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Sample records for serum glucose levels

  1. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. Results: The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  2. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant. PMID:27612883

  3. Serum Glucose Level in First and Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zannat, M R; Nessa, A; Hossain, M M; Das, R K; Asrin, M; Sufrin, S; Islam, M T; Tajkia, T; Nasreen, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group. Study group was further divided into 100 pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosed case of type I and type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, antipsychotic drug users, regular steroid users were excluded from this study. Serum glucose was evaluated by the glucose-oxidase principle by GOD-PAP method in women with 1st trimester of pregnancy, 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in non pregnant women. Statistical analysis of data was done by unpaired student's t test. The results showed that the serum glucose levels increased significantly in third trimester and the value is not significant in first trimester. The increasing frequency of serum glucose level in third trimester may predispose the women to hyperglycemia of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27277349

  4. Oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine level in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Dai; Nakara, Hiromi; Akagi, Keisuke; Ishii, Toshiya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Nagashima, Yoshikazu; Okaniwa, Azusa

    2004-02-01

    The present communication deals with information regarding the practice of the oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine in laboratory beagles. In the oral glucose tolerance test, a 180-min level was found to be crucial following a gavage administration of 50% glucose solution at 5 mL/kg per body weight under fasting conditions. Serum fructosamine concentration as 'determined by enzymatic assay ranged between 82 and 123 micromol/L (mean of 104 micromol/L), which was about 0.285 to 0.25 times the value obtained by the chemical method described by Johnson and colleagues. Reasons for differences are ascribed to the presence of substances with reducing potential other than fructosamine in the serum. PMID:15018152

  5. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    PubMed Central

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemistry laboratory, those of the new techniques employing reflectance meters all showed excellent correlation (r2 = 0.85 to 0.96). Reagent strips used without meters showed poorer correlation (r2 = 0.69 to 0.90). The instruction given to the patients and one nurse enabled them to obtain more accurate results with one of the meters than nurses not specially trained (r2 = 0.94 and 0.92 v. 0.85 respectively). The mean cost per glucose determination with the new techniques was 75, compared with +1.45 for the laboratory determinations done with automated equipment. It was concluded that the new techniques compared well with the reference method, particularly when reflectance meters were used, and that they were easily applied by the patient, as well as the medical staff, at a reasonable cost. PMID:6689988

  6. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  7. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  8. Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-qi; Ma, Xiao-jing; Hao, Ya-ping; Pan, Xiao-ping; Xu, Yi-ting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yu-qian; Jia, Wei-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Osteocalcin is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models and humans. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 733 postmenopausal women (age range: 41–78 years) with normal blood glucose levels were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Women taking lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The degree of NAFLD progression for each subject was assessed through ultrasonography. The fatty liver index (FLI) of each subject was calculated to quantify the degree of liver steatosis. Results: The median level of serum osteocalcin for all subjects enrolled was 21.99 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.84–26.55 ng/mL). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (18.39 ng/mL; range: 16.03–23.64 ng/mL) compared with those without NAFLD (22.31 ng/mL; range: 18.55–27.06 ng/mL; P<0.01). Serum osteocalcin levels decreased with incre¬mental changes in the FLI value divided by the quartile (P-value for trend<0.01). The serum osteocalcin levels showed a negative correlation with the FLI values, even after adjusting for confounding factors (standardized β=−0.124; P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis identified an individual's serum osteocalcin level as an independent risk factor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.951; 95% confidence interval: 0.911–0.992; P=0.02). Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely correlated with NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels. PMID:26567728

  9. Effect of altered eating pattern on serum fructosamine: total protein ratio and plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S L; Cheah, S H; Husain, R; Duncan, M T

    1989-05-01

    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index. PMID:2774480

  10. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type. PMID:25198797

  11. Colorimetric visualization of glucose at the submicromole level in serum by a homogenous silver nanoprism-glucose oxidase system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yunsheng; Ye, Jingjing; Tan, Kanghui; Wang, Jiajing; Yang, Guang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we design a homogeneous system consisting of Ag nanoprisms and glucose oxidase (GOx) for simple, sensitive, and low-cost colorimetric sensing of glucose in serum. The unmodified Ag nanoprisms and GOx are first mixed with each other. Glucose is then added in the homogeneous mixture. Finally, the nanoplates are etched from triangle to round by H2O2 produced by the enzymatic oxidation, which leads to a more than 120 nm blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the Ag nanoplates. This large wavelength shift can be used not only for visual detection (from blue to mauve) of glucose by naked eyes but for reliable and convenient glucose quantification in the range from 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M. The detection limit is as low as 2.0 × 10(-7) M, because the used Ag nanoprisms possess (1) highly reactive edges/tips and (2) strongly tip sharpness and aspect ratio dependent SPR absorption. Owing to ultrahigh sensitivity, only 10-20 μL of serum is enough for a one-time determination. The proposed glucose sensor has great potential in the applications of point-of-care diagnostics, especially for third-world countries where high-tech diagnostics aids are inaccessible to the bulk of the population. PMID:23706061

  12. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  13. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  14. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor. PMID:26073512

  15. Comparison and Correlation of Glucose Levels in Serum and Saliva of Both Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhumika J; Dave, Bela; Dave, Dilip; Karmakar, Payel; Shah, Mona; Sarvaiya, Bhumi

    2015-01-01

    Background: To detect and compare salivary glucose with plasma glucose level and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were participated in this study. They were divided into two groups, each group consist of 50 patients. Un-stimulated saliva and blood were collected and investigated for glucose levels. Results: FBS, PPBS, plasma glucose levels and salivary glucose levels were higher in diabetic patients than healthy controls. FBS, PPBS, plasma glucose level and salivary glucose levels were significantly correlated with each other in diabetic patients Conclusion: Salivary glucose level can be used for monitoring tool to assess the glycemic status of diabetes mellitus patients as it is noninvasive and diagnostic method. PMID:26464543

  16. WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms correlate with serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein levels in Tibetan gout patients.

    PubMed

    Lan, Bing; Chen, Peng; Jiri, Mutu; He, Na; Feng, Tian; Liu, Kai; Jin, Tianbo; Kang, Longli

    2016-03-01

    Current evidence suggests heredity and metabolic syndrome contributes to gout progression. Specifically, the WDR1 and CLNK genes may play a role in gout progression in European ancestry populations. However, no studies have focused on Chinese populations, especially Tibetan individuals. This study aims to determine whether variations in these two genes correlate with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the WDR1 and CLNK genes were detected in 319 Chinese-Tibetan gout patients and 318 controls. We used one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators, such as albumin, glucose (GLU), triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), creatinine, and uric acid, from fasting venous blood samples. All p values were Bonferroni corrected. Polymorphisms of the WDR1 and CLNK genes affected multiple risk factors for gout development. Significant differences in serum GLU levels were detected between different genotypic groups with WDRI polymorphisms rs4604059 (p = 0.005) and rs12498927 (p = 0.005). In addition, significant differences in serum HDL-C levels were detected between different genotypic groups with the CLNK polymorphism rs2041215 (p = 0.001). Polymorphisms of CLNK also affected levels of albumin, triglycerides, and creatinine. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms in Chinese-Tibetan populations. Our findings provide significant evidence for the effect of genetic polymorphisms on gout-related factors in Chinese-Tibetan populations. PMID:26438387

  17. Effect of Dehulling and Cooking of Lentils (Lens Culinaris, L.)on Serum Glucose and Lipoprotein Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Tibi, Amro Mh; Takruri, Hamed R; Ahmad, Mousa N

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lentils on serum glucose and serum lipid levels in diabetic rats. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, 12 weeks of age weighing 220-290g, were used. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at a level of 35 mg/kg intra-peritoneally. The animals were randomly divided into five groups, eight animals each: a casein diet (control), raw whole lentil (RWL), cooked whole lentil (CWL), raw dehulled lentil (RDL) and cooked dehulled lentil (CDL). Animals were fed with experimental diets for six weeks, sacrificed and blood samples were taken. Serum glucose level of the CDL group (387.9 ± 53.3 mg/dl) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control, RDL and RWL groups (529.0 ± 11.7, 538.6 ± 45.0, 542.1 ± 32.2 mg/dl respectively). In addition, HDL concentration of CWL group (66.3 ± 1.9 mg/dl) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of the control, RWL and RDL groups (54.9 ± 3.5, 50.8 ± 4.2, 54.0 ± 3.4 mg/dl respectively). However, there was no significant difference in serum glucose and serum HDL between the CDL and CWL groups. No significant differences (p>0.05) were detected in triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol among the experimental groups. It is concluded that cooked lentils rather than raw lentils was more effective in lowering blood glucose and improving HDL cholesterol in diabetic rats. There was no difference between whole and dehulled lentils with regard to effects on blood glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. PMID:22691994

  18. The relationship between repressive and defensive coping styles and monocyte, eosinophile, and serum glucose levels: support for the opioid peptide hypothesis of repression.

    PubMed

    Jamner, L D; Schwartz, G E; Leigh, H

    1988-01-01

    The opioid peptide hypothesis of repression (1) predicts that repressive coping is associated with increased functional endorphin levels in the brain, which can result in decreased immunocompetence and hyperglycemia. In a random sample of 312 patients seen at a Yale Medical School outpatient clinic, significant main effects of coping style were found for monocyte and eosinophile counts, serum glucose levels, and self-reports of medication allergies. Specifically, repressive and defensive high-anxious patients demonstrated significantly decreased monocyte counts. In addition, repressive coping was associated with elevated eosinophile counts, serum glucose levels, and self-reported reactions to medications. This behavioral, immunologic, and endocrine profile is consistent with the opioid peptide hypothesis, which provides an integrative framework for relating the attenuated emotional experience of pain and distress characteristic of repressive coping with reduced resistance to infectious and neoplastic disease. PMID:2853404

  19. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  20. Uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid in the urinary bladder increases serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, T

    2003-10-01

    In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs), can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:15241498

  1. The level of serum ionised calcium, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, glucose, betahydroxybutyrate concentrations and blood gas parameters in cows with left displacement of abomasum.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Ok, M; Coskun, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine concentrations of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) and ionised calcium (Ica) in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum (LDA) and to compare these parameters before and after surgical correction of LDA. Eighteen Swiss-Holstein dairy cows with LDA were used in this study. Clinically healthy post parturient cows (n: 10) from a local dairy farm were used as control group. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein from all the cows. Surgery was performed in cows with LDA. Blood samples from cows with LDA were collected 24 hours after surgery. The abomasum was repositioned followed by an omentopexy. Six of the 18 cows with LDA had clinical ketosis as detected with urine dipstick. The mean concentrations of insulin, BOH, glucose and AST in cows with LDA at admission time were increased compared with the healthy cows. But the mean concentration of ICa at admission time was slightly decreased compared with healthy cows. The mean BOH concentration was decreased 24 hours following surgery compared with values on admission time. However, the mean serum AST levels were increased both at admission time and 24 hours after surgery compared with healthy cows. The levels of blood gas parameters in cows with LDA were not significantly different in comparison with healthy cows, although hyperbasemia in six of 18 cows with LDA was determined. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that serum insulin, glucose, AST and BOH levels were increased in dairy cows with LDA. Serum BOH and ICa levels were decreased 24 hours after surgery compared with values on admission time. All cows with LDA used in this study had subclinical/clinical ketosis. We could say that ketosis might be a risk factor for the displacement of the abomasum. PMID:17203740

  2. Serum Glucose and Malondialdehyde Levels in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Supplemented with Methanolic Extract of Tacazzea Apiculata

    PubMed Central

    Gwarzo, M. Y.; Ahmadu, J. H.; Ahmad, M. B.; Dikko, A. U. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tacazzea apiculata is used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of wide range of diseases. The current work investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. Five groups (n=10) of rats were fed on commercial diet. The rats were divided into Group 1 (NUT) as non-diabetic and untreated, group 2 (NDT) as non-diabetic and treated, group 3 (DT) diabetic and treated. Group 4 (DUT) as diabetic and untreated. Group five (CP) were diabetic treated with Chlorpropamide, a drug used in the management of diabetic mellitus, with no known antioxidant property. Diabetic induction was done by intra-peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg b. wt with alloxan. Fasting blood glucose was estimated seven days after induction to determine the severity of glucose elevation among the induced groups. Methanolic extract of T. apiculata leaf was administered to alloxan induced diabetic and non-diabetic control rats at 100mg/kg body weight for four weeks and blood glucose estimated on weekly basis. Malondialdehyde level was also estimated in the sera of the rats. Blood glucose level was monitored for additional 2 weeks post treatment. The results indicated that the extracts possess significant hypoglycemic effect on the diabetic rats (DT) having the mean glucose of (95.2 ± 9.12 mg/dl) compared to the diabetic untreated control group (DUT) with a mean glucose of (238.91 ± 4.42 mg/dl, p<0.05). The effect was sustained even on withdrawal of the extracts for two weeks. This was accompanied by a progressive increase in weight among all treated diabetic rats and non diabetic treated (DT and NDT) compared with diabetic untreated control rat (DUT) (p<0.05). A raised level in malondialdehyde was also observed among the diabetic rat prior to treatment and significantly decreased after the treatment. In conclusion the research demonstrated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of methanolic leaf extract of T

  3. Increased Serum Levels of Anti-Carbamylated 78-kDa Glucose-Regulated Protein Antibody in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lai, Pei-Hsuan; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and titer of anti-carbamylated 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (anti-CarGRP78) antibody in serum from controls, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Thirty-three RA patients, 20 SLE patients, 20 pSS patients, and 20 controls were enrolled from our outpatient clinic. GRP78 was cloned and carbamylated. Serum titers of anti- cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), anti-GRP78, and anti-CarGRP78 were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No differences in serum titers of anti-GRP78 antibody in patients with RA, SLE, or pSS compared with the controls were observed. Serum levels of anti-carGRP78 antibody in patients with RA, but not SLE or pSS, were significantly higher compared with the controls (OD405 0.15 ± 0.08 versus 0.11 ± 0.03, p = 0.033). There was a positive correlation between the serum levels of anti-GRP78 antibody, but not anti-CarGRP78 antibody, with the levels of anti-CCP antibody in patients with RA. Both anti-GRP78 and anti-carGRP78 antibodies failed to correlate with C-reactive protein levels in patients with RA. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of anti-CarGRP78 antibody in patients with RA. In addition, the serum titer of anti-CarGRP78 antibody was significantly elevated in patients with RA compared with the controls. Anti-CarGRP78 antibody could also be detected in patients with SLE or pSS. PMID:27618024

  4. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

  5. Higher serum uric acid level increases risk of prehypertension in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, but not pre-diabetes and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-H; Wu, J-S; Sun, Z-J; Lu, F-H; Chang, C-S; Chang, C-J; Yang, Y-C

    2016-08-01

    Although the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and prehypertension has been reported in previous studies, it is unknown whether their relationship is similar in subjects with diabetes, pre-diabetes and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This study thus aimed to investigate the relationship between SUA and prehypertension in subjects with different glycemic status, including NGT, pre-diabetes and diabetes. A total of 12 010 participants were included after excluding subjects with blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg, history of hypertension, leukaemia, lymphoma, hypothyroidism, medication for hypertension and hyperuricemia and missing data. Subjects were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles (male Q1: ⩽345.0, Q2: 345.0-392.6, Q3: 392.6-440.2, Q4: ⩾440.2 μmol l(-1) and female Q1: ⩽249.8, Q2: 249.8-285.5, Q3: 285.5-333.1, Q4: ⩾333.1 μmol l(-1)). Diabetes, pre-diabetes and NGT were assessed according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Normotension and prehypertension were defined according to the JNC-7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) criteria. The SUA was significantly higher in prehypertensive subjects as compared with normotensive subjects. SUA, as a continuous variable, was positively associated with prehypertension in subjects with NGT but not pre-diabetes and diabetes. Besides, NGT subjects with the highest quartile of SUA exhibited a higher risk of prehypertension after adjustment for other confounding factors. In pre-diabetes and diabetes groups, none of SUA quartiles was significantly related to prehypertension. SUA was significantly associated with an increased risk of prehypertension in subjects with NGT but insignificantly in subjects with pre-diabetes and diabetes. PMID:26911534

  6. Supplementary effect by harvest period of Lentinus edodes on the levels of blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic KK mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Lentinus edodes which were harvested at different times of maturity on blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic mice. The diabetic KK mice were fed diet supplemented with Lentinus edodes harvested early (LE) or late (LL) for eight weeks, and ...

