Sample records for serum perfluoroalkyl chemicals

  1. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...Chemical Substances; Final Significant New Use Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection...TSCA), EPA is amending a significant new use rule (SNUR) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate...substances that have completed the TSCA new chemical review process, but have not...

  2. Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12–19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Diaz-Ramirez, Ledif Grisell; Balmes, John R.; Pinney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. Objectives: We investigated children’s PFC serum concentrations and their associations with asthma-related outcomes. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum concentrations of eight PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), with self-reported lifetime asthma, recent wheezing, and current asthma using data from participants 12–19 years of age from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, PFOA was associated with higher odds of ever having received a diagnosis of asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39 for a doubling in PFOA], whereas for PFOS there were inverse relationships with both asthma and wheezing (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.04, and OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.02, respectively). The associations were attenuated after accounting for sampling weights. No associations were seen between the other PFCs and any outcome. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study provides some evidence for associations between exposure to PFCs and asthma-related outcomes in children. The evidence is inconsistent, however, and prospective studies are needed. Citation: Humblet O, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Balmes JR, Pinney SM, Hiatt RA. 2014. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 12–19 years of age: NHANES (1999–2008). Environ Health Perspect 122:1129–1133;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606 PMID:24905661

  3. Serum Biomarkers of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Serum Testosterone and Measures of Thyroid Function among Adults and Adolescents from NHANES 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Johns, Lauren E; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of environmentally-persistent chemicals that have been widely used in many industrial applications. There is human and animal evidence that PFASs may alter levels of reproductive and thyroid-related hormones. However, human studies on the potential age-related effects of PFASs on these outcomes among males and females are limited. We explored the relationship between serum PFASs and serum total testosterone (T), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) and thyroxine (FT4, TT4) among males and females 12 to 80 years of age from the 2011-2012 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models that were stratified on sex and age categories. Effect estimates from the majority of the adjusted models were not statistically significant. However, exposure to PFASs may be associated with increases in FT3, TT3, and FT4 among adult females, but during adolescence, PFASs may be related to increases in TSH among males and decreases in TSH among females. No significant relationships were observed between PFASs and T in any of the models. These findings suggest that exposure to PFASs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26035660

  4. Serum Biomarkers of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Serum Testosterone and Measures of Thyroid Function among Adults and Adolescents from NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Johns, Lauren E.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of environmentally-persistent chemicals that have been widely used in many industrial applications. There is human and animal evidence that PFASs may alter levels of reproductive and thyroid-related hormones. However, human studies on the potential age-related effects of PFASs on these outcomes among males and females are limited. We explored the relationship between serum PFASs and serum total testosterone (T), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) and thyroxine (FT4, TT4) among males and females 12 to 80 years of age from the 2011–2012 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models that were stratified on sex and age categories. Effect estimates from the majority of the adjusted models were not statistically significant. However, exposure to PFASs may be associated with increases in FT3, TT3, and FT4 among adult females, but during adolescence, PFASs may be related to increases in TSH among males and decreases in TSH among females. No significant relationships were observed between PFASs and T in any of the models. These findings suggest that exposure to PFASs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26035660

  5. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the serum and milk of breastfeeding North Carolina women

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) comprise a group of man-made persistent environmental compounds. They are widely used in consumer products such as food packaging material, non-stick cookware and cleaning agents, and have been detected in drinking water. Certain PFAAs tend to bioaccu...

  6. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum - A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ?PFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala. PMID:26079316

  7. Estimation of the total concentration of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in human serum: Data from NHANES 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    While selected perfluoroalkyl acids/substances (PFAAs) like perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been detected and measured in laboratory, a method to estimate the total concentration of PFAAs (?PFAA) in serum has not been developed. Because of the health concerns associated with PFAAs and because of the inability of every laboratory to measure every PFAA as well as because of the non-availability of sensitive enough equipment to be able to detect very small amounts of certain PFAAs, it is of interest to know ?PFAA. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2012 to develop regression models to estimate ?PFAA by using the levels of PFOA and PFOS only. While data for 2005-2008 were used to develop regression models, data for 2009-2012 were used to evaluate the accuracy of the developed models. Over 63% of observed values for evaluation data were found to be within 10% of the predicted values. The model so developed can be used with just the knowledge of the age, gender, and concentrations of PFOA and PFOS. While the data used to develop the model were generated in U.S., the model can be used to estimate ?PFAA for data collected in North America and Europe and probably elsewhere in the world. PMID:25981317

  8. Effects of chemical oxidants on perfluoroalkyl acid transport in one-dimensional porous media columns.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Siegrist, Robert L; McCray, John E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation approach that is often used to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with fuels and chlorinated solvents. At many aqueous film-forming foam-impacted sites, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can also be present at concentrations warranting concern. Laboratory experiments were completed using flow-through one-dimensional columns to improve our understanding of how ISCO (i.e., activated persulfate, permanganate, or catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) could affect the fate and transport of PFAAs in saturated porous media. While the resultant data suggest that standard ISCO is not a viable remediation strategy for PFAA decomposition, substantial changes in PFAA transport were observed upon and following the application of ISCO. In general, activated persulfate decreased PFAA transport, while permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide increased PFAA transport. PFAA sorption increased in the presence of increased aqueous polyvalent cation concentrations or decreased pH. The changes in contaminant mobility were greater than what would be predicted on the basis of aqueous chemistry considerations alone, suggesting that the application of ISCO results in changes to the porous media matrix (e.g., soil organic matter quality) that also influence transport. The application of ISCO is likely to result in changes in PFAA transport, where the direction (increased or decreased transport) and magnitude are dependent on PFAA characteristics, oxidant characteristics, and site-specific factors. PMID:25621878

  9. On the stability of perfluoroalkyl-substituted singlet carbenes: a coupled-cluster quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Rozhenko, Alexander B; Schoeller, Wolfgang W; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-02-27

    A series of trifluoromethyl-substituted carbenes R-C(:)-CF3 (R = NMe2, OMe, F, PMe2, P(NMe2)2, P(N(Pr-i)2)2, SMe, Cl); (dimethylamino)(perfluoroalkyl)carbenes Me2N-C(:)-R (R = CF3, C2F5, n-C3F7, i-C3F7, and t-C4F9) and symmetrically substituted carbenes R-C(:)-R (R = NMe2, OMe, F, PMe2, SMe, Cl) have been investigated by means of quantum chemistry methods. Different levels of approximation were used, including the CCSD(T) approach also known in quantum chemistry as the "golden standard", in combination with three different basis sets (TZVP, cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ). Relative stabilities of carbenes have been estimated using the differences between the singlet and triplet ground state energies (?EST) and energies of the hydrogenation reaction for the singlet and triplet ground states of the carbenes. The latter seem to correlate better with stability of carbenes than the ?EST values. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the methylidene carbon indicate the more high-field chemical shift values in the known, isolable carbenes compared to the unstable ones. This is the first report on the expected chemical shifts in the highly unstable singlet carbenes. Using these criteria, some carbene structures from the studied series (as, for instance, Me2N-C(:)-CF3, Me2N-C(:)-C3F7-i) are proposed as good candidates for the experimental preparation. PMID:24471524

  10. Loss and in situ production of perfluoroalkyl chemicals in outdoor biosolids-soil mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-07-01

    An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the course of three years in biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to be the most abundant analyte found early in the soil weathering experiment at 24.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), followed by perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 18.4 and 17.4 ng/g dw, respectively. Short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C8) showed observable loss from biosolids/soil mixtures, with experimentally determined first-order half-lives in soil ranging from 385 to 866 days. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononaoate (PFNA) and PFUnDA levels in biosolids/soil mixtures remained stable, while other long-chain PFCAs [PFDA, perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA)] and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) levels increased over time, presumably due to the breakdown of unidentified precursors in a process analogous to that reported previously for wastewater treatment plants. This study informs risk assessment initiatives by furnishing data on the environmental persistence of PFASs while also constituting the first report on in situ production of long-chained PFASs in terrestrial environments. PMID:24834828

  11. Loss and in situ production of perfluoroalkyl chemicals in outdoor biosolids-soil mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the course of three years in biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to be the most abundant analyte found early in the soil weathering experiment at 24.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), followed by perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 18.4 and 17.4 ng/g dw, respectively. Short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C8) showed observable loss from biosolids/soil mixtures, with experimentally determined first-order half-lives in soil ranging from 385 to 866 days. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononaoate (PFNA) and PFUnDA levels in biosolids/soil mixtures remained stable, while other long-chain PFCAs [PFDA, perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA)] and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) levels increased over time, presumably due to the breakdown of unidentified precursors in a process analogous to that reported previously for wastewater treatment plants. This study informs risk assessment initiatives by furnishing data on the environmental persistence of PFASs while also constituting the first report on in situ production of long-chained PFASs in terrestrial environments. PMID:24834828

  12. Production of perfluoroalkylated nanospheres from buckminsterfullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, P.J.; Krusic, P.J.; McEwen, C.N.; Lazar, J.; Parker, D.H.; Herron, N.; Wasserman, E. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours Co., Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1993-10-15

    Perfluoroalkylated nanospheres have been prepared by reaction of fullerenes with a variety of fluoroalkyl radicals. The latter are generated by thermal or photochemical decomposition of fluoroalkyl iodides or fluorodiacyl peroxides. Up to 16 radicals add to C[sub 60] to afford easily isolable fluoroalkylated derivatives. The monosubstituted radical adducts were detected by electron spin resonance in the early stages of the fluoroalkylation reactions. These spheroidal molecules are thermally quite stable, soluble in fluoroorganic solvents, chemically resistant to corrosive aqueous solutions, and more volatile than the parent fullerenes. Films of the sublimed material display properties typical for a perfluoroalkylated material.

  13. Perfluoroalkyl acids and related chemistries Toxicokinetics and modes of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acid salts (both carboxylates and sulfonates, hereafter designated as PFAAs) and their derivatives are important chemicals that have numerous consumer and industrial applications. However, recent discoveries that some of these compounds have global distribution...

  14. Perfluoroalkyl Nitroso Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Banus

    1953-01-01

    A PRELIMINARY study1 of the photochemical properties of the first fluorocarbon iodide, trifluoro-iodomethane, showed that a trifluoromethyl radical is produced the primary reactions of which parallel those of the hydrocarbon free radicals. A direct method thus became available for the preparation of perfluoroalkyl nitroso compounds, by irradiation of the iodide in the presence of nitric oxide and of mercury (to

  15. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluori...

  16. TOXICOGENOMIC DISSECTION OF RODENT LIVER TRANSCRIPT PROFILES AFTER EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) leads to alterations in the balance between hepatocyte growth and apoptosis, increases in liver to body weight ratios and liver tumors. The perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (...

  17. Toxicogenomic study of triazole fungicides and perfluoroalkyl acids in rat livers predicts toxicity and categorizes chemicals based on mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew T; Brennan, Richard J; Hu, Wenyue; Ayanoglu, Eser; Lau, Christopher; Ren, Hongzu; Wood, Carmen R; Corton, J Christopher; Kavlock, Robert J; Dix, David J

    2007-06-01

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated chemicals [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats at single doses of 300, 300, 175, 20, or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathology were measured at all time points. Gene expression profiling of livers from three rats per treatment group at all time points was performed on the CodeLink Uniset Rat I Expression array. Data were analyzed in the context of a large reference toxicogenomic database containing gene expression profiles for over 630 chemicals. Genomic signatures predicting hepatomegaly and hepatic injury preceded those results for all five chemicals, and further analysis segregated chemicals into two distinct classes. The triazoles caused similar gene expression changes as other azole antifungals, particularly the induction of pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress genes. In contrast, PFOA and PFOS exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist-like effects on genes associated with fatty acid homeostasis. PFOA and PFOS also resulted in downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes, matching an in vivo decrease in serum cholesterol, and perturbation of thyroid hormone metabolism genes matched by serum thyroid hormone depletion in vivo. The concordance of in vivo observations and gene expression findings demonstrated the ability of genomics to accurately categorize chemicals, identify toxic mechanisms of action, and predict subsequent pathological responses. PMID:17383973

  18. Photoinduced reductive perfluoroalkylation of phosphine oxides: synthesis of P-perfluoroalkylated phosphines using TMDPO and perfluoroalkyl iodides.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Ogawa, Akiya

    2015-06-16

    A photoinduced reaction between TMDPO (diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phosphine oxide) and perfluoroalkyl iodides successfully affords P-(perfluoroalkyl)diphenylphosphines as promising ligands for recyclable catalysts. Interestingly, the perfluoroalkylation reaction involves the reduction of phosphorus(v) compounds to phosphorus(iii) species. The advantages of the present reaction include the use of an air-stable phosphorus source and good yields of P-perfluoroalkylphosphines in short reaction times. PMID:26041689

  19. Aromatic and heterocyclic perfluoroalkyl sulfides. Methods of preparation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary This review covers all of the common methods for the syntheses of aromatic and heterocyclic perfluoroalkyl sulfides, a class of compounds which is finding increasing application as starting materials for the preparation of agrochemicals, pharmaceutical products and, more generally, fine chemicals. A systematic approach is taken depending on the mode of incorporation of the SRF groups and also on the type of reagents used. PMID:20978611

  20. TOWARD A RISK ASSESSMENT OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),and fluorotelomer alcoholsare surfactants that have wide applications in industrial and consumer products. Various fluorotelomer alcohols are known to be metabolized to perfluo...

  1. Photo-organocatalytic Enantioselective Perfluoroalkylation of ?-Ketoesters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The visible-light-driven, phase-transfer-catalyzed, enantioselective perfluoroalkylation and trifluoromethylation of cyclic ?-ketoesters is described. The photo-organocatalytic process, which occurs at ambient temperature and under visible light illumination, is triggered by the photochemical activity of in situ-generated electron donor–acceptor complexes, arising from the association of chiral enolates and perfluoroalkyl iodides. Preliminary mechanistic studies are reported. PMID:25901659

  2. Chemical changes in bovine serum albumin photoinduced by pterin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrés H; Zurbano, Beatriz N; Lorente, Carolina; Santos, Javier; Roman, Ernesto A; Laura Dántola, M

    2014-12-01

    The exposure to UV-A radiation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aerated aqueous solution in the presence of pterin (Ptr), results in chemical and conformational modifications of the protein. Ptr belongs to a family of heterocyclic compounds that are well-known type I (electron-transfer) and type II (singlet oxygen) photosensitizers. The evolution of the photosensitized processes was followed by UV/vis spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy indicating that tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) residues were affected. Additionally, conformational changes were evaluated by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with dynamic light scattering detection, showing that BSA undergoes dimerization, via the formation of Tyr radicals. The degradation of Trp residues takes place faster than the oligomerization of the protein. The photosensitized process is initiated by an electron transfer from BSA to the triplet excited stated of Ptr, being a purely dynamic mechanism. PMID:25463676

  3. Cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Zhang, Xianming; Guo, Rui; Braekevelt, Eric; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Reiner, Eric J; Lee, Holly; Bronson, Roni; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. Cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. Similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. We examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broiling, and frying) on reducing PFAS levels in four sport fish species. Samples of Chinook salmon, common carp, lake trout and walleye were collected from four rivers in Ontario, Canada and skin-off fillets were analyzed for regular groups of PFASs such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), which are PFASs of emerging concern. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS detected and the concentrations were more than an order of magnitude higher than those reported for fish from grocery stores in Canada, Spain, and China. Although concentrations of PFOS in fish fillets generally increase after cooking, amounts of PFOS largely remain unchanged. Relatively minor differences in changes in the fish PFAS amounts after cooking depended on fish species and cooking method used. We conclude that cooking sport fish is generally not an effective approach to reduce dietary exposure to PFASs, especially PFOS. PMID:24561272

  4. Hematologic and serum chemical characteristics of mononuclear leukemia in Fischer 344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kusewitt, D.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hematologic, serum chemical, and histopathologic studies were performed on 17 aged Fischer 344 rats with mononuclear leukemia. Twelve of the rats had leukemic hemograms, while five had nonleukemic or marginally abnormal differential leukocyte counts. Hematologic findings revealed that all rats were profoundly anemic. Serum chemistry studies confirmed the occurrence of icterus observed clinically, a finding consistent with hemolytic anemia. Alanine aminotransferase and serum alkaline phosphatase values were elevated.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in wildlife from an urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Margaret D; Greig, Denise J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in apex predators in remote locations but few studies have evaluated urban estuaries. To assess the importance of PFCs in San Francisco Bay, two apex predators in the San Francisco Bay, double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii), were sampled. Prey fish (Atherinops affinis and Menidia audens) were also evaluated to better understand potential sources of PFCs to the foodweb. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the primary PFC detected in cormorant eggs, small fish and harbor seal serum. PFOS detected in San Francisco Bay seal serum was typically an order of magnitude higher than those at the reference site. PFOS concentrations were highest in seals and cormorant eggs from the highly urbanized southern portion of the Bay. PFOS in eggs from the southern part of the Bay remained relatively constant between 2006 and 2009 despite the phase-out of perfluorosulfonyl-based compounds nationally. In addition, these levels exceed the avian predicted no effects concentration of 1.0 ?g mL(-1). Concentrations of the remaining PFCs measured were substantially lower than those of PFOS. PMID:22134832

  6. Original Article Development of Serum-Free, Chemically

    E-print Network

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    - onic stem cells (hESCs). Three sequential experimental phases were performed to eliminate serum because to the understanding of mechanisms of chondrogenesis and creating clinically relevant stem cell therapies. Introduction a useful cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. Cells from adipose,1 skin,2 bone marrow,3

  7. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-03-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration.

  8. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  9. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ? Erie > Huron > Superior ? Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid. PMID:22722738

  10. Serum lipid abnormalities in a chemical/viral mouse model for Reye's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M G; Archambault-Schertzer, L; Ackman, R G; Crocker, J F

    1986-06-01

    Neonatal mice given nontoxic dermal applications of an industrial surfactant, Toximul MP8 (Tox), and subsequently infected with sublethal doses of mouse-adapted human Influenza B (Lee) virus (FluB) develop many of the biochemical features of Reye's Syndrome (RS). To determine whether these also include abnormal circulating lipid, we examined serum lipid profiles in the mouse model throughout the treatment course using Iatroscan-TH10. Following 10 days of exposure to surfactant, serum phospholipid and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced relative to control animals. These reductions were transient; however, four days following virus administration, significant differences in serum lipid were again evident. These abnormalities coincided and correlated with increased animal mortality. Animals that received combined Tox + virus treatment had significant decreases in serum total lipids relative to control animals, a reflection of a reduction in all lipid classes, including phospholipid, cholesterol, neutral glycerides (triglycerides plus diglycerides) and free fatty acids. Phospholipid (specifically phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine) and free fatty acid levels in the Tox + virus group were also significantly lower than those in animals that received virus alone. This study has demonstrated that suckling mice given chemical/viral treatment have the serum hypopanlipidemia but not the freefattyacidemia that are characteristic of RS. PMID:3736346

  11. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of linear perfluoroalkyl ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paclorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal and thermal oxidative stability studies were performed on linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids. The effect on degradation by metal catalysts and degradation inhibitors is reported. The linear perfluoroalkyl ethers are inherently unstable at 316 C in an oxidizing atmosphere. The metal catalysts greatly increased the rate of degradation in oxidizing atmospheres. In the presence of these metals in an oxidizing atmosphere, the degradation inhibitors were highly effective in arresting degradation at 288 C. However, the inhibitors had only limited effectiveness at 316 C. The metals promote degradation by chain scission. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, the linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids have a structural arrangement based on difluoroformyl and tetrafluoroethylene oxide units, with the former predominating. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26468

  12. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

  13. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromchemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  14. Environmental-Fate Patterns for Perfluoroalkylates and their Precursors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two sites with elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkylates (PFAs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were studied: 1) agricultural fields near Decatur, AL on which sewage sludge had been applied; and 2) the Conasauga River system near Dalton, GA where treated sewage effluent is...

  15. 77 FR 48924 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...systemic effects in laboratory tests. The...Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington...and Development (OECD), Environment...February 16, 1994). List of Subjects in...

  16. Adaptation of human long-term B lymphoblastoid cell lines to chemically defined, serum-free media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Muzik; M. E. Shea; C. C. Lin; H. Jamro; S. Cassol; L. M. Jerry; L. Bryant

    1982-01-01

    Summary  Attempts were made to adapt human long-term B lymphoblastoid cell lines to prolonged growth in serum-free, chemically defined\\u000a media. A newly described medium, which is an enriched modification of Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing additional\\u000a amino acids and vitamins, was used. The serum is totally replaced by albumin, transferrin, and soybean lipid. The cell lines\\u000a were all adaptable from RPMI

  17. Redesigned and chemically-modified hammerhead ribozymes with improved activity and serum stability

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Philip; McCall, Maxine J; Stewart, Tom S; Lockett, Trevor J

    2004-01-01

    Background Hammerhead ribozymes are RNA-based molecules which bind and cleave other RNAs specifically. As such they have potential as laboratory reagents, diagnostics and therapeutics. Despite having been extensively studied for 15 years or so, their wide application is hampered by their instability in biological media, and by the poor translation of cleavage studies on short substrates to long RNA molecules. This work describes a systematic study aimed at addressing these two issues. Results A series of hammerhead ribozyme derivatives, varying in their hybridising arm length and size of helix II, were tested in vitro for cleavage of RNA derived from the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene of Plasmodium falciparum. Against a 550-nt transcript the most efficient (t1/2 = 26 seconds) was a miniribozyme with helix II reduced to a single G-C base pair and with twelve nucleotides in each hybridising arm. Miniribozymes of this general design were targeted to three further sites, and they demonstrated exceptional cleavage activity. A series of chemically modified derivatives was prepared and examined for cleavage activity and stability in human serum. One derivative showed a 103-fold increase in serum stability and a doubling in cleavage efficiency compared to the unmodified miniribozyme. A second was almost 104-fold more stable and only 7-fold less active than the unmodified parent. Conclusion Hammerhead ribozyme derivatives in which helix II is reduced to a single G-C base pair cleave long RNA substrates very efficiently in vitro. Using commonly available phosphoramidites and reagents, two patterns of nucleotide substitution in this derivative were identified which conferred both good cleavage activity against long RNA targets and good stability in human serum. PMID:15588292

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and other halogenated compounds in fish from the upper Labe River basin.

    PubMed

    Svihlikova, Veronika; Lankova, Darina; Poustka, Jan; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana

    2015-06-01

    This study summarizes results on levels of 25 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), three hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), three brominated phenols and four hydroxylated derivates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in 59fish samples collected in nine localities on two major rivers from the Czech Republic. To identify potential sources of these chemicals, several sampling sites located close to highly industrialized areas were also involved. The major PFAS representatives, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), C9-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were detected in 100% fish samples. The concentration ranges of individual substances in the respective groups of PFASs were as follows: 0.572-61.3ngg(-)(1) wet weight (ww) for Tot-PFOS, 0.007-0.121ngg(-)(1)ww for perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) (without PFOS isomers), 0.007-22.0ngg(-)(1)ww for PFCAs and 0.026-7.76ngg(-)(1)ww for FOSA. The highest contents of ?PFASs (51.9ngg(-)(1)ww and 47.8ngg(-)(1)ww) were measured in fish muscle tissue from the locality Trmice situated on the Bílina River and Verdek on the Labe River, where chemical and/or textile industry is located. From 11 targeted BFRs, five compounds (?-HBCD, ?-HBCD, ?-HBCD, TBBPA and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP)) were determined in analyzed samples. The concentration ranged as follows: 3.15-1211ngg(-)(1) lipid weight (lw) for ?HBCD, 4.99-203ngg(-)(1)lw for TBBPA and 1.76-107ngg(-)(1)lw for 2,4,6-TBP. PMID:25455680

  19. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    PubMed

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begońa

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability. This suggests that a number of physical and biogeochemical processes collectively drive the oceanic occurrence and fate of PFASs in a complex manner. PMID:25325411

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPA METHOD FOR PERFLUOROALKYL COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past five years, perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in water have become an emerging environmental issue. This research focuses on the development of an analytical method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl compounds in drinking water to be used by EPA's Office of Grou...

  1. Capturing labile sulfenamide and sulfinamide serum albumin adducts of carcinogenic arylamines by chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J

    2013-01-15

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke, were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys(34) residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  2. Chemical structure of the arabinogalactan protein from gum ghatti and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanika; Ray, Sayani; Ghosh, Debjani; Ray, Bimalendu

    2015-03-01

    Exudate gums, because of their beneficial properties, have been significant items of international trade in various industries for centuries. This manuscript sets out to gain insight into the fine structural details of an arabinogalactan protein (AGP) of gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia gum). The presence of a highly branched 554 kDa AGP having 1,6-linked Galp, 1,2-linked Manp, 1,3-linked Araf and 1,4-linked GlcpA main chain, substituted at O-4,6 of 1,2-linked Manp, and O-3/O-3,4 of 1,6-linked Galp residues by Araf, Arap and Galp units was revealed by chemical, chromatographic, ESMS, and NMR analyses. In particular, ESMS analysis of per acetylated oligomeric fragments derived from AGP by Smith degradation followed by acetylation was described as a commanding tool for providing critical structural information on a spectrum of glycerol tagged oligosaccharides. In addition, formation of an electrostatically driven complex between the isolated AGP and bovine serum albumin resulting in changes in the microenvironment around the tryptophan residues of BSA was established. A moderate radical scavenging activity comparable with those of standard antioxidants was observed from the AGP fraction (?94% at 1 mg/mL) that could be valuable in foods or pharmaceutical products as alternatives to synthetic antioxidants. PMID:25498648

  3. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  4. Differential accumulation and elimination behavior of perfluoroalkyl Acid isomers in occupational workers in a manufactory in china.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Fu, Jianjie; Cao, Huiming; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Liang, Yong; Wang, Thanh; Zhao, Chunyan; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, serum and urine samples were collected from 36 occupational workers in a fluorochemical manufacturing plant in China from 2008 to 2012 to evaluate the body burden and possible elimination of linear and branched perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Indoor dust, total suspended particles (TSP), diet, and drinking water samples were also collected to trace the occupational exposure pathway to PFAA isomers. The geometric mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in the serum were 1386, 371, and 863 ng mL(-1), respectively. The linear isomer of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS was the most predominant PFAA in the serum, with mean proportions of 63.3, 91.1, and 92.7% respectively, which were higher than the proportions in urine. The most important exposure routes to PFAA isomers in the occupational workers were considered to be the intake of indoor dust and TSP. A renal clearance estimation indicated that branched PFAA isomers had a higher renal clearance rate than did the corresponding linear isomers. Molecular docking modeling implied that linear PFOS (n-PFOS) had a stronger interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) than branched isomers did, which could decrease the proportion of n-PFOS in the blood of humans via the transport of HSA. PMID:25927957

  5. Quantification of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and perfluoroalkyl substances in the marine sediments of Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Long, Edward R; Dutch, Margaret; Weakland, Sandra; Chandramouli, Bharat; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of 119 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine sediments measured throughout Puget Sound (n?=?10) and Bellingham Bay (n?=?30), Washington, USA, are reported. These data are among the first measurements of PPCPs and PFASs in marine sediments from the Pacific Northwest and provide a comparison to previous measurements of these chemicals in influent, effluent, and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants throughout the region. The concentrations of both PPCPs and PFASs in sediments from Puget Sound and Bellingham Bay ranged from very low to non-detectable for most compounds. Only 14 of the 119 PPCPs and 3 of 13 PFASs were quantifiable in sediments. Diphenhydramine (an antihistamine) was most frequently detected (87.5% of samples), with a maximum concentration of 4.81?ng/g dry weight and an estimated mean detected concentration of 1.68?ng/g. Triclocarban (an antibacterial) was detected in 35.0% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.6?ng/g dry weight. Perfluoroalkyl substances were detected in 2.5% of analyses. Perfluorobutanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were detected in 7, 5, and 1 sample(s) each, respectively, with the highest concentrations observed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (1.5?ng/g). Detected concentrations were often highest within the industrial harbor in Bellingham Bay and near the cities of Seattle and Bremerton. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1701-1710. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23843318

  6. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

  7. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs).

    PubMed

    Carr, Caroline K; Watkins, Andrew M; Wolf, Cynthia J; Abbott, Barbara D; Lau, Christopher; Gennings, Chris

    2013-04-01

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS-1 PPAR? reporter model with a mixing ratio that is based on average serum levels in NHANES subjects. Availability of information regarding potential for additivity of PFAAs in mixtures is critically important for risk assessors who are concerned with the ability of the compounds to affect human health and impact ecological systems. It is clear that exposures are not to single compounds, but to mixtures of the PFAAs. This paper presents the results from the data collected using the design from Carr et al. along with subsequent analyses that were performed to classify the relationships among mixtures of PFAAs. A non-linear logistic additivity model was employed to predict relative luciferase units (RLU), an indicator of PPAR? activation. The results indicated a less than additive relationship among the four PFAAs. To determine if the possible "antagonism" is from the competition among or between carboxylates and sulfonates, four different binary mixtures were also studied. There was a less than additive relationship in all four binary mixtures. These findings are generally similar to two other reports of interfering interactions between PFAAs in mixtures. The most conservative interpretation for our data would be an assumption of additivity (and lack of a greater than additive interaction), with a potential for antagonistic interactions. PMID:23470359

  8. Case-control study of multiple chemical sensitivity, comparing haematology, biochemistry, vitamins and serum volatile organic compound measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Johanna Baines; Gail Elizabeth; Nicole Riley; David Edward; C. Cole; Lynn Marshall; Barry Loescher; Vartouhi Jazmaji

    Background Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), although poorly understood, is associated with considerable morbidity. Aim To investigate potential biological mechanisms underlying MCS in a case-control study. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three MCS cases and 194 controls (urban females, aged 30-64 years) fulfilled reproducible eligibility criteria with discriminant validity. Routine laboratory results and serum levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compared.

  9. Chemical stability of mitomycin C in culture medium with and without fetal calf serum as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertha L. Proctor; Mary Esther Gaulden

    1986-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC), a known mutagen and positive control chemical forin vitro mutagen assays, reacted with components of culture medium containing antibiotics with and without fetal calf serum within 30 min incubation at 38°C. The amount of MMC in medium with fetal calf serum was reduced by 29% after 30 min and by 53% after 60 min incubation. Many changes

  10. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish....

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Ying Sun; Jing Li; Xiao-Long Qiu; Feng-Ling Qing

    2005-01-01

    A new series of perfluoroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium compounds were prepared and examined for their antibacterial activities. The perfluoroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium salts mainly exhibited excellent antibacterial activity for the Gram-positive strain such as Staphylococcus aureus, the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) values was between 2.5 and 10?g\\/mL and the MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) values were 20?g\\/mL. They all showed weak activity against

  12. Perfluoroalkyl and -aryl Zinc Ate Complexes: Generation, Reactivity, and Synthetic Application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Hirano, Keiichi; Kurauchi, Daisuke; Kato, Hisano; Toriumi, Naoyuki; Takita, Ryo; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2015-07-27

    A combination of dimethylzinc, perfluoroalkyl iodide, and LiCl afforded a new type of perfluoroalkyl (RF ) zinc ate complex. These complexes show much greater thermal stability than conventional perfluorinated metal species, such as RF -lithium species and Grignard reagents, and they can be used at room temperature or higher. The results of DFT calculations on the origin of the enhanced stability are reported and the synthetic utility of RF -zincate complexes is demonstrated. PMID:26129829

  13. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quińones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. PMID:24275109

  14. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken. PMID:24397514

  15. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Feisal; Peldszus, Sigrid; Anderson, William B

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes. PFASs have been detected globally in the aquatic environment including drinking water at trace concentrations and due, in part, to their persistence in human tissue some are being investigated for regulation. They are aliphatic compounds containing saturated carbon-fluorine bonds and are resistant to chemical, physical, and biological degradation. Functional groups, carbon chain length, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are some of the important structural properties of PFASs that affect their fate during drinking water treatment. Full-scale drinking water treatment plant occurrence data indicate that PFASs, if present in raw water, are not substantially removed by most drinking water treatment processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, biofiltration, oxidation (chlorination, ozonation, AOPs), UV irradiation, and low pressure membranes. Early observations suggest that activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and high pressure membrane filtration may be effective in controlling these contaminants. However, branched isomers and the increasingly used shorter chain PFAS replacement products may be problematic as it pertains to the accurate assessment of PFAS behaviour through drinking water treatment processes since only limited information is available for these PFASs. PMID:24216232

  16. [Modifications of chemical composition of blood serum in chronic nitrate intoxication (experimental research)].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Nitrates (salts of nitric acid) are very common substances in nature and are present in almost all living organisms. Relevance of research about features of various pathological processes in chronic nitric intoxication significantly associated with the fact that the intake of nitro compounds has significantly increased in recent years, especially in rural areas where local water sources are used. Investigations were carried out on 20 white Wistar rats. Two series of the experiment ware held: Group I - intact animals (10 animals); Group II - animals after administration of sodium nitrate at a dose of 200 mg/kg in the form of an aqueous solution intragastrically for 60 days (10 animals). Chronic nitrate intoxication leads to a significant increase of the level of serum chondroitin rats with permanent indicators glycoproteins indicates that the products disorganization of proteoglycans from the bone to the blood serum. Increasing of overall level glycosaminoglycans and the third fraction (heparan sulfate), and reducing of the 2-nd fraction (chondroitin-4-sulfate) glycosaminoglycans in serum may be indicative of a chronic lesion of sodium nitrite intoxication general connective tissue (including bone tissues and liver parenchymal). PMID:25541836

  17. Sensitive and specific determination of clindamycin in human serum and bone tissue applying liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martens-Lobenhoffer; P. Banditt

    2001-01-01

    A method for the quantification of clindamycin in human serum and in human bone tissue samples applying high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–mass spectrometry (APCI–MS) is presented. Lincomycin is used as the internal standard. Serum samples are prepared only by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Bone tissue samples have to be crushed and homogenized in extraction buffer prior to

  18. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Müller, Jutta; Knepper, Thomas P; Barceló, Damiŕ

    2012-08-01

    Water has been identified as one of the main routes of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This work assessed the presence of 21 PFASs along the whole water cycle using a new fast and cost effective analytical method based on an online sample enrichment followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated for different types of matrices (ultrapure water, tap water and treated wastewater). The quality parameters for the 21 selected compounds presented good limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranging, in general, from 0.83-10 ng/L to 2.8-50 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to assess the occurrence of PFASs in 148 water samples of different steps along the whole water cycle, including: mineral bottled water, tap water, river water and treated effluent wastewater, from Germany to Spain. In addition, in order to prove the good performance of the online analytical method, the analysis of PFASs was carried out in parallel using a method based on offline anionic solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by LC-MS/MS. Consistent results were obtained using both approaches. The more frequently found compounds were perfluoroalkyl acids, such as the perfluorobutanoic acid which was in the 54% of the tap water samples investigated with concentrations in the range between 2.4 and 27 ng/L, the perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.23-53 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (0.16-35 ng/L), and the sulphonate perfluorooctanesulfonate (0.04-258 ng/L) which was the second more frequent compound and also the compound found in with the higher concentration. It should be remarked that the 88% of the samples analyzed presented at least one of the compounds at quantifiable concentrations. In addition, PFASs including short chain compounds were proved to be prevalent in drinking water, and the 50% of the drinking water samples showed quantifiable concentrations of PFASs. It should be said that the great majority of the samples may not pose an immediate health risk to consumers, and just 6 of the drinking water samples presented concentrations of PFOS exceeding the Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) level established by the Office of Water from the USEPA for PFOS, which was set in 200 ng/L. PMID:22683491

  19. Identification of Chemical Constituents in the Extract and Rat Serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Yanan; Li, Xia; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has long been widely used for human consumption and medicinal purposes in China. It has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. However, the systematic study on the chemical constituents absorbed into plasma and their metabolites is still insufficient.A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization ion-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n)) method was established to analyze the ethanol extract in Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the constituents absorbed into rat serum. In the present study, a dose of 10 mL/Kg of ethanol extract of jujube, which is equivalent to 12.5 g crude dried herb/Kg, was orally administrated to rats. The main components were analyzed in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the parent constituents and metabolites were studied in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the ethanol extract of jujube.D101 macroporous polystyrene resin was a good pretreatment method to obtain better separation and impurity removal effect. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Four parent compounds and four metabolites were detected in rat serum. Among them, seventeen compounds were reported for the first time. PMID:25276208

  20. Biological and physicochemical characterization of a serum- and xeno-free chemically defined cryopreservation procedure for adult human progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zeisberger, Steffen M; Schulz, Julia C; Mairhofer, Mario; Ponsaerts, Peter; Wouters, Guy; Doerr, Daniel; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Ehrbar, Martin; Hescheler, Jurgen; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Zisch, Andreas H; Kolbus, Andrea; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    While therapeutic cell transplantations using progenitor cells are increasingly evolving towards phase I and II clinical trials and chemically defined cell culture is established, standardization in biobanking is still in the stage of infancy. In this study, the EU FP6-funded CRYSTAL (CRYo-banking of Stem cells for human Therapeutic AppLication) consortium aimed to validate novel Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to perform and validate xeno-free and chemically defined cryopreservation of human progenitor cells and to reduce the amount of the potentially toxic cryoprotectant additive (CPA) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). To achieve this goal, three human adult progenitor and stem cell populations-umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived erythroid cells (UCB-ECs), UCB-derived endothelial colony forming cells (UCB-ECFCs), and adipose tissue (AT)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs)-were cryopreserved in chemically defined medium supplemented with 10% or 5% DMSO. Cell recovery, cell repopulation, and functionality were evaluated postthaw in comparison to cryopreservation in standard fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing freezing medium. Even with a reduction of the DMSO CPA to 5%, postthaw cell count and viability assays indicated no overall significant difference versus standard cryomedium. Additionally, to compare cellular morphology/membrane integrity and ice crystal formation during cryopreservation, multiphoton laser-scanning cryomicroscopy (cryo-MPLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. Neither cryo-MPLSM nor SEM indicated differences in membrane integrity for the tested cell populations under various conditions. Moreover, no influence was observed on functional properties of the cells following cryopreservation in chemically defined freezing medium, except for UCB-ECs, which showed a significantly reduced differentiation capacity after cryopreservation in chemically defined medium supplemented with 5% DMSO. In summary, these results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of standardized xeno-free cryopreservation of different human progenitor cells and encourage their use even more in the field of tissue-engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21176408

  1. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 ?g/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  2. Analytical method for biomonitoring of perfluoroalkyl acids in human urine.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2014-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids are an important class of synthetic compounds widely used in commercial and residential settings, which may have potential adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to monitor 6 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctane sulphonate in human urine to obtain a way to asses exposure. The target analytes were extracted from urine by using a semi automated solid-phase extraction module and derivatised with isobutyl chloroformate by catalysis with 3% N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in pyridine. Determination and quantisation were achieved by gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector operating in the selected-ion monitoring mode. The developed approach is fast and provided low limits of detection (0.2-1.0 ng L(-1)) with good precision (relative standard deviation lower than 7.5%, within-day and between day). Recoveries from urine samples, which were spiked with the studied compounds at levels of 10 and 50 ng L(-1) ranged from 93% to 96%. Perfluorohexanoic (? 70 ng L(-1)) and perfluoroheptanoic acids (<2 ng L(-1)) were found in the urine samples from exposed researchers taken after handling these compounds. From the calculation of the excretion kinetics it was found that the dosage absorbed was eliminated within 15 h after exposure. PMID:25059141

  3. Patterns of clinical bioindicators in rat serum following acute exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is interest in bioindicators of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. Chemically-induced neurological effects may be reflected in specific neuronal changes and/or by general stress-like responses, and such bioindicators may be useful for measurin...

  4. Solution-Phase Perfluoroalkylation of C60 Leads to Efficient and Selective Synthesis of Bis-Perfluoroalkylated Fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Kuvychko, Igor V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2012-01-01

    A solution-phase perfluoroalkylation of C60 with a series of RFI reagents was studied. The effects of molar ratio of the reagents, reaction time, and presence of copper metal promoter on fullerene conversion and product composition were evaluated. Ten aliphatic and aromatic RFI reagents were investigated (CF3I, C2F5I, n-C3F7I, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, (CF3)(C2F5)CFI, n-C8F17I, C6F5CF2I, C6F5I, and 1,3-(CF3)2C6F3I) and eight of them (except for C6F5I and 1,3-(CF3)2C6F3I) were found to add the respective RF groups to C60 in solution. Efficient and selective synthesis of C60(RF)2 derivatives was developed. PMID:25843973

  5. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr, et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS- 1 PPARa reporter model with an NHA...

  6. Evaluation of the fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds in wastewater treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Guo; Won-Jin Sim; Eung-Sun Lee; Ji-Hyun Lee; Jeong-Eun Oh

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a significant source of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in natural water. In this study, 10 PFCs were analyzed in influent and effluent wastewater and sludge samples in 15 municipal, 4 livestock and 3 industrial WWTPs in Korea. The observed distribution pattern of PFCs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples.

  7. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACID ACTIVITY USING PRIMARY MOUSE AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is know about the biological activity of other environmental perfluoroalkyl acids (pFAAs). Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-l cells, our group has previ...

  8. Evaluation of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Activity Using Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group h...

  9. Effects of chemical modification on the potency, serum stability, and immunostimulatory properties of short shRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qing; Dallas, Anne; Ilves, Heini; Shorenstein, Joshua; Behlke, Mark A.; Johnston, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    Small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) with 19-base-pair, or shorter, stems (short shRNAs [sshRNAs]) have been found to constitute a class whose mechanism of action appears to be distinct from that of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or longer shRNAs. These sshRNAs can be as active as canonical siRNAs or longer shRNAs. Their activity is affected by whether the antisense strand is positioned 5? or 3? to the loop (L or R sshRNAs, respectively). Dicer seems not to be involved in the processing of sshRNAs, although the mechanism of target gene suppression by these hairpins is through Ago2-mediated mRNA cleavage. In this study, the effects of chemical modifications on the potency, serum stability, and innate immune response of sshRNAs were investigated. Deoxynucleotide substitution and 2?-O-methyl (2?-OMe) modification in the sense strand and loop did not affect silencing activity, but, unlike with siRNAs, when placed in the antisense strand these modifications were detrimental. Conjugation with bulky groups at the 5?-end of L sshRNAs or 3?-end of R sshRNAs had a negative impact on the potency. Unmodified sshRNAs in dimer form or with blunt ends were immunostimulatory. Some modifications such as 3?-end conjugation and phosphorothioate linkages on the backbone of the sshRNAs could also induce inflammatory cytokine production. However, 2?-OMe substitution of sshRNAs abrogated the innate immune response and improved the serum stability of the hairpins. PMID:19948766

  10. Characterization of cultured rat oligodendrocytes proliferating in a serum-free, chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Saneto, R.P.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-05-01

    A serumless, chemically defined medium has been developed for the culture of oligodendrocytes isolated from primary neonatal rat cerebral cultures. Combined together, insulin, transferrin, and fibroblast growth factor synergistically induced an essentially homogeneous population (95-98%) of cells expressing glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to undergo cell division. Proliferating cells were characterized by several criteria: (i) ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy identified the cell type as an oligodendrocyte; (ii) biochemical assays showed expression of three oligodendrocyte biochemical markers, induction of both glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, and presence of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase; and (iii) immunocytochemical staining showed cultures to be 95-98% positive for glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, 90% for myelin basic protein, 60-70% for galactocerebroside, and 70% for A2B5.

