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Sample records for serum perfluoroalkyl chemicals

  1. 40 CFR 721.10536 - Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10536 Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate chemical substances. (a...-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (LCPFAC) chemical substances for use as a surfactant in...

  2. Associations between Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and LINE-1 DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Butler, Rondi A.; Bartell, Scott M.; Fletcher, Tony; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, synthetic compounds that are used in a number of consumer products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in animals and cellular systems. However, whether PFAA exposure is associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation, a potential marker of cardiovascular risk, in humans remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the cross-sectional associations between serum PFAAs and LINE-1 DNA methylation in a population highly exposed to PFOA. We measured serum PFAAs twice four to five years apart in 685 adult participants (47% male, mean age ± SD=42 ± 11 years). We measured percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at the second time point (follow-up), and estimated absolute differences in LINE-1 methylation associated with an interquartile (IQR) shift in mean PFAA serum levels. IQR increases in mean serum PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were associated with differences of −0.04 (p=0.16), 0.20 (p=0.001), 0.06 (p=0.19), and 0.02 (p=0.57), respectively, in % LINE-1 methylation at follow-up after adjustment for potential confounders. We observed a monotonic increase in LINE-1 DNA methylation across tertiles of PFOS and PFNA (ptrend=0.02 for both associations), but not across tertiles of PFOA or PFHxS (ptrend=0.71 and 0.44, respectively). In summary, serum PFOS was associated with LINE-1 methylation, while serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA were not. Additional research is needed to more precisely determine whether these compounds are epigenetically active. PMID:24263140

  3. Perfluoroalkyl acids in blood serum samples from children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jia; Lee, Yungling Leo; Chen, Pau-Chung; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86% of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5% individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p < 0.05). Furthermore, serum PFBS, PFHxS, and PFOA concentrations in the male children were considerably higher than those in the female children (p = 0.049, p = 0.000, p = 0.000). PMID:24622984

  4. Maternal and paternal serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jisuk; Kim, Sungduk; Schisterman, Enrique F; Boyd Barr, Dana; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2015-08-01

    Select persistent environmental chemicals have been associated with a reduction in the secondary sex ratio (SSR), or the ratio of male to female live births. We evaluated preconception maternal, paternal, and couple serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in relation to the SSR, given the absence of previous investigation. Two hundred thirty-three couples from Michigan and Texas were enrolled prior to conception and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth, 2005-2009. Maternal and paternal serum concentrations (ng mL(-1)) were measured at baseline for seven PFASs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for a male birth, after adjusting for potential confounders. When maternal and paternal PFAS concentrations were modeled jointly, five of the seven PFASs, including the two most prominent PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid, were not significantly associated with the SSR. However, paternal N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFOSAA) and perfluorononanoic acid (2nd versus 1st tertile, OR, 0.43, 95% CI, 0.21-0.88) were significantly associated with an excess of female births. Meanwhile, a dose-response relation was observed only for paternal MeFOSAA (2nd versus 1st tertile, OR, 0.53, 95% CI, 0.26-1.10; 3rd versus 1st tertile, OR, 0.34, 95% CI, 0.13-0.89). This study suggests a possible dose-response relation between a less prevalent PFAS and a reversal in the SSR, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown and the findings await corroboration to eliminate other explanations including chance. PMID:25863705

  5. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals in vacuum cleaner dust from 39 Wisconsin homes.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Imm, Pamela; Anderson, Henry

    2012-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used as surfactants and stain repellants in a variety of consumer products for more than 50years and there is growing concern regarding their persistence and toxicity. Human exposure to these chemicals is essentially universal in North America and researchers have linked them to a variety of health problems ranging from higher rates of cancer, to developmental and reproductive problems, and higher cholesterol levels. Major exposure pathways are food and water ingestion, dust ingestion via hand to mouth transfer. In an effort to assess residential exposure, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services tested vacuum cleaner contents from thirty-nine homes for 16 perflouroalkyl chemicals. PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpA and PFNA were found in all of the vacuum dust samples and dust from eight homes contained all 16 PFCs included in our analysis. The most commonly detected compounds were perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) which together made up 70% of the total PFC residues in dust from these homes. Summed PFC concentrations in these dust samples ranged from 70 to 2513ng/g (median 280ng/g). Our investigation suggests that these chemicals may be ubiquitous contaminants in US homes. PMID:22542201

  6. Positive associations of serum perfluoroalkyl substances with uric acid and hyperuricemia in children from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Huang, Jin; Ward, Patrick; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Yu; Yuan, Ping; Li, Meng; Bai, Zhipeng; Paul, Gunther; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Dong, Guang-Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the risk of hyperuricemia in relation to Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in children from Taiwan, 225 Taiwanese children aged 12-15 years were recruited from 2009 to 2010. Linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the influence of PFASs on serum uric acid levels. Findings revealed that eight of ten PFASs analyses were detected in >94% of the participants' serum samples. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA) was positively associated with serum uric acid levels (β = 0.1463, p < 0.05). Of all the PFASs analyses, only PFOA showed a significant effect on elevated levels of hyperuricemia (aOR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.29-3.61). When stratified by gender, the association between serum PFOA and uric acid levels was only evident among boys (aOR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.37-5.56). In conclusion, PFOA was found to be associated with elevated serum levels of uric acid in Taiwanese children, especially boys. Further research is needed to elucidate these links. PMID:26970855

  7. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  8. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with isomer analysis and their associations with medical parameters in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiwei; Zhang, Yifeng; Zhu, Lingyan; Deng, Jimin

    2014-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of chemicals used for many applications and widely present in the environment and humans. In this study, serum levels of PFAAs and isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were analyzed in 141 Chinese pregnant women. Among all the samples, total PFOS (∑PFOS, mean concentration 7.32ng/mL) was predominant, followed by ∑PFOA (mean 4.78ng/mL) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA, mean 1.45ng/mL). On average, the proportion of linear PFOS (n-PFOS) was 66.7% of ∑PFOS, which was higher than the general population, implying that maternal women could excrete branched PFOS isomers to the fetus by transplacental transfer. Moreover, the proportion of n-PFOS decreased significantly with the increasing concentration of ∑PFOS in the serum samples (r=-0.342, p<0.001). The mean proportion of n-PFOA in the serum samples was 99.0%, which was much higher than the technical ECF (electrochemical fluorination) products (ca. 70%). The small proportion of branched isomers of PFOA suggests that there is still a source of ECF PFOA in China. Significant correlations (p<0.005) were observed between the concentrations of some PFAAs with certain medical parameters in the pregnant women. For example, the levels of most perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were found to correlate with albumin significantly, which might be a sign of immunotoxicity of these chemicals. The adverse effects of PFAA exposure to pregnant women may increase the health risk of the fetus. Interestingly, not only the PFAA concentrations but also the percentages of PFOS and PFOA isomers were correlated with certain medical parameters. This implies that the compositions of PFOS or PFOA should be considered in human health risk assessment in the future. PMID:24361923

  9. Serum Biomarkers of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Serum Testosterone and Measures of Thyroid Function among Adults and Adolescents from NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Johns, Lauren E.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of environmentally-persistent chemicals that have been widely used in many industrial applications. There is human and animal evidence that PFASs may alter levels of reproductive and thyroid-related hormones. However, human studies on the potential age-related effects of PFASs on these outcomes among males and females are limited. We explored the relationship between serum PFASs and serum total testosterone (T), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) and thyroxine (FT4, TT4) among males and females 12 to 80 years of age from the 2011–2012 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models that were stratified on sex and age categories. Effect estimates from the majority of the adjusted models were not statistically significant. However, exposure to PFASs may be associated with increases in FT3, TT3, and FT4 among adult females, but during adolescence, PFASs may be related to increases in TSH among males and decreases in TSH among females. No significant relationships were observed between PFASs and T in any of the models. These findings suggest that exposure to PFASs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26035660

  10. Impacts of daily intakes on the isomeric profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Lianqiu; Du, Pin; Luo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Qiannian; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been well studied in human daily intake for assessment of potential health risks. However, little is known about the isomeric compositions of PFASs in daily intake and their impacts on isomeric profiles in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PFASs with isomeric analysis in various human exposure matrices including foodstuffs, tap water and indoor dust. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and/or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were predominant in these exposure matrices collected in Tianjin, China. In fish and meat, linear (n-) PFOA was enriched with a percentage of 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Although n-PFOS was higher in fish (84.8%) than in technical PFOS (ca. 70%), it was much lower in meat (63.1%) and vegetables (58.5%). Dietary intake contributed >99% of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for the general population. The isomeric profiles of PFOA and PFOS in human serum were predicted based on the EDI and a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model. The isomeric percentage of n-PFOA in the EDI (98.6%) was similar to that in human serum (predicted: 98.2%, previously measured: 99.7%) of Tianjin residents. The results suggest direct PFOA intake plays an important role in its isomeric compositions in humans. For PFOS, the predicted n-PFOS (69.3%) was much higher than the previously measured values (59.2%) in human serum. This implies that other factors, such as indirect exposure to PFOS precursors and multiple excretion pathways, may contribute to the lower percentage of n-PFOS in humans than of technical PFOS. PMID:26826363

  11. 77 FR 48924 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... substances? On October 18, 2000, EPA published in the Federal Register a proposed SNUR (65 FR 62319) (FRL... final rule was published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2002 (67 FR 11008) (FRL-6823-6), for 13... similar PFAS chemical substances was published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2002 (67 FR...

  12. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... the Federal Register of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 48924) (FRL-9358- 7), EPA proposed to amend a SNUR at... people and the environment will generally not be exposed to chemical substances in articles (see 49 FR 35014; September 5, 1984). However, as stated in Unit IV. of the proposed rule (77 FR 48928; August...

  13. An automated high-throughput SPE micro-elution method for perfluoroalkyl substances in human serum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sandra; Brox, Jan

    2015-05-01

    An automated high-throughput solid phase extraction (SPE) micro-elution method for 8 perfluorosulfonic acids, 11 perfluorocarboxylic acids and fluorooctane sulfonamide in human serum was developed. Importance was attached to the application of small volumes of reagents and solvents in addition to low sample volumes (50 μL) in order to save the highly valuable sample material for follow-up and other studies. Instrumental analysis was performed by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were satisfactory and between 70 and 120% for most of the compounds at the three investigated spike concentrations. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was slightly underestimated at high concentrations (20 ng/mL; 67%), whereas perfluoropentanoate (PFPA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were overestimated with 134, 131 and 133% respectively, at low spike concentrations (0.2 ng/mL). The precision of the method was below 20% coefficient of variation (CV%) for all target compounds with the only exception of PFOS (22%) at low spike concentrations. Method detection limits ranged from 0.006 to 0.34 ng/mL. High sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness have been demonstrated for an appropriate concentration range. The applicability for real samples was satisfactory demonstrated by analysis of 40 sera samples from the general population from Tromsø, Norway. PMID:25795026

  14. Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl compounds in the serum and milk of lactating North Carolina women

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been detected in a multitude of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Some PFAAs bind the human estrogen receptors in vitro. Further, some PFAAs induce estrogen responsive genes a...

  15. Profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in the liver and serum of patients with liver cancer and cirrhosis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Angus, Peter W; Herath, Chandana B

    2013-10-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in serum (n=79) and liver (n=66) samples from patients who had undergone liver transplantation for a range of conditions, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV), both HCC and HCV, amyloidosis or acute liver failure. PFAS data from patients were compared to those in control serum (n=25) samples from liver donors with no known liver disease and to those in control liver (n=9) tissues collected during liver resection surgery. All samples showed detectable PFOS (serum: 0.621-126ng/mL; liver: 0.375-42.5ng/g wet wt) and PFOA (serum: 0.437-45.5ng/mL; liver: 0.101-2.25ng/g wet wt) concentrations. In general, in paired serum and liver samples, serum had higher PFOS, PFHxS, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA concentrations than those in explanted livers from patients. These findings also suggest that pathological changes in diseased livers alter the distribution of PFASs between liver and serum. The results from control serum (2007-2008) suggested that PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA concentrations were lower than those previously reported from Australia for 2002-2003, and 2006-2007. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the detection and comparison of a range of PFASs in the liver of patients with liver cancer and/or liver cirrhosis. PMID:23849467

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the serum and milk of breastfeeding North Carolina women

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) comprise a group of man-made persistent environmental compounds. They are widely used in consumer products such as food packaging material, non-stick cookware and cleaning agents, and have been detected in drinking water. Certain PFAAs tend to bioaccu...