  7. Serum Prolactin Level of Subfertile Women.

    PubMed

    Anwary, S A; Fatima, P; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Rahman, M M; Bari, N

    2016-01-01

    Subfertility is a major reproductive health problem all over the world as well as Bangladesh, and the problem is increasing day by day. This study was done to estimate the serum prolactin concentration in primary and secondary subfertile women. Laboratory investigation included serum prolactin level, as well as LH, FSH, TSH blood glucose (2 hours after 75 gm glucose load) of 50 women who attended infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2009 and February 2010. In most cases, common age group 26-30 years (52%), primary subfertility (74%), duration of marriage >5 years (60%), trying to conceive duration ≤5 years (54%), BMI >25 kg/m² (60%), menstrual cycle regular (58%), history of abortion absent (90%), and history of menstrual regulation absent (94%). Common investigation findings was normal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 82%, normal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 50%, normal serum prolactin 1.9-25.0 ng/ml in 36%, normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-4.0 μIU/ml in 56%, and normal blood glucose level (2 hours after breakfast) (<7.8 mmol/) in 66% women. Ultrasonographic finding of lower abdomen was normal in 14% women. Common finding of semen analysis husbands of the study women was normozoospermia in 88% cases. Serum prolactin concentration may have role to play in subfertility of women. PMID:26931256

  8. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Zendehbad, Bamdad; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Golshan, Alireza; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesity gene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP) was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC) for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P<0.001), food intake reduction in male rats (P<0.05), LDL reduction in female rats (obese (P<0.05) and diabetic (P<0.001)), and glucose level decline in the female diabetic rats (P<0.001). However, total protein concentration, LFT (liver function tests), urea and creatinin concentrations among different groups did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: Leptin caused some discrepant results, especially regarding the LDL and glucose levels in diabetic female rats. PMID:26949493

  9. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  10. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-01

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels. PMID:26162700

  11. Lack of an effect of dietary selenium on serum albumin, glucose and urea nitrogen in ewes.

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, E A; Hidiroglou, M; Mitchell, D

    1978-01-01

    The results of a study on the effect of dietary selenium administered with vitamin E on serum levels of albumin, glucose and urea nitrogen in ewes are reported. In October, at the onset of breeding, after ten months on a dystrophogenic diet, mean serum levels of albumin (g/dl), glucose (mg/dl) and urea nitrogen (mg/dl) were respectively 3.5, 52.9 and 12.8, in 65 Se-deficient ewes and 3.6, 51.7 and 14.3 in 65 Se-adequate ewes. Despite a significant difference in the serum level of urea nitrogen between Se-deficient and Se-adequate groups, no consistent effect of dietary selenium was apparent. PMID:688079

  12. Applications of ultrasensitive wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry to noninvasive glucose detection in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Mandelis, Andreas; Zinman, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR) has been designed for noninvasive glucose measurements in the mid-infrared (MIR) range. Glucose measurements in human blood serum in the physiological range (20-320 mg/dl) with predicted error <10.3 mg/dl demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy to meet wide clinical detection requirements, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. The glucose sensitivity and specificity of WM-DPTR stem from the subtraction of the simultaneously measured signals from two excitation laser beams at wavelengths near the peak and the baseline of the strongest interference-free glucose absorption band in the MIR range. It was found that the serum glucose sensitivity and measurement precision strongly depend on the tunability and stability of the intensity ratio and the phase shift of the two laser beams. This level of accuracy was favorably compared to other MIR techniques. WM-DPTR has shown excellent potential to be developed into a clinically viable noninvasive glucose biosensor. PMID:22930666

  13. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on glucose-induced human serum albumin glycation.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Hagerman, A E

    2015-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plant-based foods and beverages such as green tea. Although EGCg can eliminate carbonyl species produced by glucose autoxidation and thus can inhibit protein glycation, it is also reported to be a pro-oxidant that stimulates protein glycation in vitro. To better understand the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant features of EGCg, we evaluated EGCg-mediated bioactivities in a human serum albumin (HSA)/glucose model by varying three different parameters (glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure to EGCg). Measurements of glycation-induced fluorescence, protein carbonyls, and electrophoretic mobility showed that the level of HSA glycation was positively related to the glucose level over the range 10-100 mM during a 21-day incubation at 37°C and pH: 7.4. Under mild glycemic pressure (10 mM), long exposure to EGCg enhanced HSA glycation, while brief exposure to low concentrations of EGCg did not. Under high glycemic pressure (100 mM glucose), long exposure to EGCg inhibited glycation. For the first time we showed that brief exposure to EGCg reversed glycation-induced fluorescence, indicating a restorative effect. In conclusion, our research identified glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure as critical factors dictating EGCg bioactivities in HSA glycation. EGCg did not affect HSA glycation under normal physiological conditions but had a potential therapeutic effect on HSA severely damaged by glycation. PMID:25794449

  14. Effect of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Glucose-Induced Human Serum Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Hagerman, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plant-based foods and beverages such as green tea. Although EGCg can eliminate carbonyl species produced by glucose autoxidation and thus can inhibit protein glycation, it is also reported to be a pro-oxidant that stimulates protein glycation in vitro. To better understand the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant features of EGCg, we evaluated EGCg-mediated bioactivities in a human serum albumin (HSA)/glucose model by varying three different parameters (glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure to EGCg). Measurements of glycation-induced fluorescence, protein carbonyls, and electrophoretic mobility showed that the level of HSA glycation was positively related to the glucose level over the range 10 to 100 mM during a 21-day incubation at 37 °C and pH 7.4. Under mild glycemic pressure (10 mM), long exposure to EGCg enhanced HSA glycation, while brief exposure to low concentrations of EGCg did not. Under high glycemic pressure (100 mM glucose), long exposure to EGCg inhibited glycation. For the first time we showed that brief exposure to EGCg reversed glycation-induced fluorescence, indicating a restorative effect. In conclusion, our research identified glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure as critical factors dictating EGCg bioactivities in HSA glycation. EGCg did not affect HSA glycation under normal physiological conditions but had a potential therapeutic effect on HSA severely damaged by glycation. PMID:25794449

  15. Serum neopterin levels in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Milena-Abril, A; González-García, C

    1993-09-01

    Serum neopterin levels have been determined by RIA in 105 patients affected by chronic alcoholic liver disease, 68 of them cirrhotics, and in 12 controls. Serum Neopterin was significantly higher in patients than in controls, correlated with Pughs' score and Child's classification, and also with serum laminin and type III collagen N-terminal propeptide, and with histomorphometrically determined liver fibrosis. Serum neopterin levels were higher in patients who died than in survivors, serum neopterin levels over 19.15 nmol/l being associated with higher mortality rates. PMID:8261879

  16. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] − 149.6; R2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels. PMID:26898598

  17. Correlation of hemoglobin A1C level with surgical outcomes: Can tight perioperative glucose control reduce infection and cardiac events?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Palma; Saleem, Taimur; Gahtan, Vivian

    2014-12-01

    "Optimal" control of serum glucose levels is an important principle in the successful management of diabetes mellitus. Conversely, poorly controlled serum glucose levels are associated with negative sequelae, including accelerated progression of cardiovascular disease, increased mortality, and increased perioperative complications. The importance of glycemic control as a part of appropriate perioperative management is reviewed and target values are recommended. PMID:26073825

  18. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  19. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of cancers of the oral cavity, periodontal diseases, HIV, heart diseases etc. The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy non diabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Materials & Methods: A total of 30 individuals of which 20 patients were diabetic patients and on medication and 10 patients were healthy non diabetic individuals were included in the study. Blood and saliva were collected under resting conditions and were subjected to glucose estimation. Results: Salivary and blood glucose concentrations were determined in non diabetic healthy individuals (n=10) and Type II Diabetes mellitus patients (n=20). Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c was also determined in both Type II diabetic patients and Control group and a significant correlation (r=0.73) and (r=0.46) was found between HbA1c and serum glucose concentrations in diabetic and control group respectively. A significant correlation (r=0.54) and (r=0.45) was found between fasting blood glucose and fasting salivary glucose for diabetic group and control group respectively. A positive correlation (r=0.39) and (r=0.38) was found between fasting salivary glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and control group respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the saliva can be used in the assessment of the blood glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus patients. How to cite the article: Satish BN, Srikala P, Maharudrappa B, Awanti M, Kumar P

  20. Selection of the most informative near infrared spectroscopy wavebands for continuous glucose monitoring in human serum.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Saeys, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    By controlling the blood glucose levels of diabetics permanent diabetes-related problems such as blindness and loss of limbs can be delayed or even avoided. Therefore, many researchers have aimed at the development of a non-invasive sensor to monitor the blood glucose level continuously. As non-invasive measurements through the skin, the ear lobe or the gums have proven to be either unreliable or impractical, attention has recently shifted to minimally invasive sensors which measure the glucose content in serum or interstitial fluid. Thanks to the development of on-chip spectrometers minimally invasive, implantable devices are coming within reach. However, this technology does not allow to acquire a large number of wavelengths over a broad range. Therefore, the most informative combination of a limited number of variables should be selected. In this study, Interval PLS (iPLS), Variable Importance in Projection (VIP), Uninformative Variable Elimination (UVE), Bootstrap-PLS coefficients, Moving window, CorXyPLS, Interval Random Frog-PLS and combinations of these methods were used in order to address the question whether the short wave band (800-1500 nm), first overtone band (1500-1800 nm), the combination band (2050-2300 nm) or a combination of them is the most informative region for glucose measurements and which wavebands should be measured within these wavelength ranges. The three different data sets employed focus on the determination of (1) glucose in aqueous solutions over the 1-30 mM range in presence of urea and sodium D-lactate, (2) glucose in aqueous solutions over the 2-16 mM range in presence of icodextrin and urea and (3) glucose in human serum samples. The best results for the first, second and third data sets were obtained by selecting 40, 130 and 20 variables resulting in a PLS model with an RMSEP of 0.56, 0.59 and 1.5mM, respectively. It was found that the first overtone band is most informative for aqueous solutions, while for glucose measurement of

  1. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Methods Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Results At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Conclusions Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151 PMID:27124282

  2. Cyclic AMP infusion and blood sugar, serum insulin and serum nonesterified fatty acid responses to glucose in recent experimental hyperthyroid dogs.

    PubMed

    Renauld, A; Garrido, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent experimental hyperthyroid (REH) dogs exhibit poor "in vivo" insulin responses to glucose probably due to a failure somewhere in cAMP-adenylate cyclase system. The actions of exogenous cAMP on these responses and on the regulation of blood sugar (BS) and serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) during glucose infusion tests (GIT) in REH and normal dogs were studied here. Hyperthyroidism was induced by 1-thyroxine administration (100 micrograms/kg body wt./die, 10 days). GIT consisted of i.v. glucose-priming followed by glucose i.v. continuous infusion (60 min). cAMP (0, 33 or 66 mg/kg body wt./min) was infused alone (30 min) and then overlapped to gluco-se infusion (60 min). Peripheral veins were used for infusions and blood sample withdrawal. BS, serum inmunoreactive insulin (IRI) and serum NEFA concentrations, basally and throughout the test, were measured. Basally, there was neither action nor interaction of hyperthyroidism and exogenous cAMP on these variables. During the GIT, the BS levels remained unaffected by hyperthyroidism; cAMP increased them, but failed to interact with hyperthyroidism. cAMP noninfused normal dogs responded to hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia, whereas REH dogs noninfused the nucleotide did not. cAMP administration at a high dose promoted their response in normal and REH dogs, particularly in the former; in the latter, the response was still lower than in cAMP noninfused normal controls. Although recent hyperthyroidism increased serum NEFA basal level, it exerted neither action nor interaction with the infused cAMP on serum NEFA during GIT. Results are discussed on the basis that the abolished insulin secretion "in vivo" characterizing the REH dogs, related to beta-adrenergic deficiency, can be for the most part restored by exogenous cAMP administration, despite which some glucose and triglyceride metabolism impairments are developed. PMID:1343982

  3. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  4. Relationship of serum adiponectin and resistin to glucose intolerance and fat topography in south-Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wasim, Hanif; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Chetty, Raja; McTernan, Phillip G; Barnett, A H; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2006-01-01

    Objectives South-Asians have lower adiponectin levels compared to Caucasians. It was not clear however, if this intrinsic feature is related to aspects of glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and adipocytokine in South-Asian subjects by measuring serum adipocytokines, adiposity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance levels. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 150 South-Asians (80 males, 70 females) were included, 60 had NGT (Control group, Age 51.33 ± 11.5, BMI 27 ± 2.3), 60 had IGT (Age 57.7 ± 12.5, BMI 27.2 ± 2.7), 30 had type 2 DM (Age 49.5 ± 10.9, BMI 28 ± 1.7). Measures of adiposity, adipocytokines and other metabolic parameters were determined. Parameters were measured using the following: a) Plasma glucose by glucose oxidase method b) CRP by immunoturbidimetric method (Roche/Hitachi analyser) c) insulin by Medgenix INS-ELISA immunoenzymetric assay by Biosource (Belgium) d) Leptin, Adiponectin by radioimmunoassay kits by Linco Research (St. Charles MO) e) Resistin by immunoassay kits by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals INC (530 Harbor Boulevard, Belmont CA 94002, USA). Results Adiponectin concentrations were highest in NGT, decreased in IGT and lowest in DMT2, (both p < 0.01). Leptin was significantly higher in DMT2 than IGT and NGT p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively. There was a significant positive relationships between log adiponectin and 2-hr insulin values, p = 0.028 and history of hypertensions and a ischemic heart disease p = 0.008 with R = 0.65. There was a significant inverse correlation between log adiponectin and resistin, p < 0.01. Conclusion Resistin levels had an inverse correlation with adiponectin levels, indicating an inverse relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin. Adiponectin levels were related to glucose tolerance. PMID:16669997

  5. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  6. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-02-01

    Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated.The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels.In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4.At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month.In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with

  7. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month. In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively

  8. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts. PMID:11297848

  9. Serum Potassium and Glucose Regulation in the ADDITION-Leicester Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrice; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Quinn, Lauren M.; Zaccardi, Francesco; Webb, David R.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Previous observational studies have shown conflicting results between plasma K+ concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. To help clarify the evidence we aimed to determine whether an association existed between serum K+ and glucose regulation within a UK multiethnic population. Methods. Participants were recruited as part of the ADDITION Leicester study, a population based screening study. Individuals from primary care between the age of 40 and 75 years if White European or 25 and 75 years if South Asian or Afro Caribbean were recruited. Tests for associations between baseline characteristics and K+ quartiles were conducted using linear regression models. Results. Data showed individuals in the lowest K+ quartile had significantly greater 2-hour glucose levels (0.53 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.70, P ≤ 0.001) than those in the highest K+ quartile. This estimation did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. Conversely, participants in the lowest K+ quartile had a 0.14% lower HbA1c (95% CI −0.19 to −0.10: P ≤ 0.001) compared to those in the highest K+ quartile. Conclusion. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrated that lower K+ was associated with greater 2 hr glucose. The data supports the possibility that K+ may influence glucose regulation and further research is warranted. PMID:25883988

  10. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  11. Serum estradiol levels in male cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Dalen, J E

    1984-11-01

    Serum estradiol levels were compared in smoking and nonsmoking men in two separate samples. Sample I consisted of 41 young adult male volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 24 years. Twenty-three men smoked an average of 24.5 +/- 6.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 5.2 +/- 2.2 years. Sample II consisted of 35 husbands who had been evaluated for infertility; they ranged in age from 19 to 49 years. Eighteen men smoked an average of 21.6 +/- 7.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 11.5 +/- 4.5 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly between smokers and nonsmokers within either group. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in smokers compared with nonsmokers in both groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.0001 in Samples I and II, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum estradiol levels and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, or with the duration of smoking in either sample. The differences in serum estradiol levels between smokers and nonsmokers could not be attributed to the differences in marijuana and alcohol use that existed between the smokers and nonsmokers in each sample. The recent reports of elevated serum estradiol levels as a possible risk factor in coronary heart disease are discussed in view of the known relationship of cigarette smoking to coronary heart disease. PMID:6496540

  12. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV–visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  13. Low serum levels of ghrelin are associated with gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Bermejo-Martínez, Luisa; Villa, Antonio R; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Zamora-Valdés, Daniel; Pichardo-Bahena, Raúl; Barredo-Prieto, Blanca; Uribe-Ramos, Martha H; Ramos, Martha H; Baptista-González, Héctor A; Uribe, Misael

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of ghrelin in gallstone disease. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 150 subjects, 38 with gallstones (cases) and 112 controls. We also did a real-time PCR-RT study in twenty gallbladder samples each. Body mass index (BMI), serum insulin, ghrelin, and serum lipids were measured. Logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariate) were conducted to estimate the probability of gallstone disease associated with serum ghrelin concentrations. RESULTS: Cases were statistically different from controls in gender distribution (P = 0.01), age (53 vs 44 yr, P = 0.002), BMI (28 vs 25; P = 0.004), and glucose (5.26 vs 4.98 mmol/L; P = 0.05). The prevalence of ghrelin serum levels above the third tercile was lower in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model, we found a protective effect, when ghrelin values were higher than the median value (OR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.82, P = 0.02). Twenty (20%) gallbladder specimens expressed ghrelin mRNA. CONCLUSION: Serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with a protective effect of GD. PMID:16718795

  14. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  15. Measurements of serum glucose using the luciferin/Luciferase system and a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Idahl, L.A.; Sandstroem, P.E.; Sehlin, J.

    1986-05-15

    A single-step assay for serum glucose measurements is described. The assay is based on the phosphorylation of D-glucose by glucokinase and the measurement of ATP consumption by firefly luciferase. The luminescence is recorded in an ordinary liquid scintillation spectrometer. The use of stable reagents and a stable final signal (light emission) makes it possible to analyze a large number of samples in each assay run. The assay is of particular value when repeated serum glucose determinations are performed on samples from small laboratory animals.

  16. Employing FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase within a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell operating in human serum.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Lim, Koun; Hickey, David P; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-12-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) is emerging as an oxygen-insensitive alternative to glucose oxidase (GOx) as the biocatalyst for bioelectrodes and bioanodes in glucose sensing and glucose enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs). Glucose EFCs, which utilize oxygen as the oxidant and final electron acceptor, have the added benefit of being able to be implanted within living hosts. These can then produce electrical energy from physiological glucose concentrations and power internal or external devices. EFCs were prepared with FAD-GDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOx) to evaluate the suitability of FAD-GDH within an implantable setting. Maximum current and power densities of 186.6±7.1 μA cm(-2) and 39.5±1.3 μW cm(-2) were observed when operating in human serum at 21 °C, which increased to 285.7±31.3 μA cm(-2) and 57.5±5.4 μW cm(-2) at 37 °C. Although good stability was observed with continual near-optimal operation of the EFCs in human serum at 21 °C for 24 h, device failure was observed between 13-14 h when continually operated at 37 °C. PMID:25890695

  17. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  18. Measurement of tear glucose levels with amperometric glucose biosensor/capillary tube configuration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qinyi; Peng, Bo; Su, Gang; Cohan, Bruce E; Major, Terry C; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    An amperometric needle-type electrochemical glucose sensor intended for tear glucose measurements is described and employed in conjunction with a 0.84 mm i.d. capillary tube to collect microliter volumes of tear fluid. The sensor is based on immobilizing glucose oxidase on a 0.25 mm o.d. platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) wire and anodically detecting the liberated hydrogen peroxide from the enzymatic reaction. Inner layers of Nafion and an electropolymerized film of 1,3-diaminobenzene/resorcinol greatly enhance the selectivity for glucose over potential interferences in tear fluid, including ascorbic acid and uric acid. Further, the new sensor is optimized to achieve very low detection limits of 1.5 ± 0.4 μM of glucose (S/N = 3) that is required to monitor glucose levels in tear fluid with a glucose sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.02 nA/μM (n = 6). Only 4-5 μL of tear fluid in the capillary tube is required when the needle sensor is inserted into the capillary. The glucose sensor was employed to measure tear glucose levels in anesthetized rabbits over an 8 h period while also measuring the blood glucose values. A strong correlation between tear and blood glucose levels was found, suggesting that measurement of tear glucose is a potential noninvasive substitute for blood glucose measurements, and the new sensor configuration could aid in conducting further research in this direction. PMID:21961809

  19. Serum fucose level in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K

    2010-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions. PMID:21131761

  20. Effect of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout on serum glucose-lowering in animal model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Jang, Ik Soon; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Yoon, So-Jung; Baek, Sujeong; Lee, Joo Yong; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Chung, Keun-Yook; Woo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the anti-diabetic effects of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout in type 2 diabetes mouse model. The rutin content in tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) is five times higher than that found in common buckwheat sprout (CBS) as evident from high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Administration of either rutin or TBS ethanolic extract to diabetes mice decreased the serum glucose level significantly. Rutin down-regulated the expression levels of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B; it is negative regulator of insulin pathway, both transcriptionally and translationally in myocyte C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, rutin can play a critical role in down-regulation of serum glucose level in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27279072

  1. Serum magnesium levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Dipankar; Osta, Manish; Mandal, Tridibeswar; Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Ray, Debes; Gautam, Divyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Hypomagnesemia has been reported to occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control. Many studies have been undergone to find out the precipitated factors of retinopathy such as duration and type of diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypomagnesemia and increased urinary total protein levels. Aim: This study was carried out to study the correlation between serum magnesium levels, glycosylated hemoglobin and urinary total protein levels in diabetic patients with retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 30 type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy as Group 2, 30 type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy as Group 3 in the age group 45-75 years as cases and 60 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls (Group 1). Determination of Serum Magnesium (photometric xylidyl blue method), glycosylated hemoglobin, Hb1C (IFCC), fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose (glucose oxidase method) and urine total protein (Pyrogallol red method) was carried out. The statistical software SPSS 11.0 and Systat 8.0 were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Hypomagnesemia was observed in cases compared with both Group 2 and Group 3. FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, Urine total protein levels were increased in cases (without retinopathy and with retinopathy) compared with controls. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia and albuminuria individually or in conjunction serve as indicators for dysglycemia and could be used as marker for the risk of development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23633845