  11. Comparison of chemical-activated luciferase gene expression bioassay and gas chromatography for PCB determination in human serum and follicular fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, A; Cenijn, P H; Schepens, P J; Brouwer, A

    2000-01-01

    We assessed exposure to dioxin-like compounds using chemical and bioassay analysis in different matrices in a female population. A total of 106 serum and 9 follicular fluid samples were collected from infertile women attending Centers for Reproductive Medicine in Belgium from 1996 to 1998. Major polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified by chemical analysis using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, and the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bioassay was used to determine the total dioxin-like toxic equivalence (TEQ) of mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in body fluids, such as serum and follicular fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to determine TEQ values by the CALUX bioassay in follicular fluid. The TEQ levels in both matrices are well correlated (r = 0.83, p = 0.02). As the chemical and bioassay analysis executed in this study do not cover the same span of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, we did not expect totally correlated results. Moreover, the sample workup and quantification of the analytes differed completely. Nonetheless, the TEQ values in human extracts correlated well with the sum of four major PCB congeners chemically determined in both serum and follicular fluid. These results indicate that the CALUX bioassay may serve as a simple, relatively inexpensive prescreening tool for exposure assessment in epidemiologic surveys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10856030

  12. Serum low density lipoprotein of alcoholic patients is chemically modified in vivo and induces apolipoprotein E synthesis by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, R C; Dai, J; Lumeng, L; Zhang, M Y

    1995-01-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on serum LDL. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that LDL samples from alcoholic patients without serious liver disease were more negatively charged and moved faster toward the cathode than LDL from nondrinking control subjects. Rabbit antibodies raised by using keyhole limpet hemocyanin modified in vitro by 4-hydroxynonenal or by acetaldehyde as immunogens reacted more strongly with patients' LDL than with control LDL, indicating the presence of oxidatively modified epitopes and acetaldehyde adducts in alcoholic patients' LDL. LDL of alcoholic patients has decreased vitamin E contents. The electromobility of LDL decreased after abstinence from alcohol and returned to normal in 2 wk, but this was not accompanied by a significant increase in its vitamin E contents. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, patients' LDL induced apolipoprotein E secretion by threefold over control LDL with a concomitant increase in cellular cholesterol. Our results thus demonstrate that LDL of alcoholic patients has lower vitamin E content, is chemically modified in vivo, and exhibits altered biological function. These changes in heavy alcoholic drinkers may render LDL more atherogenic and thereby may counter the antiatherosclerosis effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Images PMID:7738164

  13. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  14. Application of 31P NMR Spectroscopy and Chemical Derivatization for Metabolite Profiling of Lipophilic Compounds in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    DeSilva, M. Aruni; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; Rosa-Pérez, Kellymar; Hanson, Bryan A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    New methods for obtaining metabolic fingerprints of biological samples with improved resolution and sensitivity are highly sought for early disease detection, studies of human health and pathophysiology, and for better understanding systems biology. Considering the complexity of biological samples, interest in biochemical class selection through the use of chemoselective probes for improved resolution and quantitation is increasing. Considering the role of lipids in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, in this study fingerprinting of lipid metabolites was achieved by 31P labeling using the derivatizing agent 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyldioxaphospholane. Lipids containing hydroxyl, aldehyde and carboxyl groups were selectively tagged with 31P and then detected with good resolution using 31P NMR by exploiting the 100% natural abundance and wide chemical shift range of 31P. After standardizing the reaction conditions using representative compounds, the derivatization approach was used to profile lipids in human serum. The results show that the 31P derivatization approach is simple, reproducible and highly quantitative, and has the potential to profile a number of important lipids in complex biological samples. PMID:19610016

  15. Assessment of perfluoroalkyl substances in food items at global scale.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisca; Llorca, Marta; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Škrbi?, Biljana; Oliveira, Luis Silva; da Boit Martinello, Kátia; Al-Dhabi, Naif A; Anti?, Igor; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damiŕ

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the levels of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 283 food items (38 from Brazil, 35 from Saudi Arabia, 174 from Spain and 36 from Serbia) among the most widely consumed foodstuffs in these geographical areas. These countries were chosen as representatives of the diet in South America, Western Asia, Mediterranean countries and South-Eastern Europe. The analysis of foodstuffs was carried out by turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) combined with liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. The analytical method was validated for the analysis of different foodstuff classes (cereals, fish, fruit, milk, ready-to-eat foods, oil and meat). The analytical parameters of the method fulfill the requirements specified in the Commission Recommendation 2010/161/EU. Recovery rates were in the range between 70% and 120%. For all the selected matrices, the method limits of detection (MLOD) and the method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were in the range of 5 to 650 pg/g and 17 to 2000 pg/g, respectively. In general trends, the concentrations of PFASs were in the pg/g or pg/mL levels. The more frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). The prevalence of the eight-carbon chain compounds in biota indicates the high stability and bioaccumulation potential of these compounds. But, at the same time, the high frequency of the shorter chain compounds is also an indication of the use of replacement compounds in the new fluorinated materials. When comparing the compounds profile and their relative abundances in the samples from diverse origin, differences were identified. However, in absolute amounts of total PFASs no large differences were found between the studied countries. Fish and seafood were identified as the major PFASs contributors to the diet in all the countries. The total sum of PFASs in fresh fish and seafood was in the range from the MLOQ to 28ng/g ww. According to the FAO-WHO diets composition, the daily intake (DI) of PFASs was calculated for various age and gender groups in the different diets. The total PFASs food intake was estimated to be between 2300 and 3800 ng /person per day for the different diets. Finally, the risk intake (RI) was calculated for selected relevant compounds. The results have indicated that by far in no case the tolerable daily intake (TDI) (150, 1500, 50,000, 1,000,000, 150, 1500 ng/kg body weight, for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFOS and PFOA, respectively) was exceeded. PMID:25282275

  16. Thyroxine is the serum factor that regulates morphogenesis of columnar cartilage from isolated chondrocytes in chemically defined medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tracy Ballock; A. H. Reddi

    1994-01-01

    Epiphyseal chondrocytes cultured in a medium containing 10% serum may be maintained as three dimensional aggregates and differentiate termi- nally into hypertrophic cells. There is an attendant ex- pression of genes encoding type X collagen and high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Manipulation of the serum concentration to optimal levels of 0.1 or 0.01% in this chondrocyte pellet culture system

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Daling River with concentrated fluorine industries in China: seasonal variation, mass flow, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated concentrations and composition profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water from the Daling River in different seasons. The highest concentration of ?PFASs (9540 ng L(-1)) and dominant homologues were found in surface water collected in summer. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs in four seasons with a total contribution of over 90 %. The discharge of two fluorine chemical industry parks was predicted to be the main contamination source of PFASs in the study area. The daily and annual mass flows were calculated according to data of detected PFAS concentrations and water discharge, and the annual mass loading of PFASs into the Bohai Sea from the Daling River reached to 461 kg year(-1). Hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFASs in study area had little risk to aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, the multiple health risk would be relatively high if the water was served as drinking water in the study area. PMID:25666478

  18. Design and synthesis of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing zinc pyrithione biocide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Ying Sun; Xiao-Long Qiu; Wei-Dong Meng; Feng-Ling Qing

    2006-01-01

    Novel perfluoroalkyl-containing zinc pyrithione biocide 2 was designed and synthesized in six steps. Reaction of 4-methyl-pyridine with C8F17(CH2)3I in the presence of LDA followed by further oxidization of the resultant pyridine derivative 6 gave the pyridine N-oxide 9. Treatment of 9 with phosphorous oxychloride afforded the desirable chloride 12. Oxidization of compound 12 with H2O2 gave N-oxide 14, which was

  19. Serum Levels of TCDD and Dioxin-like Chemicals in Rhesus Monkeys Chronically Exposed to Dioxin: Correlation of Increased Serum PCB Levels with Endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry E. Rier; Wayman E. Turner; Dan C. Martin; Richard Morris; George W. Lucier; George C. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Humans and animals are exposed daily to a complex mixture of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). Previous work has shown that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the inci- dence and severity of endometriosis in the rhesus monkey. Dioxin- like chemicals can also exert effects in combination with TCDD via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study

  20. Spatial distribution and importance of potential perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in urban rivers and sewage treatment plant effluent--case study of Tama River, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Tokumura, Masahiro; Islam, Md Saiful; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Oh, Jungkeun; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-12-15

    Production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is regulated worldwide. However, numerous potential precursors that eventually decompose into PFOS and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still being used and have not been studied in detail. Therefore, knowledge about the levels and sources of the precursors is essential. We investigated the total concentration of potential PFAA precursors in the Tama River, which is one of the major rivers flowing into the Tokyo Bay, by converting all the perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) precursors into PFCAs by chemical oxidation. The importance of controlling PFAA precursors was determined by calculating the ratios of PFCAs formed by oxidation to the PFAAs originally present (??[PFCAC4-C12]/?[PFAAs]before oxidation) (average = 0.28 and 0.69 for main and tributary branch rivers, respectively). Higher total concentrations of ?[PFCAs] were found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. However, the ratios found in the effluents were lower (average = 0.21) than those found in the river water samples, which implies the decomposition of some precursors into PFAAs during the treatment process. On the other hand, higher ratios were observed in the upstream water samples and the existence of emission sources other than the STP effluents was indicated. This study showed that although the treatment process converting a part of the PFAA precursors into PFAAs, STPs were important sources of precursors to the Tama River. To reduce the levels of PFAAs in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to reduce the emission of the PFAA precursors as well. PMID:25262552

  1. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to categorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated compounds (...

  2. Contamination profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region. PMID:25113179

  3. Perfluoroalkyl acids in selected wastewater treatment plants and their discharge load within the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chirikona, Florah; Filipovic, Marko; Ooko, Seline; Orata, Francis

    2015-05-01

    A major ecological challenge facing Lake Victoria basin is the influx of chemical contaminants from domestic, hospital, and industrial effluents. Determined levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wastewater and sludge from selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kenya are presented and their daily discharge loads calculated for the first time within the Lake Victoria basin. Samples were extracted and separated using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS methodology. All sewage sludge and wastewater samples obtained from the WWTPs contained detectable levels of PFAAs in picogram per gram dry weight (d.w.) and in nanogram per liter, respectively. There was variability in distribution of PFAAs in domestic, hospital, and industrial waste with domestic WWPTs observed to contain higher levels. Almost all PFAA homologues of chain length C-6 and above were detected in samples analyzed, with long-chain PFAAs (C-8 and above chain length) being dominant. The discharge from hospital contributes significantly to the amounts of PFAAs released to the municipal water systems and the lake catchment. Using the average output of wastewater from the five WWTPs, a mass load of 1013 mg day(-1) PFAAs per day discharged has been calculated, with the highest discharge obtained at Kisumu City (656 mg day(-1)). The concentration range of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in wastewater was 1.3-28 and 0.9-9.8 ng L(-1) and in sludge samples were 117-673 and 98-683 pg g(-1), respectively. PMID:25861900

  4. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  5. Condensed-phase, halogen-bonded CF3I and C2F5I adducts for perfluoroalkylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Sladojevich, Filippo; McNeill, Eric; Börgel, Jonas; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Ritter, Tobias

    2015-03-16

    A family of practical, liquid trifluoromethylation and pentafluoroethylation reagents is described. We show how halogen bonding can be used to obtain easily handled liquid reagents from gaseous CF3I and CF3CF2I. The synthetic utility of the new reagents is exemplified by a novel direct arene trifluoromethylation reaction as well as adaptations of other perfluoroalkylation reactions. PMID:25651531

  6. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440?gkg(-1) (median 75?gkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82?gkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215?gkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107?gkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233?gkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low ?gL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  7. Effect of serum components on the physico-chemical properties of cationic lipid\\/oligonucleotide complexes and on their interactions with cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Zelphati; Lisa S Uyechi; Lee G Barron; Francis C Szoka

    1998-01-01

    The interactions among serum components and cationic lipid–nucleic acid complexes are central to the understanding of how serum inhibits cellular delivery of oligonucleotides in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that several serum proteins, in particular bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and macroglobulin, interact with cationic lipid\\/oligonucleotide complexes, alter the complex diameter and zeta

  8. IgG antibody against formaldehyde human serum proteins: A comparison with other IgG antibodies against inhalant proteins and reactive chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Dykewicz, M.S.; Evans, R. 3d.; Grammer, L.C.; Greenberger, P.A.; Harris, K.E.; Lawrence, I.D.; Pruzansky, J.J.; Roberts, M.; Shaughnessy, M.A. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Immune responses to formaldehyde (F) have been recorded for seven decades. More recently, sensitive assays for antibody against F-human serum albumin (HSA) have been reported. IgG antibody against F-HSA has been said to correlate with symptoms against F-HSA. We report on 61 serum samples analyzed for IgG antibodies against F-HSA. IgG antibodies against F-HSA were most prevalent in subjects who had received intravenous F. In no case (either presumed symptomatic to F or with IgG antibody against F-HSA) was there a correlation of serologic results with symptoms. We also reviewed inhalation disease caused by chemicals and proteins acting as immunogens and report that at this time there is no evidence that gaseous F meets the criteria for causation of inhalational IgG-mediated lung disease by clinical or serologic studies. Very high IgG antibody levels occur in respiratory immunologic inhalational disease, and the absence of these high IgG levels against F is strong evidence against F or F proteins being an inhalational antigen of significance.

  9. Calcium-regulated differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes in chemically defined clonal culture and serum-free serial culture.

    PubMed

    Boyce, S T; Ham, R G

    1983-07-01

    An improved serum-free culture system has been developed for normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HK). Short-term clonal growth and differentiation studies are routinely performed in a defined medium consisting of optimized nutrient medium MCDB 153 supplemented with epidermal growth factor, insulin, hydrocortisone, ethanolamine, and phosphoethanolamine. A small amount of whole bovine pituitary extract (wBPE) is added for initiation of primary cultures, for frozen storage, and for serial culture. The need for feeder layers, conditioned medium, serum, and specialized culture surfaces has been eliminated entirely. With an optimal level of calcium ion (0.3 mM), colony-forming efficiency is about 30 percent and cellular multiplication rate is 0.96 doublings per day in the defined medium. A high-calcium concentration (1.0 mM) induces stratification and terminal differentiation, which can be quantified by counting cornified envelopes that are resistant to boiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate plus dithiothreitol. Under optimal conditions with wBPE present, cellular senescence occurs after about 40 population doublings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has verified the occurrence of stratification during differentiation in the defined medium with high calcium. High-voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) after detergent extraction of human epidermal keratinocyte (HK) colonies grown in the defined medium with low and high calcium has revealed specific changes in the intermediate filament network and keratohyalin granules corresponding to changes in cellular differentiation. Indirect immunofluorescence studies have verified that the intermediate filament network observed with HVEM is composed of keratin proteins. PMID:6345690

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in a terrestrial raptor: relationships to environmental conditions and individual traits.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Ahrens, Lutz; Herzke, Dorte; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife may be influenced by the physical and biotic environment, and concentrations vary greatly among areas, seasons, and individuals. Different hypotheses about sources of variation in perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations were examined in eggs (n?=?107) of tawny owls (Strix aluco) collected over a 24-yr period (1986-2009) in Norway. Predictor variables included the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), temperature, snow, food availability (vole abundance), and individual traits such as age, body condition, and clutch size. Concentrations of both perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) varied several fold in the population, both inter- and intra-annually. Moreover, individuals laid eggs with several times higher or lower PFAS concentrations within few years (1 yr-5 yr). After controlling for temporal trends (i.e., declining PFOS and increasing PFCA concentrations), both PFOS and PFCAs were positively associated to the winter NAO in the previous year (NAOy - 1 ), suggesting that atmospheric transport may be affecting the input of PFASs to the local ecosystem. Perfluoro-octane sulfonate was negatively related to temperature, but the pattern was complex as there was an interaction between temperature and the feeding conditions. The PFOS accumulation was highest in years with high vole abundance and low to medium temperatures. For PFCAs, there was an interaction between NAOy - 1 and feeding conditions, suggesting that strong air transport toward Norway and high consumption of voles led to a moderate increase in PFCA accumulation. The individual traits, however, had very little impact on the concentrations of PFASs in the eggs. The present study thus suggests that annual variation in environmental conditions influences the concentrations of PFASs in a terrestrial raptor such as the tawny owl. PMID:25323676

  11. Transcriptional and cellular responses of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, David; Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), a new class of perfluoroalkyl substances used primarily in the industrial sector as surfactants, were recently detected in surface water and wastewater treatment plant effluents. Toxicological effects of PFPAs have as yet not been investigated in aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of perfluorooctylphosphonic acid (C8-PFPA) and perfluorodecylphosphonic acid (C10-PFPA) exposure (31-250?g/L) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using genomic (qRT-PCR), biochemical (reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and lipid peroxidation), and physiological (cellular viability) indicators. After 72h of exposure, no differences were observed in cellular viability for any of the two perfluorochemicals. However, increase in ROS concentrations (36% and 25.6% at 125 and 250?g/L, respectively) and lipid peroxidation (35.5% and 35.7% at 125 and 250?g/L, respectively) was observed following exposure to C10-PFPA. C8-PFPA exposure did not impact ROS production and lipid peroxidation in algae. To get insights into the molecular response and modes of action of PFPA toxicity, qRT-PCR-based assays were performed to analyze the transcription of genes related to antioxidant responses including superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX I). Genomic analyses revealed that the transcription of CAT and APX I was up-regulated for all the C10-PFPA concentrations. In addition, PFPAs were quantified in St. Lawrence River surface water samples and detected at concentrations ranging from 250 to 850pg/L for C8-PFPA and 380 to 650pg/L for C10-PFPA. This study supports the prevalence of PFPAs in the aquatic environment and suggests potential impacts of PFPA exposure on the antioxidant defensive system in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25621396

  12. Quantitative analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds in water matrices using high resolution mass spectrometry: Optimization for a laser diode thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriel; Vo Duy, Sung; Budzinski, Hélčne; Labadie, Pierre; Liu, Jinxia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-06-30

    An alternative analysis technique for the quantitation of 15 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water matrices is reported. Analysis time between each sample was reduced to less than 20s, all target molecules being analyzed in a single run with the use of laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD/APCI) coupled with high resolution accurate mass (HRMS) orbitrap mass spectrometry. LDTD optimal settings were investigated using either one-factor-at-a-time or experimental design methodologies, while orbitrap parameters were optimized simultaneously by means of a Box-Behnken design. Following selection of an adequate sample concentration and purification procedure based on solid-phase extraction and graphite clean-up, the method was validated in an influent wastewater matrix. Environmentally significant limits of detection were reported (0.3-4ngL(-1) in wastewater and 0.03-0.2ngL(-1) in surface water) and out of the 15 target analytes, 11 showed excellent accuracies (±20% of the target values) and recovery rates (75-125%). The method was successfully applied to a selection of environmental samples, including wastewater samples in 7 locations across Canada, as well as surface and tap water samples from the Montreal region, providing insights into the degree of PFAS contamination in this area. PMID:26041525

  13. GC-MS analysis of amino acid enantiomers as their N(O,S)-perfluoroacyl perfluoroalkyl esters: application to space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampolli, M.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Pietrogrande, M. C.; Buch, A.; Dondi, F.; Raulin, F.

    The search for optical activity in extraterrestrial sample is an important key for the study of the origin of life With this aim detection of chemical biomarkers i e of organic molecules which play an important role in biochemistry will be one of the main goals of future space missions To reach this goal an investigation of a GC-MS method based on the derivatization of amino acids by using a mixture of perfluorinated alcohols and perfluorinated anhydrides has been performed Amino acids are converted in their N O S -perfluoroacyl perfluoroalkyl esters in a single step procedure using different combinations of the derivatization reagents trifluoroacetic anhydride TFAA - 2 2 2-trifluoro-1-ethanol TFE TFAA-2 2 3 3 4 4 4-heptafluoro-1-butanol HFB heptafluorobutyric anhydride HFBA -HFB The obtained derivatives are analyzed using two different chiral columns a Chirasil-L-Val and a gammat cyclodextrin Rt- gamma -DEXsa stationary phases which show different and complementary enantiomeric selectivity The mass spectra of the derivatized compounds are studied and mass fragmentation patterns are proposed significant fragment ions can be identified to detect amino acid derivatives The obtained results are compared in terms of the enantiomeric separation achieved and mass spectrometric response Linearity studies and the measurement of the limit of detection LOD prove that the proposed method is suitable for a quantitative determination of several amino acids enantiomers 1 The use of a PTV Programmed Temperature Vaporiser

  14. Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Scheringer, Martin; Buck, Robert C; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research. PMID:24861268

  15. Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Falk, Sandy; Failing, Klaus; Georgii, Sebastian; Brunn, Hubertus; Stahl, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Adult trout were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) via food over a time period of 28d. In the following 28-d depuration period the fish were fed PFAA-free food. At defined sampling times four animals were removed from the experimental tank, euthanized and dissected. Muscle, liver, kidneys, gills, blood, skin and carcass were examined individually. At the end of the accumulation phase between 0.63% (PFOA) and 15.5% (PFOS) of the absolute, applied quantity of PFAAs was recovered in the whole fish. The main target organ was the liver with recovery rates between 0.11% (PFBS) and 4.01% (PFOS) of the total amount of ingested PFAAs. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids were taken up more readily and had longer estimated elimination half-lives than perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids of the same chain length. The longest estimated elimination half-lives were found to be for PFOS between 8.4d in muscle tissue and 20.4d in the liver and for PFNA between 8.2d in the blood and 11.6d in the liver. PMID:25022474

  16. Compositional effects on leaching of stain-guarded (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance-treated) carpet in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R; Benskin, Jonathan P; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from stain-guard treated carpets in landfills continue to be released into the environment. To understand the leaching of PFASs from carpets to landfill leachate as a function of environmental factors, leaching concentrations of ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids were quantified for different pHs, contact times, mixing speeds, and temperatures. Partitioning from carpet to leachate and distilled water at different pHs showed negligible differences. The total concentration of leaching PFASs in distilled water was approximately 1 ng L(-1) higher than in landfill leachate, indicating that the presence of multivalent cations in leachate could have a negative effect on leaching of PFASs. For all PFASs monitored, leaching increased with increasing contact time and temperature. Perfluorohexanoic and perfluoroheptanoic acids experienced the largest increases with contact time and temperature. Gibbs free energy (?G > 0), enthalpy (?H > 0), and entropy energy (?S < 0) indicated that PFAS leaching from carpet was dominantly controlled by entropy-driven processes and did not differ significantly among individual PFASs. PFAS concentrations in leachate with rotation of an end-over-end contactor were higher than under static conditions, but otherwise, varying the rotation speed had negligible influence. The results provide useful information for management of discarded stain-guard carpets in landfills. PMID:25985932

  17. Pre-natal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances may be associated with altered vaccine antibody levels and immune-related health outcomes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Granum, Berit; Haug, Line S; Namork, Ellen; Střlevik, Solvor B; Thomsen, Cathrine; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; van Loveren, Henk; Lřvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni C

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are suggested to have immunosuppressive effects; exposure in utero and in the first years of life is of special concern as fetuses and small children are highly vulnerable to toxicant exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-natal exposure to PFAS on responses to pediatric vaccines and immune-related health outcomes in children up to 3 years of age. In the prospective birth-cohort BraMat, a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), pregnant women from Oslo and Akershus, Norway, were recruited during 2007-2008. Three annual questionnaire-based follow-ups were performed. Blood samples were collected from the mothers at the time of delivery and from the children at the age of 3 years. As a measure of pre-natal exposure to PFAS, the concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were determined in maternal blood from 99 BraMat participants. Main outcome measures were anti-vaccine antibody levels, common infectious diseases and allergy- and asthma-related health outcomes in the children up to the age of 3 years. There was an inverse association between the level of anti-rubella antibodies in the children's serum at age 3 years and the concentrations of the four PFAS. Furthermore, there was a positive association between the maternal concentrations of PFOA and PFNA and the number of episodes of common cold for the children, and between PFOA and PFHxS and the number of episodes of gastroenteritis. No associations were found between maternal PFAS concentrations and the allergy- and asthma-related health outcomes investigated. The results indicate that pre-natal exposure to PFAS may be associated with immunosuppression in early childhood. PMID:23350954

  18. Correlation of endocrine disrupting chemicals serum levels and white blood cells gene expression of nuclear receptors in a population of infertile women.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Bordi, Giulia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Fanello, Emiliano; Perra, Guido; Borghini, Francesca; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Marci, Roberto; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Soave, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Mantovani, Alberto; Moscarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence supports that many endocrine disrupting chemicals could affect female reproductive health. Aim of this study was to compare the internal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in serum samples of 111 infertile women and 44 fertile women. Levels of gene expression of nuclear receptors (ER ? , ER ? , AR, AhR, PXR, and PPAR ? ) were also analyzed as biomarkers of effective dose. The percentage of women with BPA concentrations above the limit of detection was significantly higher in infertile women than in controls. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to PFOS, PFOA, MEHP and DEHP. Infertile patients showed gene expression levels of ER ? , ER ? , AR, and PXR significantly higher than controls. In infertile women, a positive association was found between BPA and MEHP levels and ER ? , ER ? , AR, AhR, and PXR expression. PFOS concentration positively correlated with AR and PXR expression. PFOA levels negatively correlated with AhR expression. No correlation was found between DEHP levels and all evaluated nuclear receptors. This study underlines the need to provide special attention to substances that are still widely present in the environment and to integrate exposure measurements with relevant indicators of biological effects. PMID:23710174

  19. Correlation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Serum Levels and White Blood Cells Gene Expression of Nuclear Receptors in a Population of Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Bordi, Giulia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Fanello, Emiliano; Perra, Guido; Borghini, Francesca; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tait, Sabrina; Bergamasco, Bruno; Stecca, Laura; Marci, Roberto; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Soave, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Mantovani, Alberto; Moscarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence supports that many endocrine disrupting chemicals could affect female reproductive health. Aim of this study was to compare the internal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in serum samples of 111 infertile women and 44 fertile women. Levels of gene expression of nuclear receptors (ER?, ER?, AR, AhR, PXR, and PPAR?) were also analyzed as biomarkers of effective dose. The percentage of women with BPA concentrations above the limit of detection was significantly higher in infertile women than in controls. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to PFOS, PFOA, MEHP and DEHP. Infertile patients showed gene expression levels of ER?, ER?, AR, and PXR significantly higher than controls. In infertile women, a positive association was found between BPA and MEHP levels and ER?, ER?, AR, AhR, and PXR expression. PFOS concentration positively correlated with AR and PXR expression. PFOA levels negatively correlated with AhR expression. No correlation was found between DEHP levels and all evaluated nuclear receptors. This study underlines the need to provide special attention to substances that are still widely present in the environment and to integrate exposure measurements with relevant indicators of biological effects. PMID:23710174

  20. Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in lake trout from the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Furdui, Vasile I; Stock, Naomi L; Ellis, David A; Butt, Craig M; Whittle, D Michael; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Individual whole body homogenates of 4 year old lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) samples collected in 2001 from each of the Great Lakes were extracted using a novel fluorophilicity cleanup step and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Standard addition and internal standardization were used for quantification. Results were reported (+/- SE) for perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylates (8:2 and 10:2 FTUCA). The lowest average concentration of sigmaPFC was found in samples from Lake Superior (13+/-1 ng g(-1)), while the highest average concentration was found in samples from Lake Erie (152+/-14 ng g(-1)). Samples from Lake Ontario (60+/-5 ng g(-1)) and Lake Huron (58 +/-10 ng g(-1)) showed similar average sigmaPFC concentrations, although the perfluorinated sulfonate/carboxylate ratios were different. The major perfluoroalkyl contaminant observed was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with the highest concentration found in samples from Lake Erie (121+/-14 ng g(-1)), followed by samples from Lake Ontario (46+/-5 ng g(-1)), Lake Huron (39 +/-10 ng g(-1)), Lake Michigan (16+/-3 ng g(-1)), and Lake Superior (5+/-1 ng g(-1)). Perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) was detected in 89% of the samples, with the highest concentration in Lake Erie samples (9.8+/-1.6 ng g(-1)), and lowest concentration in samples from Lake Superior (0.7 +/- 0.1 ng g(-1)). Statistically significant correlations were observed between PFOS and PFDS concentrations, and PFOS concentration and body weight, respectively. The PFCAs were detected in all samples, with the highest total average concentration in samples from Lake Erie (19 ng g(-1)), followed by samples from Lake Huron (16 ng g(-1)), Lake Ontario (10 ng g(-1)), Lake Michigan (9 ng g(-1)) and Lake Superior (7 ng g(-1)). The compounds with significant contributions to the sigmaPFCA concentrations were PFOA and C9-C13-PFCAs. The 8:2 FTUCA was detected at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 0.2 ng g-1, with the highest level in samples showing also elevated concentrations of PFOA (4.4 ng g(-1) for Lake Michigan vs 1.5 ng g(-1) for all other samples). The 10:2 FTUCA was detected only in 9% of all samples (nd, 45 pg g(-1)). For those PFCs where we determined lake water concentrations, the highest log BAFs were calculated for PFOS (4.1), PFDA (3.9), and PFOSA (3.8). PMID:17396640

  1. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011-29703-C02-01 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02 References Campo, J., Pérez, F., Masiá, A., Picó, Y., Farré, M., Barceló, D., 2014. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain). Science of the Total Environment DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.094. Masiá, A., Campo J., Vázquez-Roig, P., Blasco, C., Picó Y., 2013. Screening of currently used pesticides in water, sediments and biota of the Guadalquivir River Basin (Spain). J. Hazard. Mater. 263P, 95-104.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Paxman, Christopher J; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigates the occurrence and fate of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and one fluorotelomer sulfonate from a firefighting training ground (FTG) that was contaminated by intensive use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). The contamination levels and their spatial and vertical distribution are assessed in the structure. At the surface of the pad, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is the dominant PFASs measured, with concentration varying from 10 to 200?gg(-1). PFASs were also detected in a concrete core at up to 12cm depth, suggesting the vertical movement and higher transport potential of shorter chain compounds. The estimated mass load of linear PFOS in this specific pad was >300g with a total of 1.7kg for the sum of all PFASs analyzed. The kinetics of desorption of PFOS, PFOA and 6:2FTS from the concrete into an overlaying static water volume has been measured under field conditions at two constant temperatures. Fitting the desorption data and estimated rainfall/runoff to a kinetic model suggests that this and similar firefighting training pads will likely remain a source of PFASs for many decades (t0.5=25 years for PFOS). PMID:25966923

  3. Delivery of unprecedented amounts of perfluoroalkyl substances towards the deep-sea.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Canals, Miquel; Barceló, Damiŕ; Puig, Pere; Calafat, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    The finding of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in particles sinking to the deep northwestern Mediterranean Sea confirms the role of the latter as ballast for the transfer of pollutants to the deep sea. The transfer of particulate matter down to the deep is enhanced during atmosphere-driven, high-energy physical oceanographic processes like dense shelf water cascading (DSWC), which is caused by winter surface heat losses and evaporation. Here we present data from samples collected during winter 2012, when dense shelf water formation and subsequent cascading triggered the flushing of large amounts of PFASs through a submarine canyon to depths in excess of 1000m. The finding of quantifiable concentrations of long-chain PFOA, PFOS and PFNA substances and significantly high concentrations of the short-chain substances PFHxA and PFBA indicates that these compounds, sorbed onto particulate matter, are quickly and directly transferred to the ocean's interior, thus highlighting the role of DSWC in removing those pollutants from the coastal ocean. Eventually, uncertainties about our results arising from the limited number of samples available are counterbalanced by their intrinsic value as intense DSWC events, like the one in 2012, occur only every 5-7years in the study area, which seriously restricts sampling opportunities. Our results add PFASs to the list of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons known to be conveyed to the deep marine environment. PMID:25918891

  4. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Etterson, Matthew A; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150-200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed. PMID:23860575

  5. Investigation of the excited state iodine lifetime in the photodissociation of perfluoroalkyl iodides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Stephen H.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of prospective laser materials for a space-based solar pumped laser system over the past decade has resulted in the identification of the iodine photodissociation laser as that system best suited to solar-pumped high energy operation. The active medium for the solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser is from the family of perfluoroalkyl iodides. These lasants have the general form C(n)F(2n + 1)I, often abbreviated as RI. These iodides are known to exhibit photodissociaiton of the C-I bond when irradiated by near UV photons. The focus was on the experimental determination of the lifetime of the excited iodine atom following photodissociation of C4F9I, and also to monitor fluorescence from the iodine molecule at 500 nm to determine if I2 is being produced in the process. Photodissociation is achieved using an XeCl excimer laser with an output wavelength of 308 nm. The XeCl beam is focused into the middle of a cylindrical quartz cell containing the lasant. The laser pulse is detected with a fast risetime photomultiplier tube as it exits the cell. Other aspects of the investigation are discussed.

  6. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1499-1504. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25772371

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinel la; Barceló, Damiŕ

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6-C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01-3.67 ng g(-1)) and biota (0.79-431 ?g kg(-1)) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01-233 ng L(-1)). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 ?g L(-1) was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. PMID:24935262

  8. Evaluation of the fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Sim, Won-Jin; Lee, Eung-Sun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a significant source of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in natural water. In this study, 10 PFCs were analyzed in influent and effluent wastewater and sludge samples in 15 municipal, 4 livestock and 3 industrial WWTPs in Korea. The observed distribution pattern of PFCs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in the sludge samples with a concentration ranging from 3.3 to 54.1 ng/g, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was dominant in wastewater and ranged from 2.3 to 615 ng/L and 3.4 to 591 ng/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) results provided an explanation for this variation in PFC distribution patterns in the aqueous and sludge samples. The fates of PFCs in the WWTPs were related with the functional groups. The PFOS concentrations tended to decrease after treatment in most WWTPs, whereas PFOA increased. The different fates of PFOA and PFOS in WWTPs were attributed to the higher organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficient of perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFASs) than that of the carboxylate analog, indicating the preference of PFASs to partition to sludge. Although industrial WWTPs contained high concentration of PFCs, they are not the main source of PFCs in Korean water environment because of their small release amount. WWTPs located in big cities discharged more PFCs, suggesting household sewage is one of the significant sources of PFCs contamination in the environment. PMID:20417541

  9. Spatial distribution and partition of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liuwei; Li, Juying; Wang, Xinxuan; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water from 67 sampling sites along rivers of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. Sixteen PFAAs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-14, C16 and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8 and C10) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Total PFAA concentrations (? PFAAs) in the surface water ranged from 1.53 to 33.5ng·L(-1) with an average of 7.58ng·L(-1). Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 28%, 16% and 10% of ? PFAAs, respectively. Higher concentrations of ? PFAAs were found in the samples collected from Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities which had very well-developed manufacturing industries. PCA model was employed to quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. Factor 1 (72.48% of the total variance) had high loading for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), PFBS and PFOS. For factor 2 (10.93% of the total variance), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) got high loading. The sorption of PFCAs on suspended particulate matter (SPM) increased by approximately 0.1logunits for each additional CF2 moiety and that on sediment was approximately 0.8logunits lower than the SPM logKd values. In addition, the differences in the partition coefficients were influenced by the structure discrepancy of absorbents and influx of fresh river water. These data are essential for modeling the transport and environmental fate of PFAAs. PMID:25889539

  10. Understanding of the intrinsic difference between normal- and perfluoro-alkyl compounds toward total understanding of material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Molecular interaction of perfluoroalkyl (Rf) compounds has long been discussed on an extended theory of normal alkyl compounds. When Rf-specific bulk properties depending on the molecular packing structure are taken into account, however, the conventional polarizability theory has a big inconsistency especially with the high melting point. Here, we present a new viewpoint to totally uniform the conventional theories for systematically accounting for the bulk properties of Rf compounds. With the organized theoretical framework, the conventional understanding based on polarizability proves to be partly true, but it misses the molecular orientation effect, which is specifically necessary for the Rf compounds.

  11. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  12. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids: A critical review of physicochemical properties, levels and patterns in waters and wastewaters, and treatment methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sierra Rayne; Kaya Forest

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are an emerging class of environmental contaminants present in various environmental and biological matrices. Two major PFA subclasses are the perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The physicochemical properties and partitioning behavior for the linear PFA members are poorly understood and widely debated. Even less is known about the numerous branched congeners with varying perfluoroalkyl

  13. A targeted/non-targeted screening method for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and sulfonates in whole fish using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MS(e).

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Bernard S; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M

    2014-02-01

    A new method for measuring perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) in biological matrices has been developed. An ultra-high pressure liquid chromatograph equipped with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QToF) was optimized using a continuous precursor/product ion monitoring mode. Unlike traditional targeted studies that isolate precursor/product ion pairs, the current method alternates between two ionization energy channels to continuously capture standard electrospray ionization (low energy) and collision induced dissociation (high energy) spectra. The result is the indiscriminant acquisition of paired low and high energy spectra for all constituents eluting from the chromatographic system. This technique was evaluated for the routine analysis of perfluoroalkyl species. Using this technique, linear perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4 to C14) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, C8 and C10) exhibited a linear range spanning over three orders of magnitude and were detectable at levels less than 1 pg on column with a root mean squared signal to noise ratio of 5 to 20. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and National Institutes of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1946 were used to evaluate matrix effects and the accuracy of this method when applied to a whole fish extract. The current method was also evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify unknown PFCs using experimental fragmentation patterns, mass defect filtering and Kendrick plots. PMID:24352588

  14. Short communication: Monitoring the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in Italian cow milk.

    PubMed

    Barbarossa, Andrea; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Serraino, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2014-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are fully fluorinated compounds widely used during the last 60 yr in the production of multiple industrial and consumer applications, such as food packaging, nonstick cookware, cleaning agents, and many more. These emerging contaminants have recently become of concern for human health because of their potential negative effects. The risk of exposure to PFAS for humans is mainly related to diet, and the increasing interest in food safety has led the European Commission to call Member States to monitor these contaminants in food matrices. The purpose of the present work was to perform the first monitoring on the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the 2 main and most widely investigated molecules of this family, in cow milk commercially available in Italy. We used an analytical protocol consisting of liquid-liquid extraction followed by 2 purification steps through solid-phase extraction cartridges and injection on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy system. The analysis of 67 samples of different types of cow milk from Italy demonstrated that contamination by PFOS was often present, although at relatively low concentrations (up to 97 ng/L), whereas PFOA was rarely found. On the basis of these results and data reported in the literature on this matrix, milk does not seem to be a major source of PFAS compared with other food categories such as fish and seafood. However, variability among different types of milk must be taken into account, and surveys of milk-derived products would be helpful to better define the risk for consumers. PMID:24704228

  15. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damiŕ

    2014-02-15

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6-C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60?gL(-1)) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31?gL(-1)). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79?gg(-1)dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88?gg(-1)dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32Lkg(-1) (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10(3)Lkg(-1) (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9gday(-1)) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97gday(-1), in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2gday(-1), in the Guadalquivir STPs. PMID:24342098

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region. PMID:18754515

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. PMID:23928036

  18. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-07-15

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA; 232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root-soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with increasing chain length (0.11 to 0.36 log decrease per CF2 group). The biggest decrease (0.54-0.58 log decrease per CF2 group) was seen in fruit-soil concentration factors (FCFs). Crop anatomy and PFAA properties were utilized to explain data trends. In general, fruit crops were found to accumulate fewer long-chain PFAAs than shoot or root crops presumably due to an increasing number of biological barriers as the contaminant is transported throughout the plant (roots to shoots to fruits). These data were incorporated into a preliminary conceptual framework for PFAA accumulation in edible crops. In addition, these data suggest that edible crops grown in soils conventionally amended for nutrients with biosolids (that are not impacted by PFAA industries) are unlikely a significant source of long-chain PFAA exposure to humans. PMID:24918303

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Canadian environment: multi-media assessment of current status and trends.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Backus, Sean M; De Silva, Amila O; Ahrens, Lutz; Armellin, Alain; Evans, Marlene; Fraser, Susan; Gledhill, Melissa; Guerra, Paula; Harner, Tom; Helm, Paul A; Hung, Hayley; Khera, Nav; Kim, Min Gu; King, Martha; Lee, Sum Chi; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela; Marvin, Chris; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Myers, Anne L; Pelletier, Magella; Pomeroy, Joe; Reiner, Eric J; Rondeau, Myriam; Sauve, Marie-Claude; Sekela, Mark; Shoeib, Mahiba; Smith, Daniel W; Smyth, Shirley Anne; Struger, John; Spry, Doug; Syrgiannis, Jim; Waltho, Jasmine

    2013-09-01

    In Canada, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been the focus of several monitoring programs and research and surveillance studies. Here, we integrate recent data and perform a multi-media assessment to examine the current status and ongoing trends of PFAAs in Canada. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in air, water, sediment, fish, and birds across Canada are generally related to urbanization, with elevated concentrations observed around cities, especially in southern Ontario. PFOS levels in water, fish tissue, and bird eggs were below their respective Draft Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines, suggesting there is low potential for adverse effects to the environment/organisms examined. However, PFOS in fish and bird eggs tended to exceed guidelines for the protection of mammalian and avian consumers, suggesting a potential risk to their wildlife predators, although wildlife population health assessments are needed to determine whether negative impacts are actually occurring. Long-term temporal trends of PFOS in suspended sediment, sediment cores, Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from Lake Ontario increased consistently from the start of data collection until the 1990s. However, after this time, the trends varied by media, with concentrations stabilizing in Lake Trout and Herring Gull eggs, and decreasing and increasing in suspended sediment and the sediment cores, respectively. For PFCAs, concentrations in suspended sediment, sediment cores, and Herring Gulls generally increased from the start of data collection until present and concentrations in Lake Trout increased until the late 1990s and subsequently stabilized. A multimedia comparison of PFAA profiles provided evidence that unexpected patterns in biota of some of the lakes were due to unique source patterns rather than internal lake processes. High concentrations of PFAAs in the leachate and air of landfill sites, in the wastewater influent/effluent, biosolids, and air at wastewater treatment plants, and in indoor air and dust highlight the waste sector and current-use products (used primarily indoors) as ongoing sources of PFAAs to the Canadian environment. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of integrating data from different media. Simultaneous evaluation of spatial and temporal trends in multiple media allows inferences that would be impossible with data on only one medium. As such, more co-ordination among monitoring sites for different media is suggested for future sampling, especially at the northern sites. We emphasize the importance of continued monitoring of multiple-media for determining future responses of environmental PFAA concentrations to voluntary and regulatory actions. PMID:23831544

  20. Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: Data from NHNAES 2007–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ram B., E-mail: Jain.ram.b@gmail.com

    2013-10-15

    The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007–2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. -- Highlights: • Levels of total triiodothyronine were found to increase with the levels of PFOA. • Total thyroxine increased with increase in levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid. • There was a positive association between the levels of PFOA and TSH. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of TSH, total T3 and T4. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of thyroglobulin.