  17. Associations of serum perfluoroalkyl acid levels with T-helper cell-specific cytokines in children: By gender and asthma status.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Su, Ming-Wei; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Wang, Si-Quan; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-07-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of common chemicals that ubiquitously exist in wildlife and humans. Experimental data suggest that they may alter T-lymphocyte functioning in situ by preferentially enhancing the development of T-helper 2 (TH2)- and inhibiting TH1-lymphocyte development and might increase allergic inflammation, but few human studies have been conducted. To evaluate the association between serum PFAAs concentrations and T-lymphocyte-related immunological markers of asthma in children, and further to assess whether gender modified this association, 231 asthmatic children and 225 non-asthmatic control children from Northern Taiwan were recruited into the Genetic and Biomarker study for Childhood Asthma. Serum concentrations of ten PFAAs and levels of TH1 [interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2] and TH2 (IL-4 and IL-5) cytokines were measured. The results showed that asthmatics had significantly higher serum PFAAs concentrations compared with the healthy controls. When stratified by gender, a greater number of significant associations between PFAAs and asthma outcomes were found in males than in females. Among males, adjusted odds ratios for asthma among those with the highest versus lowest quartile of PFAAs exposure ranged from 2.59 (95% CI: 1.14, 5.87) for the perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) to 4.38 (95% CI: 2.02, 9.50) for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS); and serum PFAAs were associated positively with TH2 cytokines and inversely with TH1 cytokines among male asthmatics. Among females, no significant associations between PFAAs and TH2 cytokines could be detected. In conclusion, increased serum PFAAs levels may promote TH cell dysregulation and alter the availability of key TH1 and TH2 cytokines, ultimately contributing to the development of asthma that may differentially impact males to a greater degree than females. These results have potential relevance in asthma prevention. PMID:27060656

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal exposure to some PFAAs may alter testosterone concentrations in females. Citation Maisonet M, Calafat AM, Marcus M, Jaakkola JJ, Lashen H. 2015. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and serum testosterone concentrations at 15 years of age in female ALSPAC study participants. Environ Health Perspect 123:1325–1330; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408847 PMID:26034840

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substances in serum from South Korean infants with congenital hypothyroidism and healthy infants - Its relationship with thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt thyroid systems, though the specific effects of PFASs are still being elucidated. Since research regarding exposure in infants is highly limited, our goal was to investigate exposure levels of PFASs in infant serum and correlate these levels with thyroid hormones (THs). This was accomplished by analyzing 16 PFASs in sera from a case group of infants with congenital hypothyroidism and a control group. Total PFAS exposure level was 2.63-44.7ng/mL in the case group and 2.44-22.4ng/mL in the control group. Concentrations of serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, p<0.01), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, p<0.001), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFDA, p<0.005), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA, p<0.005) were significantly higher in the case group than the control group. Levels of certain PFASs (PFOA, perfluorotridecanoic acid [PFTrDA], and perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS]) showed a moderate to weak correlation with relevant antibodies. PMID:26950028

  20. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala. PMID:26079316

  1. Estimation of the total concentration of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in human serum: Data from NHANES 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    While selected perfluoroalkyl acids/substances (PFAAs) like perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been detected and measured in laboratory, a method to estimate the total concentration of PFAAs (?PFAA) in serum has not been developed. Because of the health concerns associated with PFAAs and because of the inability of every laboratory to measure every PFAA as well as because of the non-availability of sensitive enough equipment to be able to detect very small amounts of certain PFAAs, it is of interest to know ?PFAA. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2012 to develop regression models to estimate ?PFAA by using the levels of PFOA and PFOS only. While data for 2005-2008 were used to develop regression models, data for 2009-2012 were used to evaluate the accuracy of the developed models. Over 63% of observed values for evaluation data were found to be within 10% of the predicted values. The model so developed can be used with just the knowledge of the age, gender, and concentrations of PFOA and PFOS. While the data used to develop the model were generated in U.S., the model can be used to estimate ?PFAA for data collected in North America and Europe and probably elsewhere in the world. PMID:25981317

  2. Effects of chemical oxidants on perfluoroalkyl acid transport in one-dimensional porous media columns.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Siegrist, Robert L; McCray, John E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation approach that is often used to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with fuels and chlorinated solvents. At many aqueous film-forming foam-impacted sites, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can also be present at concentrations warranting concern. Laboratory experiments were completed using flow-through one-dimensional columns to improve our understanding of how ISCO (i.e., activated persulfate, permanganate, or catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) could affect the fate and transport of PFAAs in saturated porous media. While the resultant data suggest that standard ISCO is not a viable remediation strategy for PFAA decomposition, substantial changes in PFAA transport were observed upon and following the application of ISCO. In general, activated persulfate decreased PFAA transport, while permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide increased PFAA transport. PFAA sorption increased in the presence of increased aqueous polyvalent cation concentrations or decreased pH. The changes in contaminant mobility were greater than what would be predicted on the basis of aqueous chemistry considerations alone, suggesting that the application of ISCO results in changes to the porous media matrix (e.g., soil organic matter quality) that also influence transport. The application of ISCO is likely to result in changes in PFAA transport, where the direction (increased or decreased transport) and magnitude are dependent on PFAA characteristics, oxidant characteristics, and site-specific factors. PMID:25621878

  3. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluoroalkyl substances in serum of pregnant women: levels, correlations, and potential health implications.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Flemming; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Husby, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Barington, Torben; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analysed in serum samples of pregnant women from Denmark to provide information about their exposure and to study indications of common exposure pathways. The main BDE congener was the fully brominated BDE-209 with a median value of 7.5 ng/g lipid (46 pg/mL; 9.8 pmol/g lipid). Other BDE congeners decreased in the order BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-153. The summed concentration of tri- to hepta-BDEs was 7.7 ng/g lipid, i.e. in the higher end of previously reported concentrations from Europe, including plasma samples of pregnant Danish women. Total lipid contents were relatively low, on average 5.9 g/L (9.0 mmol/L). The main PFAS compound was perfluorooctane sulfonate with a median concentration of 8.4 ng/mL. Other PFASs decreased in the order perfluorooctanoic acid > perfluorononanoic acid > perfluorodecanoic acid > perfluorohexane sulfonate and resulted in a ΣPFAS of 12 ng/mL. Within each group, compounds were highly intercorrelated with the exception of BDE-209, which was not correlated with any of the other compounds. No correlations were found either between PFASs and PBDEs suggesting different sources of exposure and/or pharmacokinetic and metabolisation processes. PBDE and PFAS concentrations were in the range associated with adverse effects in some epidemiological studies. PMID:24435476

  5. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN...

  7. Loss and in situ production of perfluoroalkyl chemicals in outdoor biosolids-soil mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-07-01

    An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the course of three years in biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to be the most abundant analyte found early in the soil weathering experiment at 24.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), followed by perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 18.4 and 17.4 ng/g dw, respectively. Short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C8) showed observable loss from biosolids/soil mixtures, with experimentally determined first-order half-lives in soil ranging from 385 to 866 days. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononaoate (PFNA) and PFUnDA levels in biosolids/soil mixtures remained stable, while other long-chain PFCAs [PFDA, perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA)] and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) levels increased over time, presumably due to the breakdown of unidentified precursors in a process analogous to that reported previously for wastewater treatment plants. This study informs risk assessment initiatives by furnishing data on the environmental persistence of PFASs while also constituting the first report on in situ production of long-chained PFASs in terrestrial environments. PMID:24834828

  8. Loss and in situ production of perfluoroalkyl chemicals in outdoor biosolids-soil mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the course of three years in biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to be the most abundant analyte found early in the soil weathering experiment at 24.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), followed by perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 18.4 and 17.4 ng/g dw, respectively. Short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C8) showed observable loss from biosolids/soil mixtures, with experimentally determined first-order half-lives in soil ranging from 385 to 866 days. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononaoate (PFNA) and PFUnDA levels in biosolids/soil mixtures remained stable, while other long-chain PFCAs [PFDA, perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA)] and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) levels increased over time, presumably due to the breakdown of unidentified precursors in a process analogous to that reported previously for wastewater treatment plants. This study informs risk assessment initiatives by furnishing data on the environmental persistence of PFASs while also constituting the first report on in situ production of long-chained PFASs in terrestrial environments. PMID:24834828

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acids : Recent activities and research progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of man-made fluorinated organic chemicals consisting of a carbon backbone typically of four to fourteen in length and a charged functional moiety (primarily carboxylate, sulfonate or phosphonate). The two most widely known PFAAs are ...

  10. Current Understanding of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-14 carbons in length) and an anionic head group (sulfonate, carboxylate or phosphonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and hav...

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. PMID:26722671

  12. The influence of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and chemical oxidant application on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) fate and transport.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Siegrist, Robert L; McCray, John E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2016-04-01

    One dimensional column experiments were conducted using saturated porous media containing residual trichloroethylene (TCE) to understand the effects of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and chemical oxidation on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) fate and transport. Observed retardation factors and data from supporting batch studies suggested that TCE provides additional sorption capacity that can increase PFAA retardation (i.e., decreased mobility), though the mechanisms remain unclear. Treatment with persulfate activated with FeCl2 and citric acid, catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (CHP), or permanganate did not result in oxidative transformations of PFAAs. However, impacts on PFAA sorption were apparent, and enhanced sorption was substantial in the persulfate-treated columns. In contrast, PFAA transport was accelerated in permanganate- and CHP-treated columns. Ultimately, PFAA transport in NAPL contaminated groundwater is likely influenced by porous media properties, NAPL characteristics, and water quality properties, each of which can change due to chemical oxidant treatment. For contaminated sites for which ISCO is a viable treatment option, changes to PFAA transport and the implications thereof should be included as a component of the remediation evaluation and selection process. PMID:26854608

  13. Perfluoroalkyl Cobalt(III) Fluoride and Bis(perfluoroalkyl) Complexes: Catalytic Fluorination and Selective Difluorocarbene Formation.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Matthew C; Bayne, Julia M; Lee, Graham M; Gorelsky, Serge I; Vasiliu, Monica; Korobkov, Ilia; Harrison, Daniel J; Dixon, David A; Baker, R Tom

    2015-12-30

    Four perfluoroalkyl cobalt(III) fluoride complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and powder X-ray diffraction. The remarkable cobalt fluoride (19)F NMR chemical shifts (-716 to -759 ppm) were studied computationally, and the contributing paramagnetic and diamagnetic factors were extracted. Additionally, the complexes were shown to be active in the catalytic fluorination of p-toluoyl chloride. Furthermore, two examples of cobalt(III) bis(perfluoroalkyl)complexes were synthesized and their reactivity studied. Interestingly, abstraction of a fluoride ion from these complexes led to selective formation of cobalt difluorocarbene complexes derived from the trifluoromethyl ligand. These electrophilic difluorocarbenes were shown to undergo insertion into the remaining perfluoroalkyl fragment, demonstrating the elongation of a perfluoroalkyl chain arising from a difluorocarbene insertion on a cobalt metal center. The reactions of both the fluoride and bis(perfluoroalkyl) complexes provide insight into the potential catalytic applications of these model systems to form small fluorinated molecules as well as fluoropolymers. PMID:26674217

  14. Changes in Serum Concentrations of Maternal Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances over the Course of Pregnancy and Predictors of Exposure in a Multiethnic Cohort of Cincinnati, Ohio Pregnant Women during 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Data on predictors of gestational exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the United States are limited. To fill in this gap, in a multiethnic cohort of Ohio pregnant women recruited in 2003–2006, we measured perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and six additional PFASs in maternal serum at ∼16 weeks gestation (N = 182) and delivery (N = 78), and in umbilical cord serum (N = 202). We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal serum PFASs concentrations and demographic, perinatal, and lifestyle factors. PFASs concentrations in maternal sera and in their infants’ cord sera were highly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficients = 0.73–0.95). In 71 maternal-infant dyads, unadjusted geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) (in μg/L) in maternal serum at delivery of PFOS [8.50 (7.01–9.58)] and PFOA [3.43 (3.01–3.90)] were significantly lower than at 16 weeks gestation [11.57 (9.90–13.53], 4.91 (4.32–5.59), respectively], but higher than in infants’ cord serum [3.32 (2.84–3.89), 2.85 (2.51–3.24), respectively] (P < 0.001). Women who were parous, with a history of previous breastfeeding, black, or in the lowest income category had significantly lower PFOS and PFOA GM concentrations than other women. These data suggest transplacental transfer of PFASs during pregnancy and nursing for the first time in a U.S. birth cohort. PMID:25026485

  15. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function among Children and Adolescents Living near a Chemical Plant

    PubMed Central

    Josson, Jyoti; Elston, Beth; Bartell, Scott M.; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M.; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been associated with decreased renal function in cross-sectional analyses, but the direction of the association is unclear. Objectives: We examined the association of measured and model-predicted serum PFOA concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a marker of kidney function, in a highly exposed population (median serum PFOA, 28.3 ng/mL). Methods: We measured serum creatinine, PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and calculated eGFR in 9,660 children 1 to < 18 years of age at study enrollment. We predicted concurrent and historical serum PFOA concentrations using a validated environmental, exposure, and pharmacokinetic model based on individual residential histories, and used linear regression to estimate the association between eGFR and measured and predicted serum PFOA concentrations. We hypothesized that predicted serum PFOA levels would be less susceptible to reverse causation than measured levels. Results: An interquartile range increase in measured serum PFOA concentrations [IQR ln(PFOA) = 1.63] was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 0.75 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: –1.41, –0.10; p = 0.02). Measured serum levels of PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS were also cross-sectionally associated with decreased eGFR. In contrast, predicted serum PFOA concentrations at the time of enrollment were not associated with eGFR (–0.10; 95% CI: –0.80, 0.60; p = 0.78). Additionally, predicted serum PFOA levels at birth and during the first ten years of life were not related to eGFR. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the cross-sectional association between eGFR and serum PFOA observed in this and prior studies may be a consequence of, rather than a cause of, decreased kidney function. PMID:23482063

  16. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluori...

  17. A facile synthesis of 5-(perfluoroalkyl)-pyrimidines.

    PubMed Central

    Cech, D; Wohlfeil, R; Etzold, G

    1975-01-01

    In the paper a synthetic two stage procedure is described for the preparation of perfluoroalkylated derivatives of uracil and its nucleosides. Using copper bronze a perfluoroalkyl-copper-complex is formed from perfluoralkyl iodides in polar aprotic solvents, such as DMSO, and under inert conditions. The reaction of this complex with uracil, uridine and 2-deoxyuridine leads to the corresponding 5-substituted perfluoralkyl derivatives. It is shown by mass spectra that the substitution always takes place at the 5-position of the pyrimidine. The chemical and physical properties of the formed compounds are described. PMID:1052538

  18. CHEMICAL VERSUS SERUM TREATMENT OF EPIDEMIC MENINGITIS.

    PubMed

    Flexner, S; Amoss, H L

    1916-05-01

    Claims of efficiency have been made at two widely separated periods for the chemical treatment of epidemic meningitis, in the first instance for lysol and in the second for protargol. The use of lysol was long since abandoned; the recommendation for protargol is based on a single series of cases, small in number. Because of the variable severity of epidemics of meningitis, small reliance can be placed on results of treatment limited in extent to small numbers of cases and to one locality. A more uniform and accurate measure of the value of a method of treatment is provided by animals infected experimentally with pathogenic cultures of meningococci. Young guinea pigs respond in a definite manner to intraperitoneal inoculation of virulent meningococci. Neither protargol nor lysol proved to have any curative action on the experimental infection thus produced in these animals. Monkeys respond in a characteristic manner to the inoculation of virulent cultures into the subarachnoid space. Protargol displayed no curative action on the experimental infection thus produced in these animals. On the contrary, both lysol and protargol exert antileukotactic and antiphagocytic effects, and are also potent protoplasmic poisons, and the leukocytes with which they come in contact are injured and made to degenerate. According to the extent to which these harmful properties are exerted, the chemicals promote the advance rather than restrain the progress of meningococcic infection. Recovery from meningococcic infection in man and animals is accomplished chiefly through the process of phagocytosis. The specific antiserum acts curatively by increasing the emigration of leukocytes, by promoting phagocytosis directly, and by agglutinating the meningococci, and also by neutralizing endotoxin. Any means which interfere with and reduce these essential processes retard or prevent recovery. Both lysol and protargol interfere with and diminish the emigration of leukocytes and the phagocytosis of meningococci, and neither possesses antitoxic power. The mixture of antiserum with lysol and with protargol reduces to a certain extent the antileukotactic and antiphagocytic effect of the chemicals; but this action is insufficient to set aside wholly the injurious effects which they produce. It follows, therefore, that whatever theoretical advantages might accrue from a bactericidal activity exerted by these chemicals independently of the type of meningococcus causing epidemic meningitis, is more than offset by the harmful effects which they cause. Hence specific antiserum seems to provide the logical therapeutic agent with which to combat epidemic meningitis, since it is itself innocuous and promotes those processes essential to recovery from the disease. The problem up to the present has been that of producing an antiserum which represents the several types of the meningococcus, and this problem is now in a fair way to being solved. PMID:19868017

  19. TOXICOGENOMIC DISSECTION OF RODENT LIVER TRANSCRIPT PROFILES AFTER EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) leads to alterations in the balance between hepatocyte growth and apoptosis, increases in liver to body weight ratios and liver tumors. The perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (...