  2. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Soliman, M; Abdelhady, S; Fattouh, I; Ishioka, K; Kitamura, H; Kimura, K; Saito, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep. PMID:11714034

  3. Serum electrolyte levels in relation to macrovascular complications in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in China is increasing rapidly. However, scarce data are available on serum electrolyte levels in Chinese adults with diabetes, especially in those with cardiovascular complications. This study measured serum electrolyte levels and examined their relationship with macrovascular complications in Chinese adults with diabetes. Methods The three gender- and age-matched groups were enrolled into this analysis, which were 1,170 subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 389 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 343 with diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum electrolyte levels were measured. Data collection included ankle brachial index results. Results Serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were significantly decreased compared to the NGR group (sodium: 141.0 ± 2.4 vs. 142.1 ± 2.0 mmol/l; magnesium: 0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.07 mmol/l, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was significantly increased (2.36 ± 0.11 vs. 2.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were negatively correlated with FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c (sodium: Std β = −0.35, -0.19, -0.25; magnesium: Std β = −0.29, -0.17, -0.34, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was positively correlated with HbA1c (Std β = 0.17, P < 0.05). In diabetic subjects, serum sodium, magnesium and potassium levels were decreased in the subjects with the elevation of estimated glomerular filtration rates (P < 0.05). ANCOVA analysis suggested that serum magnesium level in subjects with diabetic macrovascular complications was significantly decreased compared with diabetic subjects without macrovascular complications after the effect of some possible confounding being removed (P < 0.05). Conclusions Serum sodium and

  4. Evaluation of Correlation of Blood Glucose and Salivary Glucose Level in Known Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Padmavathi, B.N.; Rajan, S.Y.; Mamatha, G.P.; Kumar, Sandeep; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogenous disease in which there is dysregulation of carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism; leading to elevated blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between blood glucose and salivary glucose levels in known diabetic patients and control group and also to evaluate salivary glucose level as a diagnostic tool in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods A total number of 250 patients were studied, out of which 212 formed the study group and 38 formed the control group. Result Among 250 patients, correlation was evaluated between blood glucose and salivary glucose values which on analysis revealed Pearson correlation of 0.073. The p-value was 0.247, which was statistically non significant. Conclusion Salivary glucose values cannot be considered as a diagnostic tool for diabetic individuals. PMID:26155553

  5. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  6. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  7. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  8. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  9. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  10. Effects of basal insulin application on serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI-DONG; XING, LIN; TENG, JUN-RU; LI, SHUO; MI, NA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of basal insulin application on the serum visfatin and adiponectin (APN) levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 200 patients with T2DM, who were diagnosed in The Third People's Hospital of Jinan (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7%), were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The patients used only oral hypoglycemic drugs and had never received insulin therapy. In the treatment group, basal insulin was administered in combination with the original application of oral hypoglycemic drugs, whereas the control group maintained the original use of oral hypoglycemic drugs or took other oral hypoglycemic agents. The body mass index and fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, visfatin, APN and blood lipid levels of the patients were examined prior to the treatment and six months later. The drug and insulin doses in the treatment group were adjusted according to the patients' blood glucose, which allowed the fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to attain the standards. The fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in the control group also achieved the standards. It was found that the six-month application of basal insulin could significantly decrease the glycosylated hemoglobin and significantly increase the serum APN levels; the serum visfatin levels, however, remained unchanged. The immediate application of basal insulin could facilitate the attainment of glycosylated hemoglobin standards in T2DM and could increase the plasma APN levels, preventing diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26136963

  11. Single Cell "Glucose Nanosensor" Verifies Elevated Glucose Levels in Individual Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Raphael A S; Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Mak, Wai Han; Mulato, Marcelo; Singaram, Bakthan; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-02-10

    Because the transition from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism is a hallmark of cancer progression, approaches to identify single living cancer cells by their unique glucose metabolic signature would be useful. Here, we present nanopipettes specifically developed to measure glucose levels in single cells with temporal and spatial resolution, and we use this technology to verify the hypothesis that individual cancer cells can indeed display higher intracellular glucose levels. The nanopipettes were functionalized as glucose nanosensors by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) covalently to the tip so that the interaction of glucose with GOx resulted in a catalytic oxidation of β-d-glucose to d-gluconic acid, which was measured as a change in impedance due to drop in pH of the medium at the nanopipette tip. Calibration studies showed a direct relationship between impedance changes at the tip and glucose concentration in solution. The glucose nanosensor quantified single cell intracellular glucose levels in human fibroblasts and the metastatic breast cancer lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 and revealed that the cancer cells expressed reproducible and reliable increases in glucose levels compared to the nonmalignant cells. Nanopipettes allow repeated sampling of the same cell, as cells remain viable during and after measurements. Therefore, nanopipette-based glucose sensors provide an approach to compare changes in glucose levels with changes in proliferative or metastatic state. The platform has great promise for mechanistic investigations, as a diagnostic tool to distinguish cancer cells from nonmalignant cells in heterogeneous tissue biopsies, as well as a tool for monitoring cancer progression in situ. PMID:26752097

  12. Maternal mid-pregnancy glucose levels and risk of congenital heart disease in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Priest, James R; Yang, Wei; Reaven, Gerald; Knowles, Joshua W.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There is a well-described association between maternal diabetes and risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) in offspring. Though the clinical diagnoses of Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes are strong risk factors for CHD, sub-clinical abnormalities of glucose and insulin metabolism are common within the general population and could also confer risk for CHD. Objective We explored the potential association of two different CHD phenotypes in offspring with midpregnancy measures of glucose and insulin. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a case-control study from a cohort of 277 pregnant women in southern and central California carrying infants with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) (n=55), d-transposition of the great arteries (dTGA) (n=42), or normal infants without CHD (n=180), Exposures Measurement of blood analytes related to maternal glucose metabolism taken from random non-fasting second trimester blood samples. Main Outcome and Measures We hypothesize that continuous measures of blood analytes related to maternal diabetes are related to odds of cardiac malformations. We measured serum insulin by a validated radioimmunoassay and glucose levels. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the association between these levels and case status. Results Relative to maternal blood glucose levels of infants without cardiac malformations, we observed that maternal blood glucose levels in models including insulin were strongly associated with odds of ToF (adjusted Odds Ratio 7.54, 95%CI 2.30–24.69), but not with dTGA (adjusted OR 1.16, 95%CI 0.28–4.79). Conclusions & Relevance These results represent a direct correlation of glucose as a continuous variable to odds of specific cardiac malformations. The association between serum glucose and odds of ToF indicates the need for additional epidemiological and mechanistic investigations into the risk conferred by insulin signaling and glucose metabolism during early pregnancy. PMID:26457543

  13. Hepatic Carboxylesterase 1 Is Induced by Glucose and Regulates Postprandial Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiesi; Yin, Liya; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan; Zalzala, Munaf; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and is important for lipid metabolism. Our previous data show that over-expression of mouse hepatic CES1 lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. In the present study, we determined the physiological role of hepatic CES1 in glucose homeostasis. Hepatic CES1 expression was reduced by fasting but increased in diabetic mice. Treatment of mice with glucose induced hepatic CES1 expression. Consistent with the in vivo study, glucose stimulated CES1 promoter activity and increased acetylation of histone 3 and histone 4 in the CES1 chromatin. Knockdown of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), an enzyme that regulates histone acetylation, abolished glucose-mediated histone acetylation in the CES1 chromatin and glucose-induced hepatic CES1 expression. Finally, knockdown of hepatic CES1 significantly increased postprandial blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the present study uncovers a novel glucose-CES1-glucose pathway which may play an important role in regulating postprandial blood glucose levels. PMID:25285996

  14. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  15. The effect of Malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ruzaidi, A; Amin, I; Nawalyah, A G; Hamid, M; Faizul, H A

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of cocoa extract on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cocoa extract (contained 285.6 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140 degrees C, 20 min) beans by extracting using 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1-10. The extract of three dosages (1, 2, and 3%) was fed to normal and diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. In hyperglycaemic group, cocoa extract (1 and 3%) diets were found to significantly lower (p<0.05) the serum glucose levels compared to the control. Furthermore, supplementation of 1 and 3% cocoa extract had significantly reduced (p<0.05) the level of total cholesterol in diabetic rats. In addition, 1, 2, and 3% cocoa extract diets had significantly lowered (p<0.05) the total triglycerides. Interestingly, this study found that serum HDL-cholesterol had increased significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats fed with 2% cocoa extract, while the LDL-cholesterol had decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the 1% treated group. These results indicate that cocoa extract may possess potential hypoglycaemic and hypocholestrolemic effects on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles, respectively. The results also found that the effect of cocoa extract was dose-dependent. PMID:15763363

  16. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  17. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. PMID:18391475

  18. Serum Response Factor Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells Against High-Glucose Damage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Hongbing; Tian, Ying; Liang, Houcheng; Ma, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Serum response factor (SRF), which encodes the MADS-box family of related proteins, is a common transcription factor related to the expression of genes associated with cell survival. However, SRF's role in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after high-glucose injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the protective role of SRF after high-glucose injury and its underlying mechanism. The in vitro RGC model subjected to high glucose was established by employing a 50 mmol/L glucose culture environment. As detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, SRF was significantly upregulated in RGCs treated with high glucose. Overexpression of SRF significantly promoted survival among RGCs exposed to high glucose and inhibited RGC apoptosis. Knockdown of SRF exerted an inverse effect. Moreover, SRF upregulation enhanced expression of an antioxidant protein, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), via control of the Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). SRF upregulation also affected RGC survival after high-glucose treatment. Our findings showed that overexpression of SRF promoted survival of RGCs after high-glucose injury by regulating Fra-1 and Nrf2. PMID:26803311

  19. Serum thrombopoietin level in various hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Usuki, K; Tahara, T; Iki, S; Endo, M; Osawa, M; Kitazume, K; Kato, T; Miyazaki, H; Urabe, A

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the pathophysiological role of thrombopoietin (TPO) in thrombopoiesis, we measured its serum levels in 15 healthy individuals, 84 patients with various hematological diseases and 2 patients with liver cirrhosis using an enzyme immunoassay procedure. The TPO level was 0.84 +/- 0.40 f mol/ml in normal individuals. TPO levels were considerably elevated in patients with myelosuppression after intensification chemotherapy of acute leukemia in complete remission (postchemotherapy group; n = 18; 18.46 +/- 9.70 f mol/ml). When the data of normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group were combined, TPO levels were inversely correlated with the platelet count in this combined group. We compared these data of normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group with various hematological disease states. In aplastic anemia (n = 13; 16.03 +/- 9.44 f mol/ml), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 5; 10.36 +/- 5.57 f mol/ml), malignant lymphoma (n = 6; 2.79 +/- 2.27 f mol/ml), multiple myeloma (n = 3; 3.34 +/- 0.20 f mol/ml) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2; 1.71 +/- 3.91 f mol/ml), the relationship of serum TPO levels and platelet counts was almost the same as in the combined group with normal individuals and the postchemotherapy group. However, the TPO levels were slightly higher in myeloproliferative disorders (n = 12; 1.99 +/- 1.47 f mol/ml) and lower in acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 8; 2.27 +/- 1.25 f mol/ml), hypoplastic leukemia (n = 3; 2.76 +/- 2.23 f mol/ml), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2; 0.42 +/- 0.60 f mol/ml), liver cirrhosis (n = 2; 1.50 +/- 0.92 f mol/ml) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 12; 2.08 +/- 1.41 f mol/ml), when compared to the regression line for the combined group with normal individuals and postchemotherapy group. These findings suggest that TPO might play an important role in regulation of the platelet count in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:8888496

  20. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  1. Resveratrol Supplementation in Schizophrenia Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Serum Glucose and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zortea, Karine; Franco, Viviane C.; Francesconi, Lenise P.; Cereser, Keila M. M.; Lobato, Maria Inês R.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) are generally overweight or obese and have several metabolic disorders. Additionally, such patients have a lower life expectancy and the main cause of their increased mortality is cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on serum glucose and CVD risk factors in individuals with SZ. Methods and Results: This is a four-week randomized, double-blind controlled trial (registration No.: NCT 02062190) in which 19 men with a diagnosis of SZ, aged 18 to 65, were assigned to either a resveratrol supplement group (200 mg/day) or a placebo group (200 mg/day). In short, we did not observe significant changes after resveratrol supplementation. In the placebo group, we found a significant increase in total cholesterol levels (p = 0.024) and in LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.002), as well as a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.038). The placebo group also showed an increase in triglycerides (9.19%) and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol (4.88%). In the resveratrol group, triglycerides decreased (7.64%). Conclusion: In summary, oral resveratrol in reasonably low dosages (200 mg daily) brought no differences to body weight, waist circumference, glucose, and total cholesterol. It was possible to note that the lipid profile in the placebo group worsened and, although no significant differences were found, we can assume that resveratrol might prevent lipid profile damage and that the intervention affected the lipoprotein metabolism at various levels. PMID:26840331

  2. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  3. Influence of thyroid dysfunction on serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 6.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ahn, Hwa Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 6 (ANGPTL6) is a novel metabolic regulator that modulates energy expenditure as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Thyroid hormone can induce metabolic changes that are similar to those induced by ANGPTL6. Herein, we investigated whether circulating ANGPTL6 levels change according to thyroid hormone status in humans. We measured the serum levels of ANGPTL6 and metabolic parameters in 150 drug-naïve subjects with overt hyperthyroid, subclinical hyperthyroid, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid, or overt hypothyroid status (n=30 in each group). Serum ANGPTL6 levels were significantly higher in patients with overt hypothyroidism than in the other subjects. Women had significantly higher serum levels of ANGPTL6 than men. ANGPTL6 levels correlated positively with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and negatively with serum free thyroxine (T4) level. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that sex, TSH, free T4, and ALT were independent predictors of serum ANGPTL6 levels. In summary, serum ANGPTL6 levels increased in patients with a hypothyroid status, and both TSH and free T4 levels are associated with ANGPLT6 levels, suggesting a possible association between thyroid function and ANGPTL6 levels. Whether the upregulated ANGPTL6 level in the hypothyroid status is primarily owing to a direct association or a compensatory mechanism remains to be determined. PMID:26189599

  4. Alteration of serum bilirubin level in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Semnani, Yousef; Nazemi, Farzad; Azariyam, Aileen; Ardakani, Mohammad Javad Ehsani

    2010-11-01

    Abstract Objective. Alteration of serum bilirubin level in acute episodes of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia has been reported but the pattern of this alteration is controversial. Methods. Patients diagnosed as schizophrenia (162, group S) or bipolar disorder (155, group B) entered the study. The control group consisted of 95 patients admitted to cardiac care unit who had no personal or family history of major psychiatric disorders. Pre- and post-admission levels of bilirubin were measured and compared within and between the groups. Patients were examined to exclude all other causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Group S and B participants were also evaluated using positive and negative syndrome subscale (PANSS) both at admission and discharge. Results. The mean admission bilirubin levels of all the groups were in the normal range (significantly higher in group S than groups B and C) and were affected by the score of general psychopathology subscale rather than the scores of positive symptoms subscale. Conclusions. Although bilirubin decreased in all three groups at discharge, the rate of decrease was significantly higher in group S. The reason for this is not clear and needs further study. PMID:24917437

  5. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  6. Raised Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Sen, Oishimaya; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Banerjee, Anindita

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8–10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77 ± 14.29 versus 17.02 ± 5.74 U/L; P < 0.0001). Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.657; P < 0.0001) level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r = −0.203; P = 0.180). However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects. PMID:24453844

  7. Raised serum adenosine deaminase level in nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Ghosh, Arindam; Sen, Oishimaya; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Banerjee, Anindita

    2013-01-01

    The role of inflammation being minimal in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in nonobese patients; the aim of the study was to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and see its association with diabetes mellitus. The preliminary case control study comprised of 56 cases and 45 healthy controls which were age and sex matched. 3 mL venous blood samples were obtained from the patients as well as controls after 8-10 hours of fasting. Serum ADA and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed. Serum ADA level was found significantly higher among nonobese T2DM subjects with respect to controls (38.77 ± 14.29 versus 17.02 ± 5.74 U/L; P < 0.0001). Serum ADA level showed a significant positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.657; P < 0.0001) level among nonobese T2DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in controls (r = -0.203; P = 0.180). However, no correlation was observed between serum ADA level compared to BMI and HbA1c levels. Our study shows higher serum ADA, triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in nonobese T2DM patients, and a strong correlation between ADA and FPG which suggests an association between ADA and nonobese T2DM subjects. PMID:24453844

  8. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  9. Exenatide Treatment Causes Suppression of Serum Ghrelin Levels following Mixed Meal Test in Obese Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Topyildiz, Figen; Kiyici, Sinem; Gul, Zulfiye; Sigirli, Deniz; Guclu, Metin; Kisakol, Gurcan; Cavun, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of exenatide treatment on serum ghrelin levels in obese female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. Fourteen female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin and exenatide were enrolled. A mixed meal test was applied to the patients while continuing with their daily medications. Blood samples were taken before and at 60, 120, and 180 minutes following mixed meal test to measure serum total ghrelin, glucose, and insulin levels. The following week, exenatide treatment of the patients was paused for 24 hours and the same experimental procedures were repeated. Results. Serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 180 minutes with exenatide treatment compared with baseline (294.4 ± 57.5 versus 234.5 ± 59.4 pg/mL) (p < 0.001). Serum ghrelin levels at 180 minutes were statistically different when percentage change in serum ghrelin levels after mixed meal tests with and without exenatide usage were compared (p = 0.001). Estimated total area under the curve values for serum ghrelin concentrations was also significantly lower with exenatide compared with omitted treatment (p = 0.035). Conclusion. These results suggest that the effect of exenatide on weight loss may be related with the suppression of serum ghrelin levels, which is an orexigenic peptide. PMID:26998491

  10. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and β-cell functions in nondiabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, M; Niwa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M; Hanyu, N; Nakayama, T

    2014-12-01

    High serum uric acid (UA) levels are believed to be an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum UA concentrations and early-phase insulin secretion following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic subjects. We enrolled 570 Japanese subjects (354 males and 216 females, aged 50.5 ± 8.9 years and 52.6 ± 7.3 years, respectively), who underwent the 75 g OGTT during their annual health examination. The OGTT confirmed their nondiabetic status. Insulin secretion was estimated by the disposition index (DI) [(Δ insulin/Δ glucose (0-30 min) × (1/HOMA-IR)], which is an adjusted measure of β-cell function relative to variations in insulin sensitivity. Simple linear regression analysis showed negative correlations between serum UA levels and DI, when examined in the whole study population and female subjects only (r = -0.209, p < 0.001 and r = -0.232, p < 0.001, respectively). However, in male subjects, UA levels did not correlate with DI. In females, multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that serum UA levels were the major predictors of DI, explaining 16.4% of its variation (p < 0.001). Serum UA levels significantly correlate with early-phase insulin secretion in nondiabetic Japanese women. It may be an independent risk factor for predicting β-cell function in women. PMID:25295417