  1. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yating; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Jianshe; Li, Xinhai; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

    2013-05-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China. PMID:23410673

  2. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Poganski, Beth H; Solem, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) samples were collected at a reference lake and a nearby lake (Lake Johanna) in east central Minnesota, USA contaminated with perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids. Tissues were analyzed for a suite of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) to quantify exposure and to determine if there was an association between egg concentrations of PFCs and reproductive success of tree swallows. Concentrations of perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) were elevated in all tree swallow tissues from Lake Johanna compared to tissues collected at the reference lake. Other PFCs, except for two, were elevated in blood plasma at Lake Johanna compared to the reference lake. PFOS was the dominant PFC (>75%) at Lake Johanna, but accounted for <50% of total PFCs at the reference lake. There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150ng/g wet weight. PMID:21296656

  3. Estimating dry deposition and gas/particle partition coefficients of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances in northern German coast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Mi, Wenying; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of 12 neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were estimated at Büsum located in northern German coast, and their gas/particle partition coefficients were predicted by employing the polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). The gas deposition flux, particle deposition flux and total (gas + particle) flux of the 12 PFASs during sampling periods were 1088 ± 611, 189 ± 75 and 1277 ± 627 pg/(m(2) d), respectively. The gas deposition of PFASs played a key role during deposition to marine ecosystem. Sensitivity analysis showed that wind speed was the most sensitive parameter for gas deposition fluxes. Good agreements (within 1 log unit) were observed between the measured gas/particle partitioning data of PFASs and the predicted partition coefficients using PP-LFERs, indicating the model can reliably predict the gas/particle partitioning behaviors of atmospheric neutral PFASs. PMID:25818091

  4. Validation of a screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances in biota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urs Berger; Marianne Haukĺs

    2005-01-01

    A screening method for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in biota samples has been developed and validated using liver samples from polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). The method was based on extraction of target compounds from homogenised samples into the solvent mixture used as mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), i.e. methanol\\/water (50:50; 2mM ammonium

  5. Effect of Equivalent Weight on Water Sorption, PTFE-Like Crystallinity, and Ionic Conductivity in Bis((Perfluoroalkyl)Sulfonyl) Imide Perfluorinated Ionomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Atkins; C. R. Sides; S. E. Creager; J. L. Harris; W. T. Pennington; B. H. Thomas; D. D. DesMarteau

    Measurements of water absorption and ionic conductivity as a function of relative humidity (RH) were carried out on membranes comprised of bis((perfluoroalkyl)sulfonyl) imide ionomers of equivalent weights 1470, 1200, and 1075 g equiv-1, and on a sample of the perfluorosulfonic ionomer Nafion™ ionomer of equivalent weight 1100 g equiv-1 for comparison. All of the ionomers exhibited decreased water absorption and

  6. Use of Umbilical Cord Serum in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among blood preparations, serum has been topically used in the management of various ocular diseases in ophthalmology. Like peripheral blood serum, umbilical cord blood serum contains a high concentration of essential tear components, growth factors, neurotrophic factors, vitamin A, fibronectin, prealbumin, and oil. Umbilical cord serum can provide basic nutrients for epithelial renewal and can facilitate the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of the ocular surface epithelium. Eye drops made from umbilical cord serum have been applied to treat various ocular surface diseases, including severe dry eye with or without Sjögren's syndrome, ocular complications in graft-versus-host disease, persistent epithelial defects, neurotrophic keratopathy, recurrent corneal erosions, ocular chemical burn, and surface problems after corneal refractive surgery. Because mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood can be used to regenerate corneal tissue and retinal nerve cells, umbilical cord serum might be applied for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the future. PMID:25568842

  7. Chemically and virally transformed cells able to grow without anchorage in serum-free medium: evidence for an autocrine growth factor.

    PubMed

    Xin, L W; Jullien, P; Lawrence, D A; Pironin, M; Vigier, P

    1987-05-01

    BA10-IR transformed cells, obtained by treating Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts (HEF) with 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene and cultivated for a long period, are highly tumorigenic and grow in suspension as aggregates (spheroids) (Levy et al., 1976). They also grow in attached form or as spheroids in serum-free (S-) synthetic medium, without insulin and transferrin, and form anchorage-independent (AI) colonies in this same, but semi-solid, medium. This exceptional phenotype was acquired stepwise, after other transformation parameters, and appears to be related to the capacity of the transformed cells to respond to a mitogenic growth factor which they secrete. The response to this autocrine factor is amplified by insulin and transferrin. Untransformed HEF, at late and early passages, and also mouse and rat embryo fibroblasts, secrete factors equally active on BA10-IR cells; but HEF do not respond, in S- medium, to their factor, or that of BA10-IR cells. Rat FR3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (FR3T3-Ki cells) also form AI colonies in semi-solid S- medium, secrete an autocrine factor potentiated by insulin and transferrin, and respond to the factors active on BA10-IR cells. However, they form far fewer colonies without additives, and respond as well to the mitogenic factors only in the presence of insulin and transferrin. BA10-IR cells and FR3T3-Ki cells also release beta-TGF, or a related factor, in an active and a latent form, activable by acidification, and HEF latent, activable beta-TGF. However, the factors shed by BA10-IR cells or HEF which stimulate AI growth of BA10-IR and FR3T3-Ki cells are proteins which seem unrelated to known transforming growth factors. Two major cellular alterations characteristic of the transformed phenotype in vitro are the ability to grow in the absence of anchorage, in semi-solid medium, and reduced dependence on serum growth factors (Hanafusa, 1977; Tooze, 1980). These alterations are often expressed together, and anchorage independence also appears to be the in vitro transformation parameter which correlates best with the tumorigenicity of the transformed cells (Pollack et al., 1975; Shin et al., 1975; Cifone and Fidler, 1980). However, this correlation is not constant (cf., Tooze, 1980). The cellular changes which confer anchorage independence remain unknown, but the culture conditions which allow anchorage-independent (AI) growth are better known. This growth occurs in the same media which permit the growth of attached cells, but generally requires serum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3034920

  8. Fluorescent probing of urea-induced chemical unfolding of bovine serum albumin by intramolecular charge transfer fluorescence probe E-3-(4-dimethylamino-naphthalen-1-yl)-acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shalini; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Changes in polarity at the immediate binding site in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) produces distinct changes in the solvent polarity-dependent emission band of fluorescence probe E-3-(4-dimethylamino-naphthalen-1-yl)-acrylic acid. Steady-state spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy have been used to investigate this binding process. Attaching the probe to BSA and then monitoring its spectral changes with increasing urea concentration and raising temperature has also tracked the denaturation of BSA chemically and thermally. The polarity of the microenvironment was investigated employing the Reichardt E(T)(30) scale. Fluorescence anisotropy, red edge excitation shifts and acrylamide-induced quenching of fluorescence have been exploited to gain better insight into this binding process. PMID:20003158

  9. Probing the binding of an endocrine disrupting compound-Bisphenol F to human serum albumin: insights into the interactions of harmful chemicals with functional biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fang; Xu, Tianci; Yang, Lijun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-11

    Bisphenol F (BPF) as an endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) pollutant in the environment poses a great threat to human health. To evaluate the toxicity of BPF at the protein level, the effects of BPF on human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated at three temperatures 283, 298, and 308 K by multiple spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results showed that BPF effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites, the binding constant, the thermodynamic parameters and the binding subdomain were measured, and indicated that BPF could spontaneously bind with HSA on subdomain IIA through H-bond and van der Waals interactions. Furthermore, the conformation of HSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of BPF. The work provides accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanisms of BPF with HSA in vivo and is helpful for understanding its effect on protein function during its transportation and distribution in blood. PMID:24973668

  10. Serum-free cell culture: the serum-free media interactive online database.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Daniel; Frank, Jürgen; Appl, Helmut; Schöffl, Harald; Pfaller, Walter; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a ubiquitously used essential supplement in cell culture media. However, there are serious scientific and ethical concerns about the use of FBS regarding its harvest and production. During the last three decades, FBS could be substituted by other supplements or by the use of defined chemical components in serum-free cell culture. A number of serum-free medium formulations have been described for mammalian and insect cell lines as well as for primary cultures. However, the switch to serum-free media still demands a time-consuming literature survey and a manufacturer search for appropriate medium formulations, respectively. Here we present the second collection of commercially available serum-free media in an updated, freely accessible interactive online database. Searches for serum-free media and continuous cell lines already adapted to serum-free culture can be performed according to various criteria. These include the degree of chemical definition, e.g. serum-free (SF), animal-derived component free (ADCF) or chemically defined (CD), and the type of medium, e.g. basal media, medium supplements, or full replacement media. In order to specify the cell lines that are adapted to serum-free media, search terms like species, organ, tissue, cell type and disease can be used. All commercially available serum-free media and adapted cell lines currently available from major distributors (e.g. ATCC, ECACC and DMSZ) are included in the database. Despite an extensive search for serum-free media and adapted cell lines, detailed information from certain companies and suppliers is still lacking and is specifically highlighted. It is intended to create a platform for the interactive exchange of information and experience by experts in the field in order to continuously improve and extend the serum-free online database. The database is accessible at http://www.goodcellculture.com/ PMID:20390239

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF FLUOROTELOMER-BASED CHEMICALS IN MAMMALIAN MATRICES BY MONITORING PERFLUOROALKYL CHAIN FRAGMENTS WITH GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), have been identified as persistent, bioaccurnulative and potentially toxic compounds. The structural analog, 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH) is considered the probable ...

  12. Perfluoroalkyl acids in municipal landfill leachates from China: Occurrence, fate during leachate treatment and potential impact on groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Cousins, Ian T; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-08-15

    Raw and treated landfill leachate samples were collected from 5 municipal landfill sites in China to measure the concentrations and contamination profile of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leachate during different steps of treatment. The total concentration of PFAAs (?PFAAs) ranged from 7280 to 292,000ngL(-1) in raw leachate and from 98.4 to 282,000ngL(-1) in treated leachate. The dominant compounds measured were PFOA (mean contribution 28.8% and 36.8% in raw and treated leachate, respectively) and PFBS (26.1% and 40.8% in raw and treated leachate, respectively). A calculation of mass flows during the leachate treatment processes showed that the fate of individual PFAAs was substance and treatment-specific. The Chinese national leakage of ?PFAAs to groundwater from landfill leachate was estimated to be 3110kgyear(-1), which is a significant environmental release that is potentially threatening the sustainable use of groundwater as a drinking water source. PMID:25889541

  13. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ?PFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749–3450 kg/year, of which about 1375–2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467–587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:23562984

  14. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-05-15

    Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ?PFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749-3450 kg/year, of which about 1375-2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467-587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:23562984

  15. Physical and Biological Release of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) from Municipal Solid Waste in Anaerobic Model Landfill Reactors.

    PubMed

    Allred, B McKay; Lang, Johnsie R; Barlaz, Morton A; Field, Jennifer A

    2015-07-01

    A wide variety of consumer products that are treated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and related formulations are disposed of in landfills. Landfill leachate has significant concentrations of PFASs and acts as secondary point sources to surface water. This study models how PFASs enter leachate using four laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors filled with municipal solid waste (MSW) and operated over 273 days. Duplicate reactors were monitored under live and abiotic conditions to evaluate influences attributable to biological activity. The biologically active reactors simulated the methanogenic conditions that develop in all landfills, producing ?140 mL CH4/dry g refuse. The average total PFAS leaching measured in live reactors (16.7 nmol/kg dry refuse) was greater than the average for abiotic reactors (2.83 nmol/kg dry refuse), indicating biological processes were primarily responsible for leaching. The low-level leaching in the abiotic reactors was primarily due to PFCAs ?C8 (2.48 nmol/kg dry refuse). Concentrations of known biodegradation intermediates, including methylperfluorobutane sulfonamide acetic acid and the n:2 and n:3 fluorotelomer carboxylates, increased steadily after the onset of methanogenesis, with the 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate becoming the single most concentrated PFAS observed in live reactors (9.53 nmol/kg dry refuse). PMID:26055930

  16. Separation and characterization of human serum chylomicrons.

    PubMed

    SCANU, A; PAGE, I H

    1959-03-01

    Chylomicrons were separated by low and high speed ultracentrifugation from lipemic sera of human subjects in the absorptive phase. The final chylomicron preparation was free from other serum components and contained a small constant amount of protein, approximately 2 per cent of the chylomicron fraction. Electrophoresis, immunochemical analysis, and absorption experiments identified the protein component as derived from a mixture of beta and alpha(1) serum lipoproteins. Large aliquots of an emulsion of serum freed of chylomicrons and coconut oil were incubated at 37 degrees C. for 2 hours and ultracentrifuged as in the preparation of chylomicrons. The fat particles now showed the presence of minute amounts of beta and alpha(1) serum lipoproteins in almost the same proportion as found in chylomicrons. "Finger prints" of delipidized samples of chylomicrons and particles from serum-coconut oil emulsion gave similar, although not identical patterns. The data on "clearing factor" activity corroborated the finding that serum alpha(1) lipoproteins are contained in chylomicrons and particles from serum-coconut oil emulsion. These two lipide particles, partially delipidized, were both able to activate a "clearing factor" system in vitro, a property exhibited only by intact or partially delipidized alpha(1) serum lipoproteins. Clearing activity was satisfactorily determined by using an emulsion of coconut oil mixed in agar as a substrate to give an opaque gel, in which the diffusing enzyme showed its activity by areas of clearing. The results obtained by this technique were in agreement with those based on fall in optical density and non-esterified fatty acid production. Chemical analysis of serum chylomicrons showed a concentration of cholesterol and phospholipides higher than could be accounted for by the attached beta and alpha(1) serum lipoproteins. On the basis of these results the assumption is made that in the blood stream small amounts of serum lipoproteins, by a process of adsorption, form a complex with the absorbed triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipides, to produce chylomicrons. PMID:13620852

  17. Serum factors and clinical characteristics associated with serum E-Screen activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hemming, Jocelyn D. C.; Hedman, Curtis J.; Sprague, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The E-Screen bioassay can measure the mitogenicity of human serum and thus may be useful as a biomarker in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. While the assay’s MCF-7 cells are known to proliferate in response to estrogen, the specific determinants of variation in E-Screen activity in human serum samples are poorly understood. We sought to identify serum molecules and patient characteristics associated with serum E-Screen activity among postmenopausal women. Methods Postmenopausal women (N=219) aged 55–70 with no history of postmenopausal hormone use or breast cancer completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum was analyzed for E-Screen activity and a variety of molecules including sex hormones, growth factors, and environmental chemicals. Stepwise selection procedures were used to identify correlates of E-Screen activity. Results Serum samples from all women had detectable E-Screen activity, with a median estradiol equivalents value of 0.027 ng/mL and interquartile range of 0.018–0.036 ng/mL. In the final multivariable-adjusted model, serum E-Screen activity was positively associated with serum estradiol, estrone, IGFBP-3, and testosterone levels (p<0.05), as well as body mass index (p=0.03). Serum E-Screen activity was lower among women with higher SHBG (p<0.0001) and progesterone levels (p=0.03). Conclusion Serum E-Screen activity varies according to levels of endogenous estrogens and other serum molecules. Obesity appears to confer additional serum mitogenicity beyond its impact on the measured hormones and growth factors. Impact By capturing mitogenicity due to a variety of patient and serum factors, the E-Screen may provide advantages for use as a biomarker in breast cancer studies. PMID:23588007

  18. Chemically induced unfolding of bovine serum albumin by urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate: a spectral study with the polarity-sensitive charge-transfer fluorescent probe (E)-3-(4-methylaminophenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shalini; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2009-07-13

    Sensitivity of the charge-transfer (CT) band of the fluorescence probe (E)-3-(4-methylaminophenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) towards the polarity of its immediate environment is employed to investigate the binding interaction of the probe with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and uncoiling of BSA by the denaturants urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. Binding of the probe with BSA produces a blue shift and enhanced intensity of the CT emission band which clearly point toward a decrease in polarity of the immediate environment of MAPAME. This is expected, since binding with BSA moves the probe from a polar water environment to a much less polar, hydrophobic protein interior, where the CT band is expected to be blue-shifted. Higher intensity arises due to fewer non-radiative decay paths available to the probe in the hydrophobic protein environment. Chemically induced unfolding of BSA by urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate is tracked by monitoring the induced spectral changes of the protein-bound probe MAPAME. Red-edge excitation shift or REES, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and anisotropy measurements are used to investigate and monitor these binding and unfolding processes. PMID:19466702

  19. Effects of Perfluorinated Phosphonic Acid Exposure during pregnancy in the mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) are a member of the perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) family, and are structurally similar to the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates. These chemicals have recently been detected in the environment, particularly in surface wa...

  20. Quantitative profiling of perfluoroalkyl substances by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damiŕ

    2015-06-01

    The accurate determination of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFSAs) in water, sediment, fish, meat, and human milk was achieved by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) with an ABSciex Triple TOF®. A group of 21 PFSAs was selected as target to evaluate the quantitative possibilities. Full scan MS acquisition data allows quantification at relevant low levels (0.1-50 ng L(-1) in water, 0.05-2 ng g(-1) in sediments, 0.01-5 ng g(-1) in fish and meat, and 0.005-2 ng g(-1) in human milk depending on the compound). Automatic information dependent acquisition product ion mass spectrometry (IDA-MS/MS) confirms the identity even for those compounds that presented only one product ion. The preparation of a homemade database using the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) Manager of the software based upon retention time, accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and MS/MS library searching achieves not only the successful identification of PFSAs but also of some pharmaceuticals, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and gemfibrozid. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) were 67-99 % (9-16 % RSD) for water, 62-103 % (8-18 % RSD) for sediment, 60-95 % (8-17 % RSD) for fish, 64-95 % (8-15 % RSD) for meat, and 63-95 % (8-16 %) for human milk. The quantitative data obtained for 60 samples by UHPLC-QqTOF-MS agree with those obtained by LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole (QqQ). PMID:25633215

  1. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in various food items of animal origin collected in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Hlouskova, Veronika; Hradkova, Petra; Poustka, Jan; Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filipps, Stefania Paola; D'Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven; Herzke, Dorte; Huber, Sandra; de Voogt, Pim; Pulkrabova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    This study summarises the results of the levels of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 50 selected pooled samples representing 15 food commodities with the special focus on those of animal origin, as meat, seafood, fish, milk, dairy products and hen eggs, which are commonly consumed in various European markets, e.g. Czech, Italian, Belgian and Norwegian. A new, rapid sample preparation approach based on the QuEChERS extraction procedure was applied. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode was used for the quantification of target analytes. Method quantification limits (MQLs) were in the range of 1-10 ng kg(-1) (ng l(-1)) for fish, meat, hen eggs, cheese and milk, and in the range of 2.5-125 ng kg(-1) for butter. Only 16 of the group of 21 PFASs were found in at least one analysed sample. From 16 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most frequently detected analyte present in approximately 50% of samples (in the range of 0.98-2600 ng kg(-1)). PFCAs with C8-C14 carbon chain were presented in approximately 20% of samples. The concentration ranges of individual compounds in the respective groups of PFASs were: 2.33-76.3 ng kg(-1) for PFSAs (without PFOS), 4.99-961 ng kg(-1) for PFCAs, 10.6-95.4 ng kg(-1) for PFPAs, and 1.61-519 ng kg(-1) for FOSA. The contamination level in the analysed food commodities decreased in the following order: seafood > pig/bovine liver > freshwater/marine fish > hen egg > meat > butter. When comparing the total contamination and profiles of PFASs in food commodities that originated from various sampling countries, differences were identified, and the contents decreased as follows: Belgium > Norway, Italy > Czech Republic. PMID:24107131

  2. The determination of perfluoroalkyl substances, brominated flame retardants and their metabolites in human breast milk and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lankova, Darina; Lacina, Ondrej; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, a novel analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and 11 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including their hydroxylated metabolites and brominated phenols has been developed and validated for breast milk and infant formula. The sample preparation procedure based on extraction using acetonitrile and subsequent purification by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) employing C18 sorbent is rapid, simple and high-throughput. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was employed for the identification/quantification of these compounds. The method recoveries of target compounds for both matrices ranged from 80% to 117% with relative standard deviations lower than 28% and quantification limits in the range of 3-200 pg/mL for milk and 5-450 pg/g for infant formula. Within the pilot study, the new method was used for the analysis of PFASs and BFRs in 50 human breast milks and six infant formulas. In the breast milk samples the total contents of PFASs and BFRs were in the range of 38-279 and 45-16,200 pg/mL, respectively. The most abundant PFASs detected in all tested breast milk samples were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), the latter contaminant was present not only as a linear form but also as a branched isomers. The incidence of BFRs was lower, the only representatives of this group, tetrabromobiphenol A (TBBPA) and ?-hexabromocyclododecane (?-HBCD), were detected in less than 30% of breast milk samples. None of the infant formulas contained BFRs, traces of either PFOS, PFOA or PFNA were found in three samples. PMID:24209347

  3. Perfluoroalkyl substances and lipid concentrations in plasma during pregnancy among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Anne P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Whitworth, Kristina W.; Richardson, David B.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Haug, Line Smĺstuen; Eggesbř, Merete; Becher, Georg; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wilson, Ralph E.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Baird, Donna D.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread and persistent environmental pollutants. Previous studies, primarily among non-pregnant individuals, suggest positive associations between PFAS levels and certain blood lipids. If there is a causal link between PFAS concentrations and elevated lipids during pregnancy, this may suggest a mechanism by which PFAS exposure leads to certain adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 891 pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study in 2003–2004. Non-fasting plasma samples were obtained at mid-pregnancy and analyzed for nineteen PFASs. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in plasma. Linear regression was used to quantify associations between each PFAS exposure and each lipid outcome. A multiple PFAS model was also fitted. Results Seven PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration was associated with total cholesterol, which increased 4.2 mg/dL per interquartile shift (95% CI=0.8, 7.7) in adjusted models. Five of the seven PFASs studied were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and all seven had elevated HDL associated with the highest quartile of exposure. Perfluoroundecanoic acid showed the strongest association with HDL: HDL increased 3.7 mg/dL per interquartile shift (95% CI=2.5, 4.9). Conclusion Plasma concentrations of PFASs were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and PFOS was positively associated with total cholesterol in this sample of pregnant Norwegian women. While elevated HDL is not an adverse outcome per se, elevated total cholesterol associated with PFASs during pregnancy could be of concern if causal. PMID:24189199

  4. Optimization and comparison of several extraction methods for determining perfluoroalkyl substances in abiotic environmental solid matrices using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2015-07-01

    In this study, four extraction methods of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils and sediments were validated and compared in order to select the one that provides the best recoveries and the highest sensitivity. The determination of PFASs was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction methods compared were based on (i) an aqueous solution of acetic acid and methanol (recoveries 44-125 %, relative standard deviation (RSD) <25 %), (ii) methanol (34-109 %, <25 %), (iii) sodium hydroxide digestion (24-178 %, <49 %), and (iv) ion pair (35-179 %, <31 %). The best results were obtained with methanol extraction, which recovered a greater number of PFASs and provided values between 45-103 % in sediment and 34-109 % in soil with RSDs <25 % and limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.02-0.31 and 0.01-6.00 ng g(-1), respectively. The selected method was successfully applied to Segura River sediments and soil samples taken near the Turia River. This study demonstrates the presence of PFASs in the studied rivers of the Valencian Community (0.07-14.91 ng g(-1) in Segura River sediments; 0.02-64.04 ng g(-1) in Turia River soils). Graphical Abstract Selected matrices and extraction methods for determination of perfluoroalkyl substances. PMID:26025550

  5. NuSerum, a synthetic serum replacement, supports chondrogenesis of embryonic chick limb bud mesenchymal cells in micromass culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayme Wong; Rocky S. Tuan

    1993-01-01

    Summary  In an effort to establish a more chemically defined culture system to study the regulation of chondrogenic differentiation\\u000a in vitro, two commercially available serum replacements, NuSerum and NuSerum IV, were tested on embryonic limb mesenchyme.\\u000a Limb bud (LB) mesenchymal cells were isolated from Hamilton-Hamburger stage 23–24 chick embryos and plated at various densities\\u000a (1, 5, 10, or 20 × 106

  6. Fractionation of Serum Proteins by Zone Electrophoresis in Glass Powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Bradish; Nan V. Smart

    1954-01-01

    IN connexion with recent electrophoretic studies of ox serum1, it became necessary to establish a reliable method for the fractionation of serum proteins which would allow numerous samples to be separated into distinct fractions of sufficient volume and concentration for subsequent physico-chemical and biological characterization. Zone electrophoresis2 appeared to be the method of choice, and the apparatus here described is

  7. Serum-free Media for Culturing and Serial-Passaging of Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TONGALP H. TEZEL; LUCIAN V. DEL PRIORE

    1998-01-01

    The ability of a chemically-defined serum-free culture medium to support the attachment, growth and serial passaging of primary adult human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was studied. Primary cultures of adult human RPE were established in a chemically-defined serum-free culture medium on both bare or bovine corneal endothelial extracellular matrix-coated tissue-culture plastic. Confluent cells were serially passaged in chemically-defined serum-free

  8. Nickel-Catalyzed Alkyl-Alkyl Cross-Couplings of Fluorinated Secondary Electrophiles: A General Approach to the Synthesis of Compounds having a Perfluoroalkyl Substituent.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yufan; Fu, Gregory C

    2015-07-27

    Fluorinated organic molecules are of interest in fields ranging from medicinal chemistry to polymer science. Described herein is a mild, convenient, and versatile method for the synthesis of compounds bearing a perfluoroalkyl group attached to a tertiary carbon atom by using an alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling. A nickel catalyst derived from NiCl2 ?glyme and a pybox ligand achieves the coupling of a wide range of fluorinated alkyl halides with alkylzinc reagents at room temperature. A broad array of functional groups is compatible with the reaction conditions, and highly selective couplings can be achieved on the basis of differing levels of fluorination. A mechanistic investigation has established that the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) inhibits cross-coupling under these conditions and that a TEMPO-electrophile adduct can be isolated. PMID:26073669

  9. Mild and Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 2-(Perfluoroalkyl)indoles by Means of Sequential Michael-Type Addition and Pd(II)-Catalyzed Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling (CDC) Reaction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dandan; Han, Jing; Chen, Jie; Deng, Hongmei; Shao, Min; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Weiguo

    2015-07-01

    2-Perfluoroalkylated indoles were efficiently synthesized via a one-pot cascade Michael-type addition/palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) process, using molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant at 100 °C in DMSO. This process allows atom economical assembly of indole rings from inexpensive and readily available anilines and methyl perfluoroalk-2-ynoates and tolerates a broad range of functional groups. PMID:26090551

  10. Vanadium in human serum, as determined by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simonoff, M.; Llabador, Y.; Peers, A.M.; Simonoff, G.N.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium concentrations have been measured in the serum of 23 healthy subjects by neutron activation analysis, with post-irradiation chemical separation. The values obtained fall in a fairly narrow range (260-1300 ng/L, mean 670 ng/L), which suggests a physiological role for this element. The authors checked the method by analysis of standard (U.S. National Bureau of Standards) water samples and serum samples supplemented with /sup 48/V, and found excellent agreement with expected results in both cases. They consider the reported results for human serum to be more reliable than those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Altered Fatty Acid Homeostasis and Related Toxicologic Sequelae in Rats Exposed to Dietary Potassium Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Curran; S. Lynn Hierlihy; Virginia Liston; Peter Pantazopoulos; Andrée Nunnikhoven; Sheryl Tittlemier; Michael Barker; Keith Trick; Genevieve Bondy

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is one of a class of industrial chemicals known as perfluoroalkyl acids, which have a wide variety of uses as surfactants and stain repellants. The presence of fluorochemical residues in human blood, plasma, or serum from sample populations worldwide is indicative of widespread human exposure. Previous studies demonstrated that PFOS alters fatty acid metabolism in the liver of

  12. The influence of serum lipid levels on lymphocyte function and cholesterol esterification in humans 

    E-print Network

    Slaughter, Susan Patrice

    1982-01-01

    33 Correlation of total serum protein and serum triglycerides. 34 10 Correlation of ideal body weight and serum triglycerides. Correlation of PHA and serum HOL cholesterol. , 35 Correlation of PHM and serum HOL cholesterol. . 37 12 13... phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P, Difco, Detroit, MI), in dilutions of 1:800 and 1:1600, concanavalin A (Con A, Sigma Chemical Co. , St. Louis, MO) in dilutions of 1:10 and I n20, and pokeweed mitogen (PWM, Sigma) in dilutions of 1:40 and 1:80. The mitogens were added...

  13. Human Serum Paraoxonase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharti Mackness; Paul N. Durrington; Michael I. Mackness

    1998-01-01

    1.Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a Ca2+-dependent 45-kDa glycoprotein that is associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL).2.PON1 hydrolyzes organophosphate (OP) insecticides and nerve gases and is responsible for determining the selective toxicity of these compounds in mammals.3.PON1 has two genetic polymorphisms giving rise to amino acid substitutions at positions 55 and 192. The position-192 polymorphism is the major determinant of

  14. The Human Serum Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  15. Orthogonal zirconium diol/C18 liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Allred, B McKay; Lang, Johnsie R; Barlaz, Morton A; Field, Jennifer A

    2014-09-12

    Leachates coming from landfills contain a myriad of compounds of potential environmental and human health concern, including per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Micro liquid-liquid extraction was combined with a 900?l large volume injection (LVI) for the analysis of 70 PFASs in landfill leachate by orthogonal LC-MS/MS. The LVI approach introduced 7 times more extract than conventional injection approaches. Two zirconium-modified diol guard columns effectively retained PFASs from the organic leachate extract and an analytical C18 column was used for separation. Method accuracy and precision for PFASs with analytical grade reference materials ranged from 81-120% and 5.5-33%, respectively. Estimated method detection limits in the low to sub-ng/L. Seven landfill leachates were analyzed by the optimized analytical method for the purposes of method demonstration. Leachates were characterized by a wide variety of PFASs, reporting on 36 previously-unanalyzed PFASs in leachate. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates were the most abundant class detected while phosphorous-containing PFASs, present in all leachates, were at low concentrations. The 3-perfluoropentyl propanoate (5:3 FTCA) was the most concentrated analyte in most samples and constitutes a previously unreported but significant component of landfill leachate. PMID:25103279

  16. Long-term lysimeter experiment to investigate the leaching of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the carry-over from soil to plants: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Thorsten; Riebe, Rika Alessa; Falk, Sandy; Failing, Klaus; Brunn, Hubertus

    2013-02-27

    To study the behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil and the carry-over from soil to plants, technical mixtures of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at a concentration of 25 mg/kg soil were applied to 1.5 m(3) monolithic soil columns of a lysimeter. Growth samples and percolated water were analyzed for PFASs throughout a period of 5 years. In addition to PFOA/PFOS plant compartments and leachate were found to be contaminated with short-chain PFASs. Calculation showed significant decreasing trends (p < 0.05) for all substances tested in the growth samples. Short-chain PFASs and PFOA pass through the soil much more quickly than PFOS. Of the 360 g of PFOA and 367.5 g of PFOS applied to the soil, 96.88% PFOA and 99.98% PFOS were still present in the soil plot of the lysimeter after a period of 5 years. Plants accumulated 0.001% PFOA and 0.004% PFOS. Loss from the soil plot through leachate amounted to 3.12% for PFOA and 0.013% for PFOS. PMID:23379692

  17. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Michela; Rusconi, Marianna; Valsecchi, Sara; Martins, Claudia P. B.; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between ?34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0?ng/L and from 1 to 20?ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. PMID:25834752

  18. Determination of hormones, a plasticizer, preservatives, perfluoroalkylated compounds, and a flame retardant in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) is a novel extraction technique commonly applied for the extraction on a specific group of compounds. In this paper, the applicability of ultrasound-assisted DLLME-SFO for multiresidue extraction has been evaluated. A method for the simultaneous extraction of four hormones (17?-ethinylestradiol, 17?-estradiol, estriol and estrone), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), three preservatives (methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkylated compounds (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, from C4 to C8), and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane) has been developed and validated for their extraction from surface water and tap water. Determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Recoveries of the target compounds were highly dependent on their logKow values. Linear relationship between recoveries and logKow values was observed for compounds from the same group (hormones, preservatives and perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acids). The lowest recoveries were obtained for the less hydrophobic compounds (estriol (43%), methylparaben (32%), ethylparaben (45%) and the perfluorinated compounds of shorter alkyl chain (C4: 17%, C5: 41% and C6: 57%)). Recoveries of the other pollutants were higher than 80%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range from 1% to 16%. Method detection limits were in the range 0.001-1.126µgL(-1), for surface water, and 0.001-1.446µgL(-1) for tap water. No important matrix effect was observed. PMID:26078168

  19. Occurrence of vanadium ion in serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, H; Nishida, M; Koyama, M; Takada, J

    1987-06-22

    Vanadium was shown to be a contaminant in Sigma-grade serum albumins, fraction V. The levels of vanadium detected by neutron activation analysis were: bovine 16.7, ovine 10.0, rabbit 9.1, porcine 3.9, and human 0.19 micrograms/g protein. According to the ESR spectra, the vanadate form (+5 oxidation state) was strongly suggested as a chemical form present in albumins. Dialysis against a chelating agent was quite effective for removal of the metal ion. PMID:3036244

  20. Interpreting serum risperidone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boerth, Joel M; Caley, Charles F; Goethe, John W

    2005-02-01

    Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic commonly used for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Although therapeutic drug monitoring is not routine for any of the atypical antipsychotics, serum antipsychotic concentrations are measured routinely to assess treatment nonadherence. In humans, risperidone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone; together these constitute the active moiety. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations have not been reported for the parent drug, but have been reported for 9-hydroxyrisperidone and the active moiety (i.e., the combined concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone). We describe a 34-year-old Caucasian man of Sicilian descent with a history of schizophrenia, disorganized type. He was suspected to be noncompliant with his risperidone therapy. Initially, active moiety risperidone concentrations increased linearly with prescribed dosage increases. However, with continued increases, active moiety concentrations adjusted downward and remained 17-36% below anticipated levels. We propose a method for estimating target active moiety concentrations of risperidone based on dosage-a method that may be used to guide clinicians in assessing nonadherence to risperidone treatment. PMID:15767244

  1. Thorium in human blood serum, clot, and urine comparison with ICRP excretion model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Sunta; H. S. Dang; D. D. Jaiswal; S. D. Soman

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation followed by a simple radio-chemical separation procedure was employed to determine the concentrations of thorium (232Th) in human blood serum, clot, and urine of normal subjects and three groups of occupationally exposed persons. The thorium concentrations in the blood serum, clot, and urine samples of the exposed groups were distinctly higher than those of the other study groups

  2. Serum chloramphenicol levels and the intramuscular bioavailability of several parenteral formulations of chloramphenicol in ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. M. Nouws; G. Ziv

    1979-01-01

    Serum chloramphenicol concentrations were determined by microbiological and chemical assay methods in cows, ewes, and goats treated parenterally with seven different veterinary parenteral chloramphenicol products, including the water soluble sodium succinate ester of chloramphenicol and solutions of 20%, 25% and 50% of chloramphenicol base in various organic solvents. Serum drug concentrations were analyzed for the effect of product formulation differences,

  3. FOAMING PROPERTIES OF PORCINE SERUM AND PORCINE SERUM ALBUMIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Ramos-Clamont; L. Vázquez-Moreno

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the foam capacity (FC) and foam stability (FS) of freeze-dried porcine serum (PS) and porcine serum albumin (PSA) with egg white protein (EW). PSA was obtained by hydrophobic interaction chromatography in a single chromatographic step. Foaming properties were determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 % of protein solutions in buffer

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

  5. Validation of a screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances in biota.

    PubMed

    Berger, Urs; Haukĺs, Marianne

    2005-07-22

    A screening method for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in biota samples has been developed and validated using liver samples from polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). The method was based on extraction of target compounds from homogenised samples into the solvent mixture used as mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), i.e. methanol/water (50:50; 2 mM ammonium acetate). The extract was filtered and directly injected into a HPLC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system. Quantification was performed using 7H-perfluoroheptanoic acid as internal standard and a calibration standard solution dissolved in sample extract for each matrix type (matrix-matched calibration standard). The method is very time and cost efficient. Except for long-chain compounds and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (which cannot be covered by this method), recoveries were between 60% and 115% and method detection limits were in the range 0.04-1.3 ng/g wet weight. Blank values could be neglected with the exception of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). One of the major challenges in PFAS analysis is ionisation disturbance by co-eluting matrix in the ion source of the mass spectrometer. Both matrix and analyte specific signal enhancement and suppression was observed and quantified. Repeated extractions (n = 3) gave relative standard deviations (RSD) <35% for all PFAS. Accuracy was examined by comparing the screening method to the generally applied ion pair extraction (IPE) method. PFAS concentration values of a glaucous gull liver sample deviated by less than 30% for the two methods, provided that matrix-matched calibration standards were employed in both methods. PMID:16038211

  6. Isomeric specific partitioning behaviors of perfluoroalkyl substances in water dissolved phase, suspended particulate matters and sediments in Liao River Basin and Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fang, Shuhong; Zhang, Yifeng; Yang, Liping

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eleven perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were investigated in water dissolved phase, sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in two typical watersheds in China: Liao River Basin and Taihu Lake. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the dissolved phase were 44.4-781 ng/L in Liao River with high contribution of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (75.7%) and PFOA (9.86%). The ?PFASs in the dissolved phase in Taihu Lake was 17.2-94.4 ng/L with PFOA (39.8%), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (30.1%) and PFOS (16.8%) as the dominant PFASs. The log Koc values of the PFASs in both SPM and sediment increased with increasing the perfluorinated carbon chain length. In Liao River Basin, the long chain perfluorocarboxylates (C10-12) bound with SPM contributed >30% to the total amount in water, suggesting that SPM could not be ignored when the environmental load of long chain PFASs in water was assessed. For the isomers of PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA, the linear isomers always displayed higher partition coefficients on particulate phases than the branched ones. An established isomer-profiling technique was applied to assess the relative contributions of various industrial origins for PFOA. In Liao River, when SPM was included in the water samples, there were contributions of PFOA from electrochemical fluorination (ECF) (?55%), linear telomer (?41%) and isopropyl telomer (?4%) sources. While, the results based on the dissolved phase alone indicated more contribution of ECF (?70%) source and lower contribution from linear telomer (?26%) source. The discrepancy suggests that omitting SPM from water samples might lead to misunderstanding on the industrial origins of PFOA. In Taihu Lake, the isomer profile of PFOA was influenced mainly by ECF (?88%) and partially by linear-telomer (?12%) sources. PMID:26005784

  7. Circulating serum xenoestrogens and mammographic breast density

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Humans are widely exposed to estrogenically active phthalates, parabens, and phenols, raising concerns about potential effects on breast tissue and breast cancer risk. We sought to determine the association of circulating serum levels of these chemicals (reflecting recent exposure) with mammographic breast density (a marker of breast cancer risk). Methods We recruited postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin (N = 264). Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample that was analyzed for mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA). Percentage breast density was measured from mammograms by using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Results Serum BPA was positively associated with mammographic breast density after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other potentially confounding factors. Mean percentage density was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4 to 14.0) among the 193 women with nondetectable BPA levels, 13.7% (95% CI, 10.7 to 17.1) among the 35 women with detectable levels below the median (<0.55 ng/ml), and 17.6% (95% CI, 14.1 to 21.5) among the 34 women with detectable levels above the median (>0.55 ng/ml; Ptrend = 0.01). Percentage breast density was also elevated (18.2%; 95% CI, 13.4 to 23.7) among the 18 women with serum mono-ethyl phthalate above the median detected level (>3.77 ng/ml) compared with women with nondetectable BPA levels (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.9 to 14.3; Ptrend = 0.07). No other chemicals demonstrated associations with percentage breast density. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with high serum levels of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate had elevated breast density. Further investigation of the impact of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate on breast cancer risk by using repeated serum measurements or other markers of xenoestrogen exposure are needed. PMID:23710608

  8. Estimated congener specific gas-phase atmospheric behavior and fractionation of perfluoroalkyl compounds: rates of reaction with atmospheric oxidants, air-water partitioning, and wet/dry deposition lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya; Friesen, Ken J

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative structure-activity model has been validated for estimating congener specific gas-phase hydroxyl radical reaction rates for perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), carboxylic acids (PFCAs), aldehydes (PFAls) and dihydrates, fluorotelomer olefins (FTOls), alcohols (FTOHs), aldehydes (FTAls), and acids (FTAcs), and sulfonamides (SAs), sulfonamidoethanols (SEs), and sulfonamido carboxylic acids (SAAs), and their alkylated derivatives based on calculated semi-empirical PM6 method ionization potentials. Corresponding gas-phase reaction rates with nitrate radicals and ozone have also been estimated using the computationally derived ionization potentials. Henry's law constants for these classes of perfluorinated compounds also appear to be reasonably approximated by the SPARC software program, thereby allowing estimation of wet and dry atmospheric deposition rates. Both congener specific gas-phase atmospheric and air-water interface fractionation of these compounds is expected, complicating current source apportionment perspectives and necessitating integration of such differential partitioning influences into future multimedia models. The findings will allow development and refinement of more accurate and detailed local through global scale atmospheric models for the atmospheric fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds. PMID:19827486

  9. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  10. Operation of a DNA-Based Autocatalytic Network in Serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graugnard, Elton; Cox, Amber; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.

    The potential for inferring the presence of cancer by the detection of miRNA in human blood has motivated research into the design and operation of DNA-based chemical amplifiers that can operate in bodily fluids. As a first step toward this goal, we have tested the operation of a DNA-based autocatalytic network in human serum and mouse serum. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to prevent degradation by nuclease activity, the network was found to operate successfully with both DNA and RNA catalysts.

  11. Label stability in serum of four radionuclides on DTPA-coupled antibodies--an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hnatowich, D J

    1986-01-01

    Although DTPA forms strong chelates with many metals, the harsh chemical environment of the serum may nevertheless dissociate metallic radionuclides from DTPA attached to proteins. We have investigated the stability in 37 degrees C serum of 111In, 99mTc, 90Y and 153Gd chelated to DTPA-coupled antibodies. Stability was evaluated primarily by affinity chromatography and HPLC analysis of serum incubates; however, the stability of 111In was determined in vivo in patient studies. Analysis of patient urine showed no evidence for dissociation of DTPA from antibody whereas analysis of serum demonstrated exchange rates of 111In to transferrin of about 9%/day. When labeled by the described method, 99mTc on DTPA coupled antibodies shows instability in serum but superior stability than 99mTc on antibodies without the attached DTPA. Both 90Y and 153Gd dissociate in serum at rates which are comparable to that of 111In. PMID:3793489

  12. Is the fresh water fish consumption a significant determinant of the internal exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS)?