  20. Prostate-Specific Antigen and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the C8 Health Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fan, Hongmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To inform questions raised by inconsistent findings regarding an association between perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and prostate cancer by assessing the relationship of PFAAs in human serum to prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Methods: Using 2005 to 2006 survey data from a large survey population, we compared serum PFAA concentrations in adult males with PSA concentrations adjusted for risk factors including age, body mass index, smoking status, and socioeconomic status. Results: Perfluoroalkyl acids are not consistently associated with PSA concentration in general, or with PSA more than 4.0. Discussion: These findings do not provide evidence that PFAA exposure is associated with PSA. PMID:25563548

  1. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed. PMID:26100734

  2. Chemical labelling of active serum thioester proteins for quantification

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Lotta; Ackland, Gareth L.; Edwards, Mark R.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Sim, Robert B.; Offer, John

    2012-01-01

    The complement serum proteins C3 and C4 and the protease inhibitor α-2 macroglobulin are all members of the C3/α-2M thioester protein family, an evolutionarily ancient and conserved family that contains an intrachain thioester bond. The chemistry of the thioester bond is a key to the function of the thioester proteins. All these proteins function by covalently linking to their target by acyl transfer of the protein via the thioester moiety. We show that the signature thioester bond can be targeted with nucleophiles linked to a bioreporter molecule, site-specifically modifying the whole, intact thioester protein. Conditions were optimised to label selectively and efficiently pull-down unprocessed thioester-containing proteins from serum. We demonstrated pull-down of full-length C3, α-2M and C4 from sera in high salt, using a biotinylated nucleophile and streptavidin-coated resin, confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS identification of the gel bands. The potential for the development of a quantitative method for measuring active C3 in serum was investigated in patient sera pre and post operation. Quantifying active C3 in clinical assays using current methods is difficult. Methods based on antibody detection (e.g. nephelometry) do not distinguish between active C3 and inactive breakdown products. C3-specific haemolytic assays can be used, but these require use of relatively unstable reagents. The current work represents a promising robust, enzyme- and antibody-free chemical method for detecting active thioester proteins in blood, plasma or serum. PMID:21852021

  3. Aromatic and heterocyclic perfluoroalkyl sulfides. Methods of preparation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary This review covers all of the common methods for the syntheses of aromatic and heterocyclic perfluoroalkyl sulfides, a class of compounds which is finding increasing application as starting materials for the preparation of agrochemicals, pharmaceutical products and, more generally, fine chemicals. A systematic approach is taken depending on the mode of incorporation of the SRF groups and also on the type of reagents used. PMID:20978611

  4. Do Perfluoroalkyl Compounds Impair Human Semen Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Bossi, Rossana; Leffers, Henrik; Jensen, Allan Astrup; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Jørgensen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in wildlife and humans and are suspected to act as endocrine disruptors. There are no previous reports of PFAA levels in adult men from Denmark or of a possible association between semen quality and PFAA exposure. Objectives We investigated possible associations between PFAAs and testicular function. We hypothesized that higher PFAA levels would be associated with lower semen quality and lower testosterone levels. Methods We analyzed serum samples for levels of 10 different PFAAs and reproductive hormones and assessed semen quality in 105 Danish men from the general population (median age, 19 years). Results Considerable levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were found in all young men (medians of 24.5, 4.9, and 6.6 ng/mL, respectively). Men with high combined levels of PFOS and PFOA had a median of 6.2 million normal spermatozoa in their ejaculate in contrast to 15.5 million among men with low PFOS–PFOA (p = 0.030). In addition, we found nonsignificant trends with regard to lower sperm concentration, lower total sperm counts, and altered pituitary–gonadal hormones among men with high PFOS–PFOA levels. Conclusion High PFAA levels were associated with fewer normal sperm. Thus, high levels of PFAAs may contribute to the otherwise unexplained low semen quality often seen in young men. However, our findings need to be corroborated in larger studies. PMID:19590684

  5. Perfluoroalkyl polytriazines containing pendent iododifluoromethyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Psarras, T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    New perfluoroalkyl polytriazines containing pendent iododifluoromethyl groups are prepared by the reaction of perfluoroalkyl dinitriles with ammonia to form poly(imidoylamidines), followed by the cyclization of the imidoylamidine groups with, e.g., various mixtures of a perfluoroacyl fluoride with an omega iodoperfluoroacyl fluoride. The polytriazines obtained can be cured by heat which causes crosslinking at the iododifluoromethyl groups by elimination of iodine and formation of carbon-to-carbon bonds.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Robert C; Franklin, James; Berger, Urs; Conder, Jason M; Cousins, Ian T; de Voogt, Pim; Jensen, Allan Astrup; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Mabury, Scott A; van Leeuwen, Stefan PJ

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to provide an overview of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, and recommend clear, specific, and descriptive terminology, names, and acronyms for PFASs. The overarching objective is to unify and harmonize communication on PFASs by offering terminology for use by the global scientific, regulatory, and industrial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, substances related to the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, and substances intended as alternatives to the use of the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids or their precursors. First, we define PFASs, classify them into various families, and recommend a pragmatic set of common names and acronyms for both the families and their individual members. Terminology related to fluorinated polymers is an important aspect of our classification. Second, we provide a brief description of the 2 main production processes, electrochemical fluorination and telomerization, used for introducing perfluoroalkyl moieties into organic compounds, and we specify the types of byproducts (isomers and homologues) likely to arise in these processes. Third, we show how the principal families of PFASs are interrelated as industrial, environmental, or metabolic precursors or transformation products of one another. We pay particular attention to those PFASs that have the potential to be converted, by abiotic or biotic environmental processes or by human metabolism, into long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic or sulfonic acids, which are currently the focus of regulatory action. The Supplemental Data lists 42 families and subfamilies of PFASs and 268 selected individual compounds, providing recommended names and acronyms, and structural formulas, as well as Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2011;7:513–541. © 2011 SETAC PMID:21793199

  7. Isomer profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in water and soil surrounding a chinese fluorochemical manufacturing park.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hangbiao; Zhang, Yifeng; Zhu, Lingyan; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-04-21

    Despite that China is the largest global manufacturer of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the manufacturing methods and isomer purity of these chemicals are generally unknown. Here, sampling was conducted around a major fluorochemical manufacturing park in China in 2012, including soil and water collection inside the park, including from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as in surrounding rivers and soil (∼15 km radius). Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were lower than perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in all samples, and short-chain (C4-C6) PFCAs were predominant. Perfluoroalkyl phosphonates and phosphate diesters were occasionally detected, but at low detection frequency. Branched isomers of perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) are reported for the first time, accounting for 15-27% of total PFBS in water. An enrichment of isopropyl-PFOA (28%) was found in WWTP influent, suggesting its manufacturing primarily by isopropyl telomerization. More numerous branched isomers were observed for the longer C9-C13 PFCAs (e.g., C12 PFCA had 16 branched isomers), including high proportions of one major branched isomer (likely isopropyl), possibly as impurities from isopropyl-PFOA manufacturing. Overall, short-chain perfluorinated acids were the predominant PFASs being released, but PFOA was still a major chemical in use at this site, primarily from isopropyl telomerization. PMID:25798817

  8. Cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Zhang, Xianming; Guo, Rui; Braekevelt, Eric; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Reiner, Eric J; Lee, Holly; Bronson, Roni; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. Cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. Similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. We examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broiling, and frying) on reducing PFAS levels in four sport fish species. Samples of Chinook salmon, common carp, lake trout and walleye were collected from four rivers in Ontario, Canada and skin-off fillets were analyzed for regular groups of PFASs such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), which are PFASs of emerging concern. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS detected and the concentrations were more than an order of magnitude higher than those reported for fish from grocery stores in Canada, Spain, and China. Although concentrations of PFOS in fish fillets generally increase after cooking, amounts of PFOS largely remain unchanged. Relatively minor differences in changes in the fish PFAS amounts after cooking depended on fish species and cooking method used. We conclude that cooking sport fish is generally not an effective approach to reduce dietary exposure to PFASs, especially PFOS. PMID:24561272

  9. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the Serum and Milk of Breastfeeding Women.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) comprise a group of man-made organic compounds, some of which are persistent contaminants with developmental toxicity shown in laboratory animals. There is a paucity of human perinatal exposure data. The US EPA conducted a pilot study (Methods Adv...

  10. Level and temporal trend of perfluoroalkyl acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    PubMed Central

    Long, Manhai; Bossi, Rossana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected in human blood, breast milk and umbilical cord blood across the globe. PFAAs do accumulate in the marine food chain in Arctic regions. In Greenland, increasing PFAA concentrations were observed during 1982–2006 in ringed seals and polar bears. However, until now, no data have been reported for PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. This study assesses the level and temporal trend of serum PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. Study design Cross-section and temporal time trend survey. Methods Serum PFAA levels were determined in 284 Inuit from different Greenlandic districts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The temporal time trend of serum PFAAs in Nuuk Inuit during 1998–2005 and the correlation between serum PFAAs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were explored. Results Serum PFAA levels were higher in Nuuk Inuit than in non-Nuuk Inuit. Within the same district, higher PFAA levels were observed for males. An age-dependent, increasing trend of serum PFAA levels in the period from 1998–2005 was observed for Nuuk Inuit. For the pooled gender data, no significant association between PFAAs and legacy POPs was observed for Nuuk Inuit while for non-Nuuk Inuit this correlation was significant. No correlation between PFAAs and legacy POPs was found for male Inuit, whereas significant correlation was observed both for pooled female Inuit and for non-Nuuk Inuit females. Conclusions We suggest that sources other than seafood intake might contribute to the observed higher PFAA levels in Nuuk Inuit compared to the pooled non-Nuuk Inuit.1 PMID:22456049

  11. Accumulation potentials of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Krippner, Johanna; Falk, Sandy; Brunn, Hubertus; Georgii, Sebastian; Schubert, Sven; Stahl, Thorsten

    2015-04-15

    Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by maize represents a potential source of exposure for humans, either directly or indirectly via feed for animals raised for human consumption. The aim of the following study was, therefore, to determine the accumulation potential of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays). Two different concentrations of PFAAs were applied as aqueous solution to the soil to attain target concentrations of 0.25 mg or 1.00 mg of PFAA per kg of soil. Maize was grown in pots, and after harvesting, PFAA concentrations were measured in the straw and kernels of maize. PFCA and PFSA concentrations of straw decreased significantly with increasing chain length. In maize kernels, only PFCAs with a chain length ≤ C8 as well as perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) were detected. The highest soil-to-plant transfer for both straw and kernels was determined for short-chained PFCAs and PFSAs. PMID:25815603

  12. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in wildlife from an urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Margaret D; Greig, Denise J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in apex predators in remote locations but few studies have evaluated urban estuaries. To assess the importance of PFCs in San Francisco Bay, two apex predators in the San Francisco Bay, double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii), were sampled. Prey fish (Atherinops affinis and Menidia audens) were also evaluated to better understand potential sources of PFCs to the foodweb. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the primary PFC detected in cormorant eggs, small fish and harbor seal serum. PFOS detected in San Francisco Bay seal serum was typically an order of magnitude higher than those at the reference site. PFOS concentrations were highest in seals and cormorant eggs from the highly urbanized southern portion of the Bay. PFOS in eggs from the southern part of the Bay remained relatively constant between 2006 and 2009 despite the phase-out of perfluorosulfonyl-based compounds nationally. In addition, these levels exceed the avian predicted no effects concentration of 1.0 μg mL(-1). Concentrations of the remaining PFCs measured were substantially lower than those of PFOS. PMID:22134832

  13. Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Thyroid Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S.; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74 years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  14. Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2015-02-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acids: recent research highlights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds are organic chemicals in which all hydrogen molecules of the carbon-chain are substituted by fluorine molecules. Generally, there are two types of perfluorinated compounds, the perfluoroalkanes that are primarily used clinically for oxygenation and respir...

