable results have been reported. Some studies have suggested an association between certain adipokines and insulin and OA. We know that there are racial differences in OA prevalence and incidence, and from general population-based studies, those of Asian race consistently demonstrate a unique adipokine/insulin serum concentration profile as compared to Caucasians. Whether similar racial differences exist within OA samples is unknown and may have implications for selecting appropriate controls in comparative studies. Methods. Serum levels of adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin, along with insulin, were determined by ELISA in patients scheduled for total hip or knee replacement surgery for OA. Fifteen Asian patients were matched 1 : 1 on age (±2 years), gender, body mass index (±1.5 kg/m2), and surgical joint with Caucasian patients. Differences in serum concentrations were tested using paired t-tests. Results. Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly higher in Asians compared to Caucasians (p < 0.05). While serum adiponectin levels were lower among Asians, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.12). Conclusion. Findings from this work suggest that when studying serum biomarker concentrations in OA versus controls, race may be an important factor to consider. Our findings warrant confirmation in larger studies.

  14. The Relationship Between Serum Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor−Alpha, Leptin Levels and Insulin Sensitivity in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: Adiponectin is a Marker of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gönç, E. Nazlı; Özön, Z. Alev; Şen, Yaşar; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed (a) to investigate the relationship between the degree of obesity and serum adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)−α, leptin, insulin levels and the lipid profile; (b) to clarify the relationship between insulin resistance/glucose tolerance and adipocytokine levels; and (c) to investigate the value of adipocytokine levels as a marker of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: We studied 151 obese children and adolescents (86 boys and 65 girls; mean age was 12.3±2.4 years). We defined obesity as a body−mass index (BMI) z−score more than 2 SD above the mean for age and sex. The control group consisted of 100 children (48 boys, 52 girls, mean age 12.4±2.5 years). Fasting glucose, insulin levels and lipid profiles were measured in all cases and controls after a 12−hour fast. Adiponectin, TNF−α, and leptin levels were measured in the subjects who participated in the adipocytokine branch of the study. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in all obese patients. Obese patients were grouped into three subgroups according to their glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity assessment, and also according to whether they were grouped as MS or not. Results: Serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol, log triglyceride, insulin, leptin and TNF−α were higher, whereas HDL and square root adiponectin levels were lower in the obese group when compared with controls. Multiple regression analysis among BMI−z score, LDL, triglyceride, HOMA−IR, leptin and TNF−α as determinants of adiponectin revealed that BMI−z score was the only determinant for adiponectin (r:−0.45, p<0.0001). Adiponectin levels in hyperinsulinemic and impaired glucose tolerance groups (IGT) tended to be lower than in normoinsulinemic obese children, however, the difference was not significant. There was a weak negative correlation between adiponectin levels and increasing severity of insulin resistance (r=−0.23, p=0.005) in the

  15. Higher blood glucose level associated with body mass index and gut microbiota in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Epp; Kolk, Helgi; Lõivukene, Krista; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Background Some dominant bacterial divisions of the intestines have been linked to metabolic diseases such as overweight and diabetes. Objective A pilot study aimed to evaluate the relations between the culturable intestinal bacteria with body mass index (BMI) and some principal cellular and metabolic markers of blood in people older than 65. Design Altogether 38 generally healthy elderly people were recruited: ambulatory (n=19) and orthopedic surgery (n=19). Questionnaires on general health, anthropometric measurements, routine clinical and laboratory data, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota were performed. Results Blood glucose level was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.402; p=0.014). Higher blood glucose level had negative correlation with relative share of intestinal anaerobic bacteria such as bacteroides (r=−0.434; p=0.0076) and gram-positive anaerobic cocci (r=−0.364; p=0.027). In contrast, the relative share of bifidobacteria (r=0.383; p=0.019) and staphylococci (r=0.433; p=0.008) was positively correlated to blood glucose level. In elderly people, a higher blood glucose concentration was predicted by the reduction of the anaerobes’ proportion (adj. sex, age, and BMI R2=0.192, p=0.028) and that of Bacteroides sp. (adj. R2=0.309, p=0.016). Conclusion A tight interplay between increased BMI, level of blood glucose, and the reduced proportion of cultivable bacteroides is taking place in the gut microbiota of elderly people. PMID:24936169