    PubMed

    Denys, Sébastien; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Moussa, Oumar; Le Bizec, Bruno; Veyrand, Bruno; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    PFAS are man-made compounds that are highly spread in the environment. Human dietary exposure to such contaminants is of high concern as they may accumulate in the food chain. Different studies already demonstrated the importance of the fish consumption in the dietary exposure of these molecules and the potential increase of internal doses of PFAS following the consumption of PFAS. However, so far few study aimed to study the link between the consumption of fresh water fishes and the internal exposure to PFAS. Objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the internal exposure of populations that are potentially high consumers of fresh water fishes and (ii) to determine whether the consumption of fish caught from fresh water is a significant determinant of the internal exposure of PFAS. In this work, a large sample of adult freshwater anglers from the French metropolitan population (478 individuals) was constituted randomly from participants lists of anglers associations. Questionnaires provided social and demographic information and diet information for each subject. In addition, analyses of blood serum samples provided the internal concentration of 14 PFAS. The survey design allowed to extrapolate the data obtained on the 478 individuals to the freshwater angler population. Descriptive data regarding internal levels of PFAS were discussed at the population level, whereas identification of the determinants were done at the 478 individuals level as sufficient contrast was required in terms of fresh water fish consumption. Only molecules for which the detection frequency were above 80% in blood were considered, i.e., PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFHpS, and PFDA. Distribution profiles showed log-normal distribution and PFOS and PFOA were the main contributors of the PFAS sum. For PFOS, the results obtained on the 478 individuals showed that upper percentiles were higher as compared to upper percentiles obtained on occidental general population. This confirmed an over-exposure of a fraction of the 478 individuals. Though, when the results were considered at the population level, the values were close. This was attributed to the low consumption frequency of fresh water fish in the general population. For PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFDA, the fresh water fish consumption was identified as one of the contributors of internal PFAS concentrations. Gender, age, geographical location and consumption of home-grown products as other determinants were also discussed in this paper. PMID:25091270

  13. Evaluation of serum and salivary lipid profile: A correlative study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Simranjit; Ramesh, Venkatapathy; Oza, Nirima; Balamurali, Pennagaram Dhanasekaran; Prashad, Karthikshree Vishnu; Balakrishnan, Premalatha

    2014-01-01

    Context: The correlation of serum and salivary lipid profile has been poorly characterized. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic procedures for lipid profile involve analysis of cellular and chemical constituents of blood/plasma. As a diagnostic aid, saliva offers many advantages over serum. Aims: To evaluate and compare the serum and salivary lipid profile levels in healthy individuals and to validate the role of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile. Settings and Design: The present study was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy study subjects who had no complaint or any major illness in recent past were selected. The parameters assessed included serum and salivary: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDLC) and triglycerides (TGL). Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation of results and statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Results: There was a moderate level of correlation between serum and salivary TC, TGL, HDLC and VLDLC and there was a low and quite small correlation between serum and salivary LDLC. For all the five parameters assessed as a part of lipid profile, the correlation coefficients were highly significant statistically and also, with an increase in the serum mean values, corresponding increase in the saliva mean values for all the five parameters was noted. Conclusions: From the present study we conclude that saliva can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing lipid profile. PMID:24959029

  14. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Patients Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Haji Hosseini, Reza; Esfandiari, Malek Ashtar; Najafian, Nastaran; Najafian, Bita; Golbedagh, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of endopeptidases which comprised of various types. These proteolytic enzymes are zinc-dependent and play role in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Various types of cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, synovial cells and some epithelial cells secrete MMPs. According to previous studies on bronchiolitis and respiratory tract lesions in these patients and unknown pathophysiology mechanism up to date, this cross–sectional study was performed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the serum MMP level in patients with chemical injuries and normal people and also determine the role of these parameters in pulmonary disorders . Materials and Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 25 Iranian patients exposed to the sulfur mustard and 25 unexposed participants as the control group were enrolled. Serum samples were collected from two groups and stored at -70?C until the measurement of MMPs and TIMPs. ELISA kit was used for measurement of MMP and TIMP based on the kit's instruction. For validations in measurement, all samples were analyzed duplicate and in some cases triplicate. Results: The mean level of MMP-9 in serum of chemically-injured group was 1592.42 and this amount in normal group was 679.72 .So there was a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.001) and the mean level of MMP-8 in serum of patients group was 49.10 and in normal group was 35.53. Then there was no significant difference between two groups (P = 0.197). The mean levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 was not significantly different (P value > 0.05) in the patient and normal groups. And also the mean levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the patients and normal groups. Conclusions: In summary, serum MMPs in chemically-injured has shown no significant difference with normal people except for the MMP-9. PMID:24829780

  15. Duration of breastfeeding and serum PCB 153 concentrations in children.

    PubMed

    Lancz, Kinga; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Murínová, Lubica; Wimmerová, So?a; Sov?íková, Eva; Dedík, Ladislav; Strémy, Maximilián; Drobná, Beata; Farkašová, Dana; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals which, because of their lipophilic properties, are abundant in human breast milk. Breastfed infants are therefore at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs. The commonly used exposure estimations, based solely on breast milk PCB levels and duration of breastfeeding, may lead to exposure misclassification. To improve assessments of exposure to PCBs, we determined PCB 153 serum concentration, as a model substance for PCBs, at the critical time of weaning for each child in 305 breastfed infants from 5 single time point concentration measurements spread over 7 years and data on duration of breastfeeding, using an earlier developed model of the system type. We approximated the dependence of PCB 153 serum concentration, Ctbf, adjusted to cord serum concentration, C0, on nursing period, by a polynomial function Ctbf/C0=0.596+0.278t-0.0047t(2) which reliably predicts exposure to PCB 153 of breastfed infants, important for assessment of dose-outcome relationships. Adjustment of current serum concentrations to cord serum concentration improved validity of exposure assessment. PMID:25460618

  16. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

  17. Increased Serum Calcitonin in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Omega L.; Titus-Dillon, Pauline; Becker, Kenneth L.; Snider, Richard H.; Moore, Charles F

    1981-01-01

    Calcitonin, the hypocalcemic, hypophosphatemic polypeptide hormone of C cell origin, has been reported to be high in pregnant women at delivery. Levels of this hormone were determined by radioimmunoassay in 56 pregnant women in all trimesters and found to be above normal in 72 percent. Values were also increased during the first two days postpartum. Calcitonin levels were not correlated with serum calcium or phosphate, except in the first trimester when levels of this hormone were inversely correlated with serum phosphate. Perhaps the hypercalcitonemia of pregnancy serves to protect the maternal skeleton, while allowing the fetus to accumulate calcium. PMID:7265273

  18. Chemical modification of polymer brushes via nitroxide photoclick trapping.

    PubMed

    Mardyukov, Artur; Li, Yong; Dickschat, Arne; Schäfer, Andreas H; Studer, Armido

    2013-05-28

    The preparation of polymer brushes (PBs) bearing ?-hydroxyalkylphenylketone (2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-1-one) moieties as photoreactive polymer backbone substituents is presented. Photoreactive polymer brushes with defined thicknesses (up to 60 nm) and high grafting densities are readily prepared by surface initiated nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (SINMP). The photoactive moieties can be transformed via Norrish-type I photoreaction to surface-bound acyl radicals. Photolysis in the presence of a persistent nitroxide leads to chemically modified PBs bearing acylalkoxyamine moieties as side chains resulting from trapping of the photogenerated acyl radicals with nitroxides. Application of functionalized nitroxides to the photochemical PB postmodification provides functionalized PBs bearing cyano, polyethylene glycol (PEG), perfluoroalkyl, and biotin moieties. As shown for one case, photochemical postfunctionalization of the PB through a mask using a biotin-conjugated nitroxide as the trapping reagent leads to the corresponding site-selective chemically modified PB, which is successfully used for site-specific streptavidin immobilization. Surface analysis of PBs was performed by contact angle (CA) measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection (ATR), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23675823

  19. Serum lipids regulate dendritic cell CD1 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Leslie, David S; Dascher, Christopher C; Cembrola, Katherine; Townes, Maria A; Hava, David L; Hugendubler, Lynne C; Mueller, Elisabetta; Fox, Lisa; Roura-Mir, Carme; Moody, D Branch; Vincent, Michael S; Gumperz, Jenny E; Illarionov, Petr A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Reynolds, Carol G; Brenner, Michael B

    2008-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play a vital role in stimulating naďve T cells. Treatment of human blood monocytes with the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 stimulates them to develop into immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in vitro. DCs generated by this pathway have a high capacity to prime and activate resting T cells and prominently express CD1 antigen-presenting molecules on the cell surface. The presence of human serum during the differentiation of iDCs from monocytes inhibits the expression of CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, but not CD1d. Correspondingly, T cells that are restricted by CD1c showed poor responses to DCs that were generated in the presence of human serum, while the responses of CD1d-restricted T cells were enhanced. We chemically fractionated human serum to isolate the bioactive factors that modulate surface expression of CD1 proteins during monocyte to DC differentiation. The human serum components that affected CD1 expression partitioned with polar organic soluble fractions. Lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin were identified as lipids present in normal human serum that potently modulate CD1 expression. Control of CD1 expression was mediated at the level of gene transcription and correlated with activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear hormone receptors. These findings indicate that the ability of human DCs to present lipid antigens to T cells through expression of CD1 molecules is sensitively regulated by lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin in serum, which are ligands that can activate PPAR transcription factors. PMID:18445008

  20. Predictors of Serum Chlorinated Pesticide Concentrations among Prepubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige L.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.; Lee, Mary M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated predictors of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a class of lipophilic persistent chemicals. Objectives: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum OCP concentrations—hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)—among boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were recruited in a prospective cohort. The initial study visit included a physical examination; blood collection; health, lifestyle, and food-frequency questionnaires; and determination of residential distance from a local factory complex that produced HCB and ?-HCH. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for OCPs at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of the boys’ serum HCB, ?-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations. Results: Among 355 boys with OCP measurements, median serum HCB, ?-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations were 158, 167, and 284 ng/g lipid, respectively. Lower body mass index, longer breastfeeding duration, and local dairy consumption were associated with higher concentrations of OCPs. Boys who lived < 2 km from the factory complex had 64% (95% CI: 37, 96) and 57% (95% CI: 32, 87) higher mean HCB and ?-HCH concentrations, respectively, than boys who lived ? 5 km away. Living > 3 years in Chapaevsk predicted higher ?-HCH concentrations, and having parents who lacked a high school education predicted higher p,p´-DDE concentrations. Conclusions: Among this cohort of prepubertal Russian boys, predictors of serum OCPs included consumption of local dairy products, longer local residence, and residential proximity to the local factory complex. Citation: Lam T, Williams PL, Burns JS, Sergeyev O, Korrick SA, Lee MM, Birnbaum LS, Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Hauser R. 2013. Predictors of serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations among prepubertal Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 121:1372–1377;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306480 PMID:23955839

  1. Relationships of Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Serum Concentrations between Mother–Child Pairs in a Population with Perfluorooctanoate Exposure from Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Armstrong, Ben; Stein, Cheryl R.; Fletcher, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the associations between maternal or newborn and child exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). This study provides an opportunity to assess the association between PFAA concentrations in mother–child pairs in a population exposed to PFOA via drinking water. Objectives: We aimed to determine the relationship between mother–child PFAA serum concentrations and to examine how the child:mother ratio varies with child’s age, child’s sex, drinking-water PFOA concentration, reported bottled water use, and mother’s breast-feeding intention. Methods: We studied 4,943 mother–child pairs (children, 1–19 years of age). The child:mother PFAA ratio was stratified by possible determinants. Results are summarized as geometric mean ratios and correlation coefficients between mother–child pairs, overall and within strata. Results: Child and mother PFOA and PFOS concentrations were correlated (r = 0.82 and 0.26, respectively). Up to about 12 years of age, children had higher serum PFOA concentrations than did their mothers. The highest child:mother PFOA ratio was found among children ? 5 years (44% higher than their mothers), which we attribute to in utero exposure and to exposure via breast milk and drinking water. Higher PFOS concentrations in children persisted until at least 19 years of age (42% higher than their mothers). Boys > 5 years of age had significantly higher PFOA and PFOS child:mother ratios than did girls. Conclusion: Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS tended to be higher in children than in their mothers. This difference persisted until they were about 12 years of age for PFOA and at least 19 years of age for PFOS. PMID:22271837

  2. Modulation of. beta. -adrenergic response in rat brain astrocytes by serum and hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.K.; Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat cerebrum respond to isoproterenol, a ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, with a transient rise in cAMP production. This astroglial property was regulated by serum, a chemically defined medium (serum-free medium plus hydrocortisone, putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2/, insulin, and fibroblast growth factor) and epidermal growth factor. Compared to astrocytes grown in serum-supplemented medium, astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium were nonresponsive to isoproterenol stimulation, and this difference did not appear to be due to selection of a subpopulation of cells by either medium. The data suggest that a decreased ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number and an increased degradation of cAMP may account for the reduced response to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. The nonresponsive state of astrocytes in the defined medium was reversible when the medium was replaced with serum-supplemented medium. An active substance(s) in serum was responsible for restoring the responsiveness of astrocytes. Each of the five components of the defined medium had little effect by itself; however, together they acted synergistically to desensitize astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, epidermal growth factor, a potent mitogen for astrocytes, was very competent by itself in reducing the cAMP response of astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. Thus purified astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium appear to be a good model for the study of hormonal interactions and of serum factors which may modulate the ..beta..-adrenergic response.

  3. Serum phosphorus during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Voda, A M; Wilde, K; Gill, B P

    1980-07-01

    In the continuing search for a simple, noninvasive, reliable method to detect ovulation, phosphorus (P) levels have been measured in women across a menstrual cycle. Salivary P has been reported to increase significantly in women periovulatory. Reports of serum P show no such periovulatory peak. We measured serum P in nine ovulatory and two anovulatory women during one menstrual cycle. Indirect indicators of ovulation were biphasic BBT curve and luteal phase serum progesterone more than 3 ng/ml. No significant periovulatory change in serum P was found, only small fluctations ranging from 0.99--2.76 mg/dl. The absence of a periovulatory serum phosphorus peak in this and other investigations of serum P suggests that if there is altered P metabolism during the menstrual cycle, it is not reflected in the serum. Other mechanisms, such as urinary or salivary excretion, may be operating to maintain serum P within the physiological range. This hypothesis needs to be explored. PMID:7418408

  4. THE CONCENTRATION OF THE PROTECTIVE BODIES IN ANTIPNEUMOCOCCUS SERUM. SPECIFIC PRECIPITATE EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Chickering, H T

    1915-08-01

    1. The protective substances contained in specific precipitates from antipneumococcus serum can be extracted by suitable chemical and physical agents, dilute sodium carbonate at 42 degrees C. being especially advantageous as an extractive agent. 2. The resulting water-clear extracts, when made up to the original volume of the serum used for precipitation, protect animals almost as well as does the whole serum. 3. The bacterial extracts used in precipitating the protective substances from the serum act specifically; that is, a bacterial extract of pneumococcus of Type I removes the protective substances from a Type I immune serum only. 4. In a polyvalent serum of Type I and Type II, the protective substances of each type may be removed independently of each other by the successive addition of the homologous antigens. 5. Extracts of specific serum precipitates contain only one-fiftieth to one-sixtieth of the protein in the original serum, and about one-half the protein of the whole precipitate. 6. Extracts contain not only protective substances but agglutinins and precipitins. 7. Extracts and whole precipitates not only confer passive immunity but stimulate the production of active immunity to pneumococcus infection in rabbits and mice. PMID:19867914

  5. Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

  6. Alternatives to the Use of Fetal Bovine Serum: Serum-free Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Gstraunthaler

    Summary Serum is commonly used as a supplement to cell culture media. It provides a broad spectrum of macromolecules, carrier proteins for lipoid substances and trace elements, attachment and spreading factors, low molecular weight nutrients, and hormones and growth factors. The most widely used animal serum supplement is fetal bovine serum, FBS. Since serum in general is an ill-defined component

  7. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical peels ... skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used to ...

  8. Improved perfluoroalkyl ether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Smythe, Mark E.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It is found that the experimental material obtained in 66 percent yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6 x 1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  9. Host and environmental determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in serum of adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A; Den Hond, Elly M; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Fagard, Robert; Thijs, Lutgarde; Winneke, Gerhard; Roels, Harry A

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated host factors and environmental factors as potential determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) in serum of adolescents. We recruited 200 participants (80 boys and 120 girls), with a mean age of 17.4 years (SD, 0.8), in Belgium from a rural control area (Peer) and from two polluted suburbs of Antwerp where a nonferrous smelter (Hoboken) and waste incinerators (Wilrijk) are located. We quantified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; congeners 138, 153, and 180) in serum by gas chromatography and obtained the toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCAHs in serum with the chemically activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX). Serum PCB concentration was higher in boys than in girls (1.67 vs. 1.02 nmol/L or 377 vs. 210 pmol/g serum lipids; p< 0.001). In the whole adolescent group, multiple regression showed that serum PCB concentration decreased 0.06 nmol/L per 1% increase in body fat content (p< 0.001) and increased 0.39 nmol/L and 0.14 nmol/L per 1 mmol/L increase in serum concentrations of triglycerides (p < 0.001) and cholesterol (p = 0.002), respectively. Host factors explained 44% of the serum PCB variance. In the same model, serum PCB concentration increased 0.14 nmol/L with 10 weeks of breast-feeding (p< 0.001) and 0.06 nmol/L with intake of 10 g animal fat per day (p < 0.001), and was associated with residence in the waste incinerator area (9% higher; p = 0.04); 11% of the variance could be explained by these environmental factors. The geometric mean of the serum TEQ value was similar in boys and girls (0.15 TEQ ng/L or 33.0 pg/g serum lipids). In multiple regression, TEQ in serum decreased 0.03 ng/L per centimeter increase in triceps skinfold (p = 0.006) and was 29% higher in subjects living close to the nonferrous smelter (p < 0.001). This study showed that in 16- to 18-year-old teenagers host factors are important determinants of serum concentrations of PCAHs, whereas environmentally related determinants may to some extent contribute independently to human exposure to these persistent chemicals in the environment. PMID:12055049

  10. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jolley

    2005-10-25

    In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

  11. Assay of the Antibiotic Activity of Serum

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Walter H.

    1969-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of the “tube dilution” method for the assay of antibiotics in human serum has been illustrated by utilizing serum-sensitive and serum-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. In the case of serum-sensitive strains, it was found that fresh serum alone may account for the same degree of inhibition and thus yield minimal inhibitory concentrations identical to those obtained with serum combined with antibiotics, that is, “simulated” serum assay specimens. This fallacy of the method is discussed with regard to those instances in which laboratories were merely to utilize the patient's own coliform organism as the test organism, or with respect to the assay of, for example, polymyxins, in which inadvertently a R(ough) and therefore, serum-sensitive strain of E. coli were to be used as the indicator organism. It is recommended that serum-resistant laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus or E. coli of known antibiotic susceptibility be employed as the test organisms proper in order to circumvent the inherent bactericidal activity of serum. PMID:4309084

  12. Short-Term Serum-Free Culture Reveals that Inhibition of Gsk3beta Induces the Tumor-Like Growth of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanzhen Li; Tamaki Yokohama-Tamaki; Tetsuya S. Tanaka; Martin Pera

    2011-01-01

    Here, we present evidence that the tumor-like growth of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is suppressed by short-term serum-free culture, which is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of Gsk3?. Mouse ESCs maintained under standard conditions using fetal bovine serum (FBS) were cultured in a uniquely formulated chemically-defined serum-free (CDSF) medium, namely ESF7, for three passages before being subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised

  13. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  14. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you wish ... cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice for ...

  15. Fluorine-decoupled carbon spectroscopy for the determination of configuration at fully substituted, trifluoromethyl- and perfluoroalkyl-bearing carbons: comparison with 19F-1H heteronuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mandhapati, Appi Reddy; Kato, Takayuki; Matsushita, Takahiko; Ksebati, Bashar; Vasella, Andrea; Böttger, Erik C; Crich, David

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of a series of ?-trifluoromethylcyclohexanols and analogous trimethylsilyl ethers by addition of the Ruppert-Prakash reagent to substituted cyclohexanones is presented. A method for the assignment of configuration of such compounds, of related ?-trifluoromethylcyclohexylamines and of quaternary trifluoromethyl-substituted carbons is described based on the determination of the (3)J(CH) coupling constant between the fluorine-decoupled (13)CF3 resonance and the vicinal hydrogens. This method is dubbed fluorine-decoupled carbon spectroscopy and abbreviated FDCS. The method is also applied to the configurational assignment of substances bearing mono-, di-, and perfluoroalkyl rather than trifluoromethyl groups. The configuration of all substances was verified by either (19)F-(1)H heteronuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (HOESY) or X-ray crystallography. The relative merits of FDCS and HOESY are compared and contrasted. (2)J(CH), (3)J(CH), and (4)J(CH) coupling constants to (19)F decoupled CF3 groups in alkenes and arenes have also been determined and should prove to be useful in the structural assignment of trifluoromethylated alkenes and arenes. PMID:25561269

  16. Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

  17. Serum total antioxidant activity after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miller, N J; Johnston, J D; Collis, C S; Rice-Evans, C

    1997-01-01

    Serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), albumin and uric acid were measured on admission, and for the next 2 days in 56 patients suffering myocardial infarction, 20 of whom received streptokinase. The 'antioxidant gap', the difference between the serum TAA and the sum of the serum albumin and uric acid activity, was calculated. No significant changes in serum total antioxidant activity were observed in either group of patients between admission, day 1 and day 2. However, a decline in the 'antioxidant gap' after myocardial infarction was associated with a significantly higher mortality. PMID:9022893

  18. SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, H.; Dalal, P.K.; Asthana, O.P.; Srivastava, J.S.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ramakant; Sinha, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Practical difficulties associated with assessment of central parameters necessitates the development of peripheral markers of suicidal risk. Recent research suggest that serum lipid profile may be a useful indicator of suicidal behaviour. Serum lipid profiles of forty suicide attempters were compared with forty age, sex and BMI matched controls. Total serum cholesterol, serum Triglyceride, LDL levels and HDL levels were found to be lower in suicide attempters but were not statistically significant. Statistically significant negative con-elation was seen between risk-rescue score and above mentioned parameters. No statitically significant difference was observed when various diagnostic break-up groups of patients were compared. PMID:21430801

  19. Comparison of biotin binding protein of pregnant rat serum with rat serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Seshagiri; P. R. Adiga

    1989-01-01

    The purified biotin binding protein of pregnant rat serum was shown to be immunologically similar to rat serum albumin as\\u000a assessed by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. In radioimmunoassay for rat biotin binding protein, the binding of [125I] rat biotin binding protein to anti-chicken egg yolk biotin binding protein antibodies was displaced by both rat serum (10–100\\u000a nl) and purified rat serum

  20. Serum immunoglobulins in Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S

    1989-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA. PMID:2518617

  1. Serum prolactin in subjects occupationally exposed to manganese.

    PubMed

    Mutti, A; Bergamaschi, E; Alinovi, R; Lucchini, R; Vettori, M V; Franchini, I

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate whether or not occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) affects basal levels of serum prolactin (PRL), a cross-sectional study was carried out in 31 occupationally-exposed workers, aged 39.2 years (DS 7.9) exposed to manganese (Mn) dusts for 14.5 years (range: 5 to 29 years) in a ferroalloy producing plant. Thirty-four industrial workers not exposed to neurotoxic chemicals and of comparable age composed the control group. Airborne Mn concentrations in dusts of the furnace area ranged 210 to 980 micrograms/m3, which is below the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)-recommended threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) of 1 mg/m3. Manganese concentrations in blood Mn (MnB) and in urine (MnU) were significantly higher in Mn-exposed workers as compared to control workers. The Mn-exposed workers showed significantly higher serum prolactin (PRL) levels with the geometric mean (GM) being 9.77 ng/ml with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.69 as compared to controls (GM 4.65 ng/ml, GSD 1.78, p < 0.001). Serum PRL was negatively related to age and positively correlated with both MnB and MnU. Dose-effect relationships were still significant in partial correlation analysis after control for age. The prevalence of abnormally high PRL values was consistent with a dose-response relationship. The observed increase in serum PRL among Mn-exposed workers suggests an impairment of tonic inhibition by tubero-infundibular dopaminergic neurons. The correlation between PRL and both MnB and MnU in samples collected at least 48 h from the last exposure suggests that such indices provide an estimation of the target dose. PMID:8834356

  2. Antibacterial properties of serum from the American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Merchant; Cherie Roche; Ruth M. Elsey; Jan Prudhomme

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and human serum samples with Escherichia coli resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial proliferation. When inoculated with E. coli, alligator serum exhibited 10-fold lower bacterial survival rates after 1 h than human serum. In addition, the antibacterial spectrum of alligator serum was shown to be much broader than that of human serum,

  3. Serum Angiogenin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis E. Koutroubakis; Costas Xidakis; Konstantinos Karmiris; Aekaterini Sfiridaki; Ermioni Kandidaki; Elias A. Kouroumalis

    2004-01-01

    Angiogenesis-promoting cytokines have been suggested to play an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) since they promote inflammation by increasing vascular permeability and mediate tissue repair by activating fibroblasts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD). Angiogenin serum

  4. Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Grundy; Margo A. Denke

    Substantial data are available to indicate that the diet influences serum levels of cholesterol and lipoproteins. These data are derived from studies in laboratory animals, from epidemiologic studies, and from human investigations. Most research has focused on effects of diet on serum total cholesterol concentrations. In recent years, however, attention has shifted to individual lipoproteins, Le., low density lipoproteins (LDL),

  5. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  6. Passage of serum albumin into the stomach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George B. Jerzy Glass; Akira Ishimori

    1961-01-01

    The presence of serum albumin in the gastric lumen can be readily diagnosed by paper electrophoresis of the gastric juice. While small amounts of albumin are present in the gastric juice under normal conditions, a massive leakage of serum albumin into the stomach occurs often in gastric cancer, Menetrier's disease, and in some cases of gastric atrophy. Paper electrophoresis of

  7. Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan L Jesneck; Sayan Mukherjee; Zoya Yurkovetsky; Merlise Clyde; Jeffrey R Marks; Anna E Lokshin; Joseph Y Lo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because screening mammography for breast cancer is less effective for premenopausal women, we investigated the feasibility of a diagnostic blood test using serum proteins. METHODS: This study used a set of 98 serum proteins and chose diagnostically relevant subsets via various feature-selection techniques. Because of significant noise in the data set, we applied iterated Bayesian model averaging to account

  8. Studies on ceruloplasmin of bovine serum 

    E-print Network

    Deyoe, Charles Walter

    1959-01-01

    ....... ........23 III. The quantitative relationships of ceruloplasmin and other blood constituents ......... 29 Experimental .. ?. ?............................... 29 Results and discussion ...................... . 31 IV. The affect of comsumption of copper... glutathione of whole blood ......................................... . 43 XI. The affect of copper fertilization of pasture and cobalt treatment on the serum oxidase, activity and on the serum proteins ................... ..................... 47 LIST...

  9. The disposition of serum proteins as drug-carriers in mice bearing Sarcoma 180.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Kaneo, Y; Shiramoto, S; Iguchi, S

    1993-12-01

    The tumor distribution and the disposition of serum proteins, such as albumin, fetuin, transferrin, and IgG, were investigated in mice bearing Sarcoma 180. Serum proteins labeled with fluoresceinisothiocyanate (FITC) were administered to the mice. The FITC-labeled proteins acylated with glutaric anhydride were also administered to the mice in order to investigate the effect of chemical modification. The plasma concentration of each glutarylated serum protein was significantly lower, about 15 to 46-fold, in comparison to that of the non-acylated protein at 24 h after administration. The tissue distributions of the glutarylated serum proteins were also decreased compared to those of the non-acylated proteins. Especially, the hepatic distribution of albumin and IgG was significantly reduced with glutarylation. The urinary excretion of albumin and transferrin, and fecal excretion of IgG, were significantly increased with glutarylation. The serum proteins were accumulated effectively in the tumor tissue in mice bearing Sarcoma 180. It was found that the tumor distributions were not impaired by the glutarylation, except involving fetuin. It was suggested, therefore, that the glutarylated serum proteins were valuable for relative tumor-selectivity and might be utilized in a macromolecular carrier system for antitumor drugs. PMID:8130778

  10. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  11. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  12. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid metabolome in response to EMS consumption. PMID:26076487

  13. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid metabolome in response to EMS consumption. PMID:26076487

  14. GC-MS analysis of amino acid enantiomers as their N(O,S)-perfluoroacyl perfluoroalkyl esters: application to space exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zampolli; R. Sternberg; C. Szopa; M. C. Pietrogrande; A. Buch; F. Dondi; F. Raulin

    2006-01-01

    The search for optical activity in extraterrestrial sample is an important key for the study of the origin of life With this aim detection of chemical biomarkers i e of organic molecules which play an important role in biochemistry will be one of the main goals of future space missions To reach this goal an investigation of a GC-MS method

  15. Serum Homocystein Level in Patients With Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Patients and Methods Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Results Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud’s phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 ?mol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 ?mol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Conclusions Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements. PMID:23486724

  16. Serum bile acids in companion animal medicine.

    PubMed

    Center, S A

    1993-05-01

    Quantification of total serum bile acids is used as a method for appraising liver function and perfusion in contemporary small animal practice. This article provides a historical perspective and a comprehensive review of bile acid physiology, laboratory methodologies for bile acid quantification, and normal values published for total serum bile acids measured using the spectrophotometric enzymatic method and for serum bile acids measured using validated radioimmunoassay procedures. The variables influencing the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and, consequently, the fasting and postprandial serum bile acid concentrations are discussed with the intent of clarifying the application of test results to clinical patients. A brief discussion of the therapeutic use of dehydrocholate and ursodeoxycholic acid in clinical patients is provided. PMID:8503164

  17. The cathodic behavior of titanium: Serum effect.

    PubMed

    Contu, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    The cathodic behavior of titanium was investigated in inorganic buffer solutions and in fetal bovine serum through potential sweep techniques. Under cathodic polarization, the oxygen reduction and the hydrogen evolution reactions were observed. It was found that the activity of the electrode toward the electron transfer increased with decreasing the electrode surface charge. The polarization curves recorded in serum displayed the same features as those observed in inorganic buffered solutions. However, organic molecules were likely adsorbed onto the titanium surface and the adsorption reactions were potential dependant. Additionally, it was noticed that the buffer capacity of serum could be overwhelmed by the progressive interface alkalinization during cathodic polarization. Furthermore, serum affected the corrosion current of the implant materials and the effect was pH-dependent. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 544-552, 2011. PMID:22120993

  18. Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins 

    E-print Network

    Myers, Christine Lee

    2006-04-12

    A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

  19. STUDIES ON SERUM PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Frederic C.

    1956-01-01

    Serial studies of the serum levels of trypsin inhibitor have been performed on monkeys following injection of turpentine-falba, total body irradiation, thermal injury, splenectomy, administration of cortisone acetate and egg albumin. Following the injection of turpentine-falba mixture there was a prompt elevation in the trypsin inhibitor power of the serum. A similar response accompanied the administration of cortisone acetate. The response to cortisone was not inhibited by removal of the spleen. Animals premedicated with cortisone acetate for 3 and 4 weeks showed no statistically significant change in the level of the serum inhibitor following injection of the turpentine-falba. Total body irradiation and immunization with egg albumin were accompanied by a very slight rise in the inhibitory power of the serum despite a prompt and extensive drop in the total white blood cell count in the irradiated animals, and development of precipitins in all of the immunized animals. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:13295492

  20. Serum cholinesterase: Function in lipoprotein metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Kutty; R. Redheendran; D. Murphy

    1977-01-01

    Summary Human serum beta-lipoproteins, isolated by percipitation with heparin-calcium mixture, showed cholinesterase activity. The enzyme activity was almost proportional to the lipoprotein concentration. Rats, treated with neostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, showed a significant decrease in serum beta-lipoprotein and in the incorporation of H3-lysine into the lipoprotein compared to untreated controls. The decreased incorporation of H3-lysine into beta-lipoprotein was associated with

  1. Refractory intraoperative hypotension with elevated serum tryptase.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Juraj; Larson, Kelly J; Divekar, Rohit D; Butterfield, Joseph H; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Weingarten, Toby N

    2015-01-01

    Severe intraoperative hypotension has been reported in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists. We describe a patient on lisinopril who developed refractory intraoperative hypotension associated with increased serum tryptase level suggesting mast cell activation (allergic reaction). However, allergology workup ruled out an allergic etiology as well as mastocytosis, and hypotension recalcitrant to treatment was attributed to uninterrupted lisinopril therapy. Elevated serum tryptase was attributed to our patient's chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:25653920

  2. Serum Ganglioside Patterns in Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Zaprianova; Denislava Deleva; Peter Ilinov; Emil Sultanov; Andon Filchev; Lilla Christova; Borislav Sultanov

    2001-01-01

    The relative distribution of gangliosides was determined in the serum of 37 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and of 30 healthy subjects. There was a significant increase of GM1 and GD1a, and a decrease of GM3 proportion in the serum of relapsing-remitting MS patients (RRMS) during their first MS attack. The RRMS patients in relapse with a long duration of

  3. Abnormal serum lysophospholipids in multiple myeloma patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayo Sasagawa; Misako Okita; Jun Murakami; Tsutomu Kato; Akiharu Watanabe

    1999-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediate various kinds of biological activities and play an important\\u000a role in cellular signal transduction. We analyzed serum phospholipids obtained from 16 multiple myeloma (MM) patients and\\u000a observed that serum LPA level was significantly higher in MM patients (5.30.5 nmol\\/mL) than in normal controls (1.70.3 nmol\\/mL).\\u000a LPC level was also higher than that in

  4. Fetal calf serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fujiwara; R. Tsukada; Y. Tsujinaga; M. Takagi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fish serum on cell growth and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) production in\\u000a an adhesion culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells DR1000L4N were investigated and compared with those of fetal calf\\u000a serum (FCS). Although fish serum did not stimulate the initial adhesion of CHO cells to culture dishes, it prompted cell growth\\u000a after cell adhesion with

  5. Reliability of Serum and Urinary Isoflavone Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gary E.; Franke, Adrian A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Bennett, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    Sporadic intake and short half lives of serum or urinary biomarkers may make serum and urinary isoflavones quite unreliable indicators of longer-term dietary soy intake. In 26 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) participants we obtained two measures of fasting morning serum isoflavones, 1–2 years apart. In another 76 subjects we obtained an overnight urine sample, and six 24 hour dietary recalls over a period encompassing the time of the urine sample. Intra-class correlations (ICC) values for serum isoflavones were 0.11 (log[daidzein]) and 0.28 (log[genistein]). Assuming that the correlation(true dietary intake, true urinary excretion)<0.90, it is shown that this implies an ICC for urinary estimates that exceeds 0.56. As expected, the previous day’s soy intake, and its timing, influenced the next morning’s serum levels. These results suggest that fasting morning serum isoflavone estimates will provide a poor index of long-term soy intake, but that overnight urinary estimates perform much better. PMID:19863459

  6. Is Serum Lactate Necessary in Patients with Normal Anion Gap and Serum Bicarbonate?

    PubMed Central

    Aronovich, Daniel; Trotter, Maykel; Rivera, Cynthia; Dalley, Michael; Farcy, David; Betancourt, Michel; Howard, Lydia; Licciardi, Sharon; Cubeddu, Luigi; Goldszer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. Methods This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. Results In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L), 45 (68%) patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB) (greater than 21 mmol/L). Normal anion gap (AG) (normal range <16 mEq/l) was found in 51 of the 66 patients (77%). Conclusion We found that among patients with elevated serum lactate, 77% had a normal anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values. PMID:25987907

  7. [New approaches to early diagnosis of chronic organophosphorus chemicals intoxication in workers at chemical weapons extermination objects].

    PubMed

    Babakov, V N; Goncharov, N V; Radilov, A S; Glashkina, E P; Podol'skaia, E P; Ermolaeva, E E; Shilov, V V; Prokof'eva, D S; Vo?tenko, N G; Egorov, N A

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrum analysis revealed differences in general contents of low-molecular peptides spectrums in chemical weapons extermination object staffers, in comparison with the reference group. Findings are that serum paraoxonase activity in chemical weapons extermination object staffers in significantly increased. PMID:19514167

  8. Serum Stimulates Growth of and Proteinase Secretion by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. T. Gifford; Jodine R. Klippenstein; Margo M. Moore

    2002-01-01

    Serum contains iron-binding proteins, which inhibit the growth of most pathogenic microorganisms, in- cluding fungi. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of serum on growth of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Supplementing minimal essential medium (MEM) with up to 80% human serum or up to 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulated growth and increased the

  9. Determination of silicon in serum and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhuo-er

    1995-09-01

    A sensitive, simple and accurate method for the routine determination of trace silicon in serum and urine by Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The samples are directly determined after 20-fold dilution of serum and 100-fold dilution of urine. No L'vov platform is used. The signal enhancement of silicon atomization in pyrolytic graphite coated graphite tubes is achieved by using a mixture of calcium chloride and lanthanum nitrate as chemical modifier. The interferences arising from the biological matrices have been eliminated by the addition of ammonium dihydrogenphosphate in the sample solutions. The aqueous calibration curve is linear to at least 300 ?g l -1, the characteristic mass is 37 pg (integrated absorbance signal), whereas the detection limit (3SD) is 1.5 ?g l -1 for silicon in both diluted serum and urine samples. The recoveries of silicon added to the diluted samples are 101 ± 1.8% for sera and 98.2 ± 3.5% for the urine specimens, independent of the dilution ratio. The silicon measurement results for the serum and urine from healthy adults and for the serum from the patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis are presented.

  10. Chemical Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides ?-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. ?-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood. PMID:21290101

  12. FOAMING PROPERTIES OF PORCINE SERUM AND PORCINE SERUM ALBUMIN PROPIEDADES ESPUMANTES DEL SUERO Y ALBÚMINA PORCINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Ramos-Clamont; L. Vázquez-Moreno

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the foam capacity (FC) and foam stability (FS) of freeze-dried porcine serum (PS) and porcine serum albumin (PSA) with egg white protein (EW). PSA was obtained by hydrophobic interaction chromatography in a single chromatographic step. Foaming properties were determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 % of protein solutions in buffer

  13. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

    PubMed

    Han, K E; Okada, S

    1995-06-01

    "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma). The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females). High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml) in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl). Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl), normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum. PMID:7545860

  14. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  15. Serum adipokines in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Hartleb, Marek; Boryczka, Grzegorz; Kukla, Micha?; ?wirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum adipokine levels in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients before treatment and after achieving clinical remission. METHODS: Serum concentrations of six adipokines (tissue growth factor-?1, adiponectin, leptin, chemerin, resistin, and visfatin) were studied in 40 subjects with active IBD [24 subjects with Crohn’s disease (CD) and in 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis (UC)] before and after three months of therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine. Clinical diagnoses were based on ileocolonoscopy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance enterography and histological examination of mucosal biopsies sampled during endoscopy. Serum levels of adipokines were assessed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The control group was comprised of 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Baseline leptin concentrations were significantly decreased in both types of IBD compared to controls (8.0 ± 9.1 in CD and 8.6 ± 6.3 in UC vs 16.5 ± 10.1 ng/mL in controls; P < 0.05), and significantly increased after treatment only in subjects with CD (14.9 ± 15.1 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Baseline serum resistin concentrations were significantly higher in CD (19.3 ± 12.5 ng/mL; P < 0.05) and UC subjects (23.2 ± 11.0 ng/mL; P < 0.05) than in healthy controls (10.7 ± 1.1 ng/mL). Treatment induced a decrease in the serum resistin concentration only in UC subjects (14.5 ± 4.0 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Baseline serum concentrations of visfatin were significantly higher in subjects with CD (23.2 ± 3.2 ng/mL; P < 0.05) and UC (18.8 ± 5.3 ng/mL; P < 0.05) than in healthy controls (14.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL). Treatment induced a decrease in the serum visfatin concentrations only in CD subjects (20.4 ± 4.8 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Serum levels of adiponectin, chemerin and tissue growth factor-?1 did not differ between CD and UC subjects compared to healthy controls and also were not altered by anti-inflammatory therapy. Clinical indices of IBD activity did not correlate with adipokine levels. CONCLUSION: IBD modulates serum adipokine levels by increasing resistin and visfatin release and suppressing leptin production. PMID:24944482

  16. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  17. Peptidomic Identification of Serum Peptides Diagnosing Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuaibin; Stevenson, David K.; Sheng, Guojun; Butte, Atul J.; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to identify serological markers capable of diagnosing preeclampsia (PE). We performed serum peptide analysis (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) of 62 unique samples from 31 PE patients and 31 healthy pregnant controls, with two-thirds used as a training set and the other third as a testing set. Differential serum peptide profiling identified 52 significant serum peptides, and a 19-peptide panel collectively discriminating PE in training sets (n?=?21 PE, n?=?21 control; specificity?=?85.7% and sensitivity?=?100%) and testing sets (n?=?10 PE, n?=?10 control; specificity?=?80% and sensitivity?=?100%). The panel peptides were derived from 6 different protein precursors: 13 from fibrinogen alpha (FGA), 1 from alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), 1 from apolipoprotein L1 (APO-L1), 1 from inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), 2 from kininogen-1 (KNG1), and 1 from thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4). We concluded that serum peptides can accurately discriminate active PE. Measurement of a 19-peptide panel could be performed quickly and in a quantitative mass spectrometric platform available in clinical laboratories. This serum peptide panel quantification could provide clinical utility in predicting PE or differential diagnosis of PE from confounding chronic hypertension. PMID:23840341

  18. A natural heterohaemagglutinin in Xenopus laevis serum.

    PubMed Central

    Jurd, R D

    1978-01-01

    In most adult Xenopus laevis the serum contains a 'natural' factor capable of lysing the erythrocytes from a wide variety of amniote species. The factor has no effect on the erythrocytes of another amphibian, Ambystoma mexicanum, nor will serum from one animal lyse red cells from another Xenopus individual. No lysing factor was present in the serum of larval (tadpole) Xenopus. Heating of Xenopus serum to 56 degrees for 30 min, absorption of the serum with zymosan or inulin, or removal of calcium and magnesium ions results in loss of lytic activity, although haemagglutinating activity remains, suggesting that the factor can fix complement. The factor elutes from a gel chromatography column in the 19S peak, and is inactivated by thiol reduction and subsequent alkylation. These findings, coupled with immunoabsorption studies suggest that the haemagglutinin is an immunoglobulin of the IgM class. The significance of this suggestion is discussed in the light of previous reports of 'natural' heterohaemagglutinins in other species. PMID:580428

  19. Platelet lysate: a replacement for fetal bovine serum in animal cell culture?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liselott Johansson; Jeanna Klinth; Olov Holmqvist; Sten Ohlson

    2003-01-01

    A new cell culture supplement, platelet lysate, was evaluated with reference to fetal bovine serum (FBS), an established industrial\\u000a medium for animal cell culture. Chemical and bacteriological profiles were conducted including the presence of platelet-derived\\u000a growth factor (PDGF). PDGF was detected in the platelet lysate but it was not present in FBS. The platelet lysate medium demonstrated\\u000a lack of microorganisms,

  20. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Woo Lee; Hyun S. Lillehoj; Seung I. Jang; Marc Pagčs; Daniel A. Bautista; Conrad R. Pope; G. Donald Ritter; Erik P. Lillehoj; Anthony P. Neumann; Gregory R. Siragusa

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers

  1. Decreased levels of CXC-chemokines in serum of benzene-exposed workers identified by array-based proteomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel Vermeulen; Qing Lan; Luoping Zhang; Laura Gunn; Diane McCarthy; Ronald L. Woodbury; Marielena McGuire; Vladimir N. Podust; Guilan Li; Nilanjan Chatterjee; Ruidong Mu; Songnian Yin; Nathaniel Rothman; Martyn T. Smith

    2005-01-01

    Benzene is an important industrial chemical and environmental contaminant that causes leukemia. To obtain mechanistic insight into benzene's mechanism of action, we examined the impact of benzene on the human serum proteome in a study of exposed healthy shoe-factory workers and unexposed controls. Two sequential studies were performed, each using sera from 10 workers exposed to benzene (overall mean benzene

  2. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in cutaneous anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kas?m; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Material/Methods Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Results Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between ADA activity and lymphocyte counts (r=0.589, p=0.021) in the patient group. Conclusions This study suggests that serum ADA could be used as a biochemical marker in cutaneous anthrax. PMID:24997584

  3. The Effects of Perfluorinated Chemicals on Adipoctye Differentiation In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture system has been used to examine numerous compounds that influence adipocyte differentiation or function. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications, are of concern as environmental contaminants tha...

  4. The aggregation of "native" human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    White, John; Heß, David; Raynes, Jared; Laux, Valerie; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, Trevor; Jeyasingham, Anithahini

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant fully deuterated, defatted human serum albumin in heavy water was found to be about 90 % aggregated before final fractionation. For comparison and to establish a datum for this isotope effect, the extent of aggregation is reported for "native" defatted and fatted human serum albumin solutions in phosphate buffered 1 mg/ml in heavy and light water at 25 °C and at 4 °C. The extent of aggregation is small over a month at these temperatures, but extensive when the solutions are subjected to repeated freeze-thawing from -18 to 25 °C in both D2O and H2O. PMID:26003320

  5. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  6. Computational Modeling of Thyroid Hormone Regulated Neurodevelopment for Chemical Prioritization (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for normal brain development. Environmental chemicals may disrupt TH homeostasis through a variety of physiological systems including membrane transporters, serum transporters, synthesis and catabolic enzymes, and nuclear receptors. Current comp...