  16. Selected physicochemical aspects of poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances relevant to performance, environment and sustainability-part one.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Marie Pierre; Riess, Jean G

    2015-06-01

    The elemental characteristics of the fluorine atom tell us that replacing an alkyl chain by a perfluoroalkyl or polyfluorinated chain in a molecule or polymer is consequential. A brief reminder about perfluoroalkyl chains, fluorocarbons and fluorosurfactants is provided. The outstanding, otherwise unattainable physicochemical properties and combinations thereof of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are outlined, including extreme hydrophobic and lipophobic character; thermal and chemical stability in extreme conditions; remarkable aptitude to self-assemble into sturdy thin repellent protecting films; unique spreading, dispersing, emulsifying, anti-adhesive and levelling, dielectric, piezoelectric and optical properties, leading to numerous industrial and technical uses and consumer products. It was eventually discovered, however, that PFASs with seven or more carbon-long perfluoroalkyl chains had disseminated in air, water, soil and biota worldwide, are persistent in the environment and bioaccumulative in animals and humans, raising serious health and environmental concerns. Further use of long-chain PFASs is environmentally not sustainable. Most leading manufacturers have turned to shorter four to six carbon perfluoroalkyl chain products that are not considered bioaccumulative. However, many of the key performances of PFASs decrease sharply when fluorinated chains become shorter. Fluorosurfactants become less effective and less efficient, provide lesser barrier film stability, etc. On the other hand, they remain as persistent in the environment as their longer chain homologues. Surprisingly little data (with considerable discrepancies) is accessible on the physicochemical properties of the PFASs under examination, a situation that requires consideration and rectification. Such data are needed for understanding the environmental and in vivo behaviour of PFASs. They should help determine which, for which uses, and to what extent, PFASs are environmentally sustainable. PMID:25245564

  17. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Mixtures in CD-1 Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) belong to a family of fluoro-organic compounds known as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). PFAAs have been widely used in industrial and commercial applications, and have been found to be...

  18. THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Perfluoroalkyl acids such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have applications in numerous industrial and consumer products. Although the toxicology of some of these compounds has been investigated in the past, the widespread pr...

  19. Polymerizable disilanols having in-chain perfluoroalkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.; Morris, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Disilanols containing in-chain perfluoroalkyl and aromatic groups and the process by which they were prepared are discussed. The disilanols, when reacted with a diaminosilane and cured, produce polymeric material resistant to hydrocarbon fuels and stable at elevated temperatures.

  20. Phlebotomy Treatment for Elimination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in a Highly Exposed Family: A Retrospective Case-Series

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Liu, Yanna; Genuis, Quentin I. T.; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of commonly used synthetic chemicals that have become widespread environmental contaminants. In human serum, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perflurooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are most frequently detected, in part owing to their long elimination half-lives of between 3.8 yrs (PFOA) and 8.5 yrs (PFHxS). These PFAAs also cross the placenta and have been associated with developmental toxicity, and some are considered likely human carcinogens. Interventions to eliminate PFAAs in highly contaminated individuals would reduce future health risks, but minimal research has been conducted on methods to facilitate accelerated human clearance of these persistent substances. Methods Six patients with elevated serum concentrations from a single family were treated by intermittent phlebotomy over a 4–5 year period at intervals similar to, or less frequent than what is done for routine blood donation at Canadian Blood Services. The apparent elimination half-life (HLapp) for PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in this treated population was calculated in each patient and compared to the intrinsic elimination half-lives (HLin) from a literature reference population of untreated fluorochemical manufacturing plant retirees (n = 26, age >55 yrs). Results For all three PFAAs monitored during phlebotomy, HLapp in each of the family members (except the mother, who had a low rate of venesection) was significantly shorter than the geometric mean HL measured in the reference population, and in some cases were even shorter compared to the fastest eliminator in the reference population. Conclusion This study suggests significantly accelerated PFAA clearance with regular phlebotomy treatment, but the small sample size and the lack of controls in this clinical intervention precludes drawing firm conclusions. Given the minimal risks of intermittent phlebotomy, this may be an effective and safe clinical intervention to diminish the body burden of PFAAs in highly exposed people. PMID:25504057

  1. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  2. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Schlummer, Martin; Fiedler, Dominik

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6-C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4-C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m(2) PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m(2) PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m(2)). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products. PMID:25854201

  3. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K; Hedge, Joan M; Wood, Charles E; McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Herr, David W

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long-Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. PMID:25497286

  4. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  5. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  6. Retinyl. beta. -glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl ..beta..-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl ..beta..-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl ..beta..-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (..gamma../sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), /sup 1/H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial ..beta..-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl ..beta..-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method.

  7. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Virginia C.; McMahen, Rebecca L.; Strynar, Mark J.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics differed with acute and repeated administration.

  8. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2016-05-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)) was studied in sewage sludge samples. Sorption isotherms were obtained by varying initial concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS. The maximum values of the sorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,max) varied by almost two orders of magnitude among the target PFASs: 140-281 mL g(-1) for PFOS, 30-54 mL g(-1) for PFOA and 9-18 mL g(-1) for PFBS. Freundlich and linear fittings were appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of PFASs in the sludge samples, and the derived KF and Kd,linear parameters correlated well. The hydrophobicity of the PFASs was the key parameter that influenced their sorption in sewage sludge. Sorption parameters and log(KOW) were correlated, and for PFOS (the most hydrophobic compound), pH and Ca + Mg status of the sludge controlled the variation in the sorption parameter values. Sorption reversibility was also tested from desorption isotherms, which were also linear. Desorption parameters were systematically higher than the corresponding sorption parameters (up to sixfold higher), thus indicating a significant degree of irreversible sorption, which decreased in the sequence PFOS > PFOA > PFBS. PMID:26780052

  9. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  10. Promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Abby D; Orner, Gayle A; Buchner, Clarissa H; Hendricks, Jerry D; Duffy, Aaron M; Williams, David E

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))- and/or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB(1)-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2. PMID:21984479

  11. Promotion of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Abby D.; Orner, Gayle A.; Buchner, Clarissa H.; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Duffy, Aaron M.; Williams, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)- and/or N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB1-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2. PMID:21984479

  12. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromchemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  13. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. Results Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log–transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: –87 g (95% CI: –137, –340 per 1.70 ng/mL), –43 g (95% CI: –108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and –135 g (95% CI: –192, –78 per 1.82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: –5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). Conclusions This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth. These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. Citation Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts: multi-pollutant models based on elastic net regression. Environ Health Perspect 124:365–372; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408933 PMID:26115335

  14. Environmental-Fate Patterns for Perfluoroalkylates and their Precursors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two sites with elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkylates (PFAs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were studied: 1) agricultural fields near Decatur, AL on which sewage sludge had been applied; and 2) the Conasauga River system near Dalton, GA where treated sewage effluent is...

  15. Simultaneous Measurement of Serum Chemical Castration Agents and Testosterone Levels Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Jeon, Sun-Hee; Song, Sang Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jin Young; In, Moon Kyo; Song, Junghan

    2016-05-01

    Chemical castration involves administration of drugs to prevent pathological sexual behavior, reduce abnormal sexual drive and treat hormone-dependent cancers. Various drugs have been used for chemical castration; however, substantial interindividual variability and side effects are often observed. In this study, we proposed a useful monitoring method for the application of chemical castration agents using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Testosterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate and triptorelin acetate were analyzed by UPLC-MS-MS. The target drugs were extracted from serum samples by double protein precipitation using methanol. Testosterone-1,2-d2 and buserelin acetate were used as internal standards. Parameters of analytical performance were evaluated, including imprecision, linearity, ion suppression and detection capabilities. Testosterone measurements were compared with the results of immunoassays. Serum specimens from 51 subjects who underwent chemical castration were analyzed. All drugs and testosterone were well extracted and separated using our method. The method was essentially free from potential interferences and ion suppression. Within-run and between-run imprecision values were <15%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.125 and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL for testosterone and other drugs, respectively. Good correlations with pre-existing immunoassays for testosterone measurement were observed. Sera from subjects who underwent androgen deprivation therapy showed variable levels of drugs. We successfully developed a UPLC-MS-MS-based monitoring method for chemical castration. The performance of our method was generally acceptable. This method may provide a novel monitoring strategy for chemical castration to enhance expected effects while reducing unwanted side effects. PMID:26989223

  16. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  17. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  18. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = −0.261 to −0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = −0.229 to −0.165 for T3; r = −0.293 to −0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  19. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  20. The Presence of Tumour Specific Membrane Antigen in the Serum of Rats with Chemically Induced Sarcomata

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D. M. P.; Steele, K.; Alexander, P.

    1973-01-01

    Antibodies to the tumour-specific transplantation type antigen (TSTA) of a transplanted methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma (MC-1) in syngeneic rats were studied using the techniques of indirect membrane immunofluorescence and mixed haemadsorption with a 51Cr-labelled indicator cell. After tumour excision, anti-TSTA antibody was readily measurable in both serum and lymph. In contrast, the tumour-bearing animal had no measurable anti-TSTA antibody in the serum but low titres in the lymph. Consequently, we formed the hypothesis that in the presence of a growing tumour the serum contained antigen-antibody complexes with antigen in excess. To test this hypothesis, tumour-bearing serum was examined for the presence of free antigen and antigen-antibody complexes by 2 different methods. In the first method, tumour-bearing serum was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and was found to absorb specifically the anti-TSTA antibody, indicating free circulating TSTA. Next, antigen-antibody complexes were split with salt or acid and separated into a low molecular weight (or “antigen”) fraction (<100,000) and a high molecular weight (or “antibody”) fraction (>100,000). The low M.W. fraction specifically inhibited the anti-TSTA antibody when tested by either membrane immunofluorescence or mixed haemadsorption, indicating the presence of antigen from antigen-antibody complexes in the tumour-bearing circulation. The possible effect on the host's immune response of circulating free tumour antigen and antigen-antibody complexes are discussed. PMID:4568460

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPA METHOD FOR PERFLUOROALKYL COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past five years, perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in water have become an emerging environmental issue. This research focuses on the development of an analytical method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl compounds in drinking water to be used by EPA's Office of Grou...

  2. African yam bean hull chemical composition and its effects on rat's mineral retention, serum biochemical components and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, S O; Longe, O G

    1998-04-01

    The influence of yam bean hull on rat's mineral metabolism, serum composition and enzymatic activities was investigated. The chemical composition of the bean's hull shows a reasonably high crude protein (11.4%) but very low contents of crude fat (2.6%), phytic acid (82 mg/100 g) and phytin-phosphorus (23 mg/100 g). K and Ca are the major minerals present in yam bean hull. The hull, rich in cell wall polysaccharides, is composed of cellulose (35.4%), non-cellulose fractions made of pectin and hemicellulose put together (41.9%) and lignin (3.6%). The growth and feed conversion efficiency of rats fed yam bean hull diet were significantly better than rats fed pure cellulose and cellulose-free diets. Conversely, the metabolizable energy of yam bean hull diet (16.4 MJ/kg) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of either cellulose-free (17.8 MJ/kg) or pure cellulose diet (17 MJ/kg). The retention of the minerals examined, except for Ca, was lower when the hull was included in diet as compared to the control (fibre-free) diet. The fibre containing diets decreased serum cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Yam bean hull had no effect on packed cell volume and serum total protein. PMID:9631372

  3. Chemical and cytokine features of innate immunity characterize serum and tissue profiles in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Charles G.; Mangerich, Aswin; Zeng, Yu; Raczynski, Arkadiusz R.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Kang, Pilsoo; Ye, Wenjie; Prestwich, Erin G.; Lu, Kun; Wishnok, John S.; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Fox, James G.; Dedon, Peter C.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises from inappropriate activation of the mucosal immune system resulting in a state of chronic inflammation with causal links to colon cancer. Helicobacter hepaticus-infected Rag2−/− mice emulate many aspects of human IBD, and our recent work using this experimental model highlights the importance of neutrophils in the pathology of colitis. To define molecular mechanisms linking colitis to the identity of disease biomarkers, we performed a translational comparison of protein expression and protein damage products in tissues of mice and human IBD patients. Analysis in inflamed mouse colons identified the neutrophil- and macrophage-derived damage products 3-chlorotyrosine (Cl-Tyr) and 3-nitrotyrosine, both of which increased with disease duration. Analysis also revealed higher Cl-Tyr levels in colon relative to serum in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. The DNA chlorination damage product, 5-chloro-2′-deoxycytidine, was quantified in diseased human colon samples and found to be present at levels similar to those in inflamed mouse colons. Multivariate analysis of these markers, together with serum proteins and cytokines, revealed a general signature of activated innate immunity in human IBD. Signatures in ulcerative colitis sera were strongly suggestive of neutrophil activity, and those in Crohn disease and mouse sera were suggestive of both macrophage and neutrophil activity. These data point to innate immunity as a major determinant of serum and tissue profiles and provide insight into IBD disease processes. PMID:23754421

  4. Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Naila; Chen, Aimin; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Ebert, James R.; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are detectable in the serum of 95% of the U.S. population. Objective Considering the role of PFASs as endocrine disruptors, we examined their relationships with bone health. Methods The association between serum PFAS concentration and bone mineral density at total femur (TFBMD), femoral neck (FNBMD), lumbar spine (LSBMD), and physician-diagnosed osteoporosis was assessed in 1,914 participants using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009–2010. Results The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Men had higher serum PFAS concentrations than women (p < 0.001) except for PFNA. In both sexes, serum PFOS concentrations were inversely associated with FNBMD (p < 0.05). In women, significant negative associations were observed for natural log (ln)–transformed PFOS exposure with TFBMD and FNBMD, and for ln-transformed PFOA exposure with TFBMD (p < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, serum PFOS was negatively associated with TFBMD and FNBMD, and PFNA was negatively associated with TFBMD, FNBMD, and LSBMD (all p < 0.05). With one log unit increase in serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA, osteoporosis prevalence in women increased as follows: [adjusted odds ratios (aORs)] 1.84 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.905), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.38), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.05), respectively. In women, the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA, with aORs of 2.59 (95% CI: 1.01, 6.67), 13.20 (95% CI: 2.72, 64.15), and 3.23 (95% CI: 1.44, 7.21), respectively, based on 77 cases in the study sample. Conclusion In a representative sample of the U.S. adult population, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density, which varied according to the specific PFAS and bone site assessed. Most associations were limited to women. Osteoporosis in women was also associated with PFAS exposure, based on a small number of cases. Citation Khalil N, Chen A, Lee M, Czerwinski SA, Ebert JR, DeWitt JC, Kannan K. 2016. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances, bone mineral density, and osteoporosis in the U.S. population in NHANES 2009–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:81–87; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307909 PMID:26058082