  11. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  12. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  13. Altered serum levels of adipokines and insulin in probable Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Bagchi, Debajit; Bandyopadhyay, Kausik; Bir, Aritri; Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Biswas, Atanu; Basu, Debasis; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral hypometabolism of glucose, weight loss, and decreased food intake are characteristic features of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic study on the serum levels of adipokines and insulin, the major hormones regulating energy metabolism, food intake, and body weight, in sporadic AD is necessary. The present study compares the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin, measured by commercially available immuno-assay kits, between controls and sporadic AD subjects. The results show a conspicuous decrease in the level of leptin, a dramatic rise in the level of adiponectin, and also a statistically significant increase in insulin level, in the blood of AD subjects, with respect to controls. The changes in the serum levels of adiponectin and insulin in AD are positively correlated with the severity of dementia. Likewise, the serum level of leptin in AD subjects is negatively correlated with the degree of dementia. The changes in the levels of adipokines and insulin have implications in the amyloid pathology, neurodegeneration, and hypometabolism of glucose existing in the AD brain. PMID:24625795

  14. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Cağlayan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  15. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:22528775

  16. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  17. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Serum Magnesium, Potassium, and Sodium Concentrations Identify Six Loci Influencing Serum Magnesium Levels

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Felix, Janine F.; Leak, Tennille S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Qiong; Dehghan, Abbas; Aspelund, Thor; Katz, Ronit; Homuth, Georg; Kocher, Thomas; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Prucha, Hanna; Pfeufer, Arne; Meitinger, Thomas; Coresh, Josef; Hofman, Albert; Sarnak, Mark J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Uitterlinden, André G.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Köttgen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations using ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15,366 participants of European descent from the international CHARGE Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. SNPs demonstrating genome-wide significant (p<5×10−8) or suggestive associations (p<4×10−7) were evaluated for replication in an additional 8,463 subjects of European descent. The association of common variants at six genomic regions (in or near MUC1, ATP2B1, DCDC5, TRPM6, SHROOM3, and MDS1) with serum magnesium levels was genome-wide significant when meta-analyzed with the replication dataset. All initially significant SNPs from the CHARGE Consortium showed nominal association with clinically defined hypomagnesemia, two showed association with kidney function, two with bone mineral density, and one of these also associated with fasting glucose levels. Common variants in CNNM2, a magnesium transporter studied only in model systems to date, as well as in CNNM3 and CNNM4, were also associated with magnesium concentrations in this study. We observed no associations with serum sodium or potassium levels exceeding p<4×10−7. Follow-up studies of newly implicated genomic loci may provide additional insights into the regulation and homeostasis of human serum magnesium levels. PMID:20700443

  18. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Neveen; Abbas, Amal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to T score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal T score versus controls (P < 0.001). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar T score (r = −0.69, P < 0.001) and femur T score (r = −0.64, P < 0.001) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. PMID:23878759

  19. [Clinical research on improvement of glucose metabolic marker level by coffee drinking-validity of saliva caffeine concentration measurement].

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kono, Suminori; Shimazoe, Takao

    2010-05-01

    We measured both serum and saliva caffeine concentration using HPLC and assessed the correlation between them in volunteers with mild obesity. Significant correlation was shown between saliva and serum caffeine concentration. It may be necessary to measure caffeine metabolite concentration because its metabolites may also have an improving effect of glucose metabolism. In summary, we found that saliva caffeine concentration measurement was useful to assess caffeine intake level. Moreover, it will be helpful to know whether caffeine has an improving effect of glucose metabolism. PMID:20460869

  20. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  1. Preoperative Serum Levels of Mesothelin in Patients with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bostancı, Özgür; Kemik, Özgür; Kemik, Ahu; Battal, Muharrem; Demir, Uygar; Purisa, Sevim; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Screening for biochemical markers is important for diagnosing colon cancer. In this study, the reliability of serum mesothelin levels as a potential diagnostic and screening instrument was evaluated concerning colon cancer. Methods. Ninety-five patients who had undergone colonoscopic examination and who were diagnosed with colon cancer were included in the study. The serum mesothelin levels were measured with the ELISA kits and were evaluated in terms of significant difference when compared between colon cancer and control group. Results. Patients with colon cancer had significantly higher mesothelin serum levels (P < 0.001) than the control groups. We found significant associations between serum levels and tumor grade, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion (resp., P < 0.001). Conclusion. Evaluating the serum levels of mesothelin has a potential to detect and screen the colon cancer in affected patients. Our data suggest that mesothelin exhibits effects towards colon cancer and serves as a biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:25477701

  2. Fasting glucose levels within the high normal range predict cardiovascular outcome

    PubMed Central

    Shaye, Kivity; Amir, Tirosh; Shlomo, Segev; Yechezkel, Sidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is still not clear whether glucose levels can predict CVD risk among patients without diabetes. The primary aim of this study is to assess whether normoglycemic fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is associated with increased risk of CVD outcomes in healthy patients. Methods We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examination, and medical and lifestyle information from 10,913 men and women who were evaluated in the Institute for Preventive Medicine of Sheba Medical Center. Enrolled were participants with FPG <100 mg/dL as well as 100 to 125 mg/dL, who were free of diagnosis of CVD. The participants were actively screened for coronary disease using a stress test. Primary end points were coronary heart disease or self-reported cerebral vascular disease. Results A total of 1,119 incident cases of CVD occurred during a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Subjects with fasting glucose levels in the high normal range (95–99 mg/dL) had an increased CVD risk when compared with levels <80 mg/dL, (HR 1.53;CI 95% [1.22–1.91], P < .001). A multivariate model, adjusted for age, sex, family history of CVD, blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, pharmacologic treatment, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, revealed an independent increased risk of CVD with rising FPG levels in the normal range. Conclusion Elevated CVD risk is strongly and independently associated with glucose levels within the normoglycemic range. Fasting plasma glucose may help in identifying apparently healthy persons with early metabolic abnormalities who are at increased risk for CVD before progression to prediabetes and overt diabetes mellitus. PMID:22795290

  3. Trueness Assessment for Serum Glucose Measurement Using Commercial Systems through the Preparation of Commutable Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Xia, ChangYu; Liu, Ou; Wang, LanZhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Commutable reference materials (RMs) are suitable for end-users for evaluating the metrological traceability of values obtained using routine measurement systems. We assessed the performance of 6 routine measurement systems with validated secondary RMs. Methods We tested the homogeneity, stability, and commutability of 5 minimally processed human serum pools according to the standard guidelines. The serum pools were assigned values as per the reference procedure of the United States Centers for Disease Control and were used to evaluate the trueness of results from 6 commercial measurement systems based on enzymatic methods: 3 glucose oxidase (GOD) and 3 hexokinase (HK) methods. Results The prepared RMs were validated to be sufficiently homogenous, stable, and commutable with the patient samples. Method bias varied for different systems: GOD01, -0.17 to 2.88%; GOD02, 1.66 to 4.58%; GOD03, -0.17 to 3.14%; HK01, -3.48 to -0.85%; HK02, -3.83 to -0.11%, and HK03, -1.82 to -0.27%. Conclusions We observed that the prepared serum glucose RMs were qualified for trueness assessment. Most of the measurement systems met the minimal quality specifications. PMID:22779064

  4. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0

  5. Relationship Between Serum Zinc Level and Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Han, Xue-Yao; Zhou, Xiang-Hai; Wu, Jing; Ji, Li-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggested that zinc level was related to a certain diabetic microvascular complication. However, the relationship between zinc level and all the microvascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between zinc level and each diabetic microvascular complication and identify the features related to low serum zinc level. Methods: We included the hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at our department from May 30, 2013 to March 31, 2014. We initially compared the serum zinc levels between patients with specific microvascular complications and those without. We then analyzed the association between zinc level and each microvascular complication. Furthermore, we identified the unique features of patients with high and low serum zinc levels and analyzed the risk factors related to low zinc level. Results: The 412 patients included 271 with microvascular complications and 141 without any microvascular complications. Serum zinc level was significantly lower in patients with diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.001), diabetic nephropathy (DN, P < 0.001), or diabetic peripheral neuropathy (P = 0.002) compared with patients without that specific complication. Lower zinc level was an independent risk factor for DN (odds ratio = 0.869, 95% confidence interval = 0.765–0.987, P < 0.05). The subjects with lower serum zinc level had manifested a longer duration of diabetes, higher level of hemoglobin A1c, higher prevalence of hypertension and microvascular complications, and lower fasting and 2-h C-peptide levels. Conclusions: Lower serum zinc level in T2D patients was related to higher prevalence of diabetic microvascular complications, and represented as an independent risk factor for DN. Patients with lower zinc level were more likely to have a longer duration of diabetes, poorer glucose control, and worse β-cell function. PMID:26668140

  6. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED. PMID:26302884

  7. Serum estrogen levels in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Haffajee, C I; Hochman, J S; Sacks, G M; Dalen, J E

    1982-12-01

    Serum estradiol and serum estrone levels were assessed in 29 men in 14 men in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out; in 12 men without apparent coronary heart disease but hospitalized in an intensive care unit; and in 28 men who were not hospitalized and who acted as control subjects. (The 12 men who were hospitalized but who did not have coronary heart disease were included to control for physical and emotional stress of a severe medical illness.) Ages ranged from 21 to 56 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly among groups. Blood samples were obtained in the patient groups on each of the first three days of hospitalization. The serum estrone level was significantly elevated in all four patient groups when compared with that in the control group. Estrone level, then, did not differentiate patients with and without coronary heart disease. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in the groups with myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and in the group in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out. However, estradiol levels were not significantly elevated in the group in the intensive care unit without coronary heart disease when compared to the level in the normal control group. Serum estradiol levels, then, were elevated in men with confirmed or suspected coronary heart disease but were not elevated in men without coronary heart disease even under the stressful conditions found in an intensive care unit. Serum estradiol levels were significantly and positively correlated (p less than 0.03) with serum total creatine phosphokinase levels in the patients with myocardial infarction. The five patients with myocardial infarction who died within 10 days of admission had markedly elevated serum estradiol levels. The potential significance of these serum estradiol elevations is discussed in terms of estradiol's ability to enhance adrenergic neural activity and the resultant increase in myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7148879

  8. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  9. Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schauder, P; Matthaei, D; Henning, H V; Scheler, F; Langenbeck, U

    1981-08-01

    The effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) on serum levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), i.e. alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KICA), alpha-keto-isovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta methyl-n-valeric acid (KMVA) as well as on serum insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose levels was determined in uremic patients and in healthy control subjects. In controls, blood levels of KICA, KMVA and KIVA declined significantly following oral administration of 100 glucose. In uremic patients no decline of KICA was observed. The fall of KMVA was diminished, while suppression of KIVA blood levels in response to the oGGT remained unimpaired. Although serum insulin and C-peptide levels in uremic patients were not significantly different from the controls before and throughout the oGTT, six out of eight displayed abnormal glucose tolerance. It is suggested that the response of blood BCKA levels to an oGTT is altered in uremia, an abnormality restricted primarily to KICA and possibly explained by insulin antagonism and/or by insufficient insulin secretion. PMID:7021997

  10. Malnutrition Markers and Serum Ghrelin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Gorgij, Farnia; Akbari, Ommolbanin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of study was to investigate the changes levels of serum ghrelin in HD patients and its relationship to some malnutrition markers compared with healthy controls. Methods. Forty-five patients on hemodialysis and forty healthy controls were studied. Biochemical parameters and serum ghrelin levels were measured. Both daily dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) assessments were performed for evaluation of nutritional status. Results. Ghrelin concentrations were significantly reduced in patients undergoing hemodialysis when compared to healthy controls (5 ± 0.68 (1.1–18.5) pg/mL versus 7.8 ± 0.84 (2.4–18.3) pg/mL; P = 0.004). BMI and serum albumin in HD patients were markedly reduced compared to controls. The patients with an insufficient intake of energy and protein demonstrated slightly lower levels of serum ghrelin. A negative correlation between serum ghrelin concentration with age (r = −0.34, P = 0.02), BUN (r = −0.26, P < 0.01), and serum creatinine (r = −0.27, P < 0.01) was observed in HD patients. Conclusions. The findings suggest that decreased ghrelin levels in HD patients might be associated with anorexia. Further studies are needed to determine changes in serum ghrelin levels during dialysis and to clarify whether the decrease in ghrelin levels contributes to the malnutrition that is common in these patients.

  11. Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Reichert, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the “A+B region” of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion, and the more aqueous microenvironment provided greater stability for the enzyme. PMID:23024461

  12. Serum nitric oxide is associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in women: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tahmasebi Nejad, Zhale; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    Background and aim This study was conducted to investigate the association between serum nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We recruited 3462 and 2504 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), for a cross-sectional and prospective analysis, respectively. Serum NOx concentrations were measured at baseline (2006-2008), and demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and again after 3 years (2009-2011). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD were defined. Association between serum NOx and CKD in the cross-sectional phase and the predictability of NOx in CKD occurrence were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. Results Mean age of participants was 45.0 ± 15.9 years at baseline and 40.5% were male. The prevalence of CKD was 17.9% (13.4% in men, 21.0% in women) at baseline, at which point, marginally significant odds of CKD in the highest tertile of serum NOx in men (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.96-2.45, p for trend = 0.047) and a significant odds of CKD in women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.76-3.49, p for trend = 0.001) were observed. After a 3-year follow-up, in women, risk of CKD was higher in the highest compared to the lowest NOx tertiles (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10-3.14, p for trend = 0.032) but no significant association was observed in men. Conclusion Serum NOx level was found to be an independent predictor of CKD in women; it could be a valuable surrogate for prediction of renal dysfunction in women and help to identify high-risk subjects. PMID:26956540

  13. Effect of pure zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin and glucagon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.Y.; Grandjean, C.J.; Hart, M.H.; Erdman, S.H.; Pour, P.; Vanderhoof, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance was investigated using intragastric force-feeding to obviate decreased food intake and altered eating patterns. Three groups of weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified powdered zinc-deficient diet: zinc-deficient ad libitum fed animals (ZDA); zinc-replete gavage force-fed controls (ZRF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in water with zinc (25 ppm); zinc-deficient gavage force-fed animals (ZDF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in distilled water. A fourth group of zinc-supplemented rats fed the diet ad libitum was included to determine caloric intake for ZDF and ZRF gavage fed groups. After 8 days of feeding, the zinc concentration in the serum and pancreas were lower in both zinc-deficient groups, but the difference was much greater in the ZDF rats than in the ZDA. The ZDF group had impaired glucose tolerance curves, yet blood insulin and glucagon levels were normal. The ZDA group had normal glucose tolerance with low insulin levels compared to the ZRF group. The islet cell morphology among the three dietary groups were similar. These results suggest that the glucose intolerance observed in ZDF rats is not due to altered blood insulin and glucagon levels but rather to peripheral resistance to insulin action.

  14. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hamuro, Akihiro; Tachibana, Daisuke; Misugi, Takuya; Katayama, Hiroko; Ozaki, Koji; Fujino, Yuji; Yoshihiro, Nakamura; Shintaku, Haruo; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. PATIENTS AND METHODS Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval (n = 12), and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes (n = 13). Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 (P < 0.05 each). CONCLUSION Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval. PMID:26568687

  15. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition. PMID:26985979

  16. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  17. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  18. β-3AR W64R Polymorphism and 30-Minute Post-Challenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Hasibe; Tulgar Kınık, Sibel; Yılmaz Yalçın, Yaprak; Muratoğlu Şahin, Nursel; Yazıcı, Ayşe Canan; Ataç, F. Belgin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of W64R polymorphism of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene (β-3AR) with childhood obesity and related pathologies. Methods: β-3AR gene W64R genotyping was carried out in 251 children aged 6-18 years. Of these subjects, 130 were obese (62 boys) and 121 were normal-weight (53 boys). In the obese group, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 75 of the obese patients. Results: The frequency of W64R genotype was similar in obese and non-obese children. In obese children, relative body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were not different between Arg allele carriers (W64R and R64R) and noncarriers (W64W). In 75 obese children, OGTT results showed that Arg allele carriers had significantly higher 30-minute glucose levels (p=0.027). Conclusion: W64R polymorphism of the β-3AR gene is not associated with obesity and waist-to-hip ratio in Turkish children. Although there were no relationships between the genotypes and lipid, glucose/insulin levels or HOMA-IR, the presence of W64R variant seemed to have an unfavorable influence on early glucose excursion after glucose loading. PMID:25800470

  19. Daily walking decreases casual glucose level among pregnant women in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Kusaka, Momoko; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the number of steps walked daily, as evaluated by accelerometer, among Japanese women in the second trimester of pregnancy. This longitudinal study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, from August 2012 to January 2013. Healthy pregnant women at 14 to 18 gestational weeks were recruited. Participants wore accelerometers on the waist for 4 weeks. Casual glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were compared between two groups based on whether participants habitually walked ≥ 6,000 steps/day or < 6,000 steps/day. Fifty-one pregnant women were included in the present study; data from 35 were analyzed. There were 22 women in the group that habitually walked ≥ 6,000 steps/day and 13 in the group habitually walking < 6,000 steps/day. Although the median serum casual glucose level at the end of the investigation was 90.0 mg/dL in the group walking < 6,000 steps/day, the level in the group walking ≥ 6000 steps/day was 83.5 mg/dL (p = 0.01). HbA1c levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that walking as a daily habitual physical activity is effective for controlling casual glucose levels in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27594297

  20. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    PubMed

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine. PMID:27228466

  1. Cofilin Phosphorylation Decreased by Serum-free Starvation with Low Glucose in the L6 Myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee-Young; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Park, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Tae-Whan; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] Many studies have been using cell culture models of muscle cells with exogenous cytokines or glucocorticoids to mimic atrophy in in vivo and in vitro tests. However, the changes in the phosphorylation of atrophy-related cofilin are still poorly understood in starved skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we first examined whether or not phosphorylation of cofilin is altered in L6 myoblasts after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum-free starvation with low glucose. [Methods] We used Western blotting to exam protein expression and phosphorylation in atrophied L6 myoblasts. [Results] L6 cell sizes and numbers were diminished as a result of serum-free starvation in a time-dependent manner. Serum-free starvation for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours significantly decreased the phosphorylation of cofilin, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that starvation-induced atrophy may be in part related to changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin in L6 myoblasts. PMID:25364107

  2. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qilin; An, Yarui; Tang, Linlin; Jiang, Xiaoli; Chen, Hua; Bi, Wenji; Wang, Zhongchuan; Zhang, Wen

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the risk of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The biosensor was constructed by a three-step method. First, a poly-thionine (PTH) film was assembled on the surface of glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric electropolymerization of thionine, which serves as an electron transfer mediator (ETM). Second, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH facilitating the electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOx), cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and electrode. Finally, the enzymes, GOx, cholesterol esterase (ChE), and ChOx, were covalently attached to the PTH layer through a chitosan (CH) linker. The PTH coupled with GNPs provides good selectivity, high sensitivity and little crosstalk for the dual enzymatic-biosensor. The developed biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibiting a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level did not change obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was induced with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, which is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. This study provides useful further evidences for the development of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:22027130

  3. A reusable robust radio frequency biosensor using microwave resonator by integrated passive device technology for quantitative detection of glucose level.