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    PubMed

    Salihovic, Samira; Kärrman, Anna; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; Lindström, Gunilla; van Bavel, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women. PMID:26001496

  8. Serum-Free, Long-Term Cultures of Human Hepatocytes: Maintenance of Cell Morphology, Transcription Factors, and Liver-Specific Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Runge; Dorothee M. Runge; Dana Jäger; Kimberly A. Lubecki; Donna Beer Stolz; Sotirios Karathanasis; Thomas Kietzmann; Stephen C. Strom; Kurt Jungermann; Wolfgang E. Fleig; George K. Michalopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Since human hepatocytes are available only in limited number, the development of a serum-free culture system for long-term cultivation of differentiated and functional hepatocytes is of great importance. Here we describe the culture of human hepatocytes in a chemically defined serum-free medium for up to 5 weeks. Cell morphology was assayed by light and electron microscopy and revealed a well-preserved

  9. HSP27 phosphorylation protects against endothelial barrier dysfunction under burn serum challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huan-Bo; Ren, Xi; Liu, Jie; Guo, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Xu-Pin; Zhang, Dong-Xia; Huang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Ping

    2015-07-31

    F-actin rearrangement is an early event in burn-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. HSP27, a target of p38 MAPK/MK2 pathway, plays an important role in actin dynamics through phosphorylation. The question of whether HSP27 participates in burn-related endothelial barrier dysfunction has not been identified yet. Here, we showed that burn serum induced a temporal appearance of central F-actin stress fibers followed by a formation of irregular dense peripheral F-actin in pulmonary endothelial monolayer, concomitant with a transient increase of HSP27 phosphorylation that conflicted with the persistent activation of p38 MAPK/MK2 unexpectedly. The appearance of F-actin stress fibers and transient increase of HSP27 phosphorylation occurred prior to the burn serum-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Overexpressing phospho-mimicking HSP27 (HSP27(Asp)) reversed the burn serum-induced peripheral F-actin rearrangement with the augmentation of central F-actin stress fibers, and more importantly, attenuated the burn serum-induced endothelial hyperpermeability; such effects were not observed by HSP27(Ala), a non-phosphorylated mutant of HSP27. HSP27(Asp) overexpression also rendered the monolayer more resistant to barrier disruption caused by Cytochalasin D, a chemical reagent that depolymerizes F-actin specifically. Further study showed that phosphatases and sumoylation-inhibited MK2 activity contributed to the blunting of HSP27 phosphorylation during the burn serum-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Our study identifies HSP27 phosphorylation as a protective response against burn serum-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, and suggests that targeting HSP27 wound be a promising therapeutic strategy in ameliorating burn-induced lung edema and shock development. PMID:26028560

  10. Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  11. Chemical Bonds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

  12. Fractionation of serum cholesterol: a critique.

    PubMed

    Parekh, A C; Caranto, M; Mathur, R K; Jung, D H

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for fractionation of serum cholesterol is developed by employing digitonin for the precipitation of free cholesterol in isopropanol. This method is based on the ferric acetate color reaction which is unaffected by traces of digitonin. It is influenced only negligibly by the presence of stanols in serum and is shown to be equally chromogenic with respect to both free and ester forms of cholesterol. The proposed procedure shows a three-fold improvement in precision (3.1 percent coefficient of variation [CV]) compared to that of the procedure by Leffler and McDougald (10.5 percent C.V.) which is based on the ferric chloride color reaction. The proposed free cholestrol procedure showed a mean recovery of 99.5% percent (98.1 to 102.5 percent) when cholesterol in 40 to 200 mg per dl concentrations was added to serum. The analytical performance of the proposed fractionation of serum cholesterol is critically reviewed with respect to its potential application in the diagnosis of liver diseases and in basic or experimental research. PMID:970928

  13. Serum Prolactin Levels in Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Handjani, Farhad; Saki, Nasrin; Ahrari, Iman; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Khorrami, Mohammad Mehdi; Nematollahi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting approximately 1–3% of Caucasians. Prolactin has proliferative effects on human keratinocytes, a dominant feature of psoriasis, and it is thought that this hormone may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This study was conducted to confirm or refute these findings in order to better understand the disease pathogenesis. Methods. The subjects were 90 individuals aged between 15 and 47 years. They were divided into three groups of 30 individuals each: psoriatic patients, atopic dermatitis patients, and control group. A questionnaire was filled regarding their demographic and medical history. All of the study subjects underwent venous blood sampling (5?mL), and serum TSH and prolactin levels were checked. Subjects with abnormal TSH were omitted. Results. None of the patients in the study had raised prolactin, and there was no significant difference in the serum prolactin level between patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis and the control group. There was no relationship between the severity of psoriasis and serum levels of prolactin. Conclusion. Prolactin does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis as its serum levels are comparable with atopic dermatitis patients and that of the normal population. PMID:24707406

  14. Do serum biomarkers really measure breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Because screening mammography for breast cancer is less effective for premenopausal women, we investigated the feasibility of a diagnostic blood test using serum proteins. Methods This study used a set of 98 serum proteins and chose diagnostically relevant subsets via various feature-selection techniques. Because of significant noise in the data set, we applied iterated Bayesian model averaging to account for model selection uncertainty and to improve generalization performance. We assessed generalization performance using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The classifiers were able to distinguish normal tissue from breast cancer with a classification performance of AUC = 0.82 ± 0.04 with the proteins MIF, MMP-9, and MPO. The classifiers distinguished normal tissue from benign lesions similarly at AUC = 0.80 ± 0.05. However, the serum proteins of benign and malignant lesions were indistinguishable (AUC = 0.55 ± 0.06). The classification tasks of normal vs. cancer and normal vs. benign selected the same top feature: MIF, which suggests that the biomarkers indicated inflammatory response rather than cancer. Conclusion Overall, the selected serum proteins showed moderate ability for detecting lesions. However, they are probably more indicative of secondary effects such as inflammation rather than specific for malignancy. PMID:19476629

  15. Serum tube identification of Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. R. Mackenzie

    1962-01-01

    The production of filaments (germ tubes) by cells of Candida albicans in serum tubes permits presumptive identification to be made within two to three hours. The proportion of yeast-like cells forming filaments is progressively decreased with increasing cell concentration. The test is effective over a comparatively wide range of temperatures and using different types and concentrations of sera.

  16. Serum lipids and cardiovascular reactivity to stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenz J. P. van Doornen; Harold Snieder; Dorret I. Boomsma

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between serum lipid levels and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors. Their findings, however, are equivocal. The inconsistencies may be due to shortcomings such as the small number of subjects, the inclusion of patient groups, no control for medication, and no control for age effects. Two studies are presented investigating the relationship in large groups

  17. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  18. Menaquinones content of human serum and feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterially-synthesized menaquinones (MKn) may contribute to vitamin K (VK) nutriture. There are limited data on interindividual variability in endogenous MK synthesis and its relation to circulating forms of VK. Serum and fecal VK concentrations were assessed in 13 healthy adults (45-65 yr) consumi...

  19. Micromethod for Tocopherol Determination in Blood Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fabianek; J. Defilippi; T. Rickards; A. Herp

    An improvedmicroprocedure for the determinationof tocopherol in blood serum is reported.Tocopherolis oxidizedby ferric chlorideand the pink complexof ferrous ions with 4,7-diphenyl- 10,10-phenanthroline(bathophenanthroline)is determined spectrophotometrically. The test is more sensitivethan colorimetricmethodsusing 2,2',2\\

  20. Serum glycan signatures of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Sureyya; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Torres, Javier; Cooke, Cara L.; An, Hyun Joo; Hua, Serenus; Williams, Cynthia C.; Dimapasoc, Lauren M.; Kim, Jae Han; Camorlinga, Margarita; Rocke, David; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Solnick, Jay V.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics, a comprehensive study of glycans expressed in biological systems, is emerging as a simple yet highly sensitive diagnostic tool for disease onset and progression. This study aimed to use glycomics to investigate glycan markers that would differentiate patients with gastric cancer (GC) from those with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). Patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) were also included because they are thought to represent a biologically different response to infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection that can cause either GC or DU. We collected 72 serum samples from patients in Mexico City that presented with NAG, DU, or GC. N-glycans were released from serum samples using the generic method with PNGase F and were analyzed by MALDI FT-ICR MS. The corresponding glycan compositions were calculated based on accurate mass. ANOVA based statistical analysis was performed to identify potential markers for each sub-group. Nineteen glycans were significantly different among the diagnostic groups. Generally, decreased levels of high-mannose type glycans, glycans with one complex type antenna, bigalactosylated biantennary glycans, and increased levels of non-galactosylated biantennary glycans were observed in gastric cancer cases. Altered levels of serum glycans were also observed in DU, but differences were generally in the same direction as GC. Serum glycan profiles may provide biomarkers to differentiate GC cases from controls with NAG. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings as biomarkers and identify the role of protein glycosylation in GC pathology. PMID:24327722

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Serum apolipoprotein B predicts dyslipidemia,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    . Methods: Prospective evaluation of 1125 men and 1223 women, aged 28­74 years, participating in the surveyORIGINAL ARTICLE Serum apolipoprotein B predicts dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and, in women of hypertension was predicted only in women by the apo B top tertile (fully adjusted RR 1.71 [95% CI 1.001; 2

  2. Serum calcitonin negative Medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Sand; Marcos Gelos; Daniel Sand; Falk G Bechara; Gerd Bonhag; Ellen Welsing; Benno Mann

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7 % of thyroid neoplasms. They originate from parafollicular C cells which produce Calcitonin, a hormone which has an impact on calcium metabolism and represents the biochemical activity of MTC. In rare cases pre-operative serum calcitonin can be negative. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 73-year-old female patient with a rare

  3. Immunochemical detection of 3-deoxyglucosone in serum.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yoshiaki; Kurano, Yoshihiro; Endo, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Misao; Ito, Satoru

    2004-12-17

    3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) is a metabolite of glucose that is thought to lead to the production of advanced glycation end products in diabetes. The previous assay for 3-DG in serum was based on a multi-step protocol, including derivatization, extraction, HPLC separation, and detection. In the current studies, we established a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the 3-DG-derivative, which is generated by the reaction of 3-DG and a 2,3-diamino-benzene derivative. Attachment of a biotin moiety to the 2,3-diamino-benzene ring via a linker allowed development of a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for 3-DG equivalents. Unlike the previous assay, this method does not require extraction of 3-DG derivatives from serum. Treatment of 3-DG in serum with the DAB-link-biotin produced a quinoxaline derivative, which was specifically recognized by the monoclonal antibody. Using this assay, we found that serum 3-DG was higher in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats than in normal control rats (25+/-5.6 vs. 9.8+/-1.1 microg/L). This simple assay may allow the monitoring of conditions leading to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products and evaluation of the risk of complications in diabetic patients. PMID:15541400

  4. Exercise and Serum Androgens in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlind, Kim C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examining the effect of a 10-week hydraulic resistance exercise program on serum androgen levels, strength, and lean body weight in 18 college women revealed that training did not result in significant increases in androgen hormones, although there were significant gains in strength. (Author/CB)

  5. Developmental toxicity and serum levels of perfluorononanoic acid in the wild-type and PPAR-alpha knockout mouse after gestational exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid detected in.the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARa) in vitro and negatively impacts development and survival of CD1 mice. Our objective wa...

  6. Exposure to Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) via Dust Ingestion, but Not Diet, Correlates with Concentrations in Human Serum: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Roosens, Laurence; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume chemical used as flame retardant in polystyrene insulation and textiles. Because it is not chemically bound to the polymer, HBCD can migrate into the environment, contaminating indoor dust and foodstuff. Objectives We examined for the first time the relationship between combined exposure to three HBCD isomers (?HBCDs) via ingestion of food (duplicate diets) and indoor dust and HBCD concentrations in serum for 16 Belgian adults (20–25 years of age). We also determined the chiral signatures of HBCDs to advance understanding of source-to-human enantioselective degradation and/or metabolism. Methods Concentrations and chiral signatures of ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCD in duplicate diets, dust, and serum were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results Dietary intakes of ?HBCDs were 1.2–20 ng/day (average, 7.2 ng/day), whereas those estimated under average (20 mg dust/day) and high (50 mg dust/day) dust ingestion scenarios were 1.1–15 ng/day (average intake, 3.2 ng/day) and 2.8–38 ng/day (average intake, 8.0 ng/day), respectively. Concentrations of ?HBCDs measured in blood serum were < 0.5 to 11 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (average, 2.9 ng/g lw). ?-HBCD dominated in food, whereas ?-HBCD dominated in dust and was the sole isomer in serum. Although exposure via dust ingestion correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with concentrations in serum, no such correlation was evident with dietary exposure (p > 0.1). Although no enantioselective enrichment was detected in either dust or diet, substantial enrichment of (?)?-HBCD was observed in serum. Conclusions Serum concentrations of HBCDs were correlated with the exposure via dust, but not via dietary ingestion. The enrichment of the (?)?-HBCD enantiomer in humans appears to be due to in vivo enantioselective metabolism/excretion rather than ingestion of dust or diet. PMID:20049121

  7. Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Serum creatine kinase activity as a selection criterion for stress susceptibility July 1991) Summary ― Estimation of serum creatine kinase isoenzyme activity was used sensitivity. creatine kinase isoenzymes / pig / standardized stress / halothane anaesthesia / ACTH / syn

  8. Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie May; Richard Cavanagh; Gregory Turk; Michael Winchester; John Travis; Melody Smith; Paul Derose; Steven Choquette; Gary Kramer; John Sieber; Robert Greenberg; Richard Lindstrom; George Lamaze; Rolf Zeisler; Michele Schantz; Karen Phinney; Michael Welch; Thomas Vetter; Kenneth Pratt; John Scott; John Small; Scott Wight; Stephan Stranick

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and

  9. Chemical geodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zindler; S. R. Hart

    1986-01-01

    Consideration is given to the following three principal boundary conditions relating to the nature and development of chemical structure in the earth's mantle: (1) inferred scale lengths for mantle chemical heterogeneities, (2) interrelationships of the various isotopic tracers, and (3) the bulk composition of the earth. These boundary conditions are integrated with geophysical constraints in order to evaluate models for

  10. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2009-05-01

    We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

  11. Laser photobleaching of human serum: application to fluorescence immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Parola, A H; Uzgiris, E E

    1984-05-01

    Background fluorescence from serum chromophores is substantially reduced by a laser photobleaching method. Human and bovine serum samples were illuminated with 337-nm light from a pulsed N2 laser for a short period of time. The serum emission in the region of 440 to 550 nm was reduced by an order of magnitude with no evident damage to serum proteins as judged by the unchanged activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:6377962

  12. Temporal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) serum concentrations over one year.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Carignan, Courtney C; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  13. Relation Between Micellar and Serum Casein in Bovine Milk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dyson Rose

    1968-01-01

    Little or no additional casein dissolved when milk was diluted with large volumes of milk dialysate. Some dissolution of mi- cellar to serum casein occurred when sedi- mented micelles were redispersed in ultra- filtrate mechanically, but the concentration of serum casein remained far below that of the original milk. It is concluded that micellar and serum casein do not form

  14. Decreased serum levels of adiponectin in subjects with autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azusa Fujita-Shimizu; Katsuaki Suzuki; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Taishi Miyachi; Hideo Matsuzaki; Masanobu Kajizuka; Chie Shinmura; Yasuhide Iwata; Shiro Suda; Kenji J. Tsuchiya; Kaori Matsumoto; Genichi Sugihara; Keiko Iwata; Shigeyuki Yamamoto; Masatsugu Tsujii; Toshiro Sugiyama; Nori Takei; Norio Mori

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiological basis for autism remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that adipokines, such as adiponectin, may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we examined whether serum levels of adiponectin are altered in subjects with autism. We measured serum levels of adiponectin in male subjects with autism (n=31) and age-matched healthy male subjects (n=31). The serum

  15. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  16. Serum ferritin concentration and iron stores in normal subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. Walters; F. M. Miller; M. Worwood

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between serum ferritin concentration and the amount of storage iron has been studied in normal subjects. A high degree of correlation was demonstrated between serum ferritin concentration and storage iron measured by quantitative phlebotomy. The possible advantages of assessing iron stores by using the serum ferritin concentration are discussed.

  17. Transition of serum vitellogenin cycle in Sakhalin taimen ( Hucho perryi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoshi Hiramatsu; Munetaka Shimizu; Haruhisa Fukada; Makiko Kitamura; Kazuhiro Ura; Hirotoshi Fuda; Akihiko Hara

    1997-01-01

    A specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) were developed for measurement of serum vitellogenin (Vg) levels in Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi). Regarding specificity for serum Vg, an antiserum raised against lipovitellin of taimen (a-Lv) was adequate for both assays. ELISA and SRID could detect Vg in serum at concentrations as low as 10

  18. BILIARY LIPIDS SUPPORT SERUM-FREE GROWTH OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia has only been grown in vitro in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. The authors found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia surviva...

  19. Electrophoretic serum protein fractions in dwarf and normal layer hens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , belonging to 7 sire families, were compared for serum protein profiles, using a Polyacrylamide gel, dwarfism, serum protein, egg production. Résumé Fractions électrophorétiques des protéines du sérum chezNote Electrophoretic serum protein fractions in dwarf and normal layer hens and their correlations

  20. Platelet lysate as replacement for fetal bovine serum in mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) emerged as highly attractive in cell-based regenerative medicine. Initially thought to provide cells capable of differentiation towards mesenchymal cell types (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes etc.), by and by potent immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative activities have been discovered, broadening the field of potential applications from bone and cartilage regeneration to wound healing and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Due to the limited frequency in most tissue sources, ex vivo expansion of MSC is required compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines to yield clinically relevant cell doses. Though, still most manufacturing protocols use fetal bovine serum (FBS) as cell culture supplement to isolate and to expand MSC. However, the high lot-to-lot variability as well as risk of contamination and immunization call for xenogenic-free culture conditions. In terms of standardization, chemically defined media appear as the ultimate achievement. Since these media need to maintain all key cellular and therapy-relevant features of MSC, the development of chemically defined media is still - albeit highly investigated - only in its beginning. The current alternatives to FBS rely on human blood-derived components: plasma, serum, umbilical cord blood serum, and platelet derivatives like platelet lysate. Focusing on quality aspects, the latter will be addressed within this review. PMID:24273486

  1. Serum bile acids in captive bustards.

    PubMed

    Howlett, J C; Hölzer, W; Bailey, T A; Wernery, U; Samour, J H; Naldo, J L

    1999-12-01

    Blood samples were collected from clinically normal male and female houbara (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii), kori (Ardeotis kori), buff-crested (Eupodotis ruficrista gindiana) and white-bellied bustards (E. senegalensis) to determine serum bile acid concentrations. Bile acid concentrations were determined by analysis with an Ultrospec 3000 ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer, using an enzymatic bile acid test. The results provided values of serum bile acid concentrations for the four species, with means +/- standard errors of 35.8 +/- 2.8 mumol; 51.1 +/- 5.0 mumol; 18.4 +/- 2.1 mumol and 20.8 +/- 5.4 mumol for the houbara, kori, buff-crested and white-bellied bustard, respectively. Although no gender or age differences were detected within species, the results demonstrated significant differences in concentrations in clinically normal individuals between the different species. PMID:10676148

  2. The serum ferrokinetics in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, W H; Shih, P Y

    1992-11-01

    Ferrous ion is an essential cofactor in dopamine synthesis and its decrease may reduce the dopamine production in the nigrostriatal system, the basis of pathogenetic mechanism in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, parkinsonians may have an abnormal systemic ferrokinetics. The serum iron, ferritin, total-iron-binding-capacity (TIBC) levels and transferrin saturation were analysed in 15 patients with Parkinson's disease and 30 controls. The serum iron was lower in PD (95.53 +/- 33.5 micrograms/dl) than in controls (102.5 +/- 32.5 micrograms/dl), but the difference was statistically nonsignificant. The ferritin, TIBC and transferrin saturation were also similar in both groups. The systemic ferrokinetics in our PD was normal, but the ferrokinetics between the central and systemic compartments was different in PD. Therefore, reduction of central dopamine in PD is unlikely due to hypoferruginemia. PMID:1296037

  3. Serum- and substratum-dependent modulation of neuritic growth.

    PubMed

    Skaper, S D; Selak, I; Varon, S

    1983-01-01

    Explants of embryonic day 8 (E8) chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have been cultured with medium containing serum or the serum-free supplement N1 on one of three substrata: collagen, polyornithine (PORN), or PORN exposed to a polyornithine-binding neurite-promoting factor (PNPF-PORN). Replicate cultures were maintained with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF elicited its classical neuritic outgrowth on all three substrata in serum-containing or serum-free medium. In the absence of NGF, however, a gradation of increasing neurite growth was seen with: PNPF-PORN greater than PORN greater than collagen. This response occurred in both media. In addition, the neuritic halo in each instance was markedly more developed in the absence of serum, especially on PNPF-PORN. Nonneuronal behaviors reflected both serum and substratum influences: thus, nonneuronal outgrowth consisted mainly of flat cells with serum and collagen, was nonexistent with serum and PORN or PNPF-PORN, and involved mostly Schwann-like scattered cells in the absence of serum on any one substratum. The serum-dependent behaviors of ganglionic neurites were examined further with explants from chicken E11 sympathetic ganglia. A single substratum was used (PORN), without exogenous trophic factor. Neurite outgrowth was depressed by the presence of fetal calf serum, thus supporting the generality of this phenomenon. Lastly, PC12 cells, a clonal line of rat pheochromocytoma, will grow neurites in the presence of NGF after 48 hr in serum-free, but not serum-containing media. Addition of serum to serum-free cultures at this time results in the rapid and complete retraction of neurites. PMID:6876195

  4. Interference of deferasirox with assays for serum iron and serum unsaturated iron binding capacity during iron chelating therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuya Ikuta; Satoshi Ito; Hiroki Tanaka; Katsunori Sasaki; Yoshihiro Torimoto; Mikihiro Fujiya; Yutaka Kohgo

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDeferasirox (DFX) is an oral iron chelator that is used worldwide for the treatment of iron overload. Although serum ferritin level is usually measured as a marker of the efficacy of DFX, we sometimes experienced unexplainable changes in other serum markers for iron. We hypothesized that photometric assays for serum iron (sFe) and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) might be

  5. Genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations identify six loci influencing serum magnesium levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamra E. Meyer; Germaine C. Verwoert; Shih-Jen Hwang; Nicole L. Glazer; Albert V. Smith; Rooij van F. J. A; Georg B. Ehret; Eric Boerwinkle; Janine F. Felix; Tennille S. Leak; Tamara B. Harris; Qiong Yang; Abbas Dehghan; Thor Aspelund; Ronit Katz; Georg Homuth; Thomas Kocher; Rainer Rettig; Janina S. Ried; Christian Gieger; Hanna Prucha; Arne Pfeufer; Thomas Meitinger; Josef Coresh; Albert Hofman; Mark J. Sarnak; C. Chen; André G. Uitterlinden; Aravinda Chakravarti; Bruce M. Psaty; P. Tikka-Kleemola; W. H. Linda Kao; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Vilmundur Gudnason; David S. Siscovick; Caroline S. Fox; Anna Köttgen

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations

  6. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Serum Magnesium, Potassium, and Sodium Concentrations Identify Six Loci Influencing Serum Magnesium Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamra E. Meyer; Germaine C. Verwoert; Shih-Jen Hwang; Nicole L. Glazer; Albert V. Smith; Frank J. A. van Rooij; Georg B. Ehret; Eric Boerwinkle; Janine F. Felix; Tennille S. Leak; Tamara B. Harris; Qiong Yang; Abbas Dehghan; Thor Aspelund; Ronit Katz; Georg Homuth; Thomas Kocher; Rainer Rettig; Janina S. Ried; Christian Gieger; Hanna Prucha; Arne Pfeufer; Thomas Meitinger; Josef Coresh; Albert Hofman; Mark J. Sarnak; Yii-Der Ida Chen; André G. Uitterlinden; Aravinda Chakravarti; Bruce M. Psaty; Cornelia M. van Duijn; W. H. Linda Kao; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Vilmundur Gudnason; David S. Siscovick; Caroline S. Fox; Anna Köttgen

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium, potassium, and sodium, cations commonly measured in serum, are involved in many physiological processes including energy metabolism, nerve and muscle function, signal transduction, and fluid and blood pressure regulation. To evaluate the contribution of common genetic variation to normal physiologic variation in serum concentrations of these cations, we conducted genome-wide association studies of serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium concentrations

  7. Concentrations and trends of perfluorinated chemicals in potential indoor sources from 2007 through 2011 in the US.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2014-03-01

    Certain perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in consumer products used indoors are potential indoor PFCs sources and have been associated with developmental toxicity and other adverse health effects in laboratory animals (Lao et al., 2007). The concentrations of selected PFCs including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), in 35 selected consumer products that are commonly used in indoors were measured from the year of 2007 through 2011. The products collected included carpet, commercial carpet-care liquids, household carpet/fabric-care liquids, treated apparel, treated home textiles, treated non-woven medical garments, floor waxes, food-contact paper, membranes for apparel, and thread-sealant tapes. They were purchased from retail outlets in the United States between March 2007 and September 2011. The perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) contents in the products have shown an overall downward trend. However, PFOA (C8) could still be detected in many products that we analyzed. Reductions of PFCAs were shown in both short-chain PFCAs (sum of C4 to C7) and long-chain PFCAs (sum of C8 to C12) over the study period. There were no significant changes observed between short-chain PFCAs and long-chain PFCAs. Fourteen products were analyzed to determine the amounts of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) they contained. These limited data show the pronounced increase of perfluoro-butane sulfonate (PFBS), an alternative to perfluorooctanoic sulfonate (PFOS), in the samples. A longer and wider range of study will be required to confirm this observed trend. PMID:24268172

  8. Prediction of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Cockcroft; Henry Gault

    1976-01-01

    A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: Ccr = (140 – age) (wt kg)\\/72 × Scr(mg\\/100ml) (15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion\\/kg in 249 patients aged 18–92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the

  9. Serum glycan signatures of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Sureyya; Barkauskas, Donald A; Renee Ruhaak, L; Torres, Javier; Cooke, Cara L; An, Hyun Joo; Hua, Serenus; Williams, Cynthia C; Dimapasoc, Lauren M; Han Kim, Jae; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Rocke, David; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Solnick, Jay V

    2014-02-01

    Glycomics, a comprehensive study of glycans expressed in biologic systems, is emerging as a simple yet highly sensitive diagnostic tool for disease onset and progression. This study aimed to use glycomics to investigate glycan markers that would differentiate patients with gastric cancer from those with nonatrophic gastritis. Patients with duodenal ulcer were also included because they are thought to represent a biologically different response to infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection that can cause either gastric cancer or duodenal ulcer. We collected 72 serum samples from patients in Mexico City that presented with nonatrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric cancer. N-glycans were released from serum samples using the generic method with PNGase F and were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The corresponding glycan compositions were calculated based on accurate mass. ANOVA-based statistical analysis was performed to identify potential markers for each subgroup. Nineteen glycans were significantly different among the diagnostic groups. Generally, decreased levels of high-mannose-type glycans, glycans with one complex type antenna, bigalactosylated biantennary glycans, and increased levels of nongalactosylated biantennary glycans were observed in gastric cancer cases. Altered levels of serum glycans were also observed in duodenal ulcer, but differences were generally in the same direction as gastric cancer. Serum glycan profiles may provide biomarkers to differentiate gastric cancer cases from controls with nonatrophic gastritis. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings as biomarkers and identify the role of protein glycosylation in gastric cancer pathology. PMID:24327722

  10. Pharmaceutical Strategies Utilizing Recombinant Human Serum Albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Tuan Giam Chuang; Ulrich Kragh-Hansen; Masaki Otagiri

    2002-01-01

    Gene manipulation techniques open up the possibility of making recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) or mutants with desirable therapeutic properties and for protein fusion products. rHSA can serve as a carrier in synthetic heme protein, thus reversibly carrying oxygen. Myristoylation of insulin results in a prolonged half-life because of self aggregation and increased albumin binding. Preferential albumin uptake by tumor

  11. Data analysis of assorted serum peptidome profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Villanueva; John Philip; Lin DeNoyer; Paul Tempst

    2007-01-01

    Discovery of biomarker patterns using proteomic techniques requires examination of large numbers of patient and control samples, followed by data mining of the molecular read-outs (e.g., mass spectra). Adequate signal processing and statistical analysis are critical for successful extraction of markers from these data sets. The protocol, specifically designed for use in conjunction with MALDI-TOF-MS-based serum peptide profiling, is a

  12. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-01-01

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P<0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology. PMID:26171980

  13. Clinical Chemical Reagent Tablet Weight Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Melvin Gindler; Robert T. Ishizaki

    A study of the weights of 121 tablets, intended for clinical chemical purposes,showed a normal distribution, with 95% of the tablets being within ±8% of the mean weight (21.8 mg.). The substrate is pH 10.2 (370), falling about 0.6 pH units when serum is added. T1HE1tE APPEAR TO BE virtually no published studies OH the weight (list ributiOllof tabletsintended for

  14. Serum magnesium in recovering acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Satish, R.; Gokulnath, G.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the manifestations of hypomagnesemia in 50 patients with acute renal failure who had been admitted in our hospital over a period of ten months. All patients with serum creatine ? 2 mg/dL and normal baseline levels of serum calcium, magnesium, and potassium as well as normal ECG were included in the study. Patients with multi-organ failure, drug-induced acute renal failure, obstructive uropathy, and alcohol addiction were excluded. The mean age of our study population was 40 ± 15 years, 37 of the patients were male and 13 were female. Hypomagnesemia was observed in 31 patients out of 50 during the recovery period of acute renal failure with symptomatic hypomagnesemia being seen in 23 patients. Serum magnesium levels on the day of admission and during the recovery phase were 2.11 ± 0.38 mg/dL and 1.64 ± 0.41 mg/dL respectively. Paresthesia, irritability, agitation, dysartharia, vertigo, and associated hypokalemia and hypocalcemia were noted in symptomatic hypomagnesemic patients. Treatment of hypomagnesaemia and hypokalemia ameliorated the symptoms. We conclude that these abnormalities produce clinically significant manifestations in recovery phase of acute renal failure and clinicians should pay attention to these. PMID:20142914

  15. Indices of serum tonicity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Mark; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Glew, Robert H; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-06-01

    Although disturbances of serum tonicity (effective osmolality) may have dire consequences, only surrogate indices of tonicity are available in practice. This report identifies the appropriate index for expressing clinical states of dystonicity. Serum sodium concentration ([Na]S) and osmolality ([Osm]S) may be incongruent. When the tonicity state shown by [Osm]S is higher than [Na]S and the difference between the 2 indices is caused by an excess of solute that distributes in total body water, tonicity is described by [Na]S. When this difference results from a gain of solute with extracellular distribution like mannitol or a decrease in serum water content, causing a falsely low measurement of [Na]S, [Osm]S accurately reflects tonicity. Two indices of tonicity are applicable during hyperglycemia: the tonicity formula (2·[Na]S + [Glucose]S/18) and the corrected [Na]S ([Na]S corrected to a normal [Glucose]S using an empirically derived coefficient). Clinicians should understand the uses and limitations of the tonicity indices. PMID:26002851

  16. Arsenic trioxide binding to serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Shooshtary, Sara; Behtash, Sima; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) also known as Trisenox, is an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug which has been used in treating diagnosed and relapsed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Serum albumin is the most abundant of the proteins in blood plasma and is the major transporter for delivering several drugs in vivo. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential ability of human and bovine serum albumin for delivering arsenic trioxide. Therefore, interaction of arsenic trioxide with HSA and BSA was investigated in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to analyze arsenic trioxide and protein binding modes, the binding constants and the effect of drug complexation on HSA and BSA stability and conformation. Results of this study showed that drug complexation altered protein conformation by major reduction of ?-helix and increase of turn structure which is indicative of a partial protein destabilization. Structural analysis revealed that arsenic trioxide bind HSA and BSA with overall binding constants of KATO-HSA=1.07 (±0.01)×10(4)M(-1) and KATO-BSA=1.27(±0.02)×10(4)M(-1). It could be concluded that serum albumins can be considered as good carriers for delivering arsenic trioxide to target tissue. PMID:25863441

  17. Serum protein concentrations in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Graninger, W; Thalhammer, F; Hollenstein, U; Zotter, G M; Kremsner, P G

    1992-12-01

    In patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection cytokine-mediated serum protein levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), coeruloplasmin (COE), beta 2-microglobulin (B2M), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), haptoglobin (HPT), prealbumin (PRE), retinol binding protein (RBP), albumin (ALB) and transferrin (TRF) were measured in an endemic area of the Amazonian rain forest. Semi-immune (SI) and nonimmune (NI) patients were investigated. In both patient groups the serum concentrations of CRP, COE and B2M were elevated on admission. In addition AAG and AAT concentrations were increased in NI patients compared to control subjects. Significantly lower serum concentrations of HPT, PRE, RBP, ALB and TRF were seen in both patient groups during the acute phase of the disease, and were more pronounced in NI patients. After a 28-day follow-up, AAT and B2M were normal in SI patients but HPT, AAT and B2M were still significantly altered in NI patients. PMID:1283805

  18. Amoxycillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Anderson, Isobel M. E.; Jones, G. R.; Calder, Margaret A.; Pratt, C.; Malcolm, Margaret G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Stewart, Sheila M., Anderson, Isobel M. E., Jones, G. R., and Calder, Margaret A. (1974).Thorax, 29, 110-114. Amoxycillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva. The levels of amoxycillin in sputum, saliva, and serum from 22 patients were estimated. Fifteen patients had pneumonia and seven had acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The drug was given orally in a dose of 500 mg four times daily. There was considerable variation in the levels in specimens from different patients. The mean sputum levels two to three hours and six hours after the dose were 0·52 and 0·53 ?g/ml respectively. The mean two-hour saliva level was 0·32 ?g/ml. The mean serum levels two and six hours after the test dose were 11·0 and 3·5 ?g/ml respectively. The higher levels of amoxycillin were usually associated with the presence of more pus in the sputum. The mean levels of amoxycillin at comparable times were significantly greater than those found in a previous study after the same dose of ampicillin. Clinical response to treatment occurred more rapidly in those patients with sputum levels of 0·25 ?g amoxycillin per ml or above than in those with lower levels. The time taken to clear potential pathogens from the sputum was related to the pathogen rather than to the amoxycillin level, Haemophilus influenzae persisting for longer than Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:4545190

  19. THE ENHANCEMENT OF BACTERIAL PHAGOCYTOSIS BY SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Richard B.; Klemperer, Martin R.; Alper, Chester A.; Rosen, Fred S.

    1969-01-01

    The role of serum factors in the phagocytosis of pneumococci was studied employing a spectrophotometric assay which measures reduced nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) dye. Dye reduction occurs within the phagocyte shortly after bacterial ingestion as measured by the phagocytic index technique and by the uptake of 125I-pneumococci. Bacteria prepared with ?G antibody were not phagocytosed unless a small volume of fresh normal serum was added. Using fresh sera deficient in single complement components, it was demonstrated that the first four components are necessary for optimal bacterial phagocytosis. When highly purified complement components were added to the antibody-coated pneumococci, enhancement of phagocytosis was achieved only with the sequential addition of C1, C4, C2, and C3. Evidence has been presented that human C3 bound to an immune complex exhibits peptidase activity and that this activity is essential for phagocytosis. A heat-labile, dialyzable serum cofactor which enhances C3 peptidase activity enhanced the phagocytosis of pneumococci prepared with purified complement components. A second phagocytosis-promoting cofactor, which is not a complement component, was found to be a heat-labile, 5–6S, beta pseudoglobulin. This protein may stabilize C3 peptidase activity or inhibit enzymatic inactivation of C3. PMID:4181833

  20. Mammographic Breast Density and Serum Phytoestrogen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Sarah J.; Sprague, Brian L.; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Hedman, Curtis J.; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55–70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9–12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0–13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7–14.6) for < and ?median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  1. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  2. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  3. Hematology and serum chemistry of captive juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, T; Danesik, K L

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemical values were obtained for double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) to improve clinical diagnosis of disease in this species. Blood samples were collected from 20 captive double-crested cormorants at 4 to 6 weeks of age. Hematocrit and leukocyte concentrations were determined in heparinized blood. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, glucose, uric acid, total protein, and albumin, and the activity levels of alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in serum. Total leukocyte concentrations in these double-crested cormorants were higher than the limited ranges reported for cormorants of other species, possibly due to subclinical infection with the liver trematode Amphimerus elongatus, and to differences in species and age. Images Figure 1. PMID:10416069

  4. Hematology and serum chemistry of captive juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    PubMed

    Kuiken, T; Danesik, K L

    1999-07-01

    Hematologic and serum chemical values were obtained for double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) to improve clinical diagnosis of disease in this species. Blood samples were collected from 20 captive double-crested cormorants at 4 to 6 weeks of age. Hematocrit and leukocyte concentrations were determined in heparinized blood. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, glucose, uric acid, total protein, and albumin, and the activity levels of alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in serum. Total leukocyte concentrations in these double-crested cormorants were higher than the limited ranges reported for cormorants of other species, possibly due to subclinical infection with the liver trematode Amphimerus elongatus, and to differences in species and age. PMID:10416069

  5. Airway Morphology and Function of Rats Following Dermal Sensitization and Respiratory Challenge with Low Molecular Weight Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josje H. E. Arts; C. Frieke Kuper; Stan M. Spoor; Nanne Bloksma

    1998-01-01

    Local lymph node activation and increased total serum IgE levels are suggested to be predictive parameters of airway hypersensitivity caused by low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals. Whether increases of total serum IgE are indicative of actual induction of specific airway reactions (morphological and functional) after inhalation challenge was examined in the present study. In Brown Norway (BN) and Wistar rats,

  6. A Comparison of PBDE Serum Concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American Children Living in California

    PubMed Central

    Fenster, Laura; Castorina, Rosemary; Marks, Amy R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Holland, Nina; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Lopez-Carillo, Lizbeth; Bradman, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are used as flame retardants, have been found to be higher in residents of California than of other parts of the United States. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the role of immigration to California on PBDE levels in Latino children. Methods: We compared serum PBDE concentrations in a population of first-generation Mexican-American 7-year-old children (n = 264), who were born and raised in California [Center for Health Analysis of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study], with 5-year-old Mexican children (n = 283), who were raised in the states in Mexico where most CHAMACOS mothers had originated (Proyecto Mariposa). Results: On average, PBDE serum concentrations in the California Mexican-American children were three times higher than their mothers’ levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than concentrations in the children living in Mexico. The PBDE serum concentrations were higher in the Mexican-American children regardless of length of time their mother had resided in California or the duration of the child’s breast-feeding. These data suggest that PBDE serum concentrations in these children resulted primarily from postnatal exposure. Conclusions: Latino children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels than their Mexican counterparts. Given the growing evidence documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels in young children noted in this study potentially present a major public health challenge, especially in California. In addition, as PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety benefits. PMID:21498147

  7. Elevated serum homocysteine level has a positive correlation with serum cardiac troponin I in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Alam, N; Khan, H I L R; Chowdhury, A W; Haque, M S; Ali, M S; Sabah, K M N; Amin, M G

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to find out whether the increased serum homocysteine level is associated with the increased serum troponin I as a surrogate marker of extent of myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction patients. Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with increased thrombosis. In patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), it is not known whether this association is reflected in the degree of myocardial injury. This was a cross sectional study conducted among the patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Department of Cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital during the period of October 2009 to September 2010 and which included 194 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. The mean (+/- SD) serum homocysteine level was 20.2 +/- 14.3 micromol/L with range from 7.4 to 129.1 micromol/L. Mean serum troponin-I level was classified according to normal (<15 micromol/L) and high (> or = 15 micromol/L) levels of serum homocysteine values. The mean serum troponin-I level was 8.9 +/- 8.6 ng/ml in the patients having normal serum homocysteine level and 18.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml in the patients having high serum homocysteine level. A significant positive correlation (r=0.273; p<0.001) was found between serum troponin-I level with homocysteine level. Patients with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (> or = 15 micromol/L) was found to be 7.09 times more likely to have increased serum troponin-I (a surrogate marker of extent of myocardial injury). The main observation of the present study was that elevated serum homocysteine level has a positive correlation with serum cardiac troponin-I in patients with acute myocardial infarction. So serum homocysteine is associated with increased extent of myocardial injury as measured by serum cardiac troponin-I level, a surrogate marker in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22545344

  8. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  9. Syntheses with perfluoroalkyl iodides. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal O. Brace

    2001-01-01

    RFI reacts with the endo cis dialkyl norbornene esters to give adducts in 95–100% yield; the RF radical adds to an exo position and RFI transfers iodine to an adjacent exo position. By contrast, RF adds exo and RFI transfers iodine endo to the endo- or exo-norbornenedicarboxylic anhydrides (Schemes 1–3). Exo-6-iodo ester 5a or 6a, when heated, eliminates RI and

  10. Etodolac in equine urine and serum: determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, confirmation, and metabolite identification by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koupai-Abyazani, M R; Esaw, B; Laviolette, B

    1999-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used for the detection of etodolac in equine serum and urine. The method consisted of a one-step liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a reversed-phase (RP-18) column and detection using an ultraviolet detector. Additional confirmation methods included a HPLC coupled with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer (APCI-MS). Free (unbound) etodolac and its conjugates were present in the samples. Concentrations of the drug in the serum and urine samples collected from four standardbred mares after a single oral administration of Ultradol were determined. Maximum etodolac concentrations of 712, 716, 568, and 767 microg/mL in urine and 4.1, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.2 microg/mL in serum were observed. The peak concentrations of the drug were detected 2-10 h (urine) and 40 min-6 h (serum) after administration to four horses. The maximum detection time was 79 h in urine and 48 h in serum after the drug administration. The drug-elimination profiles for both urine and serum are presented and discussed. Method ruggedness and precision and stability studies of etodolac in serum and urine are presented. Three major metabolites were detected in the urine by liquid chromatography-APCI-MS. All three metabolites were identified as monohydroxylated etodolac. PMID:10369330

  11. Familial resemblance for serum metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Draisma, Harmen H M; Beekman, Marian; Pool, René; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Adamski, Jerzy; Prehn, Cornelia; Vaarhorst, Anika A M; de Craen, Anton J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-10-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of familial resemblance for the concentrations in human serum of more than 100 metabolites, measured using a targeted metabolomics platform. Age- and sex-corrected monozygotic twin correlations, midparent-offspring regression coefficients, and spouse correlations in subjects from two independent cohorts (Netherlands Twin Register and Leiden Longevity Study) were estimated for each metabolite. In the Netherlands Twin Register subjects, who were largely fasting, we found significant monozygotic twin correlations for 121 out of 123 metabolites. Heritability was confirmed by midparent-offspring regression. For most detected metabolites, the correlations between spouses were considerably lower than those between twins, indicating a contribution of genetic effects to familial resemblance. Remarkably high heritability was observed for free carnitine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.66), for the amino acids serine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77) and threonine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.64), and for phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C40:3 (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77). For octenoylcarnitine, a consistent point estimate of approximately 0.50 was found for the spouse correlations in the two cohorts as well as for the monozygotic twin correlation, suggesting that familiality for this metabolite is explained by shared environment. We conclude that for the majority of metabolites targeted by the used metabolomics platform, the familial resemblance of serum concentrations is largely genetic. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the heritability of fasting serum metabolite concentrations, which is relevant for biomarker research. PMID:23985338

  12. Interactions of cannabinoids with bovine serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Haque; M. K. Poddar

    1984-01-01

    There is no shift of emission maximum (F470nm) of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-l-anilino-8-naphthatene sulphonic acid (ANS) complex in the pesence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) alone and cannabidiol (CBD) or cannabinol (CBN) in the presence and absence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC (1.66–13.33 µM) and CBD at higher concentrations (13.33–20.0 µM) produce a concentration-dependent significant quenching of fluorescence of BSA-ANS complex, but CBN (l.66–20.0

  13. The Diagnostic Value of Serum Leucine Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Morris C.; Weintrub, Isadore W.