  16. Glucose sensing by means of silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaele, Ronny; Ryckeboer, Eva; Hattasan, Nannicha; De Koninck, Yannick; Muneeb, Muhammad; Verstuyft, Steven; Delbeke, Danaë; Bogaerts, Wim; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes is a fast growing metabolic disease, where the patients suffer from disordered glucose blood levels. Monitoring the blood glucose values in combination with extra insulin injection is currently the only therapy to keep the glucose concentration in diabetic patients under control, minimizing the long-term effects of elevated glucose concentrations and improving quality of life of the diabetic patients. Implantable sensors allow continuous glucose monitoring, offering the most reliable data to control the glucose levels. Infrared absorption spectrometers offer a non-chemical measurement method to determine the small glucose concentrations in blood serum. In this work, a spectrometer platform based on silicon photonics is presented, allowing the realization of very small glucose sensors suitable for building implantable sensors. A proof-of-concept of a spectrometer with integrated evanescent sample interface is presented, and the route towards a fully implantable spectrometer is discussed.

  17. Serum Activin A and Follistatin Levels in Gestational Diabetes and the Association of the Activin A-Follistatin System with Anthropometric Parameters in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Näf, Silvia; Escote, Xavier; Ballesteros, Mónica; Yañez, Rosa Elena; Simón-Muela, Inmaculada; Gil, Pilar; Albaiges, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Context The Activin A-Follistatin system has emerged as an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism with possible repercussions on fetal growth. Objective To analyze circulating activin A, follistatin and follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) levels and their relationship with glucose metabolism in pregnant women and their influence on fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. Design and methods A prospective cohort was studied comprising 207 pregnant women, 129 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 78 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offspring. Activin A, follistatin and FSTL3 levels were measured in maternal serum collected in the early third trimester of pregnancy. Serial fetal ultrasounds were performed during the third trimester to evaluate fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometry was measured to assess neonatal adiposity. Results Serum follistatin levels were significantly lower in GDM than in NGT pregnant women (8.21±2.32 ng/mL vs 9.22±3.41, P = 0.012) whereas serum FSTL3 and activin A levels were comparable between the two groups. Serum follistatin concentrations were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively with ultrasound growth parameters such as fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of the third trimester and percent fat mass at birth. Also, in the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis serum follistatin levels were negatively associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.199, P = 0.008) and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (β = −0.138, P = 0.049). Likewise, fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of third trimester and percent fat mass at birth were positively determined by serum follistatin levels (β = 0.214, P = 0.005 and β = 0.231, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Circulating follistatin levels are reduced in GDM compared with NGT pregnant women and they are positively associated with fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. These data suggest a role of the Activin

  18. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2). Results The serum triglyceride (TG) levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA. PMID:26616395

  19. [Assessment of serum estrogen levels by RIA with HPLC during hormone replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Uemura, H; Yoneda, N; Irahara, M; Aono, T; Sunahara, S; Hata, K

    1995-07-01

    We studied the serum estradiol and estrone levels in 146 peri and postmenopausal women, and in 38 women who had complained of various climacteric disturbance symptoms during daily hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 2.5 mg. Serum estradiol and estrone were measured before treatment, and at 6 months, and after one year of the HRT therapy by HPLC-radioimmunoassay. In 146 peri and postmenopausal women, the serum level of estradiol was from 3 to 6pg/ml. The serum level of estradiol in 38 women after HRT significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 3.34 to 23.6 pg/ml at 6 months, and 21.5 pg/ml at 12 months. The serum level of estrone significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 26.6pg/ml to 156.7pg/ml at 6 months, and 137.2pg/ml at 12 month. These results are very useful for deciding on the doses of hormones and the expected serum estradiol level in HRT for Japanese women. PMID:7636337

  20. Serum copper and zinc levels in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-ou; Wang, Jia-liang; Bjørklund, Geir; Zhao, Wei-na; Yin, Chang-hao