    PubMed

    Kim, N Y; Dhakal, R; Adhikari, K K; Kim, E S; Wang, C

    2015-05-15

    A reusable robust radio frequency (RF) biosensor with a rectangular meandered line (RML) resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate by integrated passive device (IPD) technology was designed, fabricated and tested to enable the real-time identification of the glucose level in human serum. The air-bridge structure fabricated by an IPD technology was applied to the RML resonator to improve its sensitivity by increasing the magnitude of the return loss (S21). The resonance behaviour, based on S21 characteristics of the biosensor, was analysed at 9.20 GHz with human serum containing different glucose concentration ranging from 148-268 mg dl(-1), 105-225 mg dl(-1) and at a deionised (D) water glucose concentration in the range of 25- 500 mg dl(-1) for seven different samples. A calibration analysis was performed for the human serum from two different subjects and for D-glucose at a response time of 60 s; the reproducibility, the minimum shift in resonance frequency and the long-term stability of the signal were investigated. The feature characteristics based on the resonance concept after the use of serum as an analyte are modelled as an inductor, capacitor and resistor. The findings support the development of resonance-based sensing with an excellent sensitivity of 1.08 MHz per 1 mg dl(-1), a detection limit of 8.01 mg dl(-1), and a limit of quantisation of 24.30 mg dl(-1). PMID:25459060

  4. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  5. The GLUT9 Gene Is Associated with Serum Uric Acid Levels in Sardinia and Chianti Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Andrea; Busonero, Fabio; Usala, Gianluca; Mulas, Antonella; Lai, Sandra; Dei, Mariano; Orrù, Marco; Albai, Giuseppe; Bandinelli, Stefania; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Guralnik, Jack; Naitza, Silvia; Crisponi, Laura; Cao, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Chen, Wei-Min; Nagaraja, Ramaiah

    2007-01-01

    High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatory–state gout crystal arthropathy and place individuals at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide scans in the genetically isolated Sardinian population identified variants associated with serum uric acid levels as a quantitative trait. They mapped within GLUT9, a Chromosome 4 glucose transporter gene predominantly expressed in liver and kidney. SNP rs6855911 showed the strongest association (p = 1.84 × 10−16), along with eight others (p = 7.75 × 10−16 to 6.05 × 10−11). Individuals homozygous for the rare allele of rs6855911 (minor allele frequency = 0.26) had 0.6 mg/dl less uric acid than those homozygous for the common allele; the results were replicated in an unrelated cohort from Tuscany. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in GLUT9 could affect glucose metabolism and uric acid synthesis and/or renal reabsorption, influencing serum uric acid levels over a wide range of values. PMID:17997608

  6. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  7. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  8. The Serum Lead level in Patients With Retained Lead Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammad Alibeigi, Faramarz; Sayadi, Masoud; Poorya Mofrad, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Soleiman; Darvishi, Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, who survived from shotgun injuries, often have some retained lead pellets in their bodies. Several cases of lead toxicity have been reported regarding these patients. Objectives: This study seeks to compare the serum lead level in patients who have retained lead pellets in their bodies with the control group. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we gathered the serum lead levels of 25 patients with some retained lead pellets in their bodies due to shotgun and 25 volunteers without similar lead exposure and compared them in view of the age, gender, and living place. Results: While the mean serum lead level in both groups was lower than the standard level (i.e. 40 µg/dL) , the mean ± SD of serum lead level were 29 ± 12.8 µg/dL and 25.3 ± 6.4 µg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively without any significant difference (P = 0. 30) . However, a positive relationship was seen between serum lead level, and the number of retained lead pellets (r = 0.447, P = 0. 025) . Conclusions: Although extensive surgery to remove the lead pellets is not recommended in patients injured with shotguns, those with many retained lead pellets in their bodies should be considered at risk for lead poisoning and monitored carefully. PMID:25147780

  9. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  10. Clinical significance of serum adipokines levels in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kerenidi, Theodora; Lada, Martha; Tsaroucha, Agori; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Mystridou, Parthena; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2013-06-01

    Adipokines have a significant effect on metabolism, immunoinflammatory responses as well as on carcinogenesis; therefore, we aimed at evaluating their potential predictive and prognostic significance in lung cancer. Eighty patients--mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years--with previously untreated lung cancer (61 NSCLC and 19 SCLC) of all stages and 40 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured using human Radioimmunoassay kits. Serum leptin levels in lung cancer patients were lower compared to control (p < 0.0001), while adiponectin and ghrelin levels were significantly increased in patients (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0043, respectively). Additionally, the leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly lower in the patients group compared to controls (p < 0.0001]. There was no association between serum levels of adipokines and any of the patient clinicopathological characteristics or response to therapy. Nevertheless, patients with lower values of serum leptin had shorter overall survival (p = 0.014), whereas multivariate analysis revealed leptin levels as an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.024, HR 0.452, CI 95 % 0.232-0.899). These results suggest that adipokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, while leptin serum levels might provide useful prognostic information. PMID:23430445

  11. Anger, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and glucose levels in healthy women: the mediating role of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe; Malkin, Amy R; Boyle, Stephen; Vaitkus, Mark; Barko, William; Franco, Edward

    2002-02-01

    The association between anger, lipid profiles, and glucose levels were examined in this study of 103 middle aged, healthy women. A principal component factor analysis of Spielberger's Trait Anger and Anger Expression scales yielded two anger factors: Impulsive Anger-Out and Neurotic Anger. Impulsive anger-out significantly predicted a negative lipid profile (high total serum cholesterol (TSC), low density lipoproteins (LDL), TSC/HDL (high density lipids), and triglyceride levels) and heightened glucose levels, but only in physically unfit women. Neurotic anger did not predict lipid and glucose levels. These findings parallel previous findings regarding the two anger dimensions and CHD, with only impulsive anger-out predicting CHD. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the protective effect of physical fitness, previously documented for men, also occurs in women. PMID:11845555

  12. Serum homocysteine level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Başkan, Bedriye Mermerci; Sivas, Filiz; Aktekin, Lale Akbulut; Doğan, Yasemin Pekin; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-10-01

    In this study serum homocystein (Hcy) level was measured and its relationship with disease activity criteria and treatment protocols was investigated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Ninety-two AS patients and 58 healthy individuals were recruited. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein were determined. Bath AS disease activity index and Bath AS functional index were calculated. Serum Hcy levels >15 micromol/l were considered as hyperhomocysteinemia. The mean serum homocysteine levels were 14.40 and 12.60 micromol/l in patients with AS and the control group, respectively, and the difference between two groups was significant. While there was no significant difference between the sulfasalazine (SSZ) group with 14.25 micromol/l mean Hcy level and the methotrexate (MTX)/SSZ group with 16.05 micromol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the Hcy levels of these two groups and Hcy level of 12.15 micromol/l of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group, and 12.60 micromol/l Hcy level of the control group. Mean serum Hcy level was 13.65 micromol/l in patients with active AS and 14.60 micromol/l in patients with inactive AS, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In our study serum Hcy level was found to be significantly higher in patients with AS than in healthy control subjects. Especially for the AS patients receiving MTX and SSZ treatment without folic acid supplementation, addition of folic acid to their therapy may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease which in turn decreases the mortality in these patients, but further prospective studies are needed for supporting these results. PMID:19288264

  13. Levels of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Tih-Shih

    2016-08-01

    Recent meta-analyses of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have reported lower levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies did not consider the potential confounding effects of time of collection, age, sex, smoking, and obesity. Here, we sought to examine differences in serum BDNF between medicated patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects, taking into consideration the potential confounders of serum BDNF. Serum was obtained from a sample of fasted blood collected from all participants, and BDNF was assayed on a commercially available kit. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no statistically significant difference between cases and control subjects (p = 0.261). In the model, body mass index emerged as the most significant predictor of serum BDNF (β = 0.22, p = 0.009). The present study did not support a role for serum BDNF as a biomarker in schizophrenia. This could be due to the nonspecific nature of serum BDNF and its association with both mental and physical conditions. PMID:27479612

  14. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P Reed; Holst, Jens J; Badman, Michael K; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B

    2009-09-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 +/- 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 +/- 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2-h post-meal glucose (r = -0.59, P < 0.003) and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = -0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB. PMID:19360006

  15. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  16. The Effects of Reduction Mammaplasty on Serum Leptin Levels and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Baltu, Yahya; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Öztürk Kaymak, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Background. The reduction mammaplasty has been a well-executed and known procedure in which considerable amount of fatty tissue is removed from the body. The authors aimed to show the effects of the reduction mammaplasty on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Methods. 42 obese female patients who had gigantomastia were operated on. We recorded patients' demographic and preoperative data, including age, weight, height, and body mass index. Fasting serum leptin, glucose, and insulin levels were noted. Homeostasis model assessment scores were calculated. At the postoperative 8th week, patients were reevaluated in terms of above parameters assessing the presence of any difference. Results. Serum leptin levels were decreased postoperatively and the decrease was statistically significant. We were able to show a decrease in homeostasis model assessment score, which indicated an increase in insulin sensitivity, and this change was statistically significant. A significant correlation between body mass index and leptin change was found postoperatively. Conclusion. Reduction mammaplasty is not solely an aesthetic procedure but it decreases serum leptin levels and increases insulin sensitivity, which may help obese women to reduce their cardiovascular risk. PMID:26550014

  17. The Effects of Reduction Mammaplasty on Serum Leptin Levels and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Baltu, Yahya; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Öztürk Kaymak, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Background. The reduction mammaplasty has been a well-executed and known procedure in which considerable amount of fatty tissue is removed from the body. The authors aimed to show the effects of the reduction mammaplasty on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Methods. 42 obese female patients who had gigantomastia were operated on. We recorded patients' demographic and preoperative data, including age, weight, height, and body mass index. Fasting serum leptin, glucose, and insulin levels were noted. Homeostasis model assessment scores were calculated. At the postoperative 8th week, patients were reevaluated in terms of above parameters assessing the presence of any difference. Results. Serum leptin levels were decreased postoperatively and the decrease was statistically significant. We were able to show a decrease in homeostasis model assessment score, which indicated an increase in insulin sensitivity, and this change was statistically significant. A significant correlation between body mass index and leptin change was found postoperatively. Conclusion. Reduction mammaplasty is not solely an aesthetic procedure but it decreases serum leptin levels and increases insulin sensitivity, which may help obese women to reduce their cardiovascular risk. PMID:26550014

  18. Functionalized graphene oxide for clinical glucose biosensing in urine and serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Shin, Hyunkyung; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A novel clinical glucose biosensor fabricated using functionalized metalloid-polymer (silver-silica coated with polyethylene glycol) hybrid nanoparticles on the surface of a graphene oxide nanosheet is reported. The cyclic voltammetric response of glucose oxidase modification on the surface of a functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a surface-confined reaction and an effective redox potential near zero volts, with a wide linearity of 0.1–20 mM and a sensitivity of 7.66 μA mM−1 cm−2. The functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a better electrocatalytic response toward oxidation of H2O2 and reduction of oxygen. The practical applicability of the functionalized graphene oxide electrode was demonstrated by measuring the peak current against multiple urine and serum samples from diabetic patients. This new hybrid nanoarchitecture combining a three-dimensional metalloid-polymer hybrid and two-dimensional graphene oxide provided a thin solid laminate on the electrode surface. The easy fabrication process and retention of bioactive immobilized enzymes on the functionalized graphene oxide electrode could potentially be extended to detection of other biomolecules, and have broad applications in electrochemical biosensing. PMID:23269871

  19. Functionalized graphene oxide for clinical glucose biosensing in urine and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Shin, Hyunkyung; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A novel clinical glucose biosensor fabricated using functionalized metalloid-polymer (silver-silica coated with polyethylene glycol) hybrid nanoparticles on the surface of a graphene oxide nanosheet is reported. The cyclic voltammetric response of glucose oxidase modification on the surface of a functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a surface-confined reaction and an effective redox potential near zero volts, with a wide linearity of 0.1-20 mM and a sensitivity of 7.66 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a better electrocatalytic response toward oxidation of H(2)O(2) and reduction of oxygen. The practical applicability of the functionalized graphene oxide electrode was demonstrated by measuring the peak current against multiple urine and serum samples from diabetic patients. This new hybrid nanoarchitecture combining a three-dimensional metalloid-polymer hybrid and two-dimensional graphene oxide provided a thin solid laminate on the electrode surface. The easy fabrication process and retention of bioactive immobilized enzymes on the functionalized graphene oxide electrode could potentially be extended to detection of other biomolecules, and have broad applications in electrochemical biosensing. PMID:23269871

  20. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  1. Serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yolbas, Servet; Kara, Murat; Yilmaz, Musa; Aydin, Suleyman; Koca, Suleyman Serdar

    2016-06-01

    Adropin, a secreted protein, is encoded by the energy homeostasis associated (ENHO) gene. It has been implicated in the several physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate serum adropin levels and ENHO gene expressions in systemic sclerosis (SSc) characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation, and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. The study includes 27 patients with SSc, 39 patients with Behçet's disease (BD), and 20 healthy controls (HC). Serum adropin levels and ENHO gene expressions by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by ELISA method and by real-time PCR, respectively. The serum adropin levels were higher in the SSc and BD groups than in the HC group (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of ENHO gene expressions (p ANOVA = 0.149). There was no significant difference between the limited and diffuse cutaneous subtypes of SSc in terms of serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression. Moreover, serum adropin level and ENHO gene expression were not associated with the disease activity and severity indexes. ENHO gene expression was correlated with the triglyceride levels in the BD group (r = -0.426, p = 0.027). The augmented serum adropin levels may be expected in the chronic inflammatory disease and seem not to be characteristic of only SSc. However, further studies are needed to explain the precise role of adropin in SSc. PMID:27079850

  2. A new biosensor for glucose determination in serum based on up-converting fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianhong; Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Jialan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Zhihong

    2011-10-15

    In this work, a new glucose sensor based on up-converting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (UC-FRET) was developed. Up-converting phosphors (UCPs, NaYF(4): Yb, Er), which were covalently labeled with Concanavalin A (ConA), were used as the energy donor with thiolated β-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CDs) functionalized gold nanoparticles as the energy acceptor. Due to the combination between ConA and SH-β-CDs, the energy donor and the acceptor were brought to close proximity, resulting in the quenching of the fluorescence of UCPs by gold nanoparticles. In the presence of glucose which competed with SH-β-CDs towards the binding sites of ConA, the biosensor (UCPs-ConA-SH-β-CDs-Au) was decomposed and the energy donor was separated from the acceptor. Therefore, the fluorescence of UCPs was restored dependent on the concentration of glucose. The increase of UCPs fluorescence intensity was proportional to glucose concentration within the range from 0.4 μM to 10μM in aqueous buffer, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.043 μM. A same linear range of glucose concentration was obtained in a human serum matrix (which was pretreated and thus contained no glucose) with a slightly higher LOD (0.065 μM). The glucose sensor was applied to real human serum samples with the results consistent with that of a classic hexokinase (HK) method, indicating that the UC-FRET biosensor was competent for directly sensing glucose in serum samples without optical interference, which benefited from the near infrared (NIR) excitation nature of UCPs. The results of this work suggested that the UC-FRET technique could be a promising alternative for detecting biomolecules in complex biological sample matrixes for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21852101

  3. The relationship between maternal serum magnesium level and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khani, S; Shokrzadeh, M; Karamoddini, P K; Shahmohammadi, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm birth. This Nested case-control study carried out on 20 with preterm birth and 20 women at term birth at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari/Iran in 2008. The women with singleton gestation and intact fetal membrane suspected to preterm labor (case group), 10 cc blood samples were drawn into syringes and sent to laboratory of the hospital immediately. Sampling for control group was same as the case group. These samples recognized as control group just as birth occurring after week 37. Finally, serum magnesium level measured. Data analyzed using chi2, t-test and OR (Odd's Ratio). There was a relationship between the number of prenatal visits (p = 0.008) and stressful events associated with preterm birth (p < 0.02). Serum magnesium level was associated with preterm birth OR = 4.75, CI 95% = (0.48-46.91), Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of serum magnesium for preterm birth was 95, 50, 66.5 and 83.33%, respectively. Although, there was a correlation between serum magnesium levels and preterm birth, due to methodology of the study, a cohort study with the same cut off point and supplementation of magnesium in RTC studies is recommended. PMID:20836289

  4. Clinical significance of serum claudin-1 levels in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Erturk, Kayhan; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Claudins are the most important structural and functional components of tight-junction integral membrane proteins. They play roles in major cellular functions including growth and adhesion and are responsible for regulating the paracellular transport of molecules. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of claudin-1, an oldest and important member of the claudin family, in melanoma patients. A total of 98 patients with a pathologically confirmed melanoma were enrolled into this study. Serum claudin-1 concentrations were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Age-matched and sex-matched 43 healthy controls were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, ranging from 16 to 85 years. The majority of the patients were male (61%) and had axial localized (54%) and metastatic disease (61%). Moreover, most of the patients with metastatic disease had M1c (73%). The baseline serum claudin-1 levels of the melanoma patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects (median values 9.17 vs. 13.82 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.001). However, known clinical variables including age of the patient, sex, site of lesion, histology, lymph node involvement, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and response to chemotherapy were not found to be correlated with serum claudin-1 concentrations (P>0.05). Similarly, serum claudin-1 concentration was found to have no prognostic role in survival (P=0.524). In conclusion, serum levels of claudin-1 may have a diagnostic value in melanoma patients. However, its predictive and prognostic value has not been determined. PMID:26886788

  5. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  6. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all treated groups. FBS level in all treated groups, decreased significantly and reach to normoglycemic level (P<0.05). Except Jujube, other plant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (P<0.05) with no effect on total cholesterol and LDL-C. Serum adiponectin level increased in all treated groups. These beneficial effects of C. sativus, B. vulgaris and Z. jujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level. PMID:26639503

  7. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood. PMID:21290101

  8. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  9. Human monocytes and macrophages undergo M1-type inflammatory polarization in response to high levels of glucose.