    1963-01-01

    Experience with serum leucine aminopeptidase determination in 61 patients led to the following conclusions. The test is no more sensitive than the alkaline phosphatase test in cases of carcinoma of the pancreas. It is elevated in all cases of obstructive and hepatogenous jaundice and serves no useful function in their differentiation. It was a valuable test in cases of calculous biliary tract disease, being more sensitive than either bilirubin or alkaline phosphatase determinations. In three instances of elevated leucine aminopeptidase in disorders apparently not related to the liver or pancreas, laparotomy and autopsy showed involvement of these organs in two. PMID:20327467

  14. Serum albumin in 2D: a Langmuir monolayer approach.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Nicholas F; Leblanc, Roger M

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of protein interaction at the molecular level raises certain difficulties which is the reason a model membrane system such as the Langmuir monolayer technique was developed. Ubiquitous proteins such as serum albumin comprise 50% of human blood plasma protein content and are involved in many biological functions. The important nature of this class of protein demands that it be studied in detail while modifying the experimental conditions in two dimensions to observe it in all types of environments. While different from bulk colloidal solution work, the two dimensional approach allows for the observation of the interaction between molecules and subphase at the air-water interface. Compiled in this review are studies which highlight the characterization of this protein using various surroundings and also observing the types of interactions it would have when at the biomembrane interface. Free-energy changes between molecules, packing status of the bulk analyte at the interface as well as phase transitions as the monolayer forms a more organized or aggregated state are just some of the characteristics which are observed through the Langmuir technique. This unique methodology demonstrates the chemical behavior and physical behavior of this protein at the phase boundary throughout the compression of the monolayer. PMID:24267981

  15. Evidence that serum phosphate is independently associated with serum PTH in patients with chronic renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davis M. Kates; Donald J. Sherrard; Dennis L. Andress

    1997-01-01

    There has been controversy regarding the initial pathogenic events involved with the hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure (CRF). Low serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in uremic patients are postulated by some as having a role in permitting higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. However, recent animal and in vitro studies strongly suggest that phosphate has a direct effect on parathyroid cells

  16. Immune serum confers protection against syphilitic infection on hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Azadegan, A A; Schell, R F; LeFrock, J L

    1983-01-01

    Pooled serum from hamsters immune to syphilitic infection conferred complete protection on recipient hamsters challenged with Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum. Cutaneous lesions did not develop, and the recipients' lymph nodes weighed less than those of controls and contained no treponemes. Treponemicidal activity in the pooled immune serum was relatively high. When treponemes were incubated in immune serum and complement and the suspension was then inoculated into hamsters, recipients developed neither lesions nor enlarged lymph nodes teeming with treponemes. With hamsters already infected for several weeks, however, immune serum failed to impair or influence the progression of syphilis. Treponemes were eliminated only when immune serum was administered within a short time of syphilitic infection. These results demonstrate that hamsters develop an effective serum-mediated treponemicidal response, but this response is not sufficient to eliminate treponemes at the primary foci of infection. PMID:6352502

  17. Head-to-Head Comparison of Serum Fractionation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zhang, Heidi; Eng, Jimmy K.; Fang, Ruihua; Piening, Brian D.; Feng, Li-Chia; lorentzen, Travis D.; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Keane, John F.; Holzman, Ted; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Lin, Chen Wei; Zhang, Hui; Cooke, Kelly; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Leigh N.; Watts, Julian; Smith, Richard D.; McIntosh, Martin; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2007-02-01

    Multiple approaches for simplifying the serum proteome have been described. These techniques are generally developed across different laboratories, samples, mass spectrometry platforms, and analysis tools. Hence, comparing the available schemes is impossible from the existing literature because of confounding variables. We describe a head-to-head comparison of several serum fractionation schemes, including N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, magnetic bead separation (C3, C8, and WCX), size fractionation, Protein A/G depletion, and immunoaffinity column depletion of abundant serum proteins. Each technique was compared to results obtained from unfractionated human serum. The results show immunoaffinity subtraction is the most effective means for simplifying the serum proteome and maintaining reasonable sample throughput. The reported dataset is publicly available and provides a standard against which emergent technologies can be compared and evaluated for their contribution to serum-based biomarker discovery.

  18. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  19. Chemical Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this chemistry activity, learners explore the amount of copper in a new penny. Learners use toilet bowl cleaner to hollow out the interior of a penny with zinc inside. This experiment will demonstrate how chemical changes can separate matter. Learners can also discuss how zinc is cheaper than copper, in a lesson about economics.

  20. Chemical Evolution

    E-print Network

    Francesca Matteucci

    2007-04-05

    In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

  1. Chemical Ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen H. Gross; Mass Spectrometry

    \\u000a Mass spectrometrists have ever been searching for ionization methods softer than EI, because molecular weight determination\\u000a is key for structure elucidation. Chemical ionization (CI) is the first of the so-called soft ionization methods we are going to discuss (cf. Fig. 1.2).

  2. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  3. Purification of rabbit and human serum paraoxonase.

    PubMed

    Furlong, C E; Richter, R J; Chapline, C; Crabb, J W

    1991-10-22

    Rabbit serum paraoxonase/arylesterase has been purified to homogeneity by Cibacron Blue-agarose chromatography, gel filtration, DEAE-Trisacryl M chromatography, and preparative SDS gel electrophoresis. Renaturation (Copeland et al., 1982) and activity staining of the enzyme resolved by SDS gel electrophoresis allowed for identification and purification of paraoxonase. Two bands of active enzyme were purified by this procedure (35,000 and 38,000). Enzyme electroeluted from the preparative gels was reanalyzed by analytical SDS gel electrophoresis, and two higher molecular weight bands (43,000 and 48,000) were observed in addition to the original bands. This suggested that repeat electrophoresis resulted in an unfolding or other modification and slower migration of some of the purified protein. The lower mobility bands stained weakly for paraoxonase activity in preparative gels. Bands of each molecular weight species were electroblotted onto PVDF membranes and sequenced. The gas-phase sequence analysis showed that both the active bands and apparent molecular weight bands had identical amino-terminal sequences. Amino acid analysis of the four electrophoretic components from PVDF membranes also indicated compositional similarity. The amino-terminal sequences are typical of the leader sequences of secreted proteins. Human serum paraoxonase was purified by a similar procedure, and ten residues of the amino terminus were sequenced by gas-phase procedures. One amino acid difference between the first ten residues of human and rabbit was observed. PMID:1718413

  4. Dialysate and Serum Potassium in Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Adriana M; Hakim, Raymond M

    2015-07-01

    Most patients with end-stage renal disease depend on intermittent hemodialysis to maintain levels of serum potassium and other electrolytes within a normal range. However, one of the challenges has been the safety of using a low-potassium dialysate to achieve that goal, given the concern about the effects that rapid and/or large changes in serum potassium concentrations may have on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmia. Additionally, in this patient population, there is a high prevalence of structural cardiac changes and ischemic heart disease, making them even more susceptible to acute arrhythmogenic triggers. This concern is highlighted by the knowledge that about two-thirds of all cardiac deaths in dialysis are due to sudden cardiac death and that sudden cardiac death accounts for 25% of the overall death for end-stage renal disease. Developing new approaches and practice standards for potassium removal during dialysis, as well as understanding other modifiable triggers of sudden cardiac death, such as other electrolyte components of the dialysate (magnesium and calcium), rapid ultrafiltration rates, and safety of a number of medications (ie, drugs that prolong the QT interval or use of digoxin), are critical in order to decrease the unacceptably high cardiac mortality experienced by hemodialysis-dependent patients. PMID:25828570

  5. Effects of psychological stress on serum iron and erythropoiesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunlan Wei; Jian Zhou; Xueqiang Huang; Min Li

    2008-01-01

    There are about one billion patients with iron deficiency anaemia all over the world. Recently, researchers have reported\\u000a successively that stress can cause decrease of serum iron, in consistent with our studies showing that heat exposure and acceleration\\u000a stress led to significant decrease of serum iron in rats. However, so far whether pure psychological stress can cause decrease\\u000a of serum

  6. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Escherichia coli against Killing by Human Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Mcmanus; P. D. Josephy

    1995-01-01

    To assess the role of superoxide dismutase in protecting Escherichia coli from killing by human serum and neutrophils, we constructed isogenic, smooth-lipopolysaccharide K-12 strains, either sod wild-type, ?sodA, or ?sodA?sodB. The ?sodA?sodB strain was killed by serum much more readily than either the wild-type or ?sodA strain. After allowing for this serum sensitivity difference, the ?sodA?sodB strain also showed increased

  7. Correlation between Serum and Plasma Antibody Titers to Mycobacterial Antigens ?

    PubMed Central

    Siev, Michael; Yu, Xian; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Martiniuk, Frank T.; Casadevall, Arturo; Achkar, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to utilize serum or plasma samples interchangeably is useful for tuberculosis (TB) serology. We demonstrate a strong correlation between antibody titers to several mycobacterial antigens in serum versus plasma from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected TB and non-TB patients (r = 0.99 to 0.89; P < 0.0001). Plasma and serum can be used interchangeably in the same antibody detection assays. PMID:21047999

  8. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  9. Serum protein and zinc levels in patients with thoracic empyema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Erkan Balkan; Hilal Özgüne?

    1996-01-01

    The element Zn is the metal component or activator of many important enzymes. The tissue concentrations and activities of\\u000a Zn metalloenzymes direct the rate of protein and nucleic acid syntheses, thereby influencing tissue growth and reperative\\u000a processes. Most of the serum Zn is normally bound to circulating proteins. Low serum Zn concentrations might result from depletion\\u000a of Zn-binding proteins. Serum

  10. Butyrylcholinesterase Is Complexed with Transferrin in Chicken Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Weitnauer; Christopher Ebert; Ferdinand Hucho; Andrea Robitzki; Christopher Weise; Paul G. Layer

    1999-01-01

    The function of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) both in serum and in brain is unclear. In serum, BChE has been found complexed with several biomedically relevant proteins, with which it could function in concert. Here, the existence of a similar complex formed between BChE and sero-transferrin from adult chicken serum was elucidated. In order to identify both proteins unequivocally, we

  11. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  12. Randomized Trial of Folic Acid Supplementation and Serum Homocysteine Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Wald; Lucy Bishop; Nicholas J. Wald; Malcolm Law; Enid Hennessy; Donald Weir; Joe McPartlin; John Scott

    2001-01-01

    Methods: We randomized 151 patients with ischemic heart disease to 1 of 5 dosages of folic acid (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mg\\/d) or placebo. Fasting blood samples for serum ho- mocysteine and serum folate analysis were taken initially, after 3 months of supplementation, and 3 months after fo- lic acid use was discontinued. Results: Median serum homocysteine level

  13. Detection of serum antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae by ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Numazaki; Tadashi Ikebe; Shunzo Chiba

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other respiratory infections in children, adolescents and adults. We tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of detection of serum antibodies by ELISA for C. pneumoniae infections in Japanese children. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to C. pneumoniae were determined by the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies were also determined by ELISA

  14. Serum Concentrations and Adverse Effects of Chloramphenicol in Pediatric Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milap C. Nahata

    1987-01-01

    Chloramphenicol serum concentration is often monitored to assure efficacy and prevent toxicity. We studied the relationship between steady-state chloramphenicol serum concentration and hematologic adverse effects in 45 pediatric patients. The mean peak serum concentration of chloramphenicol in patients with and without toxicity were not different (p > 0.1): 22.7 ?g\\/ml in neutropenic patients versus 23.1 ?g\\/ml in those without neutropenia;

  15. Interaction of Serum microRNAs and Serum Folate With the Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yao; Xue, Yibo; Ruan, Gechong; Cheng, Kailiang; Tian, Jing; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Min; Li, Hui; Yang, Hong; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether 6 candidate serum miRNAs and their interactions with serum folate level were associated with the risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Method A hospital-based case-control study including 74 incident PC cases and 74 controls was conducted. Serum folate and miRNAs were determined by radioimmunoassay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Cell lines AsPC-1 and PANC-1 were used for in vitro study. Results MiR-16 was elevated (P = 0.030–0.043) and miR-103 was reduced (P = 0.018–0.020) in PC after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking; however, after additional adjustment for folate, only miR-103 was significantly different between cases and controls (P = 0.010). After converting the relative expression of miRNAs into binary variables and adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and folate, the subjects with low miR-103 or low miR-601 were observed to have a higher risk for PC, with odds ratios of 2.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–5.10) and 2.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.07–5.26), respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed a significant interaction for miR-16, folate, and smoking (cross-validation consistency, 10/10; mean testing accuracy, 0.696; P = 0.013). Interaction between miR-16 and folate was also verified in the AsPC-1 cells. Conclusion Serum miR-103; miR-601; and interactions among serum miR-16, folate, and smoking are associated with PC. PMID:25084000

  16. Molecules involve in the self-protection of neurons against glucose–oxygen–serum deprivation (GOSD)-induced cell damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Hsuan Wang; Wen-Jane Lee; Vithal K. Ghanta; Wei-Ti Wang; Shu-Yun Cheng; Chi-Mei Hsueh

    2009-01-01

    Molecules involved in self-protection of neurons against glucose\\/oxygen\\/serum deprivation (GOSD) were investigated. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, Western blotting, ELISA, cytokine antibody array and chemical blocking assay were applied in the study. Results showed that early induction (at 6h of GOSD) of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), leptin, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) all played a compensatory

  17. Aujeszky's disease: blocking ELISA for the detection of serum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sřrensen, K J; Lei, J C

    1986-05-01

    A blocking ELISA for the detection of serum antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus has been developed. The test was designed in particular with a view to examining large numbers of blood samples. It has been found to be sensitive, specific and precise. In comparison with the serum neutralization test it was superior in detecting low levels of antibodies in pig sera. The blocking ELISA gave higher titre values in serum samples taken early after experimental infection of pigs with Aujeszky's disease virus, than did the serum neutralization test. PMID:3016016

  18. Click chemistry-mediated catalytic hairpin self-assembly for amplified and sensitive fluorescence detection of Cu(2+) in human serum.

    PubMed

    Li, Daxiu; Zhou, Wenjiao; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2015-07-23

    Chemically reduced Cu(2+) triggers the ligation of alkynyl- and azido-modified DNA via click chemistry. Subsequently, the ligated DNA initiates cyclic assembly of two fluorescently quenched hairpin DNAs and generates significantly amplified fluorescence signals for highly sensitive detection of Cu(2+) in human serum samples. PMID:26160681

  19. Development and validation of sensitive method for determination of serum cotinine in smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography\\/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Bernert; Wayman E. Turner; James L. Pirkle; Connie S. Sosnoff; James R. Akins; Mary K. Waldrep; Qinghong Ann; Thomas R. Covey; Wanda E. Whitfield; Elaine W. Gunter; Barbara B. Miller; Donald G. Patterson; Larry L. Needham; W. Harry; Eric J. Sampson

    We describe a sensitive and specific method for measur- ing cotinine in serum by HPLC coupled to an atmo- spheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spec- trometer. This method can analyze 100 samples\\/day on a routine basis, and its limit of detection of 50 ng\\/L makes it applicable to the analysis of samples from nonsmok- ers potentially exposed to environmental

  20. [Photo-chemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acids in aqueous periodate].

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng-Hua; Wang, Bei-Bei; Zhu, Hu-Di; Tan, Zhen-Ji; Zeng, You-Shi; Wang, Lin-Ling; Yuan, Song-Hu; Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The influence of reaction atmosphere and TiO2 on photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in aqueous periodate was investigated using a type of low-pressure mercury lamps emitted at 254 nm. PFOA photolysis was slight with 254 nm light irradiation under nitrogen, whereas significant decomposition PFOA obtained with the addition of IO4-. In addition, oxygen restrained photochemical decomposition of PFOA. In UV/TiO2/IO4- system, PFOA degradation ratio was 54%, 15% lower than that for UV/IO4- system. *OH radicals generated from UV/TiO2 system exhausted a lot of IO4-, resulting in lower degree of IO3* production. IO3* was high reactive radical which great excitated PFOA decomposition. The accumulation of short-chain perfluorocarbonxylic acids (PFCAs) as products were identified with HPLC/MS. PFCAs bearing shorter perfluoroalkyl groups were formed in a stepwise way from PFCAs that bear longer perfluoroalkyl groups. PMID:21404676

  1. Serum TCDD and TEQ Concentrations among Seveso Women, Twenty Years after the Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Marcella; Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Patterson, Don G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The Seveso Women’s Health Study (SWHS) is a historical cohort study of the female population residing near Seveso, Italy, on July 10, 1976, when a chemical explosion resulted in the highest known residential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Individual TCDD concentration was measured in serum collected near the time of the explosion, and in 1996, we collected adequate blood for TCDD and total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) measurement. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls were measured in 1996 serum for a sample (n=225, 23%) of the SWHS cohort and WHO 2005 TEQs were calculated. We examined characteristics that predict 1996 TCDD concentrations and estimated TCDD elimination half-life over the 20 year period since the explosion. Median lipid-adjusted TCDD and total TEQ concentrations in 1996 serum were 7.3 and 26.2 ppt, respectively. Initial 1976 TCDD and age at explosion were the strongest predictors of 1996 TCDD. The TCDD elimination half-life was 7.1 years for women older than 10 years in 1976, but was shorter in those who were younger. Twenty years after the explosion, TCDD concentrations in this SWHS sample, the majority of who were children in 1976, remain elevated relative to background. These data add to the limited data available on TCDD elimination half-life in children. PMID:24149975

  2. Serum TCDD and TEQ concentrations among Seveso women, 20 years after the explosion.

    PubMed

    Warner, Marcella; Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Patterson, Don G; Turner, Wayman E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    The Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) is a historical cohort study of the female population residing near Seveso, Italy, on 10 July 1976, when a chemical explosion resulted in the highest known residential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Individual TCDD concentration was measured in serum collected near the time of the explosion, and in 1996, we collected adequate blood for TCDD and total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) measurement. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls were measured in 1996 serum for a sample (n=225, 23%) of the SWHS cohort and WHO 2005 TEQs were calculated. We examined characteristics that predict 1996 TCDD concentrations and estimated TCDD elimination half-life over the 20-year period since the explosion. Median lipid-adjusted TCDD and total TEQ concentrations in 1996 serum were 7.3 and 26.2?p.p.t., respectively. Initial 1976 TCDD and age at explosion were the strongest predictors of 1996 TCDD. The TCDD elimination half-life was 7.1 years for women older than 10 years in 1976, but was shorter in those who were younger. Twenty years after the explosion, TCDD concentrations in this SWHS sample, the majority of who were children in 1976, remain elevated relative to background. These data add to the limited data available on TCDD elimination half-life in children. PMID:24149975

  3. Serum Phthalate Levels and Time to Pregnancy in Couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Jřrgensen, Kristian T.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) according to serum levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds to provide proxies of the internal exposure. We used Cox discrete-time models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for men and women according to their proxy-DEHP or -DiNP serum levels adjusted for a fixed set of covariates. The FR was slightly elevated among women with high levels of DEHP (FR=1.14, 95% CI 1.00;1.30) suggesting a shorter TTP in these women. The FR was unrelated to DiNP in women, whereas the results for men were inconsistent pointing in opposite directions. First-time pregnant women from Greenland with high serum DiNP levels had a longer TTP. This study spanning large contrast in environmental exposure does not indicate adverse effects of phthalates on couple fecundity. The shorter TTP in women with high levels of DEHP metabolites is unexplained and needs further investigation. PMID:25786246

  4. Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Bell, S; Goldman, V M; Bistrian, B R; Arnold, A H; Ostroff, G; Forse, R A

    1999-03-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. One way to reduce the risk of developing the disease is to lower serum cholesterol levels by making dietary changes. In addition to reducing intake of total fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol can be further reduced by added fiber, especially from sources rich in beta-glucan. In this review, two sources of beta-glucan are described; one source is oats and the other yeast. Their chemical structures and physical properties are compared, and their effect on serum lipid levels is described. Oat beta-glucans are found in various breakfast cereals and snacks. Usually, several servings of these products are required to meet the Food and Drug Administration's claim of reducing the risk of heart disease. The yeast-derived fiber is a more concentrated source of beta-glucan than the oat product. It is currently being tested in a wide variety of food products. PMID:10198754

  5. Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-03-02

    Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of (/sup 14/C)acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 ..mu..M. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 ..mu..M acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the /sup 3/H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the low concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Quantitative gas chromatographic mass spectrometric determination of pinaverium-bromide in human serum.

    PubMed

    de Weerdt, G A; Beke, R P; Verdievel, H G; Barbier, F; Jonckheere, J A; de Leenheer, A P

    1983-03-01

    A method has been developed for quantitative determination of pinaverium-bromide, a quaternary ammonium derivative with papaverine-like activity, in human serum. The method involves a chloroform extraction of serum spiked with N-(6,6-dimethyl bicyclo[3.1.1]2-heptenyl-ethoxyethyl) perhydro-1,4-oxazine as internal standard. After evaporation of the solvent, and reduction of the residue with Raney-Nickel, the internal standard and the reduced pinaverium-bromide are re-extracted from the reaction mixture with toluene and analysed isothermally on a fused silica column coated with OV-101. Although chemical ionization with methane revealed intense protonated molecular ions for both pinaverium-bromide and the internal standard, selectivity and sensitivity were significantly lower in comparison with electron impact ionization at 70 e V. Therefore, quantification was performed in the electron impact mode by single ion monitoring of the common fragment ion at m/z 100.2. A linear detector response was observed up to 160 ng ml-1. A within-run assay precision better than 2% CV (n = 5) was found, and a detection limit of 1 ng pinaverium-bromide ml-1 of serum was attained. PMID:6850068

  7. PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

  8. Differences in Serum GH Cut-Off Values for Pharmacological Tests of GH Secretion Depend on the Serum GH Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Chaler; M. A. Rivarola; B. Guerci; M. Ciaccio; M. Costanzo; P. Travaglino; M. Maceiras; S. Pagani; C. Meazza; E. Bozzola; S. Barberi; M. Bozzola; A. Belgorosky

    2006-01-01

    Background: The serum GH cut-off value for pharmacological tests of GH secretion (PhT GH) depends on the type of test and also on the method used for determining serum GH. Cut-off serum GH values as different as 5–10 ng\\/ml, have been reported, and have been validated biochemically. We have used the growth velocity (GV)-standard deviation score (SDS) during the first

  9. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-05-04

    We are going go over a general view of reactions to prepare us for our unit on Chemical Reactions! Have fun learning! WARNING: If you are caught looking at ANY other site, without permission, you will be sent to the ALC, and you will not participate in any other computer activities for the rest of the year. Get your worksheet and begin! Overview Take this quiz and have me come over and sign off on your worksheet when you have completed the quiz! Overview Quiz Next let's take a look at what effect the rate of a chemical reaction. Rates of Reactions Another quiz, another check off by me! Rates of Reactions Quiz Now how do we measure how fast a ...

  10. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  11. Is serum cholesterol a risk factor for asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Ramaraju, Karthikeyan; Krishnamurthy, Srikanth; Maamidi, Smrithi; Kaza, Anupama Murthy; Balasubramaniam, Nithilavalli

    2013-01-01

    Background: Proinflammatory role of serum cholesterol in asthma has been recently explored with contradicting results. Clarity on the link between serum cholesterol and asthma may lead to new evolutions in planning management strategies. The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between the serum cholesterol, asthma and its characteristics. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 asthmatics and 40 normal subjects were examined cross-sectionally and their serum fasting cholesterol and serum high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured along with other baseline investigations. All subjects were non-smokers. Results: Serum total cholesterol (mean ± SD) among asthmatics was 176.45 ± 30.77 mgs/dL as compared to 163.33 ± 26.38 mgs/dL among normal subjects (P < 0.05). This higher serum cholesterol level was found to be associated with asthma independent of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and serum hsCRP levels. However, the association was only modest (adjusted odds ratio 1.033; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.008-1.059). There was no association between the serum cholesterol and asthma characteristics such as duration of illness, intake of inhaled steroids and frequency of emergency department visits. Other risk factors identified were poor ventilation (adjusted odds ratio 9.27; 95%CI 1.83-46.99) and overcrowding (adjusted odds ratio 41.9; 95% CI 3.15-557.46) at home. Conclusion: Our study found a modest but significant association between higher levels of serum cholesterol and asthma, which is independent of age, gender, BMI, socio-economic status and serum hsCRP. Future research is required in a larger population to substantiate above association and its clinical implications. Poor ventilation and overcrowding at home are risk factors for asthma possibly facilitating increased exposure to indoor allergens. PMID:24339486

  12. Differences between Human Plasma and Serum Metabolite Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonghao; Kastenmüller, Gabi; He, Ying; Belcredi, Petra; Möller, Gabriele; Prehn, Cornelia; Mendes, Joaquim; Wahl, Simone; Roemisch-Margl, Werner; Ceglarek, Uta; Polonikov, Alexey; Dahmen, Norbert; Prokisch, Holger; Xie, Lu; Li, Yixue; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Peters, Annette; Kronenberg, Florian; Suhre, Karsten; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas; Wang-Sattler, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Background Human plasma and serum are widely used matrices in clinical and biological studies. However, different collecting procedures and the coagulation cascade influence concentrations of both proteins and metabolites in these matrices. The effects on metabolite concentration profiles have not been fully characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the concentrations of 163 metabolites in plasma and serum samples collected simultaneously from 377 fasting individuals. To ensure data quality, 41 metabolites with low measurement stability were excluded from further analysis. In addition, plasma and corresponding serum samples from 83 individuals were re-measured in the same plates and mean correlation coefficients (r) of all metabolites between the duplicates were 0.83 and 0.80 in plasma and serum, respectively, indicating significantly better stability of plasma compared to serum (p?=?0.01). Metabolite profiles from plasma and serum were clearly distinct with 104 metabolites showing significantly higher concentrations in serum. In particular, 9 metabolites showed relative concentration differences larger than 20%. Despite differences in absolute concentration between the two matrices, for most metabolites the overall correlation was high (mean r?=?0.81±0.10), which reflects a proportional change in concentration. Furthermore, when two groups of individuals with different phenotypes were compared with each other using both matrices, more metabolites with significantly different concentrations could be identified in serum than in plasma. For example, when 51 type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients were compared with 326 non-T2D individuals, 15 more significantly different metabolites were found in serum, in addition to the 25 common to both matrices. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that reproducibility was good in both plasma and serum, and better in plasma. Furthermore, as long as the same blood preparation procedure is used, either matrix should generate similar results in clinical and biological studies. The higher metabolite concentrations in serum, however, make it possible to provide more sensitive results in biomarker detection. PMID:21760889

  13. Effect of Reye's syndrome serum on isolated chinchilla liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Tonsgard, J H; Getz, G S

    1985-01-01

    A general impairment of liver mitochondrial enzymes is central to Reye's syndrome (RS). The respiration of isolated liver mitochondria was measured after the addition of concentrated normal serum or RS serum derived from 12 patients. RS serum stimulates oxygen consumption in isolated rat liver mitochondria. This effect is due to the oxidation of uric acid by peroxisomes contaminating the preparation and a stimulation of mitochondrial respiration (1.05 +/- 0.14 nmol of O2/min X mg of protein; control 0.30 +/- 0.08 nmol O2/min X mg). The stimulation of respiration occurs in the presence of all respiratory substrates, is dependent on the amount of serum added, and represents an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. RS serum reduces ATP formation by 15-76%. The uncoupling effect correlates with the amount of free fatty acid in the serum sample and resembles the effect induced by the addition of a dicarboxylic fatty acid. Dicarboxylic fatty acids, especially long-chain dicarboxylic acids, impair ATP formation. Dicarboxylic acids were found in the serum of all RS patients and comprised as much as 54% of the total serum free fatty acids. 90% of the serum dicarboxylic acids were of 16-18 carbon lengths. The amount of dicarboxylic acids in the RS serum corresponded directly with the reduction in ATP formation by the RS serum. This demonstrates that dicarboxylic acids occur in RS and may be important in the general impairment of mitochondrial function in RS and other disorders where they are present. Images PMID:4031073

  14. Serum immunoglobulin concentration in Nigerian infants.

    PubMed

    Akinkugbe, F M; Akinwolere, O A; Oyewole, A I

    1989-09-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, M and A were determined at 3-monthly intervals during the first year of life in 35 healthy Nigerian infants. The neonatal IgG values were high, but dropped rapidly by 3 months to about 37% of the neonatal value, and thereafter rose steadily. The neonatal IgM values dropped slightly (10%) by 3 months and then rose steadily to reach a level above the neonatal value after 1 year. IgA was not detected in most of the children during the neonatal period, but where it was detected and was measurable, the values were very low and then rose steadily until the age of 1 year. There was a suggestion that the pattern of immunoglobulin in infancy might be influenced by the level of maternal education. PMID:2551156

  15. An immunochemiluminometric assay for serum free thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Sturgess, M L; Weeks, I; Evans, P J; Mpoko, C N; Laing, I; Woodhead, J S

    1987-09-01

    An immunochemiluminometric assay has been developed for the measurement of free T4 concentrations in serum. The assay uses chemiluminescent acridinium ester labelled monoclonal antibodies which react with free T4 in the sample. A T4-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugate competes for antibody binding sites, immune-complexes containing this being isolated using an anti-immunoglobulin G antibody coupled to paramagnetic particles. Associated chemiluminescence intensity is thus dependent on the free T4 concentration. The assay distinguishes patients with primary thyroid disease from euthyroid subjects and is unaffected by abnormal binding proteins which compromise the diagnostic accuracy of radiolabelled analogue immunoassays. the test yields results which accurately reflect the clinical thyroid status of euthyroid patients with a variety of acute and chronic non-thyroid illnesses. This is again in marked contrast to the aberrant results seen using certain radiolabelled analogue procedures. PMID:3322610

  16. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  17. SERUM PROLACTIN CHANGES IN EPILEPSY AND HYSTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Tharyan, P.; Kuruvilla, K.; Prabhakar, S.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY The usefulness of post-ictal serum prolactin changes, as an adjunct, in the differentiation of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures from hysterical pseudoepileptic seizures, was investigated in a double blind study designed to control for variables known to alter prolactin levels. Significant post-ictal hyper-prolactinemia, with a peak at 20 minutes and a fall towards baseline by 1 hour, was found after complex partial seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and after bilateral, unmodified ECT, but not after hysterical pseudoepileptic seizures or in stressed, non-epileptic controls. A proportionate increase in peak prolactin levels of at least thrice baseline values was found to best differentiate genuine seizures from pseudoepileptic seizures. Postictal hyperprolactinemia is a sensitive biochemical marker of a genuine seizure and of potential use in the differentiation of epileptic from hysterical pseudoepileptic seizures. PMID:21927300

  18. Proteomic Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies from Serum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the in vivo dynamics of the polyclonal antibody repertoire in serum, such as that which might arise in response to stimulation with an antigen, is difficult due to the presence of many highly similar immunoglobulin proteins, each specified by distinct B lymphocytes. These challenges have precluded the use of conventional mass spectrometry for antibody identification based on peptide mass spectral matches to a genomic reference database. Recently, progress has been made using bottom-up analysis of serum antibodies by nanoflow liquid chromatography/high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry combined with a sample-specific antibody sequence database generated by high-throughput sequencing of individual B cell immunoglobulin variable domains (V genes). Here, we describe how intrinsic features of antibody primary structure, most notably the interspersed segments of variable and conserved amino acid sequences, generate recurring patterns in the corresponding peptide mass spectra of V gene peptides, greatly complicating the assignment of correct sequences to mass spectral data. We show that the standard method of decoy-based error modeling fails to account for the error introduced by these highly similar sequences, leading to a significant underestimation of the false discovery rate. Because of these effects, antibody-derived peptide mass spectra require increased stringency in their interpretation. The use of filters based on the mean precursor ion mass accuracy of peptide-spectrum matches is shown to be particularly effective in distinguishing between “true” and “false” identifications. These findings highlight important caveats associated with the use of standard database search and error-modeling methods with nonstandard data sets and custom sequence databases. PMID:24684310

  19. Serum cholesterol levels and postoperative atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-operative atrial fibrillation is an important complication after coronary bypass surgery. As inflammation and oxidative stress were makedly encountered in the etiology, high cholesterol was also defined to provoke atrial fibrillation. In this present study, the relationship between postoperative atrial fibrillation and preoperative serum lipid levels were evaluated. Methods A total of 100 patients, who were operated at the department of Cardiovascular Surgery of our hospital were included to the study analysis. Patients, who had preoperative atrial fibrillation, thyroid dysfunction, or left atrial dilatation (above 4.5 cm) were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups with postoperative atrial fibrillation development (Group I n?=?36), and without atrial fibrillation development (Group II n?=?64). Preoperative routine blood analyses, ECG, echocardiography were evaluated. Patients were followed for atrial fibrillation development for one month starting from the intensive care unit at the postoperative period. Serum lipid profiles and thyroid function were measured. For homogenization of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress, treatments other than statins, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, aspirin, ACE inhibitors, and ARB were stopped for 10 days. Atrial fibrillation for at least ?5 minutes in the intensive care unit was accepted as postoperative atrial fibrillation. Results Demographic data were similiar between groups (p?>?0.05). There was no difference in TC levels between groups, whereas LDL-C levels were statistically lower in patients developing post-operative atrial fibrillation (106.67?±?28.36 vs 118.75?±?27.75; P?

  20. Establishment of Alternative Culture Method for Spermatogonial Stem Cells Using Knockout Serum Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Baba, Ai; Makino, Yoshinori; Okada, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology. PMID:24204931

  1. Establishment of alternative culture method for spermatogonial stem cells using knockout serum replacement.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Baba, Ai; Makino, Yoshinori; Okada, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology. PMID:24204931

  2. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ? 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level.

  3. A Platelet-Dependent Serum Factor that Stimulates the Proliferation of Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells in Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Ross; John Glomset; Beverly Kariya; Laurence Harker

    1974-01-01

    Dialyzed serum from clotted monkey blood (``blood serum'') promotes the proliferation of monkey arterial smooth muscle cells in culture, but dialyzed serum prepared from recalcified platelet-poor plasma (``plasma serum'') is much less effective. Addition of platelets and calcium to platelet-poor plasma increases the activity of plasma serum to the same level achieved with blood serum. Furthermore, addition to plasma serum

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Brown; Richard W. Lawton

    1984-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of

  5. Nutrition education improves serum retinol concentration among adolescent school girls.

    PubMed

    Lanerolle, Pulani; Atukorala, Sunethra

    2006-01-01

    Dietary diversification has been identified as a sustainable intervention method in developing countries where subclinical vitamin A deficiency exists. Nutrition education is central to all methods of nutrition intervention including dietary diversification. The paucity of available data currently limits the effective use of nutrition education in national programs in Sri Lanka. We assessed the effect of nutrition education on nutrition related knowledge, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentrations among 229 adolescent school girls, aged between 15-19 years. Knowledge on nutrition, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentration was assessed at baseline. Intervention included nutrition education as lecture discussions, interactive group discussions and four different methods of reinforcement. Knowledge, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentrations were reassessed after a ten week period of intervention. Educational intervention resulted in a significant increase in knowledge (P < 0.001) and consumption of local vitamin A rich foods. The percentage of subjects with low serum retinol concentrations (<20 microg/dL) decreased from 17% to 4.8%. The effect of nutrition education on serum retinol concentration was highly significant (P<0.001) in subjects with baseline serum retinol concentrations below 20 microg/L. Nutrition education was effective in improving knowledge and food consumption patterns among these girls. Effectiveness was of biological significance, as a positive change in serum retinol concentration was observed in subjects with initially low concentrations, and not in subjects with initially normal serum concentrations. PMID:16500877

  6. Serum Lipids in Cholelithiasis: Effect of Chenodeoxycholic Acid Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Bell; B. Lewis; A. Petrie; R. Hermon Dowling

    1973-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia has been predicted as a possible complication of chenodeoxycholic acid treatment for gall stones. To exclude this, fasting serum lipids were measured in patients with stones before and at monthly intervals for six months after starting chenodeoxycholic acid. Before treatment half of a group of 36 patients with presumed cholesterol gall stones had serum cholesterol levels exceeding 260 mg\\/100

  7. Serum differentially alters the antifungal properties of echinocandin drugs.

    PubMed

    Paderu, Padmaja; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Balashov, Sergey; Delmas, Guillaume; Park, Steven; Perlin, David S

    2007-06-01

    Antifungal efficacies of the echinocandin drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin were reduced significantly in the presence of 50% human serum, which yielded nearly equivalent MICs or minimum effective concentrations against diverse Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Consistent with a direct drug interaction, serum decreased the sensitivity of glucan synthase to echinocandin drugs. PMID:17420211

  8. Serum Differentially Alters the Antifungal Properties of Echinocandin Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmaja Paderu; Guillermo Garcia-Effron; Sergey Balashov; Guillaume Delmas; Steven Park; David S. Perlin

    2007-01-01

    The echinocandin drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin inhibit the fungal -1,3-glucan synthase enzyme, which blocks the formation of glucan polymers, thereby dis- rupting fungal cell wall integrity (2). Animal and human stud- ies indicate that echinocandin drugs are extensively bound to serum proteins (1, 4, 5, 15), and serum was shown to reduce the antifungal properties of micafungin with some

  9. Microneutralization assay for swine influenza virus in swine serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microneutralization (MN) assay is a modification of the serum virus neutralization assay and is a serological test to detect the presence of functional systemic antibodies that prevent infectivity of virus. When infectious virus is mixed with serum antibody, the virus infectivity can be "neutral...

  10. Serum prolactin in liver disease and its relationship to gynaecomastia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Y Morgan; A W Jakobovits; M B Gore; M R Wills; S Sherlock

    1978-01-01

    Serum immunoreactive prolactin was measured in 150 patients with liver disease of varying aetiology and severity and in 45 control subjects. The upper limit of the reference range for serum prolactin was 331 mU\\/l. Eighteen patients with liver disease (12%) had unexplained hyperprolactinaemia. No relationship existed between the prolactin value and the sex of the patient, the aetiology of the

  11. Serum-free hybridoma culture: ethical, scientific and safety considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megha S. Even; Chad B. Sandusky; Neal D. Barnard

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in the development of cell culture techniques, including the development of the serum- and protein-free media that now routinely support hybridoma and mammalian cell growth, fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented media are still commonly used: a practice that raises ethical, scientific and safety concerns. The use of FBS in hybridoma culture media is examined here, with regards

  12. Method for the automatic determination of serum iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Young; Jocelyn M. Hicks

    1965-01-01

    A simple method is described for the automated determination of serum iron and tota iron-binding capacity, which eliminates the need to render apparatus or reagents iron-free. The method is faster than normal procedures and its accuracy is comparable with other accepted methods for the determination of serum iron.

  13. SERUM ALBUMIN POLYMORPHISMS IN NATURAL AND LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF PEROMYSCUS

    E-print Network

    Brown, James H.

    SERUM ALBUMIN POLYMORPHISMS IN NATURAL AND LABORATORY POPULATIONS OF PEROMYSCUS JAMES H. BROWN AND CARL F. WELSER ABSTRACT.-Electrophoresisof serum from 14 species of Peromyscus revealed albumin polymorphismsin samples of P. maniculatus, P. leucopus, P. truei, P. difficilis, P. megalops, and P. floridanus

  14. Human Transferrin Confers Serum Resistance against Bacillus anthracis*

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Human Transferrin Confers Serum Resistance against Bacillus anthracis* Received for publication-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, does not grow in human serum. Fractionation. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis can infect humans and is notorious for its potential

  15. Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

  16. Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tsukino; T. Hanaoka; H. Sasaki; H. Motoyama; M. Hiroshima; T. Tanaka; M. Kabuto; W. Turner; D. G. Patterson Jr.; L. Needham; S. Tsugane

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates background serum levels of selected organochlorine compounds among Japanese women of reproductive age and investigates whether lifestyle factors, especially dietary factors, may be associated with these levels. A cross-sectional study was performed on 80 Japanese women, aged 26–43 years, who complained of infertility and were confirmed not to have endometriosis. The serum levels of total toxic equivalency

  17. Rapid and precise analysis for calcium in blood serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.

    1969-01-01

    Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.

  18. Changes in Serum Cortisol with Age in Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Beale; Jay Zhu; Howard Belzberg

    2002-01-01

    Background: Mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) rises with age, a high basal serum cortisol and a small response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation. Even slight impairment of the adrenal response during severe illness can be lethal. Objectives: To determine if age is associated with changes in basal or stimulated serum cortisol in critically ill patients. Methods: We studied 2

  19. Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy M. Becker; Guoyao Wu; Joseph A. Galanko; Wunian Chen; Angela R. Maynor; Carl L. Bose; J. Marc Rhoads

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether premature infants who have necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have deficiencies in glutamine (GLN) and arginine (ARG), which are essential to intestinal integrity. Study design: A 4-month prospective cohort study of serum amino acid and urea levels in premature infants was done. Serum amino acid and urea levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods, respectively,

  20. Apolipoprotein LI is the trypanosome lytic factor of human serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Vanhamme; Françoise Paturiaux-Hanocq; Philippe Poelvoorde; Derek P. Nolan; Laurence Lins; Jan Van Den Abbeele; Annette Pays; Patricia Tebabi; Huang Van Xong; Alain Jacquet; Nicole Moguilevsky; Marc Dieu; John P. Kane; Patrick De Baetselier; Robert Brasseur; Etienne Pays

    2003-01-01

    Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We show that SRA

  1. Postdialytic Rebound of Serum Phosphorus: Pathogenetic and Clinical Insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERTO MINUTOLO; VINCENZO BELLIZZI; MARIO CIOFFI; CARMELA IODICE; PAOLO GIANNATTASIO; MICHELE ANDREUCCI; VINCENZO TERRACCIANO; BIAGIO R. DI IORIO; GIUSEPPE CONTE; LUCA DE NICOLA

    2002-01-01

    To gain insights into postdialytic rebound of serum phosphate (PDR-P), serum phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), levels were compared from the end of treatment (T0) to the subsequent 30 to 120 min and up to 68 hr in uremic patients who underwent with crossover modality a single session of two dialytic treatments character- ized by different convective

  2. Concentrations of main serum opsonins in early infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Drossou; F. Kanakoudi; E. Diamanti; V. Tzimouli; T. Konstantinidis; A. Germenis; G. Kremenopoulos; V. Katsougiannopoulos

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of the main serum opsonins in neonates and infants of varying gestational age was investigated to provide reference values for these opsonins in early infancy. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses, C3, C4 and fibronectin were serially measured from birth until the age of 6 months in term and preterm infants. Measurements were performed by rate nephelometry. Five

  3. Studies on the folic acid activity of human serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Waters; D. L. Mollin; Josephine Pope; Thurl Towler

    1961-01-01

    A method for the measurement of serum folic acid activity is described, which is a modification of previous methods.The material in serum with activity for L. casei is made up of a stable and a labile component. The amount of stable component in normal subjects and patients with megaloblastic anaemia is similar. The amount of labile component varies. In patients

  4. Original article Serum sensitivity and apathogenicity for chickens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Serum sensitivity and apathogenicity for chickens and chick embryos of Escherichia coli J5 strain was assessed for its serum resistance and pathogenicity for both chickens and chick embryos. Pathogenicity for chickens was assessed by intravenous inoculation into three-week-old broiler

  5. The effect of co-trimoxazole on serum creatinine.

    PubMed Central

    Dijkmans, B A; van Hooff, J P; de Wolff, F A; Mattie, H

    1981-01-01

    1 Co-trimoxazole induces a highly significant and reversible elevation of the serum creatinine level. 2 In renal-allograft patients the degree of this elevation is significantly correlated with the concentration of serum creatinine before administration of co-trimoxazole and with the concentration of non-protein-bound trimethoprim. PMID:6977366

  6. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc plays an important role in immune function. The association between serum zinc and pneumonia in the elderly has not been studied. The study aim is to determine if serum zinc concentrations in nursing home elderly are associated with incidence and duration of pneumonia, total and duration of ant...