    2014-10-22

    Trace elements play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in Chinese children with ASD. Sixty patients (48 males, 12 females) diagnosed with ASD and 60 healthy sex-matched and age-matched control participants were assessed for serum Zn and Cu content at admission. The severity of ASD was also evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score. The results indicated that the mean serum Zn levels and Zn/Cu ratio were significantly lower in children with ASD compared with normal cases (P<0.001, respectively), whereas serum Cu levels were significantly higher (P<0.001). There was a significant negative association between Zn/Cu and CARS scores (r=-0.345, P=0.007). On the basis of the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off value of serum levels of Zn/Cu as an indicator for an auxiliary diagnosis of autism was projected to be 0.665, which yielded a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 91.7%; the area under the curve was 0.968 (95% confidence interval, 0.943-0.993). In conclusion, these results suggested an association between serum levels of Zn and Cu and ASD among Chinese patients, and the Zn/Cu ratio could be considered a biomarker of ASD. PMID:25162784

  1. Usefulness of Measuring Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationships between serum procalcitonin, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) have not been completely determined. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum procalcitonin levels to assess disease activity and infection stage in patients with IBD and intestinal BD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 129 patients with IBD and intestinal BD for whom serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured between January 2006 and February 2013. Results The median serum procalcitonin levels in the IBD and intestinal BD with septic shock or sepsis (n=8), with localized infection (n=76), and without infection (n=45) were 3.46 ng/mL (range, 0.17 to 63.66 ng/mL), 0.22 ng/mL (range, 0.05 to 140.18 ng/mL), and 0.07 ng/mL (range, 0.00 to 31.50 ng/mL), respectively (p=0.001). The serum CRP levels in the IBD and intestinal BD patients did not differ according to the infection stage. Variations in serum procalcitonin levels were not observed in the IBD and intestinal BD patients with different disease activities. Conclusions Serum procalcitonin levels may not be affected by IBD and intestinal BD activity itself, although they may be affected by concomitant infection. Serum procalcitonin measurements could be more useful than CRP in determining the infection stage that reflects the severity of infection in IBD and intestinal BD patients. PMID:26780089

  2. Clinical implication of VEGF serum levels in cirrhotic patients with or without portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nimer, Assy; M, Paizi; D, Gaitini; Y, Baruch; G, Spira

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels correlates with the severity of liver cirrhosis and whether portal hypertension impacts on the expression of serum VEGF protein. METHODS: Fifty-three patients (mean age 56 ± 2 years) with HCV (n = 26), HBV (n = 13), and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis (n = 14) (Child-Pugh-s class A: 24, B: 19 and C: 12) and normal renal function constitute the patient population, who were all diagnosed by clinical, histological and radiological findings. Six healthy people and six patients with acute hepatitis served as controls. Severity of liver disease was evaluated by the CP score. Serum levels of IGF-1 and VEGF were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA, respectively. Portal hypertension was assessed using pulsed Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: The mean serum VEGF levels in all cirrhotic patients (73 ± 58) were significantly lower than those of healthy controls (360 ± 217, P < 0.01) and acute hepatitis (1123 ± 1261, P < 0.01) respectively. No significant difference in median serum VEGF levels were noted among the different Child-Pugh-s classes (class A: median, 49.4 ng/L, range, 21-260 ng/L, Class B: median 59.9 ng/L; range 21-92, and Class C: median 69; range 20-247 ng/L). A significant correlation was noted between serum VEGF and two accurate parameters of portal hypertension: portal blood flow velocity (r = 06) and spleen size (r = 0.55). No correlation was found between VEGF serum levels and serum albumin, IGF-1, platelets count and aminotrasnferases (r = 0.2, r = 0.1, r = 0.2 and r = 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: Circulating VEGF level in patients with liver cirrhosis could not serve as an indicator of the progression of chronic liver disease but rather, they may reflect increased portal hypertension or decreased hepatic regenerative activity or the combination of both. PMID:11819451

  3. Serum Selenium Level in Patients with Gastric Non-Cardia Cancer and Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini Nezhad, Zahra; Darvish Moghaddam, Sodaif; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Hayatbakhsh, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Ebrahimi Meimand, Farzane; Nazari, Mahdieh