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, Israel; Arroyo-Camarena, Úrsula D; Martínez-Reyes, Camilo P; Gómez-Arauz, Angélica Y; Dueñas-Andrade, Yareth; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín; Béjar, Yadira L; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Terrazas, Luis I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Escobedo, Galileo

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data suggest that elevated glucose may promote inflammatory activation of monocytic lineage cells with the ability to injure vascular endothelial tissue of diabetic patients, however evidence in primary human monocytes and macrophages is still insufficient. We investigated the effect of high glucose concentration on the inflammatory capacity of human macrophages in vitro and examined whether similar responses were detectable in circulating monocytes from prediabetic patients. Primary monocytes were isolated from healthy blood donors and differentiated into macrophages. Differentiated macrophages were exposed to normal levels of glucose (NG), high glucose (HG) or high mannitol as osmotic pressure control (OP) for three days. Using PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that HG macrophages showed overexpression of CD11c and inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as down-regulation of arginase-1 and interleukin (IL)-10 with respect to NG and OP macrophages. Consistent with in vitro results, circulating monocytes from hyperglycemic patients exhibited higher levels of CD11c and lower expression of CD206 than monocytes from normoglycemic controls. In subjects with hyperglycemia, elevation in CD11c(+) monocytes was associated with increased obesity, insulin resistance, and triglyceridemia as well as low serum IL-10. Our data suggest that human monocytes and macrophages undergo M1-like inflammatory polarization when exposed to high levels of glucose on in vitro culture conditions and in patients with hyperglycemia. These results demonstrate that excess glucose has direct effects on macrophage activation though the molecular mechanisms mediating such a response remain to be elucidated. PMID:27269375

  10. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Xiaomin; Liu, Yuan; Yin, Geng; Xie, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and evaluate whether serum 25(OH)D is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our results suggested that serum 25(OH)D in RA groups has significant lower level (35.99 ± 12.59 nmol/L) than that in the normal groups (54.35 ± 8.20 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Based on the DAS28, patients with RA were divided into four subgroups, and no differences were found in the four groups (P > 0.05). The 25(OH)D levels in complete remission, low disease activity, middle disease activity, and high disease activity group were 32.86 ± 12.26, 33.97 ± 13.28, 38.41 ± 10.64, and 38.94 ± 13.35 nmol/L, respectively. Based on the serum 25(OH)D levels, patients with RA were divided into inadequate group and normal group, and there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and disease activity in the two groups. Our results showed that serum 25(OH)D levels in the inadequate group are significantly lower than those in the normal group. However, no correlations were found between 25(OH)D levels and disease activity among 116 patients with RA. The present findings will help to understand the association between 25(OH)D and disease activity of RA. PMID:26064964

  11. Maternal Serum Meteorin Levels and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, María F.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luisa F.; Simanca, Elkin L.; González, Iván; Leal, Luis G.; Mora, José A.; Bedoya, Andrés; Alzate, Juan P.; Sánchez, Ángel Y.; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.; Franco-Vega, Roberto; Parra, Mario O.; Ruíz—Parra, Ariel I.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meteorin (METRN) is a recently described neutrophic factor with angiogenic properties. This is a nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort study that describes the serum profile of METRN during different periods of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Moreover, we explore the possible application of METRN as a biomarker. Methods and Findings Serum METRN was measured by ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 37 healthy pregnant women, 16 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle with the aim of assessing serum METRN levels and its correlations with other metabolic parameters. Immunostaining for METRN protein was performed in placenta. A multivariate logistic regression model was proposed and a classifier model was formulated for predicting preeclampsia in early and middle pregnancy. The performance in classification was evaluated using measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In healthy pregnant women, serum METRN levels were significantly elevated in early pregnancy compared to middle and late pregnancy. METRN levels are significantly lower only in early pregnancy in preeclamptic women when compared to healthy pregnant women. Decision trees that did not include METRN levels in the first trimester had a reduced sensitivity of 56% in the detection of preeclamptic women, compared to a sensitivity of 69% when METRN was included. Conclusions The joint measurements of circulating METRN levels in the first trimester and systolic blood pressure and weight in the second trimester significantly increase the probabilities of predicting preeclampsia. PMID:26121675

  12. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

  13. High Serum Irisin Level as an Independent Predictor of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Hye; Ahn, Song Vogue; Choi, Jung Hye; Koh, Sang Baek; Chung, Choon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has been suggested to regulate energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, it remains unclear whether circulating irisin plays a role in the development of DM in human. We investigated the possible association between circulating irisin levels and incident DM in a 2.6-year longitudinal study of a population-based cohort comprised of rural Korean subjects. We conducted a longitudinal study within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KoGES-ARIRANG) study from November 2005 to January 2008. Cases (n=85) were patients with incident DM during the follow-up period and controls (n = 85) were matched to incident DM cases based on sex and age at baseline. The relative risk of serum irisin/adiponectin level for incident DM was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis. Baseline irisin_ENREF_1 levels were significantly higher in subjects who developed DM than in subjects who did not. The serum irisin level was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial glucose. Irisin was negatively associated with adiponectin (R = –0.189, P = 0.014). After adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index, the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for incident DM increased in a graded manner as the serum irisin level increased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 vs Quartile 3 vs Quartile 4 = 1 vs 0.80 [0.28–2.35] vs 3.33 [1.11–10.00] vs 4.10 [1.35–12.44], respectively), whereas the odds ratios for incident DM decreased in a graded manner as the serum adiponectin level increased. High serum irisin was independently associated with the development of DM, indicating that irisin may be a useful predictor of DM in Korean adults. PMID:27281072

  14. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP. PMID:24497087

  15. Serum Levels of Choline-Containing Compounds Are Associated with Aerobic Fitness Level: The HUNT-Study

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian T.; Giskeødegård, Guro F.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Bathen, Tone F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the number of people at risk is continuously growing. New methods for early risk prediction are therefore needed to actuate prevention strategies before the individuals are diagnosed with CVD. Several studies report that aerobic fitness level, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is the single best predictor of future CVD mortality in healthy people. Based on this, we wanted to study differences between healthy individuals with a large difference in VO2max-level to identify new biomarkers of low aerobic fitness that may also have potential as early biomarkers of CVD risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum samples from 218 healthy individuals with a low VO2max (n = 108, 63 women) or high VO2max (n = 110, 64 women) were analysed with MR metabolomics. In addition, standard clinical-chemical analyses for glucose, lipids, liver enzymes, micro-CRP, and colorimetric analysis on circulating choline were performed. Individuals in the low VO2max-group had increased serum levels of free choline, decreased phosphatidylcholine, increased glucosę and decreased unsaturated fatty acids compared to the individuals in the high VO2max–group. Conclusions/Significance Aerobic fitness dependent differences in serum levels of free choline and phosphatidylcholine are observed. They should be further studied as potential early markers of CVD risk. PMID:22860113

  16. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  17. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period.After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05).Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  18. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  19. Relationship between High Serum Cystatin C Levels and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaping; Huang, Yajuan; Liu, Fang; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Aims Serum cystatin C (CysC) has recently been shown to be associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and progression to the pre-diabetic state. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum CysC and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 400 pregnant women including111 with GDM and 289 with normal glucose tolerance at 24–28 weeks of gestation. The subjects were further divided into four groups according to the CysC quartiles, and their clinical characteristics were compared. The serum CysC concentration was measured using immunoturbidimetry and the degree of insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results Serum CysC levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with GDM than in the healthy pregnant women[1.0(0.8–1.8) vs 0.7(0.6–1.0), P<0.01). The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed that serum CysC was positively associated with HOMA-IR(r = 0.118, P<0.05) and the occurrence of GDM(r = 0.348, P<0.01). The pregnant women were divided into quartiles according to their serum CysC concentrations. Compared to the first quartile, pregnant women in Q2 (OR, 2.441; P = 0.025), Q3 (OR, 3.383; P = 0.001) and Q4 (OR, 5.516; P<0.001) had higher risk of GDM after adjusted for age, BMI, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. Further, with a rise in the serum CysC, there was an increasing trend in the HOMA-IR levels (P<0.05). A binary logistic regression analysis after adjusting for other confounding variables revealed a significant and independent association between serum CysC and GDM [OR = 14.269; 95% confidence interval, 4.977–40.908, P<0.01].The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff point for serum CysC to indicate GDM was 0.95mg/L. Conclusions Serum CysC is significantly and independently associated with insulin resistance and GDM. It may be a

  20. Piceatannol lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida-Maruki, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Kurita, Ikuko; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds contained a high amount of piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene), a natural analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential anti-metabolic disorder compound, by its activation of sirtuin and AMP-activated protein kinase. Many reports show that resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether piceatannol also affects diet-induced obesity. We explored the effect of piceatannol on high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that piceatannol did not affect high fat diet-induced body weight gain or visceral fat gain in mice. However, piceatannol did reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Furthermore, to explore the potential of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol as a functional food, passion fruit seed extract was administered in a genetic diabetic mouse model (db/db mice). Single administration of passion fruit seed extract, as well as piceatannol reduced the blood glucose levels of these db/db mice. These results suggest that piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract may have potential application in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25832644

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are inversely associated with systemic inflammation in severe obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Bellia, Alfonso; Garcovich, Caterina; D'Adamo, Monica; Lombardo, Mauro; Tesauro, Manfredi; Donadel, Giulia; Gentileschi, Paolo; Lauro, Davide; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Renato; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is frequently characterized by a reduced vitamin D bioavailability, as well as insulin-resistance and a chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and several circulating inflammatory markers in a cohort of severely obese individuals. Cross-sectional study was carried out among obese patients undergoing a clinical evaluation before bariatric surgery in our University Hospital. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting and post load glucose and insulin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin, adiponectin and lipid profile were collected. Insulin-resistance was assessed by insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Total body fat (FAT kg), total percent body fat (FAT%) and truncal fat mass (TrFAT) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 147 obese subjects (89 women, 37.8 ± 7.1 years) with mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2) were enrolled. Patients in the lowest tertile of 25(OH)D were significantly more obese with a higher amount of TrFAT, more insulin-resistant, and had higher levels of fasting and post-challenge glucose (p < 0.05 for all). In a multivariate regression analysis, serum 25(OH)D was inversely related to significant levels of hs CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α after accounting for age, gender, season of recruitment, BMI, FAT kg and TrFAT (p < 0.01 for all). In extremely obese subjects, 25(OH)D serum concentrations are inversely associated with several biomarkers of systemic inflammation, regardless of the total quantity of fat mass. PMID:21437585

  2. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  3. Serum cortisol levels in patients with uncomplicated and cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Shwe, T; Khin, M; Min, H; Hla, K K; Win, Y Y; Htwe, K; Thu, T M

    1998-03-01

    Ten patients with uncomplicated malaria, ten with cerebral malaria and 37 controls (blood donors from blood bank) were included in the study. The serum cortisol levels of the patients were determined daily for 7 days while they were at the hospital. A radio-immunoassay method was used for quantitative measurement of cortisol in human serum. The mean serum cortisol level of patients with uncomplicated malaria was 528.2 +/- 123.9 nmol/l, with cerebral malaria was 516.0 +/- 80.5 nmol/l, and in controls was 393.8 +/- 141.0 nmol/l. There was a significant rise of serum cortisol levels in patients with malaria when compared to controls at the day of admission to hospital. There was no significant difference between uncomplicated malaria patients and those with cerebral malaria. There was also no significant difference between the different days of treatment up till day 7. We found no cortisol insufficiency in cases with falciparum malaria during acute and convalescent stages of illness. PMID:9740267

  4. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  5. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER.

    PubMed

    Soundravally, Rajendiran; Sherin, Jacob; Agieshkumar, Balakrishna Pillai; Daisy, Mariya Samadanam; Cleetus, Cherupanakkal; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Sujatha, Sistla; Harichandrakumar, Kottyen Thazhath

    2015-01-01

    The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs), and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI), used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue. PMID:26422155

  6. Effects of low-dose thiazide diuretics on fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium-a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mukete, Bertrand N; Rosendorff, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the metabolic profile (fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium) of low-dose thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. The meta-analysis involved 10 randomized controlled clinical trials with a total sample size of 17,636 and 17,947 for the potassium and glucose arms respectively. The random effect model was used to calculate the odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval. The cumulative mean change of fasting plasma glucose was +0.20 mmol/L (+3.6 mg/dL) for the diuretic arm versus +0.12 mmol/L (+2.2 mg/dL) for the comparator arm. The cumulative mean change of serum potassium was -0.22 mmol/L (-0.22 mEq/L) for the diuretic arm versus +0.05 mmol/L (+0.05 mEq/L) for the comparator arm. The aggregate odds ratio for having higher fasting plasma glucose in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 1.22 (1.11 to 1.33; P < .01). The odds ratio for having a lower serum potassium in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 0.36 (0.27 to 0.49; P < .01). The magnitude of the observed change in fasting plasma glucose associated with low-dose thiazide diuretic use, while statistically significant, does not appear to place patients at clinically significant risk. On the other hand, the observed change in serum potassium was also statistically significant, and may be clinically significant in patients whose baseline potassium concentration is low or low-normal, and could predispose at-risk patients, such as those with ischemic heart disease, to ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:23800570

  7. [The blood glucose content in newborn rats depending on level and pattern of spontaneous motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, S V; Selina, E N; Kuznetsova, N N

    2011-01-01

    from the observed one in the rest state. In the case of the appearance of the minute rhythm, the glucose concentration amounts to 5.8 +/- +/- 0.3 mmol/l. The obtained data indicate that reproduction of the minute and decasecond rhythms recorded in composition of SPMA is accompanied by a change in the blood serum glucose level. The degree of a decrease of its concentration correlates with a certain activity rhythm: at the decasecond one the fall is 9, 13, 3, and 7 %, whereas at the minute rhythm--11, 13, 14, and 2% (for the 3-, 5-, 7- and 10-day old rats, respectively). In id to be noted that a certain effect on the activity pattern is produced by the degree of satiety of the rat pups, the gastric emptying being accompanied by an increase in expression of the decasecond rhythm and of brief jerks. Besides, there occur the significant seasonal oscillations of the blood serum glucose concentration in the newborn rat pups--at the summer period it is statistically significantly higher than at the winter-spring period. PMID:21938915

  8. The Association Between Serum Selenium Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Na; Han, Fang; Lin, Xiaojun; Tang, Chun; Ye, Jinghua; Cai, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-01

    There are conflicting reports on the correlation between serum selenium (Se) levels with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through a meta-analysis approach, the aim of the present study is to clarify the relationship between serum Se levels with RA. We searched literatures that met our predefined criteria in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and OVID published as of September 2015. Ten eligible articles with 14 case-control studies involving 716 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum levels of Se than the healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -1.347, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = [-1.872, -0.823], p < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis indicated that subjects with RA had lower serum Se levels than healthy controls in Europe (SMD = -1.063, 95 % CI = [-1.571, -0.556], p < 0.001) and Asia (SMD = -3.254, 95 % CI = [-4.687, -1.821], p < 0.001) but not in USA (SMD = -0.322, 95 % CI = [-0.657, 0.012], p = 0.059). The serum Se levels were lower in RA than healthy controls measured by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (SMD = -1.026, 95 % CI = [-1.522, -0.530], p < 0.001), electrothermal absorption spectrometry (EAS) (SMD = -1.197, 95 % CI = [-2.373, -0.020], p < 0.05), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) (SMD = -0.681, 95 % CI = [-1.049, -0.313], p < 0.001), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) (SMD = -11.707, 95 % CI = [-15.189, -8.224], p < 0.001) but not by neutron activation analysis (NAA) (SMD = -0.674, 95 % CI = [-1.350, 0.003], p = 0.051). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association between low serum Se concentration with RA. However, this finding needs further confirmation by a trans-regional multicenter study to obtain better understanding of causal relationship between serum Se with RA of different human

  9. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  10. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  11. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, L.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Smith, S.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Gerthoux, P.M.; Brambilla, P.; Mocarelli, P.

    1999-02-01

    Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one`s temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. The authors believe that the latter measure is the ``gold standard.`` In this article they present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  13. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  14. Association between serum fetuin-A level and erectile function.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Gunay, M; Aktas, B K; Hirik, E; Aydın, M; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that ED is an early symptom of atherosclerosis. Fetuin-A, a glycoprotein secreted by the liver, kidneys and choroid plexus, has been linked to systemic fibrosis and calcification in human and rat studies. Deficiency of this compound may play a role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease progression. The aim of the study was to examine whether serum fetuin-A level is related to erectile function or severity of ED. Sixty ED patients without cardiovascular disease were assigned to one of the three groups (mild, moderate or severe ED) depending on ED severity. Twenty healthy volunteers were included as the control group. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire was used to measure erection quality in all four groups. Mean age, body mass index, total testosterone, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not significantly differ between the three erectile dysfunction and control groups (P > 0.05). The group with severe ED had a significantly lower mean fetuin-A level than the mild ED and control groups. For both mild and moderate ED groups, the mean serum fetuin-A level was significantly lower in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Serum fetuin-A level may be used as a supplemental biochemical parameter in preliminary evaluation of ED. PMID:26685713

  15. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Karagün, Ebru; Baysak, Sevim; Erden, Gönül; Aktaş, Habibullah; Ekiz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570). Conclusions It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo. PMID:27605903

  16. Serum immunoglobulin levels and humoral immune competence in coalworkers

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.D.; Boyd, J.E.; Collins, H.P.; Davis, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured in 788 coalworkers and 121 nonmining controls for comparison with the radiological category of pneumoconiosis after taking into account age and smoking habit. In addition a simple assessment of humoral immune competence was made by estimating the titre of serum antibody against the common gut commensal Escherichia coli. Smoking was found to depress serum IgA and IgM while levels of IgG and IgA increased slightly with age. Men with radiological signs of coalworkers pneumoconiosis (CWP) had significantly raised levels of IgA and IgG with increasing pneumoconiosis category. Even coalworkers with less than category 1 simple pneumoconiosis had raised levels of IgA, suggesting that increased production of this immunoglobulin occurs before radiologically identifiable pathological changes have occurred in the lung tissue. No association between reduced humoral immune competence and radiological category of pneumoconiosis was found. Whether high Ig levels in men exposed to coal dust are merely a passive response to dusted lung tissue or whether they indicate that an immunological process is important in the development of pneumoconiotic lesions remains uncertain.