  7. Increasing serum levels of non-DDT-derivative organochlorine pesticides in the younger population of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, O P; Goethals, M; Zumbado, M; Alvarez-León, E E; Cabrera, F; Serra-Majem, Ll; Boada, L D

    2006-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides are a lipophilic class of chemicals that persist in the environment and tend to accumulate in human tissues for years. They came into widespread use in the late 1940s. Because of their capacity to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food chains and their toxic effects, most of them were banned in industrialized countries, among them Spain, in the late 1970s and 1980s. In 1998 organochlorine pesticides were determined in a representative sample of a Spanish population (around 690 serum samples from people 6 to 75years old from the Canary Islands). Serum levels of lindane aldrin, dieldrin and endrin, were determined. Our results showed that a high percentage of samples presented detectable levels of some of the organochlorines measured, endrin being the most frequently detected (72%) and at highest concentration (mean 136.7ng/g fat). Mean concentrations of the main cyclodiene evaluated, dieldrin, was lower to those found in other Western populations. However, serum levels of lindane were higher than those described in North European populations. Influence of geographical and sociodemographic factors was evaluated. Urban populations showed the highest levels of dieldrin, while non-urban population showed the highest serum values of lindane, aldrin and endrin. Unexpectedly, serum values of lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were higher in younger than in older people. Subjects under 18years showed almost twice as high serum levels of lindane, aldrin and dieldrin than subjects of 65-75years. These results may well suggest that people living in the Canary Islands have been and are currently exposed to non-DDT-organochlorine pesticides. The type and source of exposure could vary between islands and type of habitat. Contaminated food and/or the environment could be related with this situation. PMID:16580052

  8. Serum amyloid A is elevated in the serum of lung cancer patients with poor prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W C S Cho; T T Yip; W W Cheng; J S K Au; WCS Cho

    2010-01-01

    Background:Lung cancer is known as the top cancer killer in most developed countries. However, there is currently no promising diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for lung cancer. This study aims to discover non-invasive differential markers in the serum of lung cancer patients, to determine the protein identity of the candidate biomarker(s), and to investigate any clinical implication of the biomarker(s) concerned.Methods:Blood

  9. Serum amyloid A is elevated in the serum of lung cancer patients with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, W C S; Yip, T T; Cheng, W W; Au, J S K

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is known as the top cancer killer in most developed countries. However, there is currently no promising diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for lung cancer. This study aims to discover non-invasive differential markers in the serum of lung cancer patients, to determine the protein identity of the candidate biomarker(s), and to investigate any clinical implication of the biomarker(s) concerned. Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 154 pre-operative patients with lung cancer and 35 healthy blood donors with no evidence of lung cancer. Fractionated serum samples were processed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS). Candidate biomarker was identified using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tryptic digestion followed by tandem MS fragmentation analysis, which was subsequently validated with immunoassay. Results: A differential protein with m/z 11.6?kDa was detected and identified as an isoform of human serum amyloid A (SAA). It was significantly increased by 1822% in lung cancer patients when compared with the healthy controls, which gave an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.88. In addition, the protein was also significantly elevated by 77% in lung cancer patients with survival <5 years when compared with patients with survival ?5 years. Conclusion: There are several functions of the SAA protein, described in the context of inflammation, that are compatible with the mechanism of tumour invasion and metastasis. Our study not only detected increased SAA level in the serum of lung cancer patients but also identified that elevated SAA level may be a non-invasive biomarker useful for the prediction of lung cancer prognosis. PMID:20502455

  10. Prevalence of Elevated Serum Homocysteine and Serum Lipoprotein ‘a’ in Women

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Mona A; Dhat, Vaishali V; More, Umesh M; Shinde, Sarita A; Phalak, Pradnya; Deshmukh, Anita D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies indicate that the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women is no less than that in men and menopausal women are equally vulnerable as men. Studies of recent risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia and elevation in lipoprotein (a) reveal controversial role of the same. This study hence is an attempt to study the prevalence of these factors in women and their correlation with lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Two hundred women were enrolled in the study- 100 premenopausal women (21-45y) and 100 menopausal (50-55y). All the subjects were screened for homocysteine by ELISA and lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile by automation. Results: Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 52% and 62% in premenopausal and menopausal women respectively. A significant positive correlation was seen for total cholesterol and triacylglycerol with serum Homocysteine in premenopausal women while pronounced positive correlation for serum cholesterol with serum Homocysteine in menopausal women. The prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a) was 42% and 45% in premenopausal and menopausal women respectively. There was no correlation between lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile in both groups. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclude that premenopausal and menopausal women constitute a subpopulation where recent risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated lipoprotein(a) could be assessed along with lipid profile as screening tests to identify the risk of CAD. This would help in proper counselling of the concerned women and minimize the risk. PMID:25478337

  11. Preoperative Serum Levels of Mesothelin in Patients with Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bostanc?, Özgür; Kemik, Özgür; Kemik, Ahu; Battal, Muharrem; Demir, Uygar; Purisa, Sevim; Mihmanl?, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Screening for biochemical markers is important for diagnosing colon cancer. In this study, the reliability of serum mesothelin levels as a potential diagnostic and screening instrument was evaluated concerning colon cancer. Methods. Ninety-five patients who had undergone colonoscopic examination and who were diagnosed with colon cancer were included in the study. The serum mesothelin levels were measured with the ELISA kits and were evaluated in terms of significant difference when compared between colon cancer and control group. Results. Patients with colon cancer had significantly higher mesothelin serum levels (P < 0.001) than the control groups. We found significant associations between serum levels and tumor grade, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion (resp., P < 0.001). Conclusion. Evaluating the serum levels of mesothelin has a potential to detect and screen the colon cancer in affected patients. Our data suggest that mesothelin exhibits effects towards colon cancer and serves as a biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:25477701

  12. Pregnancy serum facilitates hepatitis E virus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanhong; Yang, Chenchen; Yu, Wenhai; Zhao, Xianchen; Zhao, Chengcheng; He, Zhanlong; Jing, Shenrong; Wang, Huixuan; Huang, Fen

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes high mortality in pregnant women. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of HEV infection in pregnant women remain unknown. In this study, the roles of pregnancy serum in HEV infection were investigated using an efficient cell culture system. HEV infection was exacerbated by supplementing with pregnancy serum, especially theat in third trimester of pregnancy. Oestrogen receptors (ER-? and ER-?) were activated in cells supplemented with pregnancy serum and were significantly inhibited during HEV infection. Type I IFN, especially IFN-?, showed delayed upregulation in HEV-infected cells supplemented with the serum in the third trimester of pregnancy, which indicated that delayed IFN-? expression may facilitate viral replication. Results suggested that pregnancy serum accelerated HEV replication by suppressing oestrogen receptors and type I IFN in the early stage of infection. PMID:25614592

  13. Undetectable serum calcidiol: not everything that glitters is gold

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos-Bayas, Gioconda; Pascual-Pareja, José Francisco; Sanchez-Nińo, Maria D.; Manzarbeitia, Felix

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased awareness of the adverse consequences of nutritional vitamin D deficiency. We report a patient with chronic tophaceous gout, chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 3/4 and undetectable serum calcidiol who developed severe hypercalcaemia upon vitamin D supplementation despite serum 25(OH) vitamin D within the normal range. Upon recovery, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D remained in the normal range despite CKD and serum 25(OH) vitamin D 6 ng/mL. Gout tophi biopsies from additional patients showed macrophage expression of 25(OH) vitamin D 1?-hydroxylase. This case illustrates the dangers of supplementing vitamin D in patients with low serum 25(OH) vitamin D and increased 1?-hydroxylase activity due to granulomatous disease.

  14. Spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anadi; Bylund, Quentin; Prasanna, Manu; Margalit, Yotam; Tihan, Tarik

    2013-03-01

    First measurements of biomedical imaging using quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are presented. We report spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using QCLs as an example for monitoring surface biocontamination. We found that dry smears of human serum can be spectroscopically imaged, identified, and quantified with high sensitivity and specificity. The core parts of the imaging platform consist of optically multiplexing three QCLs and an uncooled microbolometer camera. We show imaging of human serum proteins at 6.1, 9.25, and 9.5 ?m QCLs with high sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity limit of 3???g/cm˛ of the human serum spot was measured at an S/N=3.The specificity of human serum detection was measured at 99% probability at a threshold of 77???g/cm˛. We anticipate our imaging technique to be a starting point for more sophisticated biomolecular diagnostic applications. PMID:23515866

  15. Serum factors involved in human microvascular endothelial cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kevin; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Sliva, Daniel; Garcia, Joe G N; English, Denis

    2002-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lipid and protein angiogenic factors operate in tandem to induce optimal angiogenic responses in vivo. This study was undertaken to clarify the nature of the substances in human serum that are responsible for its remarkable ability to promote capillary morphogenesis in vitro. The ability of dilute (2%) human serum to promote the morphogenic differentiation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells on Matrigel supports was depleted by more than 50% by treatment of the serum with activated charcoal, a procedure that effectively removes biologically active lipid growth factors. The remainder of the activity within serum was lost on heating to 60 degrees C for 60 minutes, indicating the involvement of a protein in the response. The ability of charcoal-treated serum to promote capillary morphogenesis was completely restored by the addition of sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP, 500 nmol/L), but other lipids thought to be released into serum during clotting were ineffective. In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) effectively restored the ability of heat-treated serum to promote endothelial cell morphogenesis, but other protein growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, were ineffective. Together, SPP and bFGF were as effective as whole serum in promoting capillary morphogenesis. Responses to purified SPP were entirely sensitive to the effects of preexposure of the cells to pertussis toxin, whereas responses to bFGF were entirely pertussis toxin-resistant. Consistent with our hypothesis that two distinct factors in serum play a role in promoting capillary morphogenesis, responses induced by serum were inhibited approximately 50% by preexposure of endothelial cells to pertussis toxin. We conclude that platelet-released SPP acts in conjunction with circulating bFGF to promote capillary formation by microvascular endothelial cells. Lipid and protein growth factors apparently exert complementary roles in the angiogenic response, as demonstrated by their ability to promote chemotaxis, angiogenic differentiation, and angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:12271276

  16. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  17. Development of a Bead Immunoassay To Measure Vi Polysaccharide-Specific Serum IgG after Vaccination with the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vi Polysaccharide ?

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Herman F.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Whisnant, Carol C.; Stephenson, James L.; Wagener, Diane K.; Majumder, Partha P.

    2010-01-01

    Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is used as one of the available vaccines to prevent typhoid fever. Measurement of Vi-specific serum antibodies after vaccination with Vi polysaccharide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) may be complicated due to poor binding of the Vi polysaccharide to ELISA plates resulting in poor reproducibility of measured antibody responses. We chemically conjugated Vi polysaccharide to fluorescent beads and performed studies to determine if a bead-based immunoassay provided a reproducible method to measure vaccine-induced anti-Vi serum IgG antibodies. Compared to ELISA, the Vi bead immunoassay had a lower background and therefore a greater signal-to-noise ratio. The Vi bead immunoassay was used to evaluate serum anti-Vi IgG in 996 subjects from the city of Kolkata, India, before and after vaccination. Due to the location being one where Salmonella serotype Typhi is endemic, approximately 45% of the subjects had protective levels of anti-Vi serum IgG (i.e., 1 ?g/ml anti-Vi IgG) before vaccination, and nearly 98% of the subjects had protective levels of anti-Vi serum IgG after vaccination. Our results demonstrate that a bead-based immunoassay provides an effective, reproducible method to measure serum anti-Vi IgG responses before and after vaccination with the Vi polysaccharide vaccine. PMID:20107010

  18. Workshop report The humane collection of fetal bovine serum and possibilities for serum-free cell and tissue culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. van der Valka; D. Mellorb; R. Brandsc; G. Gstraunthalerf Grubere; L. Hellebrekersg; F. H. Jonkeri; P. Prietoj; M. Thalenk

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common supplement to in vitro culture media. A workshop was organized to discuss whether or not fetuses might suffer when blood is withdrawn, and to discuss serum replacement methods. When bovine fetuses are exposed after slaughter of the dam, they can suffer only if they inflate their lungs with air and increase their blood

  19. Human umbilical cord blood serum can replace fetal bovine serum in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Shetty; K. Bharucha; V. Tanavde

    2007-01-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to differentiate into different cell types has opened up the possibility of using these cells clinically to treat a variety of disorders. In this study we describe the use of human umbilical cord blood serum (CBS) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing MSC from different sources. MSC from human

  20. The humane collection of fetal bovine serum and possibilities for serum-free cell and tissue culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. F. van der Valk; D. Mellor; R. Brands; R. Fischer; F. Gruber; G. Gstraunthaler; L. J. Hellebrekers; J. Hyllner; F. H. Jonker; P. Prieto; M. Thalen; V. Baumans

    2004-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common supplement to in vitro culture media. A workshop was organized to discuss whether or not fetuses might suffer when blood is withdrawn, and to discuss serum replacement methods. When bovine fetuses are exposed after slaughter of the dam, they can suffer only if they inflate their lungs with air and increase their blood

  1. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...Test Systems § 866.5700 Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A whole human plasma or serum immunological test system...

  6. Total serum immunoglobulin e in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Lama, M; Chatterjee, M; Chaudhuri, T K

    2013-04-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E has been shown to be a major contributing factor for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma. An elevation in serum IgE levels contributes to asthma and is considered a potent predictor of the development of asthma. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the levels of total serum IgE in asthmatic and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationship of various demographic and clinical characteristics with the total serum IgE level in asthmatics. We measured the levels of total serum IgE using the ELISA kits (AccuBind, Monobind Inc., USA). The relevant demographic and clinical data were obtained using the questionnaire. The results showed that asthmatic children had significantly elevated level of total serum IgE compared to that of the healthy controls. The levels of total IgE and IL-4 in sera of 44 asthmatic children showed a significant positive correlation. Total serum IgE >150 IU/mL was found to be significantly associated with the age, exposure to cigarette smoke, and raised eosinophil count in asthmatic children. In conclusion, the elevated level of total serum IgE may demonstrate the allergic etiology of asthma in the subjects studied. PMID:24426210

  7. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-05-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15 l of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol ( UC)palmitoyl CoA, 200 g of serine and threonine and incubated at 37C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of ( UC)palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of ( UC)palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.

  8. Serum oestradiol levels in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Hagiuda, J; Ishikawa, H; Marumo, K

    2015-08-01

    A prospective clinical study was performed in the reproduction centre of Ichikawa General Hospital (Chiba, Japan) to investigate the relationship between sperm quality and serum oestradiol (E2) level in male partners of infertile couples. The semen parameters and blood samples were assessed in relation to several variables, including body mass index (BMI) and serum oestradiol (E2) levels. Four hundred and nine male partners of infertile couples aged 22-55 years (mean: 36.5 years) were referred to the reproduction centre. In total, 143 patients (35.0%) were included in the low E2 level group (18 pg ml(-1)  ? E2). Serum E2 levels were slightly correlated with testosterone levels, BMI and serum FSH levels. Total motile sperm count and morphology were decreased in low E2 level group. In multivariate analysis, serum testosterone, E2 levels, existence of varicocele and age were risk factors for decreased semen quality. Serum E2 might be associated with BMI, serum testosterone level and spermatogenesis. PMID:25059733

  9. Sertoli cells secrete both testis-specific and serum proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, W W; Musto, N A; Mather, J P; Bardin, C W

    1981-01-01

    The secretions of the Sertoli cell were examined with two polyvalent antisera--one prepared against proteins in rat serum and the other against testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. These antisera detected 12 serum and 9 testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. To determine the origin of these proteins, primary cultures enriched in Sertoli cells were incubated with [35S]methionine, and the radiolabeled proteins in the medium were immunoprecipitated. Gel electrophoresis of the two immunoprecipitates resolved eight serum and nine testis-specific proteins. These two sets of proteins were specifically bound to their respective antiserum and were immunologically distinct. Medium from Sertoli cell cultures contained 10 times more of the testis-specific proteins than did cultures enriched for testicular myoid or interstitial cells. The concentration of the serum proteins in Sertoli cell medium was 5 and 10 times greater, respectively, than in myoid or interstitial cell preparations. The proteins from Sertoli cells were next characterized on two-dimensional gels. Seven of the proteins recognized by antiserum against serum proteins had identical molecular weights and isoelectric points as serum proteins. Three of these proteins were ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and glycoprotein 2. In addition to the proteins immunoprecipitated by the two antisera, more than 60 other proteins were detected on two-dimensional gels of the total secretory proteins. We conclude that the Sertoli cell secretes many proteins, some of which are specific to the testis and others of which are similar to serum proteins. Images PMID:6950398

  10. Chemical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  11. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles. PMID:3558505

  12. Maintenance of serum calcium after total thyroparathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D; Skinner, D W; Hosking, D J; Bradley, P J; Salama, F D

    1990-10-01

    We have studied calcium regulation in 11 consecutive patients undergoing radical surgery for upper aerodigestive tract malignancy. Eight patients received postoperative parenteral nutrition including calcium (19 mmol/day) and tri-iodothyronine (30 micrograms/day) supplementation. Three patients received enteral nutrition with calcium (70 mmol/day), 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1 microgram) and thyroxine (150 micrograms/day) via a nasogastric tube. Mean (SEM) corrected calcium fell from 2.42 (0.013) to 2.03 (0.036) mmol/l after 24 h (P less than 0.01). Replacement therapy generally maintained the serum calcium above 2.0 mmol/l. However, values were associated with only one episode of tetany. Phosphate increased from 1.10 (0.05) to 1.79 (0.11) mmol/l, 7-9 days postoperatively (P less than 0.001). Tubular calcium reabsorption fell and urinary calcium excretion rose, consistent with loss of parathyroid hormone (PTH) action on the distal nephron. However, the renal leak of calcium can be considerably reduced by concomitant salt depletion. This enhances proximal tubular sodium and calcium reabsorption thereby limiting calcium delivery to the distal nephron. This offsets the consequences of the loss of PTH which normally regulates distal calcium reabsorption. PMID:2120083

  13. Women's experience of maternal serum screening.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J. C.; Brown, J. B.; Reid, A. J.; Pugh, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the ideas, opinions, feelings, and experiences of women regarding prenatal genetic screening, specifically maternal serum screening (MSS). DESIGN: Qualitative technique of focus groups. SETTING: Northern, rural, inner-city, urban, and suburban communities in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Women who had given birth to babies from January 1994 to May 1996, but who were not currently pregnant (n = 60). METHOD: Six focus groups composed of women living in various communities who had recently given birth to babies explored the experience of MSS. MAIN FINDINGS: Women want informed choice about prenatal genetic screening. Three factors influenced women's decisions to undergo or decline prenatal genetic screening: their personal values, including their philosophy of life, moral, and religious values, and attitudes regarding Down syndrome and disability; social support including their partners, families, and friends; and quality of information from health care providers. Women want their providers to give them information personally; they want to receive the information as early as possible in prenatal care to allow time for reflection; and they want unbiased, accurate information in order to make a decision that is in keeping with their personal values and beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of women's ideas, opinions, feelings, and experiences regarding MSS suggests specific ways health care providers can facilitate informed decision making in prenatal screening. Providing information about genetic testing needs to be individualized, with women actively participating in the decision-making process. Information needs described by these women could apply to other prenatal genetic tests that might be available in the future. PMID:10752000

  14. Review: Glycation of human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Matsuda, Ryan; Barnaby, Omar S.; Joseph, K.S.; Wa, Chunling; DeBolt, Erin; Koke, Michelle; Hage, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Glycation involves the non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars and/or their reactive degradation products to amine groups on proteins. This process is promoted by the presence of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes and occurs with various proteins that include human serum albumin (HSA). This review examines work that has been conducted in the study and analysis of glycated HSA. The general structure and properties of HSA are discussed, along with the reactions that can lead to modification of this protein during glycation. The use of glycated HSA as a short-to-intermediate term marker for glycemic control in diabetes is examined, and approaches that have been utilized for measuring glycated HSA are summarized. Structural studies of glycated HSA are reviewed, as acquired for both in vivo and in vitro glycated HSA, along with data that have been obtained on the rate and thermodynamics of HSA glycation. In addition, this review considers various studies that have investigated the effects of glycation on the binding of HSA with drugs, fatty acids and other solutes and the potential clinical significance of these effects. PMID:23891854

  15. Multiplexed microfluidic quantification of proteins in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Nitin; Rajauria, Sukumar; Cleland, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and low cost immunoassays targeting proteins in blood or other bodily fluids are highly sought after for point-of-care devices and early screening of patients. Immunoturbidimetric assays utilize latex particles functionalized with antibodies, with particle aggregation in the presence of the analyte detected by a change in absorbance. Using a high throughput micro-fluidic particle analyzer based solely on electrical signals (resistive pulse sensing), we are able to accurately quantify the degree of aggregation by analyzing the changes in the particle size distribution. Thus we study the aggregation of streptavidin (SAv) coated beads in the presence of biotinylated bovine serum albumin as a proof-of-principle assay and extract the binding capacity of the SAv beads from the dose-response curve. We also use our aggregation measurement platform to characterize a commercial C-reactive protein (CRP) immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP, Diazyme Inc.). We obtain a linear calibration curve as well as a better limit of detection of CRP than that obtained by absorbance measurements. By using different bead sizes functionalized with different antibodies, multiplexed analyte detection is also possible. We demonstrate this by combining the commercial anti-CRP functionalized beads (0.4 microns) with biotin coated beads (1.0 microns), and carry out the simultaneous detection of SAv and CRP in a single sample.

  16. Serum-cell interactions in transmission of sarcoma in the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria L.

    PubMed

    Sunila, I

    1992-08-01

    1. Serum proteins from sarcomatous soft shell clams, Mya arenaria L., enhanced transmission of sarcoma. 2. Sarcoma cells were isolated and administered to the recipients at the same cell density in different sarcoma-protein-free diluents: seawater, serum from normal clams, heat-treated sarcoma serum or protease-digested sarcoma serum. 3. Transmission in these groups was significantly slower than in the group where cells were administered in intact sarcoma serum, demonstrating that the tumor promoting factors in the serum were heat-sensitive proteins. 4. Normal hemocytes administered in sarcoma serum caused mortality but not sarcoma transmission, suggesting the presence of cytotoxic factors in sarcoma serum. PMID:1355037

  17. Sequential depletion coupled to C18 sequential extraction as a rapid tool for human serum multiple profiling.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Costa, Carolina; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Blanco, Francisco J; Capelo-Martínez, José-Luis

    2014-07-01

    Sequential chemical depletion of serum coupled to C18 sequential extraction of peptides as a rapid tool for human serum multiple profiling is herein presented. The methodology comprises depletion with DTT and then with ACN; the extract thus obtained is then summited to fast protein digestion using ultrasonic energy. The pool of peptides is subsequently concentrated using C18-based Zip-tips and the peptides are sequentially extracted using different concentrations of ACN. Each extract is mass-spectrometry profiled with MALDI. The different spectra thus obtained are then successfully used for classification purposes. A total of 40 people, comprising 20 healthy and 20 non-healthy donors, were successfully classified using this method, with an excellent q-value<0.05. The proposed method is cheap as it entails few chemicals, DTT and ACN, simple in terms of handling, and fast. In addition, the methodology is of broad application as it can be used for any study applied to serum samples or other complex biological fluids. PMID:24840432

  18. Probable levetiracetam-related serum alkaline phosphatase elevation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug with a favorable tolerability and safety profile with little or no effect on liver function. Case presentation Here, we reported an epileptic pediatric patient who developed a significant elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase level (ALP) during LEV monotherapy. Moreover, the serum ALP level was surprisingly decreased to normal after LEV discontinuation. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale score was 6, indicating firstly LEV was a probable cause for the increased serum ALP. Conclusions Cautious usage and concerns of the LEV-associated potential ALP elevation should be considered when levetiracetam is prescribed to epilepsy patients, especially pediatric patients. PMID:22994584

  19. Clinical significance of serum angiopoietin-1 in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Koji; Tabata, Chiharu; Tabata, Rie; Nogi, Yoshitaka; Terada, Takayuki; Honda, Miki; Kamiya, Hitomi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported that angiopoietin-1 was correlated with pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we investigated the serum levels of angiopoietin-1 in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, which originate from mesenchymal cells similar to lung fibroblasts. We showed that patients with peritoneal mesothelioma had significantly higher serum levels of angiopoietin-1 in comparison with a population with a history of asbestos exposure without peritoneal mesothelioma, and the Kaplan-Meier method revealed a significant correlation between serum angiopoietin-1 levels and survival. This is the first report about the relationship between angiopoietin-1 and peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:24010773

  20. Serum paraoxonase 1 and butyrylcholinesterase in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Caldin, Marco; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Tecles, Fernando; Pastor, Josep; Ceron, Jose J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum activities of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) using three substrates; (1) 4-nitrophenylacetate (PON1n), (2) phenylacetate (PON1p), and (3) 5-thiobutyl butyrolactonase (PON1t), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC). Serum activities of PON1 and BChE were higher in dogs with HAC than healthy dogs. There were strong positive correlations between PON1 activity measured with the three different substrates. This study demonstrated increased serum PON1 and BChE activities in dogs with HAC that could be attributed to the direct effect of glucocorticoids and lipid mobilisation. PMID:25555340

  1. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  2. Correlation analysis of the total IgY level in hen serum, egg yolk and offspring serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between IgY levels of the serum and the yolk has been well documented in wild and domestic birds. The levels of total yolk IgY can be an index of the general health status of birds and may contribute to breeding programs when fitness of the offspring is a concern. We measured the levels of total serum IgY and yolk IgY in three different breeds (White Leghorn, Silkie and Dongxiang blue-shell) using indirect ELISA, and found that there was a significantly positive correlation between the levels of total serum IgY and total yolk IgY in all three breeds (White Leghorn: r?=?0.404, P?serum IgY levels in the 3-day-old offspring hatched from the Silkie hens and results were significantly correlated for serum IgY levels (r?=?0.535, P?serum, yolk and offspring serum. Our results suggest that total IgY level could be used as an index for chicken fitness. PMID:23497583

  3. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: mporta@imim.es; Bosch de Basea, Magda [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica CIBERESP (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Benavides, Fernando G. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Tomas [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernandez, Esteve [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Puigdomenech, Elisa [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  4. CHEMICAL PACEMAKERS

    PubMed Central

    Hadidian, Zareh; Hoagland, Hudson

    1939-01-01

    1. Iron spicules found in the brains of general paretic patients are formed from endogenous brain iron normally present in another form. This supports our earlier view that the µ value of 16,000 obtained in advanced paretics for alpha brain wave frequencies as a measure of cortical respiration comes about from the slowing of an iron catalyzed link in cortical respiration such as would result from the reduction of available cytochrome and its oxidase, thus making this step a chemical pacemaker. 2. To test the basic theory of chemical pacemakers, a study was made of the succinate-fumarate enzyme system containing succino-dehydrogenase and cytochrome-cytochrome oxidase acting sequentially. 3. The µ value for the unpoisoned system is 11,200 ± 200 calories. 4. According to theory, the addition of a critical amount of cyanide known to be a specific poison of the cytochrome-cytochrome oxidase system (and not of the dehydrogenase) should shift the µ cleanly to 16,000 calories, and it does. 5. According to theory, selenite, a specific poison for the dehydrogenase, should stop all respiration without shifting the µ. This also is found to be the case. 6. The theory also predicts that if the µ is shifted from 11,000 ± to 16,000 ± by cyanide, the subsequent addition of a critical amount of selenite should shift the µ back again to 11,000 ± calories, and this is found to occur. 7. It is concluded that approximately 11,000 calories is the energy of activation of the succino-dehydrogenase-catalyzed step and 16,000 calories is that for the cytochrome-cytochrome oxidase-catalyzed step. These two values are encountered more frequently than any others in physiological systems. It is to be recalled that a shift of µ for alpha brain wave frequencies from 11,000 to 16,000 calories occurs in the course of advancing syphilitic brain infection and is accompanied by a change in form of brain iron. PMID:19873142

  5. Distinction of leukemia patients' and healthy persons' serum using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Daping; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Yuchan; Chen, Xianliang; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was applied to compare the serum from leukemia patients with the serum from healthy persons. IR spectra of leukemia patients' serum were similar with IR spectra of healthy persons' serum, and they were all made up of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, etc. In order to identify leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum, the H1075/H1542, H1045/H1467, H2959/H2931 ratios were measured. The H2959/H2931 ratio had the highest significant difference among these ratios and might be a useful factor for identifying leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum. Furthermore, from curve fitting, the RNA/DNA (A1115/A1028) ratios were observed to be lower in leukemia patients' serum than those in healthy persons' serum. The results indicated FTIR spectroscopic study of serum might be a useful tool in the field of leukemia research and diagnosis.

  6. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

  7. Serum lipid levels during oral contraceptive and glucocorticoid administration 1

    PubMed Central

    Doar, J. W. H.; Wynn, V.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of oral contraceptives on fasting serum lipid levels have been studied longitudinally in two groups of women. One hundred and twenty-eight subjects (group A) were tested before and during therapy; 52 subjects (group B) were tested initially during therapy and again after this had been discontinued. In both groups oral contraceptive therapy was associated with significantly raised mean serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. No relation was found between the magnitude of change of serum triglyceride levels and the nature of oestrogen-progestogen combination, age, parity, degree of obesity, family history of diabetes, or duration of therapy. A significant elevation of the mean fasting serum triglyceride level was also found in a group of 19 women receiving low-dose glucocorticoid therapy, though the percentage increase (16%) was less than that in the women receiving oral contraceptives (49%).

  8. Phosphorus fractions of crayfish haemolymph, serum and haemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Gondko, R; Helszer, Z; Adamska, M

    1985-01-01

    Different amounts of haemolymph proteins participate in clot formation in Astacus leptodactylus and Orconectes limosus (20% and 10%, respectively), although in both species the content of proteins in haemolymph is similar. In both species the content of total phosphorus in the clot was similar (0.33-0.49%, w/w) but it was about 6 times lower in serum of O. limosus than in serum of A. leptodactylus (2.2 and 14.8 mg/100 ml, respectively). An even greater difference in phosphorus content was found in the protein precipitated from serum. In both species lipid phosphorus was predominant (77% of total haemolymph phosphorus in A. leptodactylus and 52% in O. limosus). Phospholipids were found mainly in serum. Only traces of phosphorus (0.005%) and small amounts of fatty acids were found in purified haemocyanin preparations. PMID:4090857

  9. Quantitative gel-electrophoretic determination of serum amylase isoenzyme distributions.

    PubMed

    Gillard, B K

    1979-11-01

    I report a direct, sensitive, quantitative method for determining serum amylase isoenzyme activity with commercially available reagents. Day-to-day reproducibility (CV) was 3--4% for the isoenzymes in normal serum; within-run precision was 8, 3, and 2% for low, normal and high isoenzyme activities. Amylase isoenzymes, separated into the pancreatic and salivary types by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, are then quantified by directly incubating the gels in soluble-starch solution, staining with iodine, and densitometry. The proportion of pancreatic isoenzyme (47 normal sera) was 43 +/- 8% (mean +/- SD). Isoenzyme activities as low as 2% of normal can be measured accurately in 10 micro L of serum. The reproducibility, precision, and sensitivity indicate that the method is applicable to differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemia or hypoamylasemia, and is suited for monitoring the subtle changes in serum amylase isoenzyme distribution that may accompany disease progression or therapy. PMID:498502

  10. Interaction of Serum Proteins with Surface of Hemodialysis Fiber Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrin, Rehana; Shirako, Yuji; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Ikai, Atsushi

    2012-08-01

    The poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-covered hydrophilic surface of hollow-fiber membranes (fiber membrane, hereafter) for hemodialysis was mechanically probed using modified tips on an atomic force microscope (AFM) with covalent crosslinkers and several types of serum protein. The retraction part of many of the force extension (F-E) curves obtained with AFM tips coated with serum albumin had a long and smooth extension up to 200-300 nm indicating forced elongation of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) chains. When fibrinogen-coated tips were used, long extension F-E curves up to 500 nm with multiple peaks were obtained in addition to smooth curves most likely reflecting the unfolding of fibrinogen molecules. The results indicated that individual polymer chains had a significant affinity toward serum proteins. The adhesion frequency of tips coated with serum proteins was lower on the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) surface than on the uncoated hydrophobic polysulfone surface.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles-serum proteins bioconjugates for binding of irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Tamyurek, Ecem; Maltas, Esra; Bas, Salih Zeki; Ozmen, Mustafa; Yildiz, Salih

    2015-02-01

    The binding of irinotecan to serum proteins (hemoglobin, globulin and human serum albumin) was studied on the surface of epoxide modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (GPTS-SPIONs), which were synthesized by the coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric salts with NH4OH and then modified with [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyl] trimethoxy silane (GPTS) to obtain functional epoxide groups on the SPIONs' surface. Results were compared to find an alternative as drug carries system. Data showed that binding amount of human serum albumin (HSA), globulin (Glb) and hemoglobin (Hb) found to be as 44, 21.2 and 32.6 ?g per 20 mg of GPTS modified SPIONs, respectively. The thermal behavior of the serum protein-Ir interaction on GPTS-SPIONs was also studied by using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) technique and then the kinetic parameters for the thermal decomposition were determined using Horowitz-Metzger method. PMID:25445689

  12. Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why?

    PubMed

    Glinoer, Daniel; Spencer, Carole A

    2010-09-01

    Improvements in the sensitivity of the serum TSH assay have revolutionized our strategies for investigating thyroid function and firmly established TSH as the first-line thyroid function test for most clinical situations, including pregnancy. As a single hormone determination, serum TSH provides the most sensitive index to reliably detect thyroid function abnormalities. Normal thyroid function is important to ensure the best possible pregnancy outcome; in addition, disorders of the thyroid gland are relatively frequent in women of childbearing age. The aim of this article is, therefore, to present relevant information on analytical, as well as clinical, aspects regarding serum TSH determination and its usefulness to detect subtle thyroid function abnormalities associated with the pregnant state, namely overt and subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. As these disorders are associated with poor pregnancy outcome, the authors of the present article are in favor of serum TSH measurement for all pregnant women. PMID:20531379

  13. Radioimmunofixation of human ferritin following serum isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Lasne, Y; Benzerara, O; Damour, O; Lasne, F

    1988-01-12

    Radioimmunofixation of human ferritin following isoelectric focusing of serum was developed to study the microheterogeneity of this protein in native serum without previous purification or concentration. This method requires only 2-10 microliter of serum and can be used with levels of ferritin as low as 10 micrograms/l. In this way, the extensive microheterogeneity of this protein was revealed, since in some cases it produced as many as 35 bands with isoelectric points in a pH range of 4.95-5.9. Very different isoelectric focusing patterns (spectrotypes) of ferritin were observed during the investigation of pathological sera. The high sensitivity of this technique makes it useful for the investigation of serum ferritin in diseases involving modifications of the metabolism of this protein. PMID:3334874

  14. Investigations of acetaminophen binding to bovine serum albumin in the presence of fatty acid: Fluorescence and 1H NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojko, B.; Su?kowska, A.; Maci??ek-Jurczyk, M.; Równicka, J.; Su?kowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    The binding of acetaminophen to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by the quenching fluorescence method and the proton nuclear magnetic resonance technique ( 1H NMR). For fluorescence measurements 1-anilino-9-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) hydrophobic probe was used to verify subdomain IIIA as acetaminophen's likely binding site. Three binding sites of acetaminophen in subdomain IIA of bovine serum albumin were found. Quenching constants calculated by the Stern-Volmer modified method were used to estimate the influence of myristic acid (MYR) on the drug binding to the albumin. The influence of [fatty acid]/[albumin] molar ratios on the affinity of the protein towards acetaminophen was described. Changes of chemical shifts and relaxation times of the drug indicated that the presence of MYR inhibits interaction in the AA-albumin complex. It is suggested that the elevated level of fatty acids does not significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen.

  15. Organochlorines in Swedish Women: Determinants of Serum Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Wicklund Glynn; Fredrik Granath; Marie Aune; Samuel Atuma; Per Ola Darnerud; Rickard Bjerselius; Harri Vainio; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2002-01-01

    We studied associations between lifestyle\\/medical factors and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and five chlorinated pesticides\\/metabolites among 205 Swedish women (54-75 years old). Serum concentrations were significantly associated with age, body mass index, body weight change, diabetes mellitus, consumption of fatty fish, and place of residence. The findings suggest that lifestyle\\/medical factors may confound results in

  16. An automated method for the microbiological assay of serum pyridoxal.

    PubMed

    Davis, R E; Smith, B K; Curnow, D H

    1973-11-01

    A fully automated method for the measurement of serum pyridoxal has been developed. Acid phosphatase was used for dephosphorylation and precipitation of the serum proteins was not required. A chloramphenicol-resistant strain of L. casei was used as the test organism and this removed the need for sterilization. The method gives highly reproducible results, and is suitable for population and institutional studies. PMID:4203205

  17. CalorimetricEnzymicMeasurement of UricAcidin Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadja N. Rehak; Gail Janes

    Uric acid in serum was determined calorimetrically with a batch type microcalorimeter, by measuring the heat evolved during a coupled uricase\\/catalase enzymic re.- action in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane HCI buffer (pH 9.0 at 30 #{176}C). Heat evolutionandconcentrationare linearly related throughthe physiologicalrangeof serum uric acid concentrationsand the method is free of interferences of the sort encountered with spectrophotometric methods. Precisionandaccuracy are good(CV, 2%)

  18. Serum SPD is a marker of lung injury in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianli Pan; Larry D. Nielsen; Martin J. Allen; Kathleen M. Shannon; John M. Shannon; Moises Selman; Robert. J. Mason

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is expressed in alveolar type II cells and bronchiolar epithelial cells and is secreted into alveoli and conducting airways. However, SP-D has also been measured in serum and is increased in patients with ARDS, pulmonary fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis. To demonstrate that SP-D could be measured in rat serum, rats were instilled with KGF,

  19. Changed serum trace element profile in Down's syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Kadrabová; Alexander Madári?; Mária Šustrová; Emil Ginter

    1996-01-01

    Being cofactors of important antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are significantly\\u000a modified in Down's syndrome (trisomy 21), serum levels of microtrace elements zinc, copper, and selenium and of macroelement\\u000a magnesium are reported in 16 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS) and their respective well age- and sex-matched controls. Serum\\u000a zinc and selenium levels were significantly lowered

  20. Variation of total serum cholesterol with monthly outdoor temperature

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Kathleen Iris

    1990-01-01

    VARIATION OF TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL WITH MONTHLY OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE A Thesis by KATHLEEN IRIS THORNTON Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Epidemiology VARIATION OF TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL W1TH MONTHLY OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE A Thesis by KATHLEEN IRIS THORNTON Approved as to style and content by Leon H. Russell (Chair of Committee) Pete D. Teel...

  1. Isolation and characterization of viruses from fetal calf serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Molander; A. J. Kniazeff; C. W. Boone; A. Paley; D. T. Imagawa

    1971-01-01

    Summary  Ten lots of specially procured fetal calf serum collected under sterile conditions and not filtered and 16 lots of commercial\\u000a fetal calf serum were tested for both human and bovine viral contamination. The presence of viruses was evaluated by observing\\u000a for cytopathogenic effect (CPE), hemadsorption with guinea pig erythrocytes, and interference with cytopathogenic challenge\\u000a viruses in both embryonic bovine trachea

  2. A serum component mediates food restriction-induced growth attenuation.

    PubMed

    Pando, Rakefet; Shtaif, Biana; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-03-01

    Proper nutrition in terms of calories and essential food components is required to maximize longitudinal growth in children. Our previous study showed that prepubertal male rats subjected to 10 days of 40% food restriction (RES) exhibited a dramatic reduction in weight and epiphyseal growth plate height, as well as changes in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the epiphyseal growth plate. These findings reversed rapidly after renewal of the regular food supply (catch-up [CU]). To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the nutrition-growth association, serum collected from the RES and CU rats and control rats fed ad libitum (AL) was added to the culture medium of the chondrocyte cell line ATDC5 (instead of fetal calf serum). Serum from the RES group induced a reduction in cell viability (25%, P < .05) concomitant with an increase in cell differentiation compared with that for the AL group serum. The most interesting observation, in our opinion, was the significant reduction in the expression of specific miRNAs, including the chondro-specific miR-140. These effects were not observed for serum from refed (CU) rats. Serum levels of IGF-I, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were reduced by food restriction. The addition of IGF-I and leptin to the culture increased cell viability, whereas fibroblast growth factor 21 reduced it, suggesting the involvement of IGF-I, leptin, and possibly other still unidentified serum factors in chondrocyte cell growth. In conclusion, specific miRNAs respond to nutritional cues, and these effects are mediated by serum-borne factors. These results may promote the development of superior interventions for children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. PMID:24456162

  3. Serum protein pattern in ewe with pregnancy toxemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gul Fatma Yarim; Gulay Ciftci

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disease of pregnant ewes which causes significant economic losses in sheep industry. The\\u000a pathophysiology and metabolic changes of this disorder remain poorly understood. We conducted this study to describe the serum\\u000a protein pattern associated with the pregnancy toxemia in ewes. In this study, the electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins\\u000a of 15 ewes with naturally occuring

  4. Studies on the antigenic properties of serum albumins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Restani; Alessandro Fiocchi; Barbara Beretta; Teresa Velonŕ; Marcello Giovannini; Corrado L. Galli

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most widely studied proteins; its structure is well known and its antigenic properties\\u000a have been described in animal models. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of conformation on antigenicity of serum\\u000a albumins. This study was performed using electrophoresis associated with the immunoblotting technique, where sera from children\\u000a allergic

  5. Serum zinc levels in healthy subjects from southeastern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Martín-Lagos; M. Navarro-Alarcón; C. Terrés-Martos; H. López-García de la Serrana; M. C. López-Martínez

    1998-01-01

    The serum zinc (Zn) concentrations of 80 healthy subjects (48 male, 32 female) from southeastern Spain were determined by\\u000a atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were digested by heating in a 4:1 mixture of nitric and perchloric acids.\\u000a \\u000a The concentration of Zn was determined against a Contox Trace Metal Serum Control Panel A standard reference. Zn concentrations\\u000a in the standard were

  6. Radioimmunological determination of human C-peptide in serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Heding

    1975-01-01

    Summary  A routine radioimmunoassay for human C-peptide in serum is described. Antibodies against human C-peptide were raised by immunizing guinea pigs with human b-component. Nine out of 12 animals produced useful antibodies within 6 months. Insulin antibodies coupled to Sepharose were used to bind human proinsulin and insulin in the serum and after centrifugation C-peptide was determined in the supernatant. The

  7. Serum Biomarkers of Brain Injury after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ericka L; Berger, Rachel P; Clark, Robert SB; Watson, Robert S; Angus, Derek C; Richichi, Rudolph; Panigrahy, Ashok; Callaway, Clifton W; Bell, Michael J; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Morbidity and mortality in children with cardiac arrest (CA) largely result from neurologic injury. Serum biomarkers of brain injury can potentially measure injury to neurons (neuron specific enolase [NSE]), astrocytes (S100b), and axons (myelin basic protein [MBP]). We hypothesized that serum biomarkers can be used to predict outcome from pediatric CA. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Single tertiary pediatric hospital. Patients Forty-three children with cardiac arrest. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results We measured serum NSE, S100b, and MBP on days 1–4 and 7 after CA. We recorded demographics, details of the CA and resuscitation, and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) at hospital discharge and 6 months. We analyzed the association of biomarker levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours with good (PCPC 1–3) or poor (PCPC 4–6) outcome and mortality. Forty-three children (49% female; mean age of 5.9 ± 6.3 were enrolled and 17 (40%) died. Serum concentration at 24 hours for all 3 biomarkers predicted mortality (all p<0.05). Additionally, serum NSE and S100b concentrations were increased in the poor outcome vs. good outcome group and in subjects who died at all time points (all p<0.05). Receiver operator curves for serum S100b and NSE to predict good vs. poor outcome at 6 months was superior to clinical predictors. There was no association between serum biomarker concentrations and subject temperature. Conclusions Preliminary data show that serum S100b, NSE, and MBP may aid in outcome prediction of children surviving CA. PMID:24164954

  8. Effect of anti-lymphocyte serum on natural antibody

    PubMed Central

    Muschel, L. H.; Gustafson, Linda; Atai, M.