  5. Hydrophobicity of perfluoroalkyl isocyanate monolayers on oxidized aluminum surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Atsushi; Kim, Bokyung; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2009-06-16

    Perfluoroalkyl isocyanate-derived monolayers were prepared on oxidized aluminum surfaces by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl isocyanate (CF(3)[CF(2)](7)CH(2)CH(2)N horizontal lineC horizontal lineO, i.e., R(F)-NCO). Two types of oxidized aluminum substrates were studied: electrochemically polished aluminum plates (Al(Al(2))(O(3))) and Al(Al(2))(O(3)) that was treated with boiling water ((BW)Al(Al(2))(O(3))). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that this CVD method produces a monolayer with a thickness of approximately 1.2 nm on Al(Al(2))(O(3)) through a carbamate linkage without discernible change in surface morphology. After monolayer deposition, hydrophilic Al(Al(2))(O(3)) surfaces become hydrophobic. Advancing and receding water contact angles are theta(A)/theta(R) = 125 degrees /103 degrees . AFM indicates that (BW)Al(Al(2))(O(3)) surfaces contain 10-15-nm-size pebble-like features. This is due to both chemical and physical erosion of the aluminum surface caused by the boiling water treatment. Due to the presence of these topographical features, the CVD of R(F)-NCO on (BW)Al(Al(2))(O(3)) induces superhydrophobicity (theta(A)/theta(R) = 167 degrees /165 degrees ). Al(Al(2))(O(3)) and (BW)Al(Al(2))(O(3)) based "control surfaces" were prepared with the conventional mono- and trifunctional organosilanes, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyldimethylchlorosilane (CF(3)[CF(2)](7)CH(2)CH(2)Si[CH(3)](2)Cl, R(F)-SiMe(2)Cl) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (CF(3)[CF(2)](7)CH(2)CH(2)Si[OCH(3)](3), R(F)-Si[OMe](3)) for comparison. In the case of R(F)-Si(OMe)(3), the theta(A)/theta(R) values for Al(Al(2))(O(3)) and (BW)Al(Al(2))(O(3)) are 125 degrees /110 degrees and 170 degrees /167 degrees , respectively. R(F)-SiMe(2)Cl-treated aluminum surfaces are much less hydrophobic. The theta(A)/theta(R) values for Al(Al(2))(O(3)) and (BW)Al(Al(2))(O(3)) are 107 degrees /69 degrees and 137 degrees /87 degrees , respectively. XPS analysis of surface coverage is consistent with the contact angle behavior and the water sensitivity. Stability of these three monolayers in water is in the order: R(F)-Si(OMe)(3) > R(F)-NCO > R(F)-SiMe(2)Cl. PMID:19432482

  6. Major perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations and influence of food consumption among the general population of Daegu, Korea.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim; Sakong, Joon; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been used in various industrial and consumer products for decades, and have consequently been detected in human blood worldwide. In the present study, general adult population in Daegu, Korea (n=140, >20 years of old) was recruited, collected for serum, and analyzed for 13 major PFAAs. The influence of dietary and water consumption on serum PFAA levels was also evaluated. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were frequently detected with relatively higher concentrations in blood serum. Most PFAA concentrations except for PFOA were detected in higher concentrations among males, and were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). PFOA concentrations were relatively higher among the female of childbearing age, e.g., 20-49years old, raising concerns on potential impacts on fetus through transplacental transfer or lactation. In addition, the concentrations of PFOA in Daegu population were higher than other areas of Korea, suggesting a presence of distinctive sources in the area. Among food items, potato consumption was identified to be significant contributor to serum PFOA. For PFUnDA and PFTrDA levels, intake of fish/shellfish was positively associated. The results of this study will be useful in developing public health management options for PFAAs. PMID:22964400

  7. Differential accumulation and elimination behavior of perfluoroalkyl Acid isomers in occupational workers in a manufactory in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Fu, Jianjie; Cao, Huiming; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Liang, Yong; Wang, Thanh; Zhao, Chunyan; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, serum and urine samples were collected from 36 occupational workers in a fluorochemical manufacturing plant in China from 2008 to 2012 to evaluate the body burden and possible elimination of linear and branched perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Indoor dust, total suspended particles (TSP), diet, and drinking water samples were also collected to trace the occupational exposure pathway to PFAA isomers. The geometric mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in the serum were 1386, 371, and 863 ng mL(-1), respectively. The linear isomer of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS was the most predominant PFAA in the serum, with mean proportions of 63.3, 91.1, and 92.7% respectively, which were higher than the proportions in urine. The most important exposure routes to PFAA isomers in the occupational workers were considered to be the intake of indoor dust and TSP. A renal clearance estimation indicated that branched PFAA isomers had a higher renal clearance rate than did the corresponding linear isomers. Molecular docking modeling implied that linear PFOS (n-PFOS) had a stronger interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) than branched isomers did, which could decrease the proportion of n-PFOS in the blood of humans via the transport of HSA. PMID:25927957

  8. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  9. A class of effective decarboxylative perfluoroalkylating reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangjie; Ajitha, Manjaly J; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Zhongxing; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-28

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded air-stable copper(i) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate perfluoroalkylation. PMID:27114043

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and ovarian hormone concentrations in naturally cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Chen, Chongshu; Thurston, Sally W.; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Fjeldheim, Frøydis Nyborg; Frydenberg, Hanne; Lipson, Susan F.; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between environmental exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and ovarian hormone concentrations in naturally cycling women. Design Estradiol and progesterone were measured in saliva samples collected daily for a single menstrual cycle and concentrations of PFASs (including perfluoroctane sulfonate [PFOS] and perfluoroctanoic acid [PFOA]) were measured in serum samples collected during the same cycle. Setting Tromsø, Norway. Patients 178 healthy, naturally cycling women, ages 25-35. Intervention None. Main outcome measures(s) Mean follicular estradiol (cycle days −7 to −1, where 0 is the day of ovulation); mean luteal progesterone (cycle days +2 to 10). Results Among nulliparous, but not parous women, PFOS concentrations were inversely associated with estradiol (β=−0.025, 95% CI: −0.043, −0.007) and progesterone (β=−0.027, 95% CI: −0.048, −0.007). Similar, but weaker results were observed for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOSA). No associations were observed between other PFASs (including PFOA) and ovarian steroid concentrations, nor were any associations noted in parous women. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that PFOS and PFOSA may be associated with decreased production of estradiol and progesterone in reproductive age women. These results suggest a possible mechanism by which PFASs affect women's health, and underscore the importance of parity in research on PFASs and women's reproductive health. PMID:25747128

  11. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

  12. Patterns of clinical bioindicators in rat serum following acute exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is interest in bioindicators of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. Chemically-induced neurological effects may be reflected in specific neuronal changes and/or by general stress-like responses, and such bioindicators may be useful for measurin...

  13. Identification of Chemical Constituents in the Extract and Rat Serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Yanan; Li, Xia; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has long been widely used for human consumption and medicinal purposes in China. It has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. However, the systematic study on the chemical constituents absorbed into plasma and their metabolites is still insufficient.A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization ion-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n)) method was established to analyze the ethanol extract in Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the constituents absorbed into rat serum. In the present study, a dose of 10 mL/Kg of ethanol extract of jujube, which is equivalent to 12.5 g crude dried herb/Kg, was orally administrated to rats. The main components were analyzed in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the parent constituents and metabolites were studied in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the ethanol extract of jujube.D101 macroporous polystyrene resin was a good pretreatment method to obtain better separation and impurity removal effect. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Four parent compounds and four metabolites were detected in rat serum. Among them, seventeen compounds were reported for the first time. PMID:25276208

  14. Identification of Chemical Constituents in the Extract and Rat Serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Yanan; Li, Xia; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has long been widely used for human consumption and medicinal purposes in China. It has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. However, the systematic study on the chemical constituents absorbed into plasma and their metabolites is still insufficient.A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization ion-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn) method was established to analyze the ethanol extract in Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the constituents absorbed into rat serum. In the present study, a dose of 10 mL/Kg of ethanol extract of jujube, which is equivalent to 12.5 g crude dried herb/Kg, was orally administrated to rats. The main components were analyzed in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the parent constituents and metabolites were studied in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the ethanol extract of jujube.D101 macroporous polystyrene resin was a good pretreatment method to obtain better separation and impurity removal effect. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Four parent compounds and four metabolites were detected in rat serum. Among them, seventeen compounds were reported for the first time. PMID:25276208

  15. Predicting binding affinities of diverse pharmaceutical chemicals to human serum plasma proteins using QSPR modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Basant, N; Gupta, S; Singh, K P

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of the plasma protein binding (PPB) affinity of chemicals is of paramount significance in the drug development process. In this study, ensemble machine learning-based QSPR models have been established for a four-category classification and PPB affinity prediction of diverse compounds using a large PPB dataset of 930 compounds and in accordance with the OECD guidelines. The structural diversity of the chemicals was tested by the Tanimoto similarity index. The external predictive power of the developed QSPR models was evaluated through internal and external validations. In the QSPR models, XLogP was the most important descriptor. In the test data, the classification QSPR models rendered an accuracy of >93%, while the regression QSPR models yielded r(2) of >0.920 between the measured and predicted PPB affinities, with the root mean squared error <9.77. Values of statistical coefficients derived for the test data were above their threshold limits, thus put a high confidence in this analysis. The QSPR models in this study performed better than any of the previous studies. The results suggest that the developed QSPR models are reliable for predicting the PPB affinity of structurally diverse chemicals. They can be useful for initial screening of candidate molecules in the drug development process. PMID:26854728

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; Mikkelsen, Bjørg; Dam, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crème fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds. PMID:23589272

  17. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish.

  18. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761

  19. Laboratory studies on the fate of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates during snowmelt.

    PubMed

    Plassmann, Merle M; Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S; Berger, Urs

    2011-08-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are anthropogenic chemicals that occur in snow from both remote and source regions. Experiments were conducted to determine how PFAAs are released from a melting snowpack. Different PFAAs eluted from the snowpack at different times, those with short chains eluting early, those with long chains eluting late. The concentrations in the meltwater of PFAAs with medium chain lengths of 6 to 9 perfluorinated carbon atoms first increased and then decreased during the melt period. Such a peak elution had not been previously observed for any other chemicals. The specific snow surface area (SSA) influenced this elution type, with peak concentrations occurring earlier in a snowpack with lower SSA. Model simulations suggested that the snow surface decrease during the melt alone was insufficient to explain the observations. It was ruled out that the calcium concentration affected PFAA sorption to the snow surface in a similar way as sorption to sediments. Adsorption coefficients of PFAAs to the snow surface were estimated by fitting the measured and modeled elution profiles. PMID:21740009

  20. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. PMID:24275109

  1. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  2. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation. PMID:23171052

  3. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in a food web from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan W; Whittle, D Michael; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2004-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated acid detectable in humans and wildlife worldwide that has alerted scientists to examine the environmental fate of other fluorinated organic contaminants. Recently a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) was detected in the Arctic, yet little is known about their sources, breadth of contamination, or environmental distribution. In this study we analyzed for PFOS, the homologous series of PFCAs ranging from 8 to 15 carbons in chain length, and the PFOS-precursor heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in various organisms from a food web of Lake Ontario. The sampled organisms included a top predator fish, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), three forage fish species including rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and two invertebrates Diporeia (Diporeia hoyi) and Mysis (Mysis relicta). A striking finding was that the highest mean concentration for each fluorinated contaminantwas detected in the benthic macroinvertebrate Diporeia, which occupies the lowest trophic level of all organisms analyzed. Perfluorinated acid concentrations in Diporeia were often 10-fold higher than in Mysis, a predominantly pelagic feeder, suggesting that a major source of perfluoroalkyl contaminants to this food web was the sediment, not the water. PFOS was the dominant acid in all samples, but long-chain PFCAs, ranging in length from 8 to 15 carbons, were also detected in most samples between <0.5 and 90 ng/ g. Among Mysis and the more pelagic fish species (e.g. excluding Diporeia and sculpin) there was evidence for biomagnification, but the influence of foraging on highly contaminated Diporeia and sculpin by these fish may have overestimated trophic magnification factors (TMFs), which ranged from 0.51 for FOSA to 5.88 for PFOS. By accounting for the known diet composition of lake trout, it was shown that bioaccumulation was indeed occurring at the top of the food web for all perfluoroalkyl compounds except PFOA. Future monitoring at other locations in Lake Ontario, and in other aquatic environments, is necessary to determine if these food web dynamics are widespread. Archived lake trout samples collected between 1980 and 2001 showed that mean whole body PFOS concentrations increased from 43 to 180 ng/g over this period, but not linearly, and may have been indirectly influenced by the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) through effects on the population and ecology of forage fishes. PMID:15543740

  4. Unique surface adsorption behaviors of serum proteins on chemically uniform and alternating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng

    With increasing interests of studying proteins adsorption on the surfaces with nanoscale features in biomedical field, it is crucial to have fundamental understandings on how the proteins are adsorbed on such a surface and what factors contribute to the driving forces of adsorption. Besides, exploring more available nanoscale templates would greatly offer more possibilities one could design surface bio-detection methods with favorable protein-surface interactions. Thus, to fulfill the purpose, the work in this dissertation has been made into three major sections. First, to probe the intermediate states which possibly exist between stable and unstable phases described in mean-field theory diagram, a solvent vapor annealing method is chosen to slowly induce the copolymer polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-PVP)'s both blocks undergoing micro-phase separations from initial spherical nanodomains into terminal cylindrical nanodomains. During this process, real time atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been conducted to capture other six intermediate states with different morphologies on the polymeric film surfaces. Secondly, upon recognizing each intermediate state, the solution of immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) proteins has been deposited on the surface and been rinsed off with buffer solution before the protein-bounded surface is imaged by AFM. It has been found IgG showing a strong adsorption preference on PS over P4VP block. Among all the six intermediate states, the proteins are almost exclusively adsorbed on PS nanodomains regardless the concentration and deposition time. Thirdly, a trinodular shape protein fibrinogen (Fg) is selected for investigating how geometry and surface charge of proteins would interplay with cylindrical nanodomains on a surface developed from Polystyrene -block-Poly-(methyl methacrylate) PS-b-PMMA. Also, Fg adsorptions on chemically homogeneous surfaces are included here to have a better contrast of showing how much difference it can make by using it on a nanoscale surface. Interestingly, higher concentration of protein solution promotes the occurrences of single phase packed Fg on the PS domain. The densely packed network has formed where each Fg keeps its main body in PS domain and leaves its two alpha C chains on nearby PMMA domain. We believe this conformation and orientation would maximize both the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between Fg and the underlying surface.