  17. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  18. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of < 3.50 ng/mL were excluded from analysis. Correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters were determined. Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P < 0.001), PSA (r = 0.510, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose level (r = 0.186, P = 0.007), but not with BMI, testosterone, insulin level, or insulin resistance (each P > 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P < 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.207, P = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = -0.221, P = 0.001), but not with age, prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P < 0.001) and increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.023). In non-DM BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, fasting glucose level is an independent risk factor for prostate hyperplasia. PMID:21949470

  19. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Pediatric Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sobouti, Behnam; Riahi, Aina; Fallah, Shahrzad; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh; Shafiee Sabet, Azin; Ghavami, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have implicated the important and active role of vitamin D in the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children with burn injuries. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 118 patients with various degrees of burn injuries were enrolled. A checklist consisting of demographic data, total body surface area (TBSA) affected by burn, degree of burn, serum level of 25(OH)D, total protein, albumin, electrolytes, and parathyroid hormone was recorded for each patient. Results Sixty-eight (57.6%) males and 50 (42.4%) females with a mean age of 4.04 years (SD = 3.04) were evaluated. The mean level of 25(OH)D was 14.58 ng/mL (SD = 6.94). Levels of 25(OH)D in four (3.39%) cases were higher than 30 ng/mL, while 95 (81.35%) cases had levels lower than 20 ng/mL, and 19 (16.10%) cases had levels of 21 - 30 ng/mL. The level of 25(OH)D was below recommended levels in 96.61% of cases, while 81.34% had vitamin D deficiency and 16.1% had insufficiency. We found a significant correlation between vitamin 25(OH)D and total protein, albumin, and total and ionized calcium (P < 0.001). There was also a significant negative correlation between 25(OH)D and TBSA affected by burn (P = 0.001). Conclusions The levels of 25(OH)D in children suffering from severe burns were low. Supplementation might be useful in patients with very low levels of serum vitamin D. PMID:27218060

  20. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients. PMID:26329996

  1. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Prevents Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Berlier, J L; Kharroubi, I; Zhang, J; Dalla Valle, A; Rigutto, S; Mathieu, M; Gangji, V; Rasschaert, J

    2015-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) are able to differentiate into cells of connective tissue lineages, including bone and cartilage. They are therefore considered as a promising tool for the treatment of bone degenerative diseases. One of the major issues in regenerative cell therapy is the biosafety of fetal bovine serum used for cell culture. Therefore, the development of a culture medium devoid of serum but preserving hBMSC viability will be of clinical value. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has an anti-apoptotic action in insulin-producing cells. Interestingly, GIP also exerts beneficial effects on bone turnover by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We therefore evaluated the ability of GIP to prevent cell death in osteoblastic cells cultured in serum-free conditions. In hBMSC and SaOS-2 cells, activation of the GIP receptor increased intracellular cAMP levels. Serum deprivation induced apoptosis in SaOS-2 and hBMSC that was reduced by 30 and 50 %, respectively, in the presence of GIP. The protective effect of GIP involves activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and inhibition of caspases 3/7 activation. These findings demonstrate that GIP exerts a protective action against apoptosis in hBMSC and suggest a novel approach to preserve viability of hBMSC cultured in the absence of serum. PMID:26254594

  2. Neopterin and interferon gamma serum levels in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Khoss, A E; Balzar, E; Steger, H; Howanietz, H; Wladika, W; Hamilton, G; Woloszczuk, W

    In the follow-up of children receiving renal allografts the early differential diagnosis of infections and rejection episodes is the main problem. Serum levels of neopterin (N), a pteridine released from stimulated macrophages, was determined by radioimmunoassay. Also interferon-gamma (IF) serum levels, a marker of T lymphocyte activity, were determined with an immunoradiometric assay in 19 kidney-transplanted children. Both, infections and rejection episodes, are accompanied by distinct increases in N. The IF are elevated 1-3 days earlier than N, the median values during infections being significantly (p less than or equal to 0.001) higher than those during rejection crises. The routine measurement of N and IF allow the simple, quick and reliable monitoring of the immune status, which seems to be of a high relevance for the daily monitoring of transplant recipients. PMID:3150820

  3. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  4. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  5. Role of admission serum albumin levels in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Kaustubh; Yang, Ju Dong; Hinduja, Archana

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels have been reported to be an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in multiple disease conditions. The aim of our study was to identify the impact of low serum albumin levels on mortality and outcomes at discharge in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed our prospective database of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage from January 2010 to December 2011. Patients were dichotomized into two groups based on their serum albumin levels upon admission. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin levels ≤3.4 g/dl. The two groups were compared using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables. Poor outcome was defined as death or discharge to a long-term nursing facility (modified Rankin Score 4-6). Out of 97 patients admitted with intracerebral hemorrhage, 90 met our inclusion criteria (42 had normal levels and 48 had hypoalbuminemia). The baseline characteristics, risk factors, etiology, location and volume of intracerebral hemorrhage, admission blood glucose, white cell count, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and complications were similar between both groups. Although admission hypoalbuminemia did not impact in-hospital mortality (28 vs 24 %, p = 0.635), there was a significant increase in poor outcomes at discharge (59 vs 31 %, p = 0.009) (OR 1.8; 95 % CI; 1.2-2.8). Similar to other diseases, hypoalbuminemia was associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This will need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies before adopting therapeutic and preventive strategies in future. PMID:26133948

  6. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with increased serum CYFRA 21-1 level.

    PubMed

    Kashihara, T; Ohki, A; Kobayashi, T; Sato, T; Nishizawa, H; Ogawa, K; Tako, H; Kawakami, F; Tsuji, M; Tamaoka, K

    1998-06-01

    CYFRA 21-1 is a fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CK 19). Four patients with large intrahepatic (or peripheral) cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and high serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 (normal, < or = 2 ng/ml) are reported. CYFRA 21-1 levels exceeded 9 ng/ml in all 4 patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was high in 1 (CEA; normal range, < or = 5.0 ng/ml) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was high in 3 (CA19-9; normal range, < or = 36 U/ml). We also measured serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 in 13 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) more than 5 cm in diameter. Levels of CYFRA 21-1 exceeded 2 ng/ml in 9 of the HCC patients and were higher than 9 ng/ml in 2 of the HCC patients. Levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and/or protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA II) were elevated in all HCC patients (AFP, PIVKA II, respectively; normal range, < or = 10.0 ng/ml and < or = 0.1 AU/ml) CYFRA 21-1 levels were measured twice or three times during the clinical course in 2 CC patients and in 6 HCC patients, and increased gradually with tumor growth in the 2 CC patients and in 3 of the 6 HCC patients. Marked increases in serum CYFRA 21-1 levels in patients with large liver cancers, particularly in those with normal levels of AFP and PIVKA II, would suggest the existence of intrahepatic CC rather than HCC. PMID:9658330

  7. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease. PMID:19390788

  8. Serum endocan levels in women with restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Kenan; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet A; Halac, Gulistan; Kilic, Elif; Ayhan, Siddika; Ozaras, Nihal; Yildiz, Kemal; Yildiz, Rabia S; Zorlu, Mehmet; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Kiskac, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocan is a recently introduced marker of endothelial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to compare serum endocan levels in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and control subjects in order to elucidate whether RLS is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods A total of 31 drug naïve female patients with RLS and 31 age- and BMI-matched women were included in the study. Patients with pathological or physiological conditions or with a history of medication use that could potentially influence endothelial functions were excluded, as well as those with alcohol or drug abuse history. The two groups were compared with routine blood tests and serum endocan levels. Results Patients with RLS had lower serum endocan levels than the controls (P=0.037). There was a negative bivariate correlation between RLS severity score and serum endocan levels (r=−0.406, P=0.023). While white blood cell count was significantly higher in RLS group, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, vitamin B12, transferrin saturation rate, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower. Creatininemia and diastolic blood pressure were also marginally insignificantly lower in RLS group. Due to the presence of differences between two groups in these variables, a linear regression analysis was performed that showed a positive association between endocan and creatininemia (β=0.310, P=0.022), and a negative association between endocan and RLS (β=−0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion The results of this study seem to suggest that patients with RLS may have better endothelial functions when compared with the general population and that these patients may be better protected against atherosclerosis. PMID:26640378

  9. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  10. Effect of a modified guar gum preparation on glucose and lipid levels in diabetics and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Smith, U; Holm, G

    1982-10-01

    Six healthy volunteers and 17 diabetics (6 insulin-dependent and 11 diet- and tablet-treated) were treated with a special processed, palatable guar gum (10 g b.i.d. immediately before meals) for periods of one or three weeks or, in some cases, up to 13 weeks. A standardized test meal was given to study the effect of the fiber on postprandial glucose levels. Ten g guar was stirred in water and taken immediately before the test meal. The postprandial blood glucose levels were similar in the healthy volunteers but significantly lower in the diabetics following treatment with guar for one and three weeks, respectively. Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the diabetics after three, but not one, weeks of treatment. The lower postprandial glucose levels were coupled with attenuated and delayed insulin levels in accordance with an effect of guar gum on the rate of carbohydrate absorption. The cholesterol levels were on average reduced with 14% in the diabetics following three weeks' treatment with guar. The higher the initial cholesterol level, the greater the reduction in cholesterol; 26% reduction was achieved in four patients with initial levels above 7 mM. The alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly changed, thus an increase in the alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol/total serum cholesterol ratio was obtained. Neither plasma triglycerides nor body weights altered during treatment. The reported side-effects were as expected and were usually mild and transient (e.g. increased flatulence). The data show that guar gum also reduces postprandial glucose levels on a long-term basis and may improve the diabetic control. Additionally, treatment with this fiber leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in cholesterol levels. PMID:6297515

  11. Sensing Glucose in Urine and Serum and Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Cells by Use of a Novel Boronate Nanoprobe Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Wang, Hao; Schultz, Zachary D; Camden, Jon P

    2016-07-19

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is known as a key molecule in a variety of biological processes, as well as a crucial byproduct in many enzymatic reactions. Therefore, being able to selectively and sensitively detect H2O2 is not only important in monitoring, estimating, and decoding H2O2 relevant physiological pathways but also very helpful in developing enzymatic-based biosensors for other analytes of interest. Herein, we report a plasmonic probe for H2O2 based on 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MPBA) modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which is coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to yield a limit of detection (LOD) of 70 nM. Our probe quantifies both exogenous and endogenous H2O2 levels in living cells and can further be coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx) to achieve quantitative and selective detection of glucose in artificial urine and human serum. PMID:27356266

  12. Serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: the Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Lin, Huandong; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiaoming; He, Wanyuan; Jin, Xuejuan; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Naiqing; Song, Binbin; Pan, Boshen; Gao, Xin

    2015-10-14

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of CVD: the increased serum ferritin level may be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A total of 1178 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60·8 years) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses were performed for each participant. Bilateral CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) were measured using ultrasonography, and the presence of carotid plaques was assessed. Serum ferritin was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The results showed that serum ferritin was 181·9 (sd 65·8) ng/ml in the postmenopausal women. Multivariate, linear, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age (standardised β = 0·233, P< 0·001), alanine transaminase (standardised β = 0·194, P< 0·001), log homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (standardised β = 0·181, P< 0·001), TAG (standardised β = 0·083, P= 0·003), Hb (standardised β = 0·080, P= 0·004) and PPG (2-h glucose levels following a 75-g oral glucose challenge) (standardised β = 0·079, P= 0·004) were independently associated with serum ferritin. Compared with the ferritin level of subjects in the first quartile, that in the fourth quartile had greater CIMT, and higher prevalence of carotid plaque. After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, Hb, leucocytes, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio and liver function, the ferritin level of postmenopausal women in the fourth quartile had a 1·587-fold increased risk of carotid plaques relative to those in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis. PMID:26395322

  13. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  14. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R.; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0–500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26941791

  15. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0-500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26941791

  16. Kinetics of glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin by glucose, fructose and ribose and its prevention by food components.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. PMID:25407721

  17. Blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Safar; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. Results No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). Conclusion The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls. PMID:23875163

  18. Correlation of serum ghrelin levels with body mass index and carbohydrate metabolism in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Palik, E; Birkás, K D; Faludi, G; Karádi, I; Cseh, K

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome is higher in patients with schizophrenia than in the normal population. Atypical antipsychotic drugs are used in psychiatry since the beginning of 1990. These drugs differ from the "typical" antipsychotics used previously, as they have less extrapyramidal side effects, and because of this they are tolerated better, but are associated with weight-gain and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Ghrelin is an orexigen hormone partaking in body weight regulation. It is produced in the enteroendocrine P/D1 cells of the gastric mucosa and secreted to the circulation. The aim of our study was to determine ghrelin levels of atypical antipsychotic-treated patients in relationship with their body mass index (BMI) and carbohydrate metabolism. We measured the fasting serum ghrelin levels in 56 patients (male/female: 16/40, age mean+/-S.D.: 50.6+/-5.6 years) treated with atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidon and quetiapine), and in 75 healthy control subjects, age and gender matched (RIA Linco, USA) in relationship with their BMI and their fasting and 75 g OGTT 120 min blood glucose values. The serum ghrelin levels of the patient group were notably higher (1333+/-659 pg/ml) than in the control group (368+/-103, p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney). We found no difference among the four antipsychotics in weight-gain, diabetes prevalence and the serum ghrelin levels. The BMI of the patient group was significantly higher (29.3+/-7.2 kg/m2 versus 24.3+/-3.7 kg/m2, p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney); 32% of them had blood glucose abnormality (18/56). There was no difference between the ghrelin levels in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. We found a significant negative linear correlation between the serum ghrelin and BMI (r=-0.35, p=0.0078; Spearman), the ghrelin and fasting blood glucose (r=-0.32, p=0.015) and OGTT 75 g 120 min blood glucose levels (r=-0.27, p=0.036). The orexigen effect of elevated serum ghrelin levels can

  19. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Materials and Methods: Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr. Results: SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE (30-500 𝜇g/mL) significantly increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6, 12 and 18 hr. A significant increase in cell apoptosis was seen in cells under SGD condition after 12hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE significantly decreased cell apoptosis subsequent SGD conditionafter12hr at concentration of 60, 125 and 250. Conclusion: These data showed that HSE had a protective property under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that H. sabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26101756

  20. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    PubMed

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  1. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has harmful effects on health and that recent vitamin D intake recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower extremity function, dental health, risk of falls, fractures, cancer prevention, incident hypertension and mortality. For all endpoints, levels in the deficient range (< 50 nmol/l; < 20 ng/ml) are associated with no benefit or adverse effects, while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 microg) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day for all adults may bring 97% of the population to level of at least 50 nmol/l and about 50% up to 75 nmol/l. Thus, higher doses of vitamin D than currently recommended are needed to bring most individuals to75 nmol/l. While estimates suggest that 1600 to 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day may successfully and safely achieve this goal, the implications of higher doses for the total adult population need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25207384

  2. No Interactions Between Previously Associated 2-Hour Glucose Gene Variants and Physical Activity or BMI on 2-Hour Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert A.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Grarup, Niels; Manning, Alisa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Shungin, Dmitry; Tönjes, Anke; Yesupriya, Ajay; Barnes, Daniel; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Glazer, Nicole L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lagou, Vasiliki; Marek, Diana; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Aadahl, Mette; Arking, Dan E.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brunner, Eric; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Brage, Soren; Carlson, Olga D.; Chen, Han; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Couper, David J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Dowling, Nicole F.; Egan, Josephine S.; Ekelund, Ulf; Erdos, Michael R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Fox, Caroline S.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grässler, Jürgen; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Hingorani, Aroon; Holloway, John W.; Hu, Frank B.; Isomaa, Bo; Jameson, Karen A.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jonsson, Anna; Jørgensen, Torben; Kivimaki, Mika; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lecoeur, Cécile; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Li, Guo; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Lyssenko, Valeri; Marmot, Michael; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morken, Mario A.; Müller, Gabriele; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Payne, Felicity; Prokopenko, Inga; Psaty, Bruce M.; Renström, Frida; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybin, Denis; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Sayer, Avan A.; Shrader, Peter; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Siscovick, David S.; Stančáková, Alena; Stumvoll, Michael; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Waeber, Gérard; Williams, Gordon H.; Witte, Daniel R.; Wood, Andrew R.; Xie, Weijia; Boehnke, Michael; Cooper, Cyrus; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif; Kao, W.H. Linda; Vollenweider, Peter; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M.; Pedersen, Oluf; Meigs, James B.; Ingelsson, Erik; Barroso, Inês; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.; Dupuis, Josée; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Gene–lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13–0.31], P = 1.63 × 10−6). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06–0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10−7), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene–lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions. PMID:22415877

  3. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control. PMID:16154305

  4. The effect of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin levels in late elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Jin, Young-Yun; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin in late elementary school children. [Methods] Those who (n = 220) completed the 7-day physical activity monitoring underwent a second round of measurements including body fat, serum glucose and insulin, and serum IL-6 and vaspin. One way ANOVAs followed by LSD post hoc tests were used to test for significant differences in dependent variables across incremental physical activity levels at p=0.05. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for serum IL-6 and vaspin levels at p=0.05. [Results] The results showed significant inverse linear trends for body fat parameters across incremental physical activity levels (from low to high); the lower the body fat, the higher the physical activity levels. On the other hand, there were no significant linear trends for insulin resistance markers or dietary intake across incremental physical activity levels. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for individual variations in serum IL-6 and vaspin in the study population. We found that body mass index (p=0.002) and low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.002 and p=0.0045, respectively) were significant determinants of serum IL-6. In addition, low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.01 & p=0.022, respectively) were significant determinants of serum vaspin levels in this study population. [Conclusion] In summary, the findings of the current study suggest that promotion of physical activity along with a healthy diet should be key components of lifestyle interventions to improve serum cytokine profiles associated with insulin resistance syndrome in late elementary school children. PMID:26244128

  5. Postoperative enteral hyperalimentation results in earlier elevation of serum branched-chain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Moss, G; Naylor, E D

    1994-07-01

    To objectively document the immediate maintenance and successful exploitation of postoperative gastrointestinal (GI) function, elemental diet was infused into the more distal duodenum of 30 cholecystectomy patients at 300 kcal per hour, beginning on arrival at the recovery room. Approximately 4,600 kcal and 190 grams of amino acids were absorbed during the initial 16 hours. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) had risen above basal levels at 4 hours, statistically significant only for leucine (+64%). The higher concentrations had reached statistical significance for all BCAAs by 6 hours, when leucine had risen by 83%, isoleucine by 54%, and valine by 47%. The elevated BCAA and glucose levels sustained throughout the hyperalimentation period objectively verify that postoperative GI function can be safely exploited, and may contribute to improved wound healing and sepsis resistance. PMID:8024096

  6. Blood glucose levels in diabetic patients following corticosteroid injections into the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jeffrey G.; London, Daniel A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify diabetic patients’ change in blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injection for common hand diseases and to assess which patient-level risk factors may predict an increase in blood glucose levels. Methods Patients were recruited for this case-crossover study in the clinic of fellowship-trained hand surgeons at a tertiary care center. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 receiving a corticosteroid injection recorded their morning fasting blood glucose levels for 14 days after their injection. Fasting glucose levels on days 1–7 after injection qualified as “case” data with levels on days 10–14 providing control data. A mixed model with a priori contrasts were used to compare post-injection blood glucose levels to baseline levels. A linear regression model was used to determine patient predictors of a post-injection rise in blood glucose levels. Results Forty of 67 patients (60%) recruited for the study returned completed blood glucose logs. There was a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels following injection limited to post-injection days 1 and 2. Among patient risk factors in our linear regression model, type 1 diabetes and use of insulin each predicted a post-injection increase in blood glucose levels from baseline while higher HbA1c levels did not predict increases. Discussion Corticosteroid injections in the hand transiently increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetics are more likely to experience this transient rise in blood glucose levels. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III PMID:24679910

  7. Identification of Glucose-Binding Pockets in Human Serum Albumin Using Support Vector Machine and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ranganarayanan, Preethi; Thanigesan, Narmadha; Ananth, Vivek; Jayaraman, Valadi K; Ramakrishnan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been suggested to be an alternate biomarker to the existing Hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) marker for glycemic monitoring. Development and usage of HSA as an alternate biomarker requires the identification of glycation sites, or equivalently, glucose-binding pockets. In this work, we combine molecular dynamics simulations of HSA and the state-of-art machine learning method Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict glucose-binding pockets in HSA. SVM uses the three dimensional arrangement of atoms and their chemical properties to predict glucose-binding ability of a pocket. Feature selection reveals that the arrangement of atoms and their chemical properties within the first 4Å from the centroid of the pocket play an important role in the binding of glucose. With a 10-fold cross validation accuracy of 84 percent, our SVM model reveals seven new potential glucose-binding sites in HSA of which two are exposed only during the dynamics of HSA. The predictions are further corroborated using docking studies. These findings can complement studies directed towards the development of HSA as an alternate biomarker for glycemic monitoring. PMID:26886739

  8. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  9. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes.