    1968-01-01

    Horse anti-dog lymphocyte serum was found to suppress the immune response of dogs normally resulting from the injection of Salmonella typhi vaccine. Normal antibody levels of the dogs against Shigella dysenteriae were unaffected, however, by the anti-lymphocyte serum. The results suggest, therefore, that the natural antibodies may arise by a population of cells or by mechanisms different from those which produce antibodies as a result of deliberate antigenic stimulation. PMID:4867939

  9. Prognostic value of serum alpha-1-antitrypsin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pirisi; C. Fabris; G. Soardo; P. Toniutto; D. Vitulli; E. Bartoli

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate serum alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) as a prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma, we studied 75 consecutive patients (60 male, 15 female, mean age ± SD 63.0 ± 9.3 years) in whom hepatocellular carcinoma developed with pre-existing cirrhosis. Median survival time was 245 days (range 4–1568+). 30 patients had serum A1AT concentration of ?2.20 g\\/1 (Group A) while 45 (Group B)

  10. Chloramphenicol serum concentration falls during chloramphenicol succinate dosing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milap C Nahata; Dwight A Powell

    1983-01-01

    Chloramphenicol succinate and chloramphenicol kinetics were examined on two occasions at steady state, separated by 2 to 17 days, in 10 pediatric patients on the same intravenous dose of chloramphenicol succinate. The steady-state peak serum concentration of chloramphenicol succinate fell from an average of 77.1 µg\\/ml during the first study to 42.2 µg\\/ml during the second. The steady-state peak serum

  11. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (?17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (?24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (?21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  12. A Novel Role For Serum Response Factor in Neuronal Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra H. Chang; Steve Poser; Zhengui Xia

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that neuroprotection afforded by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is mediated by extracellular signal- regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). However, the mechanisms by which ERK and PI3K exert neuropro- tection are not completely understood. Because ERK1\\/2 and PI3K both stimulate serum response element (SRE)-mediated gene expres- sion, and serum response factor (SRF) is indispensable for SRE-mediated

  13. Prevalence of paradoxically normal serum cholestrol in morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Vierhapper, H; Nardi, A; Grösser, P

    2000-05-01

    The paradox that cholesterol may be lower in extremely obese subjects versus those who are less overweight, although originally observed more than 40 years ago, has never been documented in a systematic fashion. We have therefore prospectively determined the body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol concentration in 3,312 women. The percentage of women with serum cholesterol in the normal range (<200 mg/dL) decreased with an increasing BMI, from 55% in women with a BMI less than 20 kg/m2 to 28% in those with a BMI of 30 to 35 kg/m2. Serum cholesterol greater than 300 mg/dL was found in only 2% of individuals with a BMI less than 20 kg/m2 but in 6% of the group with a BMI between 30 and 35 kg/m2. However, among morbidly obese women (BMI >40 kg/m2, n = 46), 39% presented with serum cholesterol less than 200 mg/dL and only one woman had serum cholesterol more than 300 mg/dL. With the BMI, the fitted regression model shows an increase in cholesterol for low BMIs, while cholesterol appears to decrease with larger values for the BMI. The age-dependent increase in cholesterol is more evident in younger women versus older women, where it tends to disappear. It is concluded that among morbidly obese women (BMI >40 kg/m2), there is a substantial subgroup with normal serum cholesterol. PMID:10831170

  14. Serum cholesterol selectively regulates glucocorticoid sensitivity through activation of JNK.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Caratti, Giorgio; Ince, Louise M; Poolman, Toryn M; Trebble, Peter J; Holt, Cathy M; Ray, David W; Matthews, Laura C

    2014-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (Gc) are potent anti-inflammatory agents with wide clinical application. We have previously shown that increased serum concentration significantly attenuates regulation of a simple Gc-responsive reporter. We now find that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulation of some endogenous transactivated but not transrepressed genes is impaired, suggesting template specificity. Serum did not directly affect GR expression, activity or trafficking, implicating GR crosstalk with other signalling pathways. Indeed, a JNK inhibitor completely abolished the serum effect. We identified the Gc modulating serum component as cholesterol. Cholesterol loading mimicked the serum effect, which was readily reversed by JNK inhibition. Chelation of serum cholesterol with methyl-?-cyclodextrin or inhibition of cellular cholesterol synthesis with simvastatin potentiated the Gc response. To explore the effect in vivo we used ApoE(-/-) mice, a model of hypercholesterolaemia. Consistent with our in vitro studies, we find no impact of elevated cholesterol on the expression of GR, or on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, measured by dexamethasone suppression test. Instead we find selective Gc resistance on some hepatic target genes in ApoE(-/-) mice. Therefore, we have discovered an unexpected role for cholesterol as a selective modulator of Gc action in vivo. Taken together these findings reveal a new environmental constraint on Gc action with relevance to both inflammation and cancer. PMID:25161081

  15. Performance of serum galactomannan in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the performance of serum galactomannan (GM) in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Herein, we analyse the diagnostic performance of serum GM in ABPA. Consecutive subjects with ABPA and asthma underwent GM estimation using the Platelia assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories). An optical density index of >0.5 was considered positive. One hundred and twenty subjects (70 ABPA, 50 asthma) with a mean (SD) age of 33.0 (13.1) were included in the study. The serum GM antigen was positive in 18 (25.7%) subjects with ABPA compared to 9 (18%) subjects with asthma without ABPA (P = 0.32). The sensitivity of the serum GM antigen test in patients with ABPA was 25.7% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 16-38] while the specificity was 82% (95% CI, 69-91). The positive and negative predictive values were 66.7% (95% CI, 46-84%) and 44.1% (95% CI, 34-55), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.44-0.64). The sensitivity increased and the specificity decreased with decreasing the serum GM cutoff, and vice versa. The results of this study suggest that serum GM estimation has a limited role in the diagnostic workup of patients with ABPA. PMID:25959212

  16. Serum Neuregulin-1? as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Moondra, Vaibhav; Sarma, Satyam; Buxton, Tracy; Safa, Radwan; Cote, Gregory; Storer, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Sawyer, Douglas B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Neuregulins (NRG) are growth factors that bind to receptors of the erbB family, and are known to mediate a number of processes involved in diverse tissues. Neuregulin-1? is expressed in skeletal muscle and is activated by exercise. We hypothesized that NRG-1? might circulate in the bloodstream and increase as a consequence of physical activity. A study was conducted in healthy subjects to determine if NRG-1? is immunodetectable in human serum, and if so whether levels relate acutely or chronically to exercise. METHODS Nine healthy men underwent three bouts of exercise of varying degrees of intensity on a bicycle ergometer over a period of three weeks. Cardio-respiratory fitness was determined by measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum was sampled prior to and immediately after each session (up to 30 minutes post) and serum NRG-1? was quantified utilizing an indirect sandwich ELISA assay developed in our lab. RESULTS Across subjects, mean serum NRG-1? levels ranged from 32 ng/mL to 473 ng/mL. Individual subjects showed relatively stable levels during the study period that did not change acutely after exercise. Serum NRG-1? demonstrated a positive correlation with VO2max (r2=0.49, p =.044). CONCLUSIONS These preliminary observations suggest that at least in healthy men, serum NRG-1? is an indicator of cardio-respiratory fitness and does not change acutely with exercise. PMID:20634924

  17. Serum iron as an indicator of acute inflammation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Ersoy; Dabak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of serum iron concentration in the diagnosis of acute inflammation in cattle. The diagnostic value of this approach was compared with that of various other hematological tests, including commonly used techniques that measure the levels of various other acute-phase proteins. The study population comprised 10 cows with acute traumatic reticuloperitonitis (RPT group) and 10 cows with acute mastitis (mastitis group) admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Firat University (Elazi?, Turkey). Ten cows from local barns, kept and fed under same conditions as the diseased animals, were used as controls. After the clinical examination, blood samples were collected for biochemical, hematological, and acute-phase protein (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, and fibrinogen) analyses. The mean levels of serum iron in the RPT, mastitis, and control groups were 6.00, 7.82, and 26.78 µmol/L, respectively. Serum iron level was significantly reduced in the RPT and mastitis groups. The results of this study indicate that serum iron analysis, preferably in combination with other markers of inflammation, may be a useful diagnostic tool for acute inflammation in cattle. Because serum iron measurement is individually available and easily applicable, it may be used for clinical cases as well as the determination of herd health. PMID:24268402

  18. Growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in fish serum correlates with pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Nakai, T

    2011-04-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates, obtained from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, three species of salmonids and two species of cyprinids in Japan, were used in this study. Bacteria were inoculated to serum prepared from ayu or red spotted masu trout (RSMT), Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, and incubated at 18 °C for 24 h. All isolates (n = 19) from ayu grew well with a 9- to 116-fold increase of CFU in ayu serum, while CFU decreased markedly in RSMT serum. In contrast, isolates (n = 17) from fish species other than ayu exhibited no growth in ayu serum, but some isolates from salmonids survived or grew (1.2-23.5 fold increase of CFU) in RSMT serum. The isolates that could not survive or grow in ayu and RSMT sera grew well in both heat-inactivated sera of ayu and RSMT. Experimental infection by intraperitoneal injection showed that ayu isolates examined were all pathogenic to ayu but not to RSMT, while none of the isolates from salmonids and cyprinids were pathogenic to ayu but some showed pathogenicity to RSMT. These results indicate that the in vitro growth ability of F. psychrophilum isolates in fish serum correlates well with their pathogenicity to fish, particularly in ayu. PMID:21382051

  19. Measurement of rivaroxaban and apixaban in serum samples of patients

    PubMed Central

    Harenberg, Job; Krämer, Sandra; Du, Shanshan; Zolfaghari, Shabnam; Schulze, Astrid; Krämer, Roland; Weiss, Christel; Wehling, Martin; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-01-01

    Background The determination of rivaroxaban and apixaban from serum samples of patients may be beneficial in specific clinical situations when additional blood sampling for plasma and thus the determination of factor Xa activity is not feasible or results are not plausible. Materials and methods The primary aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of rivaroxaban and apixaban in serum with those measured in plasma. Secondary aims were the performance of three different chromogenic methods and concentrations in patients on treatment with rivaroxaban 10 mg od (n = 124) or 20 mg od (n = 94) or apixaban 5 mg bid (n = 52) measured at different time. Results Concentrations of rivaroxaban and apixaban in serum were about 20–25% higher compared with plasma samples with a high correlation (r = 0·79775–0·94662) using all assays (all P < 0·0001). The intraclass correlation coefficients were about 0·90 for rivaroxaban and 0·55 for apixaban. Mean rivaroxaban concentrations were higher at 2 and 3 h compared with 1 and 12 h after administration measured from plasma and serum samples (all P-values < 0·05) and were not different between 1 vs. 12 h (plasma and serum). Conclusions The results indicate that rivaroxaban and apixaban concentrations can be determined specifically from serum samples. PMID:24931429

  20. Detection of human serum proteins using Raman and SERS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Qiuyong; Liao, Fadian; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    The use of normal Raman (NR) spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to analyze the biochemical information of human serum proteins and hence distinguish between normal and primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) serum samples was investigated. The serum samples were obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed with PHC (n=20) and healthy volunteers (n=20). All spectra were collected in the spectral range of 400-1800 cm-1 and analyzed through the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that both NR and SERS combined with PCA had good performance in distinguishing the human serum proteins between PHC patients and healthy volunteers with high sensitivity and specificity of 100%. And we can get more detail information of component and conformation of human serum proteins by considering NR and SERS spectrum. Our results support the concept again that serum protein Raman and SERS spectroscopy combined with PCA analysis both can become noninvasive and rapid diagnostic tools to detect the primary hepatic carcinoma.

  1. Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media – Replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. F. van der Valk; D. Brunner; K. De Smet; Ĺ. Fex Svenningsen; P. Honegger; L. E. Knudsen; T. Lindl; J. Noraberg; A. Price; M. L. Scarino; G. Gstraunthaler

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance is becoming increasingly important. Good laboratory practice (GLP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) are now established standards. The biomedical field aims at an increasing reliance on the use of in vitro methods. Cell and tissue culture methods are generally fast, cheap, reproducible and reduce the use of experimental animals. Good cell culture practice (GCCP) is an attempt to

  2. Basal medium composition and serum or serum replacement concentration influences on the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad A. Chaudhry; Timothy Z. Vitalis; Bruce D. Bowen; James M. Piret

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of stem cell numbers while retaining their developmental properties is a bioprocess challenge. We compared the\\u000a growth rates and embryoid body (EB) formation yields of R1 and EFC murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) cultured in two basal\\u000a media (DMEM or DMEM:F12) with additions of 1.7–15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or serum replacer (KOSR). Whereas the basal medium\\u000a or

  3. Serum Elastase Activity, Serum Elastase Inhibitors, and Occurrence of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques The Etude sur le Vieillissement Artériel (EVA) Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Zureik; Ladislas Robert; Dominique Courbon; Pierre-Jean Touboul; Latifa Bizbiz; Pierre Ducimetičre

    Background—In the last decades, interest has increased in the potential deleterious atherogenic effects of some cellular elastase activities. The results of experimental and clinical investigations were inconsistent. In this report, we assessed the associations of serum elastase activity and serum elastase inhibitors with carotid plaque occurrence during the 4-year follow-up in a population of 859 subjects free of coronary heart

  4. Growth of normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells in reduced-serum and serum-free media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Elliott; N. Auersperg

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) is believed responsible for over 85% of ovarian cancers, yet little is known about\\u000a the normal biology of these cells. To date, culture of OSE has only been reported in media with high serum supplements. We\\u000a have developed two media, one with less than 1% of serum (OSEM-1) and the other comprised of highly

  5. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Maternal Adipose Tissue, Maternal Blood Serum, Umbilical Blood Serum, and Milk from Inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Waliszewski; A. A. Aguirre; R. M. Infanzon; C. S. Silva; J. Siliceo

    2001-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their persistence, accumulate in food chains and cause elevated contamination in human beings.\\u000a These residues bioconcentrate in lipid-rich tissues according to the equilibrium pattern of internal transport and lipid tissue\\u000a content. The analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, colostrum, and mature milk\\u000a indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of

  6. [Determination of thyroxine in serum by a heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay: results of a joint trial].

    PubMed

    Borner, K; Colombo, J P; Bachmann, C; Haeckel, R; Oellerich, M; Westerink, D; Fischer, M; Wimmer, P; Vogt, W; Tausch, A; Knedel, M; Minder, W; Blum, J; Portenhauser, R

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a heterologous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of total thyroxine in serum by a group of seven clinical chemical laboratories. The test follows the principles of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and uses peroxidase as a marker. The evaluation of analytical reliability yielded the following results within the analytical range from 39 unto 322 nmol/l: 1. Within-batch precision ranged from 3.1 unto 10.4% (coefficient of variation) with single analyses. 2. Between-batch precision ranged from 3.7 unto 20.4% with single analyses. 3. Between-laboratories precision ranged from 5.4 unto 6.8%. 4. Pure thyroxine, added to serum or thyroxine-free serum, gave recoveries between 93 and 120%. 5. Analysis of control sera gave results essentially comparable to the assigned values based upon radioimmunoassays. 6. Analysis of 288 clinical sera gave slightly higher results by the enzyme immunoassay than by the analogous radioimmunoassay from the same manufacturer. 7. Comparison with other methods of analysis (radioimmunoassays, competitive protein ligand assays, hormonal iodine assay) yielded partly comparable, partly higher results. 8. Comparison with the homogenous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) led to comparable results. 9. Interference due to hyperlipemia or hemolysis was not observed. 10. There might be an interference in hyperbilirubinaemic sera, due to an as yet unknown factor. With respect to practicability the ELISA-test compares favourably with the analogous solid phase radioimmunoassay. The main differences are the absence of radioactive material and a longer shelf-live of reagents. Following the manual procedure the time taken to perform the enzyme immunoassay is slightly longer than for the analogous radioimmunoassay. PMID:383882

  7. Serum aluminium levels in glue-sniffer adolescent and in glue containers.

    PubMed

    Akay, Cemal; Kalman, Süleyman; Dündaröz, Ru?en; Sayal, Ahmet; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozkan, Yalçin; Gül, Hüsamettin

    2008-05-01

    Glue sniffing is a serious medical problem among teenagers. Various chemical substances such as toluene and benzene containing glues have been reported to be toxic. It has been demonstrated that some toxic metals such as lead are elevated in the blood of solvent-addicted patients. Whereas aluminium is an element that has toxic effects on neurological, hematopoetic system and bone metabolism. We want to determine the serum levels of aluminium in glue-sniffer adolescents in comparison with healthy subjects. In addition, we compared aluminium levels of different commercial glue preparations (i.e. metal and plastic containers), to determine which type of container is better for less aluminium toxicity. We measured serum levels of aluminium in 37 glue-sniffer and 37 healthy subjects using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average duration of glue-sniffer was 3.8 +/- 0.8 years. We also measured aluminium levels of 10 commercial glue preparations that seven of them with metal and three with plastic containers. We found that serum levels of aluminium were 63.29 +/- 13.20 ng/ml and 36.7 +/- 8.60 ng/ml in glue-sniffer and in control subjects, respectively (P < 0.001). The average aluminium level in the glues was 8.6 +/- 3.24 ng/g in the preparations with metal containers, whereas 3.03 +/- 0.76 ng/g with plastic containers (P < 0.001). Therefore, to decrease the incidence of aluminium toxicity in glue-sniffers, it may be a good step to market of glue preparations in plastic instead of metal containers. PMID:18331391

  8. Selenium speciation in human serum and its implications for epidemiologic research: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Grill, Peter; Malagoli, Carlotta; Filippini, Tommaso; Storani, Simone; Malavolti, Marcella; Michalke, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Observational studies addressing the relation between selenium and human health, particularly cancer risk, yielded inconsistent results, while most recent randomized trials showed a fairly consistent pattern suggesting null or adverse effects of the metalloid. One of the most plausible explanations for such inconsistencies is inadequate exposure assessment in observational studies, commonly carried out by measuring total Se content without taking into account the specific exposure to the individual chemical forms of the metalloid, whose toxic and nutritional properties may vary greatly. Data on the distribution of these species in human blood and their correlation with overall selenium levels are very limited. The concentrations of organic and inorganic selenium species were analyzed in serum of fifty subjects sampled from the general population of the municipality of Modena, northern Italy, aged from 35 to 70 years. Samples were collected during a 30-month period, and determinations of selenium species were carried out using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. The majority of selenium was found to be present as organic species, but the inorganic forms showed higher levels than expected. These species showed limited correlations with age, sex and body mass index, while the organic forms increased in subjects consuming selenium-containing dietary supplements and decreased in smokers. The length of the sample storage period strongly influenced the distribution of selenium compounds, with a clear tendency towards higher inorganic and lower organic selenium levels over time. In multivariate analysis adjusting for potential confounders, total serum selenium correlated with human serum albumin-bound selenium and, in males, with two organic species of the metalloid (selenocysteine and glutathione peroxidase-bound selenium), while little association existed with the other organic forms and the inorganic ones. These findings highlight the potential for exposure misclassification of observational epidemiologic investigations based on overall selenium content in blood and possibly other tissues, and the critical role of the storage conditions for speciation analysis. PMID:26004885

  9. Analytical capillary isotachophoresis of human serum lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, G; Möllers, C; Richter, V

    1997-09-01

    An analytical free flow capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) procedure for the detailed analysis of lipoproteins on commercially available capillary electrophoresis systems has been developed. The technique is based on the specific staining of lipoproteins with the fluorescent lipophilic dye 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD)-ceramide before separation. Prestained lipoprotein samples are applied between leading and terminating buffer and separated into 9 well-characterized subpopulations according to their electrophoretic mobility in the absence of any molecular sieve effect. High density lipoproteins are separated into three major subpopulations: (i) the fast migrating high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulation (alpha-HDL, containing mainly apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and phosphatidylcholine, (ii) the subpopulation with intermediate mobility, consisting of particles rich in cholesterol, apo A-II, apo E and C apolipoproteins, and (iii) the slow migrating HDL subpopulation (pre-beta-HDL), containing particles rich in apo A-I, apo A-IV. The majority of HDL-associated lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity is also associated with the last subpopulation. The apo B-containing lipoproteins can be subdivided into three major functional groups. The first represents chylomicron derived particles and large triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). The second group consists of small VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) particles, and the third group represents the low density lipoproteins (LDL). Results obtained by the isotachophoretic lipoprotein analysis revealed a good correlation in the range of HDL with routinely used techniques, like lipoprotein electrophoresis, HDL-cholesterol analysis by a precipitation procedure or turbidimetric determination of apo A-I. Similar correlations with other analytical techniques were found for the quantitation of the apo B-containing lipoproteins. Advantages of the isotachophoretic separation compared to zone electrophoresis are the high resolution combined with small sample volumes. Moreover, lipoprotein analysis can be performed directly from whole serum, plasma, lymph and other biological fluids in a short time. With these characteristics analytical capillary isotachophoresis may be a helpful tool for a fast and reliable automated quantitation of lipoprotein subpopulations in the clinical laboratory. PMID:9372273

  10. Quantitative serum free light chain assay in the diagnostic evaluation of AL amyloidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARUN AKAR; DAVID C. SELDIN; BARBARAJEAN MAGNANI; JOHN L. BERK; CHRISTOPHER SCHOONMAKER; HOWARD CABRAL; LAURA M. DEMBER; VAISHALI SANCHORAWALA; LAWREEN H. CONNORS; RODNEY H. FALK; MARTHA SKINNER

    We compared a new serum immunoassay for quantitation of serum free light chains (FLC) with the conventional tests for clonal immunoglobulin production: bone marrow immunohistochemistry, serum immunofixation electrophoresis, and urine immunofixation electrophoresis. Serum samples from 169 patients with AL amyloidosis and 20 controls were examined. Elevated levels of k-FLC and l-FLC were found in 94% and 93% of patients with

  11. Elk1 can recruit SRF to form a ternary complex upon the serum response element

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branko V. Latinkic; Marija Zeremski; Lester F. Lau

    1996-01-01

    The initial genomic response to serum growth factors is the transcriptional activation of a set of immediate- early genes. Serum-induced transcriptional activation of several of these genes involves the formation of a ternary complex that includes the serum response factor (SRF), a 62 kDa ternary complex factor (TCF) and a serum response element (SRE). TCF alone does not bind the

  12. Conformational changes in serum pectins during industrial tomato paste production.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jerome V; Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M

    2009-09-23

    It is well-known that an irreversible decrease in serum viscosity occurs when tomato juice is concentrated by evaporation into paste. Several studies have suggested that the loss in serum viscosity is due to pectin depolymerization, caused by the high temperatures used during industrial tomato paste production. This study demonstrates that conformational changes in pectin may play a more important role than pectin depolymerization in the irreversible loss of serum viscosity during industrial tomato paste production. Samples of tomato juice, processing intermediates, and paste were obtained from a commercial producer in California. After dilution to 5 degrees Brix, tomato serum was obtained by centrifugation at 15000 g for 10 min. Weight average molecular weight (M(w)) and root-mean-square (rms) radius of the polymers in the tomato serum were determined using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detectors (HPSEC-MALLS-RI). Serum viscosity decreased throughout the juice concentration process, especially at later stages, where the processing temperature reached a maximum of 90-95 degrees C. In parallel with this decrease in serum viscosity, there was an increase in the soluble pectin concentration. Analysis of the M(w) distribution of the tomato serum showed that solubilization of pectin occurred across the entire polymer distribution range. The M(w) changed from 2.62 x 10(5) g/mol in the juice to 2.61 x 10(5) g/mol in the paste, indicating that minimal depolymerization occurred. However, the rms radius distribution indicated that the pectin conformation became more compact as the juice became more concentrated. Conformational plots revealed that serum pectins in the hot-break tomato juice and at the early stages of concentration behaved as extended coils, having shape factors of about 0.40. In processing intermediates taken from later stages in the process and in the paste, the shape factor changed to about 0.25, indicating a more compact conformation. This conformational change correlated with the observed decrease in serum viscosity in the paste production process. This result is consistent with a Flory-Fox-type relationship between viscosity, rms radius, and M(w). The conformational change may be due to increased polymer-polymer interaction brought about by the concentration process. PMID:19702334

  13. Comparison of glucose tolerance, serum insulin, serum lipids and skinfold thickness between 50- and 60-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Waern, U; Boberg, J

    1979-01-01

    Two apparently healthy male groups, one 60 (n = 67) and one 50 (n = 367) years of age were compared with respect to blood glucose, serum lipid and serum insulin concentration and intravenous glucose tolerance. These groups were recruited from two health surveys performed on male populations of these ages in the municipality of Uppsala. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the two health survey populations were 4.5% and 0.9%, respectively. No significant differences in serum triglycerides, serum cholestrol and fasting serum insulin concentrations were found between the two age groups. Significantly higher k-values and higher early serum insulin response to i.v. glucose were found in the younger than in the older age group. The older age group was more obese, than the younger group. It is concluded that the prevalence of diabetes increases considerably in males between 50 and 60 years of age. In parallel, the prevalence of decreased glucose tolerance is increasing, which might partly be explained by increased body weight and partly by an impaired pancreatic beta-cell function. PMID:396706

  14. Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia following hydrofluoric acid chemical injury.

    PubMed

    Dalamaga, Maria; Karmaniolas, Konstantinos; Nikolaidou, Athina; Papadavid, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    Dermal exposure to hydrofluoric acid could potentially result in severe serum calcium and magnesium depletion induced by binding with fluoride anion. This report describes the case of a 48-year-old man who developed hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia accompanied by hypokalemia-an interesting finding-following a chemical injury with exposure to 70% hydrofluoric acid. Successful treatment included administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium both intravenously and topically. PMID:18388571

  15. Modern Chemical Technology, Guidebook for Chemical Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is a part of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum that is developed for chemical technicians. It is intended as a handbook that will be used throughout the instruction. Safety is stressed in eight of the ten chapters under the headings: safety in the chemical laboratory, personal protective equipment, fire safety…

  16. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  17. CHEMICAL SAFETY ALERTS-

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Safety Alerts are short publications which explain specific hazards that have become evident through chemical accident investigation efforts. EPA has produced over a dozen Alerts to date. This year's Alert: Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards...

  18. CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals in Progress Bulletin is a quarterly newsletter which highlights regulatory and program activities of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Regular features and news items include the existing chemicals program, new chemicals program, pollution prevention activi...

  19. Serum-free, long-term cultures of human hepatocytes: maintenance of cell morphology, transcription factors, and liver-specific functions.

    PubMed

    Runge, D; Runge, D M; Jäger, D; Lubecki, K A; Beer Stolz, D; Karathanasis, S; Kietzmann, T; Strom, S C; Jungermann, K; Fleig, W E; Michalopoulos, G K

    2000-03-01

    Since human hepatocytes are available only in limited number, the development of a serum-free culture system for long-term cultivation of differentiated and functional hepatocytes is of great importance. Here we describe the culture of human hepatocytes in a chemically defined serum-free medium for up to 5 weeks. Cell morphology was assayed by light and electron microscopy and revealed a well-preserved cellular morphology. Marker proteins for epithelial and bile duct cells, cytokeratin (CK) 18 and 19, and liver-specific proteins, like phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-2 (PCK2) and serum proteins, were expressed. Liver-enriched transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4), cytokine and mitogen activated factors (nuclear factor kappa B) NFkappaB, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) were maintained and active for several weeks in our cultures. In summary, our serum-free culture system allows the culture of differentiated human hepatocytes for several weeks. It may serve as a model system for metabolic, pharmacologic-toxicologic studies, and studies on human pathogens under defined chemical conditions. PMID:10694475

  20. Evaluation of multifunctional liposomes in human blood serum by light scattering.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kristin; Müller, Sophie S; Müller, Laura K; Rusitzka, Kristiane; Gietzen, Sabine; Frey, Holger; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-12-16

    To overcome the limited functionality of "stealth" lipids based on linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains, hyperbranched polyether-based lipids that bear multiple hydroxyl groups for further chemical modification may be a suitable replacement. This study focuses on the development and characterization of "stealth" liposomes modified with a novel hyperbranched polyglycerol lipid (cholesterol-PEG30-hbPG23). An emphasis was placed on the stability of these liposomes in comparison to those containing a linear PEG derivative (cholesterol-PEG44) directly in human blood serum, characterized via dynamic light scattering (DLS). Polymer lipid contents were varied between 0 and 30 mol %, resulting in liposomes with sizes between 150 and 80 nm in radius, depending on the composition. DLS analysis showed no aggregation inducing interactions between serum components and liposomes containing 10-30 mol % of the hyperbranched lipid. In contrast, liposomes functionalized with comparable amounts of linear PEG exhibited aggregate formation in the size range of 170-330 nm under similar conditions. In addition to DLS, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed for all liposome samples to prove the formation of unilamellar vesicles. These results demonstrate the outstanding potential of the introduction of hyperbranched polyglycerol into liposomes to stabilize the assemblies against aggregation while providing additional functionalization sites. PMID:25469945

  1. Serum starvation induced cell cycle synchronization facilitates human somatic cells reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengfei; Huang, Jingjing; Yang, Xuejiao; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Weizhong; Huang, Li; Deng, Fei; Ma, Jian; Bai, Yujing; Lu, Rong; Huang, Bing; Gao, Qianying; Zhuo, Yehong; Ge, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a valuable model for regenerative medicine and human disease research. To date, however, the reprogramming efficiency of human adult cells is still low. Recent studies have revealed that cell cycle is a key parameter driving epigenetic reprogramming to pluripotency. As is well known, retroviruses such as the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) require cell division to integrate into the host genome and replicate, whereas the target primary cells for reprogramming are a mixture of several cell types with different cell cycle rhythms. Whether cell cycle synchronization has potential effect on retrovirus induced reprogramming has not been detailed. In this study, utilizing transient serum starvation induced synchronization, we demonstrated that starvation generated a reversible cell cycle arrest and synchronously progressed through G2/M phase after release, substantially improving retroviral infection efficiency. Interestingly, synchronized human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and adipose stem cells (ASC) exhibited more homogenous epithelial morphology than normal FBS control after infection, and the expression of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and Epcam were strongly activated. Futhermore, synchronization treatment ultimately improved Nanog positive clones, achieved a 15-20 fold increase. These results suggested that cell cycle synchronization promotes the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and facilitates retrovirus mediated reprogramming. Our study, utilization of serum starvation rather than additional chemicals, provide a new insight into cell cycle regulation and induced reprogramming of human cells. PMID:22529890

  2. Oral pathology diagnosis by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy on biopsies and blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, F.; Lepore, M.; Perna, G.; Carmone, P.; Delfino, I.; Gaeta, G. M.; Capozzi, V.

    2007-02-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with a potentially fatal outcome. In this case micro-Raman spectroscopy (?-RS) can provide a powerful tool for a not invasive analysis of biological tissue for biopsy and in vivo investigation. Based on the evaluation of molecular vibration frequencies, the ?-RS is able to detect the main molecular bonds of protein constituents, as the C-H and C-C ones. Changes in frequency or in the relative intensity of the vibration modes revealed by ?-RS can be related to changes of chemical bond and of protein structure induced by pathology. Quantitative information on the intensity variation of specific Raman lines can be extracted by Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis. ?-RS was performed on some samples of oral tissue and blood serum from informed patients affected by pemphigus vulgaris (an oral pathology) at different pathology stages. The spectra were measured by means of a Raman confocal microspectrometer apparatus using the 633 nm line of a He- Ne laser source. The main protein bonds are clearly detectable in the considered samples giving important information on the integrity and on the state of tissue and blood serum components (lipids and proteins), and consequently on the occurrence of pathology.

  3. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Fang, Senbiao; Cao, Huiming; Lu, Yan; Ma, Yaqiong; Wei, Dongfeng; Xie, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Xin; Fei, Dongqing; Zhao, Chunyan

    2013-03-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum. PMID:23416474

  4. 1HNMR study of methotrexate serum albumin (MTX SA) binding in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su?kowska, A.; Maci??ek-Jurczyk, M.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Su?kowski, W. W.

    2008-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immunologically depended disease. It is characterized by a chronic, progressive inflammatory process. Methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid, MTX) is the modifying drug used to treat RA. The aim of the presented studies is to determine the low affinity binding site of MTX in bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) serum albumin with the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR) spectroscopy. The analysis of 1HNMR spectra of MTX in the presence of serum albumin (SA) allows us to observe the interactions between aromatic rings of the drug and the rings of amino acids located in the hydrophobic subdomains of the protein. On the basis of the chemical shifts ? [ppm] and the relaxation times T1 [s] of drug protons the hydrophobic interaction between MTX-SA and the stoichiometric molar ratio of the complex was evaluated. This work is a part of a spectroscopic study on MTX-SA interactions [A. Su?kowska, M. Maci??ek, J. Równicka, B. Bojko, D. Pentak, W.W. Su?kowski, J. Mol. Struct. 834-836 (2007) 162-169].

  5. Interaction of prometryn to human serum albumin: insights from spectroscopic and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong

    2014-01-01

    Prometryn possesses much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, the binding properties of prometryn with human serum albumin (HSA) and the protein structural changes were determined under simulative physiological conditions (pH 7.4) by multispectroscopic methods including fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, coupled with molecular modeling technique. The result of fluorescence titration suggested that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by prometryn was considered as a static quenching procedure. The negative enthalpy change (?H(?)) and positive entropy change (?S(?)) values indicated that the binding process was governed mainly by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The site marker displacement experiments suggested the location of prometryn binding to HSA was Sudlow's site I in subdomain IIA. Furthermore, molecular docking studies revealed prometryn can bind in the large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIA. Analysis of UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, CD and FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the addition of prometryn resulted in rearrangement and conformational alteration of HSA with reduction in ?-helix and increases in ?-sheet, ?-turn and random coil structures. This work provided reasonable model helping us further understand the transportation, distribution and toxicity effect of prometryn when it spreads into human blood serum. PMID:24485317

  6. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  7. Algal Sensory Chemical Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Amsler

    Sensory chemical ecology is the branch of chemical ecology that focuses on chemical communications between organisms and chemical\\u000a sensing of the environment by organisms. Algae are well known to have numerous physiological responses to variations in their\\u000a chemical environment, particularly with respect to nutrients (Lobban and Harrison 1994). However, with respect to environmental\\u000a sensing it is typical for “chemical ecology”

  8. Biological variation of canine serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Lars; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Hřier, René; Aaes, Helle

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the between-dog, within-dog and analytical components of variance for serum thyrotropin (TSH) in healthy dogs, and to use these components of variance to 1) estimate the critical difference for significance between serial results; 2) assess the utility of the conventional population-based reference interval; 3) set a desirable performance standard for analytical imprecision; and 4) estimate the number of samples required for determination of the true mean value for an individual dog. Using the Immulite test system, TSH was measured in serum samples collected weekly for five weeks from eight clinically healthy dogs. Results were subjected to nested analysis of variance. Between-dog variation was 43.6%, within-dog variation was 13.6%, analytical variation was 8.8%, the one-sided critical difference was 37.8%, the index of individuality was 0.4, the maximum allowable analytical imprecision was 6.8%, and the number of samples required to determine the true mean value in a single dog was 40. In practical terms, the present study indicated that the analytical imprecision of canine serum TSH measurement should be < 7%, and that comparing a single serum TSH measurement from an individual dog to the conventional population-based reference range may be too insensitive to detect small but important changes in the serum TSH level of that particular dog. In addition, when treating a hypothyroid dog, serum TSH, measured on a weekly basis, should decrease by at least one-third before any effect of exogenous thyroxine supplementation can be said to have influenced the serum TSH level. PMID:12075532

  9. Determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cuiling; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Chan, Yap-Hang; Fang, Vicky J; Ng, Sophia; Ip, Dennis K M; Kam, Andrea May-Sin; Leung, Gabriel M; Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2015-07-14

    Vitamin D plays an important role in skeletal health throughout life. Some studies have hypothesised that vitamin D may reduce the risk of other diseases. Our study aimed to estimate age-specific and sex-specific serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and to identify the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in Hong Kong, a subtropical city in southern China. In 2009-2010, households in Hong Kong were followed up to identify acute respiratory illnesses, and sera from 2694 subjects were collected in three to four different study phases to permit measurement of 25(OH)D levels at different times of the year. A questionnaire survey on diet and lifestyle was conducted among children, with simultaneous serum collection in April and May 2010. The mean of serum 25(OH)D levels in age groups ranged from 39 to 63 nmol/l throughout the year with the mean values in all age groups in spring below 50 nmol/l. Children aged 6-17 years, and girls and women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels than adults, and boys and men, respectively (all P< 0·001). We estimated that serum 25(OH)D levels in Hong Kong followed a lagged pattern relative to climatic season by 5 weeks with lowest observed levels in early spring (March). For children aged 6-17 years, reporting a suntan, having at least 1 servings of fish/week and having at least 1 serving of eggs/week were independently associated with higher serum 25(OH)D levels. Adequate sunlight exposure and increased intake of dietary vitamin D could improve vitamin D status, especially for children and females in the winter and spring. PMID:26051634

  10. Interaction between vine pesticides and bovine serum albumin studied by nuclear spin relaxation data.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvia; Bonechi, Claudia; Rossi, Claudio

    2010-10-13

    Pesticides are chemicals usually used in agriculture to prevent possible diseases to crops, such as grapes, caused by parasites. Even if most of the pesticides are degraded during the wine process, residual levels remain in the final product. The most commonly used pesticides in vine belong to several classes of chemical compounds; among them, triazoles and anilinopyrimidines have been commercially used since the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. In this work, we investigated the interaction between three of the most used fungicides belonging to the chemical classes mentioned above (myclobutanil, triadimenol, and pyrimethanil) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by nuclear spin relaxation analysis. We found that all of the pesticides were able to form a complex with BSA; nevertheless, there were strong differences in their affinity toward the plasma protein. The nuclear magnetic resonance approach used on the basis of the analysis of selective relaxation rate enhancements of pesticide protons in the presence of BSA allowed for the calculation of the affinity indexes and the equilibrium constants of the three systems. Myclobutanil showed the highest affinity toward BSA, whereas triadimenol gave the weakest interaction with the protein. The differences in the capacity of the three pesticides to bind to albumin highlighted the existence of different binding strengths on the protein. These results indicate that myclobutanil and triadimenol, despite their structure similarity, may have very different residence times in the plasma and rates of clearance. PMID:20857906

  11. Serum Amyloid A Protects Murine Macrophages from Lethal Toxin-Mediated Death1

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kira; Long, Paul; Shankar, Malini; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Webb, Carol F.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal toxin, a key virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, induces cell death, in part by disrupting numerous signaling pathways, in mouse macrophages. However, exposure to sublethal doses of lethal toxin allows some cells to survive. Because these pro-survival signaling events occur within a few hours after exposure to sublethal doses, we hypothesized that acute phase proteins might influence macrophage survival. Our data show that serum amyloid A (SAA) is produced in response to lethal toxin treatment. Moreover, pre-treatment of macrophages with exogenous SAA protected macrophages from lethal toxin-mediated death. Exogenous SAA activated the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) kinase pathway, while lethal toxin mutants incapable of p38 activation were incapable of causing cell death. Chemical inhibition of the p38 activation pathway abrogated the protective effects of SAA. These data show that SAA affords protection against lethal toxin in mouse macrophages and link this response to the p38 pathway. PMID:22082566

  12. Spherical Nucleic Acid Nanoparticle Conjugates Enhance G-Quadruplex Formation and Increase Serum Protein Interactions**

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Alyssa B.; Guan, Chenxia M.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the effect of three-dimensional oligonucleotide structure on protein corona formation, we studied the identity and quantity of human serum proteins that bind to spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanoparticle conjugates. SNAs exhibit cellular uptake properties that are remarkably different from those of linear nucleic acids, which have been related to their interaction with certain classes of proteins. Through a proteomic analysis, this work shows that the protein binding properties of SNAs are sequence-specific and supports the conclusion that the oligonucleotide tertiary structure can significantly alter the chemical composition of the SNA protein corona. This knowledge will impact our understanding of how nucleic acid-based nanostructures, and SNAs in particular, function in complex biological milieu. PMID:25393322

  13. Polyelectrolyte-stabilized graphene oxide liquid crystals against salt, pH, and serum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Xu, Zhen; Xie, Yang; Zheng, Bingna; Kou, Liang; Gao, Chao

    2014-04-01

    Stabilization of colloids is of great significance in nanoscience for their fundamental research and practical applications. Electrostatic repulsion-stabilized anisotropic colloids, such as graphene oxide (GO), can form stable liquid crystals (LCs). However, the electrostatic field would be screened by ions. To stabilize colloidal LCs against electrolyte is an unsolved challenge. Here, an effective strategy is proposed to stabilize GO LCs under harsh conditions by association of polyelectrolytes onto GO sheets. Using sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (PMEDSAH), a kind of polyzwitterion, GO LCs were well-maintained in the presence of NaCl (from 0 M to saturated), extreme pH (from 1 to 13), and serum. Moreover, PSS- or PMEDSAH-coated chemically reduced GO (rGO) also showed stability against electrolyte. PMID:24678627

  14. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, Christopher S.

    1986-01-01

    Research is directed toward the design and synthesis of new media for solar-pumped I* lasers. Since the most effective existing lasants are perfluoroalkyl iodides, a strategy was proposed for the development of improved materials of this type with absorption maxima at 300 nm. Absorption spectra were synthesized and measured for prototypical species containing iodine bound to boron, iron, and cobalt.

  15. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin associated with decreased serum PTH and elevated bone resorption markers in otherwise healthy men subjected to long-term immobilization.

  16. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  17. The Serum Lead level in Patients With Retained Lead Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammad Alibeigi, Faramarz; Sayadi, Masoud; Poorya Mofrad, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Soleiman; Darvishi, Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, who survived from shotgun injuries, often have some retained lead pellets in their bodies. Several cases of lead toxicity have been reported regarding these patients. Objectives: This study seeks to compare the serum lead level in patients who have retained lead pellets in their bodies with the control group. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we gathered the serum lead levels of 25 patients with some retained lead pellets in their bodies due to shotgun and 25 volunteers without similar lead exposure and compared them in view of the age, gender, and living place. Results: While the mean serum lead level in both groups was lower than the standard level (i.e. 40 µg/dL) , the mean ± SD of serum lead level were 29 ± 12.8 µg/dL and 25.3 ± 6.4 µg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively without any significant difference (P = 0. 30) . However, a positive relationship was seen between serum lead level, and the number of retained lead pellets (r = 0.447, P = 0. 025) . Conclusions: Although extensive surgery to remove the lead pellets is not recommended in patients injured with shotguns, those with many retained lead pellets in their bodies should be considered at risk for lead poisoning and monitored carefully. PMID:25147780

  18. Association of Serum Bisphenol A with Hypertension in Thai Population

    PubMed Central

    Chailurkit, La-or

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study aimed to examine the association between serum BPA and hypertension and evaluated whether it was influenced by estradiol level. Methods. A subsample of 2588 sera randomly selected from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009, was measured for serum BPA and estradiol. Logistic regression was used to examine the association controlling for age, sex, diabetes, body mass index, and estradiol level. Results. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of hypertension for the fourth quartile of serum BPA was 2.16 (95% CI 1.31, 3.56) in women and 1.44 (0.99, 2.09) in men. There was no interaction between serum BPA and estradiol level. For analysis using log(BPA) as a continuous variable, the AOR per unit change in log(BPA) was 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.16). Among postmenopausal women, the AOR for the fourth quartile of BPA was 2.33 (95% CI 1.31, 4.15) and, for premenopausal women, it was 2.12 (95% CI 0.87, 5.19). Conclusion. Serum BPA was independently associated with hypertension in women and was not likely to be affected by estrogen; however, its mechanism related to blood pressure needs further investigation. PMID:25785193

  19. Relationship between exposure to industrial noise and serum lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Bahabad, Afshin Malek; Moghaddam, Azadeh Nahan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG), total Cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL). Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:22131242

  20. Relation between serum cathodic trypsinogen levels and exocrine pancreatic function.

    PubMed

    Andriulli, A; Masoero, G; Benitti, V; Amato, A; Piantino, P; Gaia, E

    1984-06-01

    To assess the relation between circulating cathodic trypsinogen (CT) levels and exocrine pancreatic function, and to compare the radioimmunological with the enzymatic measurement of duodenal trypsin, we evaluated exocrine pancreatic function in 34 controls and in 32 patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (CP). There was no relation between CT and the volume rate of pancreatic secretion, nor did serum CT levels correlate with the concentration output of duodenal bicarbonate in controls. However, in CP patients, there was a low value of the correlation coefficient. A good relationship between serum CT levels and duodenal trypsin secretion was detected when the trypsin content was expressed as the mean value of both concentration and output. The enzymatic estimation of duodenal trypsin was related closely to its radioimmunological measurement, but there was better correlation of serum CT to duodenal immunoreactive than to enzymatic trypsin. In patients with CP, low levels were observed in 29% of cases with serum CT estimation, in 75% with duodenal bicarbonate, and in 63% and 79% with enzymatic and immunoreactive trypsin outputs, respectively. We conclude that serum CT levels may reflect the functioning mass of pancreatic acinar cells and that in assessing pancreatic secretory capacity, the immunoreactive measurement of trypsin excretion is more sensitive than the enzymatic measurement and as accurate as bicarbonate output. PMID:6725915