  5. Cl atom-initiated oxidation of three homologous methyl perfluoroalkyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Nohara, K; Toma, M; Kutsuna, S; Takeuchi, K; Ibusuki, T

    2001-01-01

    Chlorine atom-initiated photooxidations of three homologous methyl perfluoroalkyl ethers (HFEs), n-C(n)F(2n+1)OCH3 (n = 2, 3, and 5), in air in the absence of NOx were investigated with a long path FTIR/photochemical reaction system to elucidate the degradation mechanisms. The environmental removal processes of these three ethers in the troposphere were estimated. For oxidation of the three ethers, perfluoroalkyl formates (C(n)F(2n+1)OCHO; n = 2, 3 and 5) as relatively stable intermediates were produced at unity of the production ratio, which was independent of the perfluoroalkyl length. The rate constants for the reaction of Cl atoms with C2F5OCHO, C3F7OCHO, and C5F11OCHO were (1.2 +/- 0.5) x 10(-14), (1.2 +/- 0.5) x 10(-14), and (1.8 +/- 0.7) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The rate constants of the reaction of Cl with produced perfluoroalkyl formates were larger than these of perfluoroalkyl ethers. The formyl group of the perfluoroalkyl formates was finally converted to carbon dioxide. The -CF2- of the perfluoroalkyl groups for the three ethers was mainly converted to COF2 through the C-C cleavage; the conversion ratios from the carbons of the perfluoroalkyl group to COF2 were 48 +/- 10, 76 +/- 10, and 60 +/- 10% for C2F5OCH3, n-C3F7OCH3, and n-C5F11OCH3, respectively. Sixteen percent of the perfluoroalkyl group for n-C3F7OCH3 was converted to C2F5COF. Similarly, the perfluoroalkyl group of n-C5F11OCH3 was converted to C(n)F(2n+1)COF (n = 2, 3, and/or 4) with the yield of 15-30%, while for C2F5OCH3, the formation of CF3COF was not confirmed. As an oxidation product of the terminal CF3- group, 20, 22, and 16% of the CF3 group for C2F5OCH3, n-C3F7OCH3, and n-C5F11OCH3, respectively, were converted to CF3OOOCF3. PMID:11351993

  6. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debasish; Kumar, Vinod; James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be k(PBA) = 2.69 x 10(5) M(-1). Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  7. Serum low density lipoprotein of alcoholic patients is chemically modified in vivo and induces apolipoprotein E synthesis by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, R C; Dai, J; Lumeng, L; Zhang, M Y

    1995-01-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on serum LDL. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that LDL samples from alcoholic patients without serious liver disease were more negatively charged and moved faster toward the cathode than LDL from nondrinking control subjects. Rabbit antibodies raised by using keyhole limpet hemocyanin modified in vitro by 4-hydroxynonenal or by acetaldehyde as immunogens reacted more strongly with patients' LDL than with control LDL, indicating the presence of oxidatively modified epitopes and acetaldehyde adducts in alcoholic patients' LDL. LDL of alcoholic patients has decreased vitamin E contents. The electromobility of LDL decreased after abstinence from alcohol and returned to normal in 2 wk, but this was not accompanied by a significant increase in its vitamin E contents. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, patients' LDL induced apolipoprotein E secretion by threefold over control LDL with a concomitant increase in cellular cholesterol. Our results thus demonstrate that LDL of alcoholic patients has lower vitamin E content, is chemically modified in vivo, and exhibits altered biological function. These changes in heavy alcoholic drinkers may render LDL more atherogenic and thereby may counter the antiatherosclerosis effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Images PMID:7738164

  8. Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1.

    PubMed

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-12-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ∼25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ∼30-60 times and ∼200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure. PMID:21040699

  9. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  10. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    PubMed Central

    Veeraselvam, M.; Sridhar, R.; Perumal, P.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P < 0.05) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P < 0.05). The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment. PMID:24876990

  11. Prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and perfluoroalkyl substances and cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP and IL-33.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Levy, Adrian R; Platt, Robert W; Marshall, Jean S; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2015-07-01

    The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and perfluoroalkyl substance have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals may manifest in an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are integral in the etiology of childhood allergy and detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal levels of phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluoroalkyl substances and elevated umbilical cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. A Bayesian hierarchical model was employed to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers while adjusting for potential confounding from correlated environmental contaminants. Inverse, nonlinear associations were observed between maternal urinary MCPP levels and elevated levels of both IL-33/TSLP and IgE and between maternal urinary BPA levels and elevated levels of IL-33/TSLP. In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal urinary and plasma concentrations of phthalate metabolites, BPA, and perfluoroalkyl substances were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated levels of IgE, TSLP or IL-33. PMID:25913155

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances in aquatic environment-comparison of fish and passive sampling approaches.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Daniel; Grabic, Roman; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabicova, Katerina; Turek, Jan; Kodes, Vit; Golovko, Oksana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Randak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of seven perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 36 European chub (Squalius cephalus) individuals from six localities in the Czech Republic. Chub muscle and liver tissue were analysed at all sampling sites. In addition, analyses of 16 target PFASs were performed in Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCISs) deployed in the water at the same sampling sites. We evaluated the possibility of using passive samplers as a standardized method for monitoring PFAS contamination in aquatic environments and the mutual relationships between determined concentrations. Only perfluorooctane sulphonate was above the LOQ in fish muscle samples and 52% of the analysed fish individuals exceeded the Environmental Quality Standard for water biota. Fish muscle concentration is also particularly important for risk assessment of fish consumers. The comparison of fish tissue results with published data showed the similarity of the Czech results with those found in Germany and France. However, fish liver analysis and the passive sampling approach resulted in different fish exposure scenarios. The total concentration of PFASs in fish liver tissue was strongly correlated with POCIS data, but pollutant patterns differed between these two matrices. The differences could be attributed to the metabolic activity of the living organism. In addition to providing a different view regarding the real PFAS cocktail to which the fish are exposed, POCISs fulfil the Three Rs strategy (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in animal testing. PMID:26599587

  13. Size and age-concentration relationships for perfluoroalkyl substances in stingray livers from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Lai, Foon Yin; Townsend, Kathy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-10-15

    While the literature has reported a widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine biota, very limited studies have been dedicated to the southern hemisphere. Hepatic concentrations of nine PFAAs were analysed in 49 stranded stingrays from eastern Australia using liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and relationships with biological parameters (i.e. body size, age and sex) were investigated. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were the predominant compounds quantified, with hepatic concentrations varying from 2 to 117 and from 0.2 to 19 ng·g(-1) w.w., respectively. A negative correlation between the concentration of PFASs in the livers of 32 blue-spotted stingrays and the body size/age was found. This relationship was independent of the animal's sex. We postulate that the dependence on body size is related to differing uptake kinetics of the chemicals, after the sting rays were exposed to an increased level of the contaminants in their environment. Such a pollution event could be related to a severe flood event that occurred at this location a few months before the samples' collection. Our results indicate that the influence of the body size/age should be taken into account when estimating bioaccumulation parameters from environmental measurements or exposure levels of biota to PFASs. PMID:25108254

  14. Degradation and crosslinking of perfluoroalkyl polyethers under X-ray irradiation in ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, Shigeyuki; Morales, Wilfredo

    1989-01-01

    Degradation of three types of commercially available perfluoroalkyl polyethers (PFPE)-Demnum S200, Fomblin Z25, and Krytox 16256-by X-ray irradiation was studied by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and a mass spectrometer under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. The carbons in the polymers were characterized by chemical shifts of Cls binding energies. Gaseous products containing COF2 and low-molecular-weight fluorocarbons were formed. From Fomblin Z25, which has acetal linkages (-OCF2O-), a large quantity of COF2 gas was evolved. Liquid products became tacky after a long irradiation time, and some did not dissolve in Freon. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that molecular weight distribution became broader and that higher molecular weight polymers were formed from Demnum and Krytox. We concluded from these results that degradation and cross-linking took place simultaneously. Demnum crosslinked more easily than the other fluids. The time dependence of both XPS spectra of Cls and mass spectra showed that C-O-bonded carbons in PFPE'S were removed faster than other carbons. There was no substrate effect on the degradation reaction because the first-order rate constants calculated from the change of gaseous products were similar when stainless steel (440C) and gold-coated surfaces were used. Metal fluorides were formed on stainless steel during the reaction. A mechanism for the degradation of PFPE'S is discussed on the basis of their molecular structures.

  15. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Feisal; Peldszus, Sigrid; Anderson, William B

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes. PFASs have been detected globally in the aquatic environment including drinking water at trace concentrations and due, in part, to their persistence in human tissue some are being investigated for regulation. They are aliphatic compounds containing saturated carbon-fluorine bonds and are resistant to chemical, physical, and biological degradation. Functional groups, carbon chain length, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are some of the important structural properties of PFASs that affect their fate during drinking water treatment. Full-scale drinking water treatment plant occurrence data indicate that PFASs, if present in raw water, are not substantially removed by most drinking water treatment processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, biofiltration, oxidation (chlorination, ozonation, AOPs), UV irradiation, and low pressure membranes. Early observations suggest that activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and high pressure membrane filtration may be effective in controlling these contaminants. However, branched isomers and the increasingly used shorter chain PFAS replacement products may be problematic as it pertains to the accurate assessment of PFAS behaviour through drinking water treatment processes since only limited information is available for these PFASs. PMID:24216232

  16. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl compounds in midge (Chironomus riparius) larvae exposed to sediment.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Delphine; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Labadie, Pierre; Sapin, Alexandre; Garric, Jeanne; Budzinski, Hélène; Houde, Magali; Babut, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Midge larvae (Chironomus riparius) were exposed to sediments from a deposition sampled at a site along the Rhône River (France) downstream of an industrial site releasing various perfluorinated chemicals. This sediment is characterized by high concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and a low perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration. Concentrations of 23 perfluoroalkyl compounds, including C4-C14 carboxylate acids, C4-C10 sulfonates, and seven precursors, were analyzed in overlying and pore water, sediment, and larvae. Midge larvae accumulated carboxylate acids (C11-C14), PFOS, and two precursors (perfluorooctane sulfonamide: FOSA and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid, 6:2 FTSA). These substances accumulated mainly during the fourth instar larvae exponential growth phase. Accumulation of 6:2 FTSA, PFUnA, and PFOS occured via trophic and tegumentary routes. Other compounds mainly accumulated from food. Kinetics followed a partition model, from which uptake and elimination constants were derived. PMID:24631894

  17. Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Ike; Weiss, Jana M; Hanning, Anne-Charlotte; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

    2016-01-15

    In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4-C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5mL methanol and an extraction time of 30min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile. PMID:26592570

  18. End-functionalized polymers. 1. Synthesis and characterization of perfluoroalkyl-terminated polymers via chorosilane derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.O. Jr; Belu, A.M.; Linton, R.W.; DeSimone, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Surface-active, perfluoroalkyl-terminated block copolymers were synthesized and characterized. These heterophase block copolymers were made by terminating a variety of living anionic polymerizations with a chlorosilane derivative containing a perfluoroalkyl group. This synthetic methodology was successfully applied to the anionic polymerization of styrene and 1,3-dienes. Perfluoroalkyl-terminated poly(olefin)s were obtained via hydrogenation of the unsaturated poly(diene) materials. Excellent control of the molar mass, molar mass distribution, and functionality was verified using conventional characterization techniques such as gel permeation chromatography, NMR, and elemental analysis. In addition, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was employed to characterize the absolute molar masses and molar mass distributions and also the extent of functionalization.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl-Functionalized Hyperbranched Polyglycerol as Pore Forming Agents and Supramolecular Hosts in Polymer Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Olaf; Zieringer, Maximilian; Duncanson, Wynter J; Weitz, David A; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl-functionalized, hyperbranched polyglycerols that produce stable microbubbles are integrated into a microfluidic emulsion to create porous microspheres. In a previously-presented work a dendrimer with a perfluorinated shell was used. By replacing this dendrimer core with a hyperbranched core and evaluating different core sizes and degrees of fluorinated shell functionalization, we optimized the process to a more convenient synthesis and higher porosities. The new hyperbranched polyglycerol porogens produced more pores and can be used to prepare microspheres with porosity up to 12% (v/v). The presented preparation forms pores with a perfluoroalkyl-functionalized surface that enables the resulting microspheres to act as supramolecular host systems. The microspheres can incorporate gases into the pores and actives in the polymer matrix, while the perfluoroalkylated pore surface can be used to immobilize perfluoro-tagged molecules onto the pores by fluorous-fluorous interaction. PMID:26343631

  20. Perfluoroalkyl-Functionalized Hyperbranched Polyglycerol as Pore Forming Agents and Supramolecular Hosts in Polymer Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Olaf; Zieringer, Maximilian; Duncanson, Wynter J.; Weitz, David A.; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl-functionalized, hyperbranched polyglycerols that produce stable microbubbles are integrated into a microfluidic emulsion to create porous microspheres. In a previously-presented work a dendrimer with a perfluorinated shell was used. By replacing this dendrimer core with a hyperbranched core and evaluating different core sizes and degrees of fluorinated shell functionalization, we optimized the process to a more convenient synthesis and higher porosities. The new hyperbranched polyglycerol porogens produced more pores and can be used to prepare microspheres with porosity up to 12% (v/v). The presented preparation forms pores with a perfluoroalkyl-functionalized surface that enables the resulting microspheres to act as supramolecular host systems. The microspheres can incorporate gases into the pores and actives in the polymer matrix, while the perfluoroalkylated pore surface can be used to immobilize perfluoro-tagged molecules onto the pores by fluorous-fluorous interaction. PMID:26343631