    PubMed

    Morato-Conceicao, Yvelise T; Alves-Junior, Eduardo R; Arruda, Talita A; Lopes, Jose C; Fontes, Cor J F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18-69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with type

  10. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  11. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  12. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183

  13. Low serum levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Michael; Al Samie, Abdul Rahim; Winkler, Heide-Maria; Nemeth, Johannes; Grasnek, Andreas; Indra, Alexander; Bieglmayer, Christian; Winkler, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37 possesses antituberculous activity, its association with other mycobacterial diseases, such as leprosy, is unknown. We studied serum cathelicidin and 25OH-vitamin D3 levels in 29 leprosy patients and 19 healthy individuals from Yemen. Cathelicidin levels were significantly lower in both treated (n=15) and untreated leprosy patients (n=14) when compared to controls (P<0.001). Within leprosy patients, levels were lower in those who very recently developed disease (untreated group) when compared to already treated patients (P<0.05). 25OH-vitamin D3 levels were not different between groups. The results suggest a potential association of cathelicidin LL-37 with Mycobacterium leprae infection. PMID:20887706

  14. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  15. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  16. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  17. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  18. Disproportionately elevated proinsulinemia is observed at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Hanley, Anthony J; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate disproportional proinsulinemia in the pre-diabetic state by analyzing the cross-sectional differences between proinsulin (PI) ratios across the entire range of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose. The study sample was 1,016 participants in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study, who had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) and acute insulin response (AIR) were measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting intact and split PI-to-insulin ratios (PI/I, SPI/I), intact and split PI-to-C-peptide ratios (PI/C-pep, SPI/C-pep), and SI-adjusted AIR were assessed as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose levels. SI-adjusted AIR was decreased (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 120-131 mg/dl) and SPI/C-pep increased at modestly elevated fasting glucose and 2-h glucose within the normal glucose tolerance range (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 132-142 mg/dl). PI/I was not increased until plasma glucose values were in the diabetic range of fasting glucose (>126 mg/dl) or the impaired glucose tolerance range of 2-h glucose (143-156 mg/dl). SPI/I and PI/C-pep as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose were situated between the curves for SPI/C-pep and PI/I. In conclusion, inappropriate amounts of PI and conversion intermediaries are demonstrated at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range. Ratios that use SPI in the numerator or C-pep in the denominator (and especially SPI/C-pep) are more sensitive to early glycemic excursions than PI/I. Disordered processing of PI may accompany derangements in early insulin secretory response. PMID:24532116

  19. Alteration in plasma glucose levels in Japanese encephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Apurva; Singh, Aditi; Atrishi, Ekta; Saxena, S K; Mathur, Asha

    2002-02-01

    A unique factor, human T cell hypoglycaemic factor (hTCHF), has been shown to produce hypoglycaemia during the convalescent stage in the plasma of patients with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. The present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of T cells from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of such patients to produce hTCHF. The PBMC, as well as the individual subpopulations, were cultured for 24 h and the culture supernatants (CS) were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity. The activity was observed in the CD8+ T cells. The hypoglycaemia in JE-confirmed patients coincided with the gradual rise in circulating glucagon level, with no significant alterations in insulin, growth hormone and cortisol levels. The hTCHF was purified by ion exchange chromatography and the purified protein was observed as a approximately 25 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. Secretory hTCHF in the sera of patients and T cell CS was present in 88% of convalescent serum samples. We conclude that during the convalescent stage of JEV infection, a unique factor, hTCHF, is secreted by activated CD8+ T cells from patients and that this is responsible for the development of hypoglycaemia. PMID:12059908

  20. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  1. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. PMID:26940240

  2. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  3. Pyoderma gangrenosum with increased levels of serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Kana; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoko; Itoh, Eriko; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented after an episode of accidental trauma with a painful ulcer on her scalp which rapidly enlarged in size, accompanied by central necrosis and undermining ulceration. The patient's past history was negative for underlying systemic disease, although she had had a similar post-traumatic intractable leg ulcer 3 years prior, which was unresponsive to surgical management but successfully treated with systemic steroids. A biopsied specimen from the scalp showed marked neutrophilic infiltrates in the dermis, compatible with a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The large ulcerative lesion responded very well to oral steroid therapy, showing rapid epithelialization. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated prior to treatment, with decrease to normal levels after treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels were within normal limits. The significance and pathogenic role of cytokine burst in PG is reviewed and discussed. PMID:26047254

  4. Effects of gliclazide add on metformin on serum omentin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Alrubai, Haidar F.; Suliaman, Sammar M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omentin is a newly identified adipokine that has beneficial influence against cardiovascular disorders. Hence, considering the impact of anti-diabetic drug on omentin levels may provide an adjuvant strategy to protect diabetic patients against valuable clinical hazards. Aim of the Study: To investigate the influence of metformin alone or in combination with gliclazide on the level of serum omentin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods: A total of 70 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind prospective study, and divided into two equal groups based on treatment regimen in which Group 1 treated with metformin (1000 mg) and Group 2 treated with metformin (1000 mg) plus gliclazide (80 mg). Blood glucose levels, HbA1C, insulin levels, and serum omentin-1 were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result: Use of gliclazide as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with T2DM result in better glycemic control evidenced by significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose levels and HbA1C and much more improvement in insulin sensitivity evidenced by significant decreased in insulin resistance index, whereas it has adverse impact on serum omentin-1 levels evidenced by significant decrement in omentin-1 level in comparison to their pretreatment levels among Group 2 patients. Conclusions: Adding of gliclazide to metformin in treatment of patients with T2DM might extend the therapeutic action of metformin in regarding much better controlling of glycemic indices, but, at the same time, it might attenuate the cardioprotective effects of metformin by its adverse influence on serum omentin-1 levels. PMID:27042415

  5. Complement levels in acute infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, J. C.; Leader-Williams, Lesley K.

    1972-01-01

    The level of the third component of complement was measured in serial specimens of serum taken from thirty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis. Fourteen of the thirty-one patients were positive for the hepatitis-associated antigen. A characteristic fluctuation was observed in twenty-nine of the thirty-one patients. This consisted of an initial fall of the level of C3, followed by an increase to a higher than normal level and then a gradual return to normal. No difference was observed between the patients who were positive and those who were negative for the hepatitis-associated antigen. These results support the view that immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. PMID:4624985

  6. Association Between Serum B12 and Serum Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Patients on Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and metformin both can lower serum B12 (s.B12). Raised serum Homocysteine (s.Hcy) is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. Aim The study aimed to check whether homocysteine levels are more sensitive indicator of s. B12 deficiency or not among diabetics using metformin. Materials and Methods Mean s.B12 and s.Hcy levels of 30 cases (diabetics on metformin <5years) were compared with 30 diabetic controls not on metformin and 31 nondiabetic controls and statistically analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy. Conclusion In this study neither metformin nor T2DM could be identified as a cause for s.B12 lowering and raised s.Hcy in the scenario of low normal levels of s.B12 (<300pmol/L). If B12 deficiency recognized early using s. Hcy, consequences due to B12 deficiency can be prevented or delayed among nondiabetics as well as among diabetics and metformin users. PMID:27190787

  7. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and intestinal microflora in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether orally administered Korean grain larvae ethanol extract (GLE) had a bifidogenic effect in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a negative control group (CO) and GLE orally administered (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg/100 g body weight) groups. Thymus and spleen weights dosedependently increased by 128.58 percent and 128.58 percent, respectively, but abdominal fat decreased by 19.18 percent after GLE administration compared with that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose decreased by 30.26 percent, 7.33 percent, 27.20 percent, and 6.96 percent, respectively, whereas highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 129.93 percent in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). IgG, IgM, IgA in the GLE groups increased 203.68 percent, 181.41 percent, and 238.25 percent, respectively, compared to that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus increased by 115.74 percent and 144.28 percent, whereas Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Streptococcus decreased by 17.37 percent, 17.46 percent, 21.25 percent, and 19.16 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Total organic acids, acetic acid, and propionic acid increased by 151.40 percent, 188.09 percent, and 150.17 percent, whereas butyric acid and valeric acid decreased by 40.65 percent and 49.24 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups as compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that Korean GLE improves the bifidogenic effect by increasing cecal organic acids and modulating gut microflora via a selective increase in Bifidobacterium in normal rats. PMID:26333397

  8. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  9. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  10. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  11. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6). PMID:16242609

  12. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP+-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP+ treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP+ induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP+ at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP+-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP+ depending on extracellular glucose levels. PMID:26412968

  13. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (P<0.0001). The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the blood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. PMID:25073916

  14. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  15. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  16. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  17. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with normal serum lactate dehydrogenase level].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideaki; Hangaishi, Akira; Saika, Makoto; Morioka, Takehiko; Ando, Yayoi; Kida, Michiko; Usuki, Kensuke

    2015-11-01

    We herein report two cases of AIHA (autoimmune hemolytic anemia), a 25-year-old woman and a 77-year-old man, who presented with normal serum LDH values. Though in these two cases, low hemoglobin and haptoglobin, high total bilirubin and positive direct Coombs' test results led to the diagnosis of AIHA, both patients had normal LDH levels (218 and 187 IU/l). Both cases were successfully treated with prednisone. In the diagnosis of AIHA, elevated LDH is usually used as a marker of hemolysis. However, medical records of 24 AIHA patients collected in our institute from January 2001 to August 2012 revealed LDH levels to have been normal in 25% of these cases. This report indicates the importance of obtaining complete information about the blood testing of patients and taking these data into account when considering the diagnosis of AIHA. PMID:26666722

  18. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (p<0.01-0.0001). Fatal diabetic ketoacidosis cases had evidently high glucose levels at each site; whereas in the non-diabetic group, blood glucose level was higher in fatal alcohol abuse, saltwater drowning, electrocution, cerebrovascular disease and sudden cardiac death due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  19. Lipoprotein(a) Serum Levels in Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Gagliano, Caterina; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Michele; Leonardi, Daniela Giovanna; Motta, Massimo; Drago, Filippo; Avitabile, Teresio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Atherogenic lipoproteins, such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, are associated with progression of retinopathy. Aim. To evaluate the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 145 diabetic consecutive patients (82 females, 63 males; mean age 66.8 ± 12 years, mean duration of diabetes 9.4 ± 6.8 years). Presence and severity of retinopathy were evaluated. Serum lipid profile, including Lp(a) level, was assessed. Results. High Lp(a) levels have been observed in 54 (78.3%) subjects and normal levels in 13 (18.85%) subjects as regards diabetic patients with retinopathy. Lp(a) levels were high in 15 subjects (21.75%) and normal in 63 subjects (91.35%) as regards patients without retinopathy. Conclusions. Lp(a) levels are increased in a significant percentage of patients with retinopathy compared to diabetic patients without retinopathy. The impact of Lp(a) levels on diabetic retinopathy needs to be further investigated. PMID:23862162

  20. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongmei; Yin, Quhua; Yan, Xiaoli; Song, Huaidong; Gao, Guanqi; Liang, Jun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Methods: We screened 1607 euthyroid subjects aged 35-65 years old. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups (i.e., TPOAb-positive group, n=205; TPOAb-negative group, n=1402) according to the level of TPOAb. The subjects were then subgrouped according to serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; those with a TSH level of 0.3-0.99 mIU/L, 1.0-1.89 mIU/L, and 1.9-4.80 mIU/L were classified into the low-normal, mid-range, and high-normal TSH subgroups, respectively). Each TSH group further subdivided into TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative subgroup. Data regarding the subjects’ height, body weight, blood pressure, and levels of serum TSH, TPOAb, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. Results: Compared with TPOAb-negative subjects, TPOAb-positive patients had higher levels of TSH, TC, and HDL-C (P=0.001, P=0.012, and P=0.049 respectively) with a tendency for increased LDL-C levels (P=0.053). In the low-normal TSH subgroup, subjects with and without TPOAb had similar levels of TSH, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P>0.05). In mid-range TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher HDL-C levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P=0.008) and a tendency for increased TC levels (P=0.121). In the high-normal TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher TSH and TC levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P<0.001 and P=0.046 respectively). Conclusions: High TPOAb levels above the normal range appears in euthyroid population, dyslipidemia have begun. PMID:26885115

  1. Association between Glucose Levels and Intraocular Pressure: Pre- and Postprandial Analysis in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Luis Guilherme Milesi; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; da Silva, Leticia Sant'Ana Cardoso; Souza, Aline Katia Siqueira; Prata, Tiago Santos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between glucose levels and intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Seventeen nondiabetic and 20 diabetic subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, capillary glucose testing, and applanation tonometry in two distinct situations: first, fasting for at least 8 hours and, second, postprandial measurements. Baseline glucose levels were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.001). Postprandial IOP was significantly higher than baseline IOP in diabetic (P < 0.001) and nondiabetic patients (P = 0.006). Postprandial glucose levels were significantly higher than baseline measurements in both diabetic (P = 0.005) and nondiabetic patients (P = 0.015). There was a significant association between glucose levels variation and IOP change in both diabetic patients (R2 = 0.540; P < 0.001) and nondiabetic individuals (R2 = 0.291; P = 0.025). There is also a significant association between the baseline glucose levels and IOP change in diabetic group (R2 = 0.445; P = 0.001). In a multivariable model, the magnitude of glucose level change remained significantly associated with IOP variation even including age, baseline IOP, ancestry, and gender as a confounding factor (P < 0.001). We concluded that there is a significant association between blood glucose levels and IOP variation, especially in diabetic patients. PMID:25642344

  2. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition. PMID:25555007

  3. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  4. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model. PMID:24634595

  5. Association of Tumor Growth Factor-β and Interferon-γ Serum Levels With Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolreza; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Yusefi, Alireza; Zabetian, Hassan; Zareian, Parvin; Hakimelahi, Hossein; Madani, Abdolhossien; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is related to change in glucose metabolism and insulin production. The aim of our study was to determine the association of serum IFN-γ and TGF- β levels with insulin resistance during normal pregnancy. This cross sectional study was carried out on 97 healthy pregnant (in different trimesters) and 28 healthy non-pregnant women. Serum TGF-β and IFN- γ level were measured by ELISA method. Pregnant women had high level TGF-β and low level IFN-γ as compared non-pregnant women. Maternal serum TGF-β concentration significantly increased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Maternal serum IFN-γ concentration significantly decreased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women exhibited higher score of HOMA IR as compared non-pregnant women. There were association between gestational age with body mass index (r=0.28, P=0.005), TGF-β (r=0.45, P<0.001) and IFN-γ (r=-0.50, P<0.001). There was significant association between Insulin resistance and TGF-β (r=0.17, p=0.05). Our findings suggest that changes in maternal cytokine level in healthy pregnant women were anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, Tumor Growth Factor-β appears has a role in induction insulin resistance in healthy pregnant women. However, further studies needed to evaluate role of different cytokines on insulin resistance in normal pregnancy. PMID:26755467

  6. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities. PMID:25314375

  7. Association of Serum Uric Acid Levels in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Miao, Xiao; Wang, Hongshen; Wang, Yifei; Li, Fulun; Yang, Qiong; Cui, Rutao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High levels of serum uric acid (SUAC) are frequently detected in patients with psoriasis. However, the relationship between psoriasis and hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the SUAC levels in subjects with psoriasis and to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. A comprehensive search of the literature from January 1980 to November 2014 across 7 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register, and 4 Chinese databases) was conducted to determine whether there is an associated risk between psoriasis and hyperuricemia. Among the 170 identified reports, 14 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant higher SUAC level (MD 0.68, 95% CI 0.26–1.09; P = 0.002) in patients with psoriasis in Western Europe, but no significant differences were found between the East Asia and India subgroup (MD 1.22, 95% CI –0.13–2.56; P = 0.08) or the Middle East subgroup (MD 0.48, 95% CI –0.49–1.44; P = 0.33). Similar results were obtained from the meta-analysis of SUAC levels in subjects with severe psoriasis. Our meta-analysis showed that the correlation between psoriasis and hyperuricemia was either ethnicity- or region-dependent and that patients with psoriasis in Western Europe were more likely to have hyperuricemia. PMID:27175702

  8. Carbohydrate 19.9 Antigen Serum Levels in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, Gaetano; Ardiri, Annalisa Maria; Calvagno, Giuseppe Stefano; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Interlandi, Donatella; Vacante, Marco; Bertino, Nicoletta; Lucca, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Motta, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbohydrate 19.9 antigen (CA19.9) has been used in the diagnosis and followup of gastrointestinal tumours. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was the evaluation of CA19.9 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis hepatitis C virus and B virus correlated. Materials and Methods. 180 patients were enrolled, 116 with HCV-related chronic liver disease (48% chronic hepatitis, 52% cirrhosis) and 64 with HBV-related chronic liver disease (86% chronic hepatitis, 14% cirrhosis). Patients with high levels of CA19.9 underwent abdominal ecography, gastroendoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scan. Results. 51.7% of patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease and 48.4% of those with HBV-related chronic liver disease presented high levels of CA19.9. None was affected by pancreatic or intestinal neoplasia, cholestatic jaundice, or other diseases potentially able to induce Ca19.9 elevations. CA19.9 levels were elevated in 43.3% of HCV chronic hepatitis, in 56.3% of HCV cirrhosis, in 45.1% of HBV chronic hepatitis, and in 58% of HBV cirrhosis. Conclusions. CA19.9 commonly increases in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Elevation of CA 19.9 is not specific for neoplastic disease and is related to the severity of fibrosis and to the viral aetiology of hepatitis. PMID:24282817

  9. ASSOCIATION OF OBESITY AND DIABETES WITH SERUM PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN LEVELS IN JAPANESE MALES

    PubMed Central

    NAITO, MARIKO; ASAI, YATAMI; MORI, ATSUYOSHI; FUKADA, YUKO; KUWABARA, MAYUMI; KATASE, SHIRO; HISHIDA, ASAHI; MORITA, EMI; KAWAI, SAYO; OKADA, RIEKO; NISHIO, KAZUKO; TAMAKOSHI, AKIKO; WAKAI, KENJI; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with diabetes have been reported to be at an increased risk for cancers of the pancreas, liver, and colon; however, recent studies have suggested that men with diabetes are at a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Previous studies have found that obese men have lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations than do non-obese men. Further understanding of how obesity and diabetes affect the PSA concentration may improve our ability to detect clinically relevant prostate tumors. This study examined the relationships among serum PSA level, obesity, and diabetes in apparently healthy Japanese males. We analyzed the baseline data from 2,172 Japanese males (age, 56.8 ± 6.1 years [mean ± SD]) who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Diabetes was defined as the presence of both a hemoglobin A1c (JDS) of ≥6.1% and a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL, or a positive medical history. After adjusting for age, the PSA levels were elevated among males with a higher normal BMI (ranging from 23.0 to 24.9) and lowered among men with a BMI of ≥25.0. In the stratified analysis, these significant differences in BMI categories were absent among diabetics. The mean PSA levels were significantly lower in diabetics than in non-diabetics among subjects aged 60 and over. Our findings suggest that the pre-overweight men had increased PSA levels, and the diabetes was associated with a reduction of PSA levels in elderly. PMID:23092101

  10. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033