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in Iran. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) accounts as one of the main risk factors for gastric non-cardia cancer (GNCC). It is suggested that high serum selenium level may have a protective role in GNCC. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the serum Se level and the status of H. pylori infection in two populations with GC and functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods The enrolled patients were 85 (27 women, 58 men) with recent pathologically proven GNCC (adenocarcinoma) and 85 (34 women, 51 men) FD patients. Serum Se was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. H. pylori IgG antibody was detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Results The mean age in the GNCC and FD patients were 62.85±14.6 and 58.9±14.7 years, respectively (P=0.08). The serum selenium levels were 111.6±27.7 and 129.9±32.1 μg/L (mean±SD) in GNCC and FD patients, respectively (P<0.001). The frequency of H. pylori infection was 49.4% (n=42) and 68.2% (n=58) in GNCC and FD patients (P=0.013). The crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) between GNCC and the linear effect of serum selenium level were 0.98 and 0.982, respectively (P=0.002). This means that each unit increase in serum selenium level decreases the odds of cancer by 2%. Conclusion Serum selenium level was significantly lower in GNCC cases. It suggests that lower serum selenium might have some association with the risk of GNCC. H. pylori infection does not play a significant impact on this association. PMID:25999620

  4. Baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels predict bevacizumab-based treatment response in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Gerald W; Braemswig, Kira H; Martel, Alexandra; Unseld, Matthias; Heinze, Georg; Brodowicz, Thomas; Scheithauer, Werner; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) affects tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell survival and by inducing tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate baseline CEA serum levels to predict bevacizumab-based therapy effect and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Two hundred and ninety eight mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus either bevacizumab or cetuximab were analyzed in a retrospective study. Disease control (DC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were assessed and related to pretreatment CEA serum levels. Patients with baseline CEA serum levels below the statistical median of 26.8 ng/mL (group I) were compared with patients with higher CEA levels (group II). The cetuximab-based treatment cohort was analyzed for specificity assessment of CEA to predict the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor effect in mCRC. Baseline CEA serum levels inversely correlated with therapeutic response in patients receiving bevacizumab-based treatment (disease control rate, 84% vs 60%), inversely correlated with median PFS leading to a median PFS benefit of 2.1 months for patients in group I when compared with group II, as well as inversely correlated with median overall survival (37.5 months vs 21.4 months). In an independent cohort of 129 patients treated with cetuximab-based therapy, no association of therapeutic response or PFS with CEA serum levels was found. As expected, baseline CEA levels were prognostic for mCRC. These data give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy in patients with mCRC. Previously, we found that CEA induces angiogenesis independent of VEGF. The data presented here now give first evidence that baseline serum CEA levels in patients might constitute an important predictor for the efficacy of first-line bevacizumab-based therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:24850362

  5. Effect of fluoride exposure on serum glycoprotein pattern and sialic acid level in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Gulay; Cenesiz, Sena; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Nisbet, Ozlem; Nisbet, Cevat; Cenesiz, Metin; Guvenc, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the effects of fluoride exposure on the protein profile, glycoprotein pattern, and total sialic acid concentration of serum in rabbits. For this aim; 20 healthy New Zealand rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups each with ten animals according to their weighing: control group and experimental group. The rabbits in control group were given drinking tap water containing 0.29 mg/l sodium fluoride and experimental group received the same tap water to which was added 40 mg/l sodium fluoride for 70 days. Blood samples were taken from each rabbit on day 70. Serum fluoride concentrations were measured by a fluoride-specific ion electrode in serum. The fluoride levels in the serum were found as 18.4 (+/-1.58) microg/L in control and 301.3 (+/-52.18) microg/L in fluoride exposed rabbits. The sialic acid levels were found as 69.2 (+/-0.32) mg/dL in control and 43.4 (+/-0.13) mg/dL in fluoride exposed group. The electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins, glycoproteins, and total sialic acid concentration were determined. Fifteen different protein fractions with molecular weights ranging from 22 to 249 kDa were displayed in the serum protein electrophoretic gel of both groups. The raw concentrations of the protein fractions decreased in fluoride exposed rabbits as compared with the control rabbits. The serum glycoprotein pattern revealed seven major protein bands from 47 to 167 kDa in experimental and control groups. The slight decrease of raw concentration of the protein bands in glycoprotein pattern of serum was observed in fluoride toxication comparing to control. The results suggest that serum TSA determination and serum protein electrophoresis can be used to evaluate prognosis of fluoride exposure as a supplemen