  1. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in consumer products in Norway - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Herzke, Dorte; Olsson, Elisabeth; Posner, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in numerous industrial and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water and oil. A broad variety of PFAS have been introduced into the Norwegian market through industrial use (e.g. via fire fighting foams and paints) as well as in treated customer products such as textiles and coated paper. Our present knowledge of the exact chemical PFAS compositions in preparations using perfluorinated compounds is limited. This lack of knowledge means that it is difficult to provide an accurate assessment of human exposure to these compounds or to the amount of waste that may contain treated products. It is a growing concern that these potentially harmful compounds can now be found throughout the global environment. Samples of consumer products and preparations were collected in Norway, with supplemental samples from Sweden. In 27 of the 30 analyzed consumer products and preparations a number of polyfluorinated substances that were analyzed were detected but this does not exclude the occurrence of unknown PFAS. Notable was that perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), which has been strictly regulated in Norway since 2007, was found in amounts close to or exceeding the EU regulatory level in 4 of the 30 analyzed products, all within the leather or carpet product groups. High amounts of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were found in waterproofing agents, carpets and textiles, consistent with earlier findings by Fiedler et al. (2010). The presence of PFAS in a broad range of consumer products can give rise to a constant diffuse human exposure that might eventually result in harm to humans. PMID:22483730

  2. Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in sediments from the Czech aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hloušková, Veronika; Lanková, Darina; Kalachová, Kamila; Hrádková, Petra; Poustka, Jan; Hajšlová, Jana; Pulkrabová, Jana

    2014-02-01

    This study reports results of analysis of various groups of halogenated chemicals, including brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 31 sediment samples collected in different localities of the Czech Republic. In this survey, identification of potential sources of these compounds was also performed; therefore several sampling sites located in highly industrialized areas were involved. Concentrations of target groups of analytes determined in sediments from several Czech rivers examined within this study decreased in the following order: decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) > TBBPA~HBCDs~linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS)>other PBDEs~perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs)~perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). When compared the contamination by two monitored groups of halogenated compounds, the total content of ∑BFRs was significantly higher, i.e. in the range from the method quantification limit (MQL) to 528 μg/kg dry weight (dw) (median value 5.68 μg/kg dw), than the total concentration of ∑PFASs, that was in the range from MQL to 25.5 μg/kg dw (median value 1.48 μg/kg dw). The extremely highest content of BFR group (265-528 μg/kg dw) was found in sediments collected in sampling sites on the Labe and Lužická Nisa Rivers, which are located in highly chemical industrialized areas and also in the sample from the locality Lampertice obtained from the sedimentation tank close to the factory processing and storing waste. These concentrations were a little bit higher or comparable to those found in similar highly industrialized areas worldwide. PMID:24140701

  3. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Rider, Cynthia V; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2014-02-28

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPAR?. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPAR? transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPAR? in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPAR? luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPAR? agonist (WY14643, 10 ?M), PFOA at 1-128?M, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1-128 ?M, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8-1024 ?M, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4-384 ?M or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8-2048 ?M to generate sigmoidal concentration-response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA+either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 88 factorial design. The concentration-response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC??s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration-addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA+PFAA combinations produced concentration-response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPAR? in this in vitro system. PMID:24374136

  4. Dialkylzinc-mediated cross-coupling reactions of perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroaryl halides with aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hisano; Hirano, Keiichi; Kurauchi, Daisuke; Toriumi, Naoyuki; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2015-03-01

    A highly chemoselective perfluoroalkylation reaction of aromatic halides is reported. Thermally stable perfluoroalkylzinc reagents, generated by a rapid halogen-zinc exchange reaction between diorganozinc and perfluoroalkyl halide species, couple with a wide range of aryl halides in the presence of a copper catalyst, in moderate to high yields. Good stability of the perfluoroalkylzinc species was indicated by DFT calculation and the reagents were storable for at least three months under argon without loss of activity. This method is applicable to gram-scale synthesis, and its functional group tolerance compares favorably with reported protocols. PMID:25630706

  5. Perfluoroalkyl Acids Inhibit Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethene by Repressing Dehalococcoides.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Tess S; Harding-Marjanovic, Katie; Higgins, Christopher P; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface recalcitrance of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) derived from aqueous film-forming foams could have adverse impacts on the microbiological processes used for the bioremediation of co-mingled chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE). Here, we show that reductive dechlorination by a methanogenic, mixed culture was significantly inhibited when exposed to concentrations representative of PFAA source zones (>66 mg/L total of 11 PFAA analytes, 6 mg/L each). TCE dechlorination, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride production and dechlorination, and ethene generation were all inhibited at these PFAA concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the abundances of 65% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed significantly when grown in the presence of PFAAs, although repression or enhancement resulting from PFAA exposure did not correlate with putative function or phylogeny. Notably, there was significant repression of Dehalococcoides (8-fold decrease in abundance) coupled with a corresponding enhancement of methane-generating Archaea (a 9-fold increase). Growth and dechlorination by axenic cultures of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 were similarly repressed under these conditions, confirming an inhibitory response of this pivotal genus to PFAA presence. These results suggest that chlorinated solvent bioattenuation rates could be impeded in subsurface environments near PFAA source zones. PMID:26636352

  6. Perfluoroalkyl acids in urban stormwater runoff: influence of land use.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

    2012-12-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and have been reported to have nonpoint sources. In this study, six PFAAs with different chain lengths were monitored in stormwater runoff from seven storm events (2009-2011) at various outfall locations corresponding to different watershed land uses. We found PFAA(s) in 100% of stormwater runoff samples. Monitoring results and statistical analysis show that PFAAs in stormwater runoff from residential areas mainly came from rainfall. On the other hand, non-atmospheric sources at both industrial and commercial areas contributed PFAAs in stormwater runoff. The mass flux of PFAAs from stormwater runoff in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) metropolitan area is estimated to be about 7.86 kg/year. In addition, for the first time, we monitored PFAAs on the particles/debris in stormwater runoff and found high-level PFOS on the particulate matter in runoff collected from both industrial and commercial areas; the levels were so high that the finding could not be explained by the solid-water partitioning or adsorption. PFOS on the particulate matter is suspected to have originated from industrial/commercial products, entering the waste stream as PFOS containing particles. PMID:22154107

  7. Perfluoroalkyl Substances During Pregnancy and Validated Preeclampsia Among Nulliparous Women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Anne P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Richardson, David B.; Baird, Donna D.; Haug, Line S.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Trogstad, Lill I.; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003–2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure. PMID:24557813

  8. Chemically synthesized dicarba H2 relaxin analogues retain strong RXFP1 receptor activity but show an unexpected loss of in vitro serum stability.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M; Rosengren, K Johan; Bathgate, Ross A D; Wade, John D

    2015-11-28

    Peptides and proteins are now acknowledged as viable alternatives to small molecules as potential therapeutic agents. A primary limitation to their more widespread acceptance is their generally short in vivo half-lives due to serum enzyme susceptibility and rapid renal clearance. Numerous chemical approaches to address this concern have been undertaken in recent years. The replacement of disulfide bonds with non-reducible elements has been demonstrated to be one effective means by eliminating the deleterious effect of serum reductases. In particular, substitution with dicarba bonds via ring closure metathesis has been increasingly applied to many bioactive cystine-rich peptides. We used this approach for the replacement of the A-chain intramolecular disulfide bond of human relaxin 2 (H2 relaxin), an insulin-like peptide that has important regulatory roles in cardiovascular and connective tissue homeostasis that has led to successful Phase IIIa clinical trials for the treatment of acute heart failure. Use of efficient solid phase synthesis of the two peptide chains was followed by on-resin ring closure metathesis and formation of the dicarba bond within the A-chain and then by off-resin combination with the B-chain via sequential directed inter-chain disulfide bond formation. After purification and comprehensive chemical characterization, the two isomeric synthetic H2 relaxin analogues were shown to retain near-equipotent RXFP1 receptor binding and activation propensity. Unexpectedly, the in vitro serum stability of the analogues was greatly reduced compared with the native peptide. Circular dichroism spectroscopy studies showed subtle differences in the secondary structures between dicarba analogues and H2 relaxin suggesting that, although the overall fold is retained, it may be destabilized which could account for rapid degradation of dicarba analogues in serum. Caution is therefore recommended when using ring closure metathesis as a general approach to enhance peptide stability. PMID:26368576

  9. Evaluation of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Activity Using Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group h...

  10. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr, et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS- 1 PPARa reporter model with an NHA...

  11. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  12. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACID ACTIVITY USING PRIMARY MOUSE AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is know about the biological activity of other environmental perfluoroalkyl acids (pFAAs). Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-l cells, our group has previ...

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3 ng L(-1) in Ebro and 742.9 ng L(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3 ng g(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8 ng g(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2 ng g(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8 ng g(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition. PMID:26250865

  14. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms. PMID:25496738

  15. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 μg/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  16. The measurement of iron-binding capacity in serum and purified transferrin with the aid of chemical affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, W N

    1975-01-01

    In a mew method for the estimation of transferrin by iron-binding capacity iron is added as the tartrate in NaCl with about 10 mM bicarbonate. The excess iron is removed by passage through DEAE-Sephadex A-50 previously treated with the iron chelator disodium catechol-3,5-disulphonate. The iron remaining bound to transferrin is measured without protein precipitation by the use of ferrozine. The method is applicable to fresh, frozen, or lyophilized serum, purified transferrin, and some quality control preparations. Validation experiments confirm that transferrin in serum and in pure solution is saturated with iron and give some evidence of specificity. The possible use of commercially available transferrin preparations as analytical reference standards is discussed. PMID:1127111

  17. Photocatalytic/Cu-Promoted C-H Activations: Visible-light-Induced ortho-Selective Perfluoroalkylation of Benzamides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Tan, Ze; Gui, Qingwen; Hu, Liang; Liu, Jidan; Wu, Jing; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-04-25

    A visible-light-induced and copper-promoted perfluoroalkylation of benzamides was successfully developed under the assistance of an 8-aminoquinoline directing group. It provides a straightforward method for the synthesis of ortho-perfluoroalkyl-substituted benzoic acid derivatives. The reaction employs a cheap organic dye eosin Y as the photoredox catalyst and is run under the irradiation of a 26 W fluorescent LED light bulb. PMID:26933840

  18. [Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human serum using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Feifei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2011-08-01

    A simplified analytical method comprised of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) has been developed for the determination of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners in human serum. After the extraction by Oasis HLB custom-made SPE cartridges, the lipids in serum were decomposed by concentrated sulfuric acid directly added on the SPE column. The solvent for protein cleanup and the SPE conditions, such as elution solvent and its volume were optimized. The recoveries of the PBDEs spiked in fetal bovine serum relative to internal standards were in the range of 78.5% - 109.7% at five spiked levels (three spiked levels for BDE-209). The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 0.3% and 7.4%, while the inter-day RSDs were between 1.42% and 14.1%. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were in the range of 0.10 - 0.27 ng/L and 0.35 -0.91 ng/L respectively for all PBDEs, except BDE-209. The LOQ (blank concentration value x 3) for BDE-209 was 7.91 ng/L. The method was verified by accurate analysis of organic contaminant standard reference materials (SRM) 1957 and 1958. The results indicated that the proposed method is sensitive, accurate, fast, simple, low solvent consumption and suitable for the determination of tri- to deca-BDE in human serum. PMID:22128737

  19. Human serum albumin adsorption onto a-SiC:H and a-C:H thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Auditore, A; Satriano, C; Coscia, U; Ambrosone, G; Parisi, V; Marletta, G

    2002-08-01

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of a model protein such as human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H and a-C:H thin films deposited by using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. It has been found that HSA tends to preferentially adsorb on Si-rich surfaces, as far as the relative amount of adsorbed HSA decreases with increasing S-C concentration. Preliminary elements of mechanistic models are proposed for the correlation between chemical factors and the observed protein adsorption behavior. PMID:12202167

  20. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    PubMed

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD <10%). The accuracy was assessed using recoveries (%), which ranged between 68-118% (LQ) and 70-121% (HQ). The instrumental limit of detection (LODi) and limit of quantification (LOQi) were between 1-4 pg/g hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS. PMID:26452864

  1. Assessment of perfluoroalkyl substances in food items at global scale.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisca; Llorca, Marta; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Škrbić, Biljana; Oliveira, Luis Silva; da Boit Martinello, Kátia; Al-Dhabi, Naif A; Antić, Igor; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the levels of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 283 food items (38 from Brazil, 35 from Saudi Arabia, 174 from Spain and 36 from Serbia) among the most widely consumed foodstuffs in these geographical areas. These countries were chosen as representatives of the diet in South America, Western Asia, Mediterranean countries and South-Eastern Europe. The analysis of foodstuffs was carried out by turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) combined with liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. The analytical method was validated for the analysis of different foodstuff classes (cereals, fish, fruit, milk, ready-to-eat foods, oil and meat). The analytical parameters of the method fulfill the requirements specified in the Commission Recommendation 2010/161/EU. Recovery rates were in the range between 70% and 120%. For all the selected matrices, the method limits of detection (MLOD) and the method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were in the range of 5 to 650 pg/g and 17 to 2000 pg/g, respectively. In general trends, the concentrations of PFASs were in the pg/g or pg/mL levels. The more frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). The prevalence of the eight-carbon chain compounds in biota indicates the high stability and bioaccumulation potential of these compounds. But, at the same time, the high frequency of the shorter chain compounds is also an indication of the use of replacement compounds in the new fluorinated materials. When comparing the compounds profile and their relative abundances in the samples from diverse origin, differences were identified. However, in absolute amounts of total PFASs no large differences were found between the studied countries. Fish and seafood were identified as the major PFASs contributors to the diet in all the countries. The total sum of PFASs in fresh fish and seafood was in the range from the MLOQ to 28ng/g ww. According to the FAO-WHO diets composition, the daily intake (DI) of PFASs was calculated for various age and gender groups in the different diets. The total PFASs food intake was estimated to be between 2300 and 3800 ng /person per day for the different diets. Finally, the risk intake (RI) was calculated for selected relevant compounds. The results have indicated that by far in no case the tolerable daily intake (TDI) (150, 1500, 50,000, 1,000,000, 150, 1500 ng/kg body weight, for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFOS and PFOA, respectively) was exceeded. PMID:25282275

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    PubMed Central

    Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA presented significantly lower scores on the Externalizing Problem Scale than boys with the lowest exposure levels in the adjusted model. Girls exposed to higher levels of ΣPFAS exposure (T2) showed significantly lower scores on the Externalizing Problem Scale, in both crude and adjusted models. No significant associations with PFOS were found. Conclusions: Results from the current study show that prenatal exposure to PFOA was negatively related to externalizing behavior in boys. Results were different for boys and girls, emphasizing that mechanisms at work might be sex-dependent. However, results should be interpreted with caution as the sample size was small. PMID:27213416

  3. Chemical and biological properties of B16 murine melanoma cells grown in defined medium containing bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Banks, J R; Bhavanadan, V P; Davidson, E A

    1977-12-01

    The addition of 1 percent (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the F12 medium utilized for the growth of the B16 melanoma cells significantly stimulated the growth of this cell line. The synthesis of mucopolysaccharides and sialoglycopeptides in this medium is identical with that in Eagle's minimal essential medium with Earle's balanced salt solution supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, twice the recommended concentration of vitamins, nonessential amino acids, sodium pyruvate, and 10 percent (v/v) fetal calf serum. Cell volume and morphology did not change significantly, under the different growth conditions and tumorigenicity, as assayed by injection of cultured cells into syngeneic animals, was not decreased. Analysis of the BSA used indicated the presence of a sialoglycoprotein contaminant. This sialoglycoprotein contaminant was present in all lots examined and contains N-acetyl-and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, mannose, galactose, and glucosamine. The sialoglycoprotein can be removed by chromatography on acetate form anion-exchange resin at pH 4.3. F12 media containing the purified BSA plus selenite and the sodium salts of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids supported growth of the melanoma cells to the same extent as did the media containing unpurified BSA, indicating that the sialoglycoprotein has no role in sustaining the growth of the cells. PMID:144559

  4. Emission, Dynamics and Transport of Perfluoroalkyl Substances from Land to Ocean by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Gamo, Toshitaka; Ge, Hui; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-01

    Water samples collected along the Japanese coast and in the open Pacific Ocean in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were analyzed for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to evaluate the effect of Great East Japan Earthquake (EQ 3.11), which occurred on March 11, 2011, on the dispersion of chemical pollutants. Ultratrace analysis of PFASs in water, a super computer simulation, and an inventory analysis from industrial records revealed the sources and dynamics of PFASs during the EQ 3.11 disaster. In this respect, EQ 3.11 destroyed solid infrastructure on land, and within minutes, PFASs stocked therein were released into the open environment. The historically significant tsunami backwash swept them away from their origin to the coastal water within several hours. It was estimated that from 0.8 to 1.0 tons of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and 4.8 to 5.1 tons of PFOA were discharged into the coastal waters after EQ 3.11 and the tsunami that followed. The reconstruction of EQ 3.11 also traced the influence of this pollution in open ocean water until March 2012, and a statistical and finger printing analysis revealed that there were different distribution mechanisms in coastal regions than in the open ocean for PFOS, other shorter chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids. PMID:26321264

  5. Perfluoroalkylated Substance Effects in Xenopus laevis A6 Kidney Epithelial Cells Determined by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Lacorte, Sílvia; Tauler, Romà; Martin, Francis L

    2016-05-16

    The effects of four perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were assessed in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used to visualize wavenumber-related alterations and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) allowed data processing considering the underlying experimental design. Both analyses evidenced a higher impact of low-dose PFAS-treatments (10(-9) M) on A6 cells forming monolayers, while there was a larger influence of high-dose PFAS-treatments (10(-5) M) on A6 cells differentiated into dome structures. The observed dose-response PFAS-induced effects were to some extent related to their cytotoxicity: the EC50-values of most influential PFAS-treatments increased (PFOS < PFNA < PFOA ≪ PFBS), and higher-doses of these chemicals induced a larger impact. Major spectral alterations were mainly attributed to DNA/RNA, secondary protein structure, lipids, and fatty acids. Finally, PFOS and PFOA caused a decrease in A6 cell numbers compared to controls, whereas PFBS and PFNA did not significantly change cell population levels. Overall, this work highlights the ability of PFASs to alter A6 cells, whether forming monolayers or differentiated into dome structures, and the potential of PFOS and PFOA to induce cell death. PMID:27078751

  6. Perfluoroalkylated Substance Effects in Xenopus laevis A6 Kidney Epithelial Cells Determined by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of four perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were assessed in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Principal component analysis–linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used to visualize wavenumber-related alterations and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) allowed data processing considering the underlying experimental design. Both analyses evidenced a higher impact of low-dose PFAS-treatments (10–9 M) on A6 cells forming monolayers, while there was a larger influence of high-dose PFAS-treatments (10–5 M) on A6 cells differentiated into dome structures. The observed dose–response PFAS-induced effects were to some extent related to their cytotoxicity: the EC50-values of most influential PFAS-treatments increased (PFOS < PFNA < PFOA ≪ PFBS), and higher-doses of these chemicals induced a larger impact. Major spectral alterations were mainly attributed to DNA/RNA, secondary protein structure, lipids, and fatty acids. Finally, PFOS and PFOA caused a decrease in A6 cell numbers compared to controls, whereas PFBS and PFNA did not significantly change cell population levels. Overall, this work highlights the ability of PFASs to alter A6 cells, whether forming monolayers or differentiated into dome structures, and the potential of PFOS and PFOA to induce cell death. PMID:27078751

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Daling River with concentrated fluorine industries in China: seasonal variation, mass flow, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated concentrations and composition profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water from the Daling River in different seasons. The highest concentration of ΣPFASs (9540 ng L(-1)) and dominant homologues were found in surface water collected in summer. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs in four seasons with a total contribution of over 90%. The discharge of two fluorine chemical industry parks was predicted to be the main contamination source of PFASs in the study area. The daily and annual mass flows were calculated according to data of detected PFAS concentrations and water discharge, and the annual mass loading of PFASs into the Bohai Sea from the Daling River reached to 461 kg year(-1). Hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFASs in study area had little risk to aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, the multiple health risk would be relatively high if the water was served as drinking water in the study area. PMID:25666478

  8. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. PMID:25645059

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances detected in the world's southernmost marine mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Krafft, Bjørn A; Herzke, Dorte; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates concentrations of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in blood plasma of adult lactating Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) (n = 10) from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.23 ng/ml. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) were sporadically detected, while the remaining compounds were below the limit of detection. This is the first report of detectible concentrations of PFASs in an endemic Antarctic marine mammal species. We suggest that the pollutants have been subjected to long range atmospheric transportation and/or derive from a local source. A review of these and published data indicate that perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) dominate in biotic PFAS patterns in species feeding south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), whereas PFOS was the major PFAS detected in species feeding predominantly north of the current. PMID:25497307

  10. Helical Inversion of Gel Fibrils by Elongation of Perfluoroalkyl Chains as Studied by Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisako; Yajima, Tomoko; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy was applied to gelation by a chiral low-molecular mass weight gelator, N,N'-diperfluoroalkanoyl-1,2-trans-diaminocyclohexane. Attention was focused on the winding effects of (-CF2 )n chains on the gelating ability. For this purpose, a series of gelators were synthesized with perfluoroalkyl chains of different length (n = 6-8). When gelation was studied using acetonitrile as a solvent, the fibrils took different morphologies, depending on the chain length: twisted saddle-like ribbon or helical ribbon from fibril (n = 6) and a helical ribbon from platelet (n = 8). The signs of VCD peaks assigned to the couplet of C=O stretching and to the C-F stretching were also dependent on n, indicating that a gelator molecule changed conformation on elongating perfluoroalkyl chains. A model is proposed for the aggregation modes in fibrils. Chirality 28:361-364, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26992437

  11. Reactions of chlorine and bromine fluorosulfates with perfluoroalkyl halides in a strongly acidic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Fokin, A.V.; Rapkin, A.I.; Seryanov, Y.V.; Studnev, Y.N.; Tatarinov, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors find that in HSO/sub 3/F medium containing SbF/sub 5/ (preferably ca 20-40%), already at a temperature much lower than O C, ClOSO/sub 2/F exothermally substitutes bromine in 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane, leading to 1,2-bis(fluorosulfonxyloxy)tetrafluoroethane (I) in a high yield (greater than 80%). Bromine fluorosulfate BrOSO/sub 2/F was found to be less active than ClOSO/sub 2/F with respect to 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane in both the presence and in absence of the HSO/sub 3/F/SbF/sub 5/ mixture. In a fluorosulfonic acid medium containing antimony pentafluoride, the reaction with chlorine fluorosulfate leads to the substitution of the primary chlorine atom in perfluoroalkyl chlorides, and also the primary and secondary bromine atoms in perfluoroalkyl bromides by the fluorosulfate group under mild conditions.

  12. Tribological reactions of perfluoroalkyl polyether oils with stainless steel under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, Shigeyuki; Morales, Wilfredo

    1989-01-01

    The reaction between three types of commercial perfluoroalkyl polyether (PFPE) oils and stainless steel 440C was investigated experimentally during sliding under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature. It is found that the tribological reaction of PFPE is mainly affected by the activity of the mechanically formed fresh surfaces of metals rather than the heat generated at the sliding contacts. The fluorides formed on the wear track act as a boundary layer, reducing the friction coefficient.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization of allylamine-tethered alkylidenecyclopropanes: facile access to iodine/difluoromethylene- and perfluoroalkyl-containing 1-benzazepine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liu-Zhu; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Hu, Xu-Bo; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2016-05-01

    The unprecedented palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization of allylamine-tethered alkylidenecyclopropanes with an ethyl difluoroiodoacetate or perfluoroalkylated reagent is developed, providing facile access to a variety of synthetically and medicinally valuable iodine/difluoromethylene- and perfluoroalkyl-containing 1-benzazepine frameworks. These reactions exhibited good yields and functional group tolerance via a radical mechanism. PMID:27109032

  14. Cu-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reaction of Styrenes, Perfluoroalkyl Halide, Alcohol, and tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide: One-Pot Synthesis of (Z)-β-Alkoxyperfluoroalkenone.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiang; Liu, Chunmei; Tong, Jingjing; Shao, Ying; Shan, Wenyu; Wang, Hanghang; Zheng, Hao; Cheng, Jiang; Wan, Xiaobing

    2016-04-15

    An efficient synthesis of Z-perfluoroalkyl-substituted enones by a multicomponent reaction strategy has been described. A variety of elusive perfluoroalkylated enones are furnished under mild reaction conditions in good yields with unique chemo- and stereoselectivity. A sequence of radical-mediated Kornblum-DeLaMare reaction, Michael addition, and HF elimination is proposed for the mechanism. PMID:26980724

  15. Spatial distribution and importance of potential perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in urban rivers and sewage treatment plant effluent--case study of Tama River, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Tokumura, Masahiro; Islam, Md Saiful; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Oh, Jungkeun; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-12-15

    Production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is regulated worldwide. However, numerous potential precursors that eventually decompose into PFOS and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still being used and have not been studied in detail. Therefore, knowledge about the levels and sources of the precursors is essential. We investigated the total concentration of potential PFAA precursors in the Tama River, which is one of the major rivers flowing into the Tokyo Bay, by converting all the perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) precursors into PFCAs by chemical oxidation. The importance of controlling PFAA precursors was determined by calculating the ratios of PFCAs formed by oxidation to the PFAAs originally present (ΣΔ[PFCAC4-C12]/Σ[PFAAs]before oxidation) (average = 0.28 and 0.69 for main and tributary branch rivers, respectively). Higher total concentrations of Δ[PFCAs] were found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. However, the ratios found in the effluents were lower (average = 0.21) than those found in the river water samples, which implies the decomposition of some precursors into PFAAs during the treatment process. On the other hand, higher ratios were observed in the upstream water samples and the existence of emission sources other than the STP effluents was indicated. This study showed that although the treatment process converting a part of the PFAA precursors into PFAAs, STPs were important sources of precursors to the Tama River. To reduce the levels of PFAAs in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to reduce the emission of the PFAA precursors as well. PMID:25262552

  16. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Serum sickness is a reaction that is similar to an allergy. The immune system reacts to medications ... immune response against the toxin or germ. During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein ...

  17. Development of a chemically defined serum- and protein-free medium for growth of human peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Shive, W; Pinkerton, F; Humphreys, J; Johnson, M M; Hamilton, W G; Matthews, K S

    1986-01-01

    A chemically defined, protein-free medium (designated CFBI 1000, where CFBI = Clayton Foundation Biochemical Institute) that supports human peripheral lymphocyte proliferation has been developed. This medium allows exploration of individual metabolic differences by varying the medium composition as well as providing a base to explore further the mechanisms of lymphocyte activation in a system initially free of added macromolecular species other than mitogen. The peripheral blood lymphocyte is an ideal system for metabolic studies because it is easily obtained, is a primary resting cell that can be activated to proliferate, and presumably reflects both the genetic makeup and biochemical environmental history of the individual at the time the cells were formed. Examination of the role of various factors in lymphocyte activation and subsequent events may be simplified by the utilization of a medium that is protein-free and chemically defined. The CFBI 1000 medium supports the growth response of human peripheral lymphocytes to mitogen as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation to an extent comparable to other media used widely in assessment of lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:3079905

  18. Development and Comparison of Three Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization/Mass Spectrometry Methods for Determining Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bedner, Mary; Phinney, Karen W.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic methods with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), and 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) in the four Levels of SRM 972, Vitamin D in Human Serum. One method utilized a C18 column, which separates 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, and one method utilized a CN column that also resolves the diastereomers 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Both methods utilized stable isotope labeled internal standards for quantitation of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. These methods were subsequently used to evaluate SRM 909c Human Serum, and 25(OH)D3 was the only vitamin D metabolite detected in this material. However, SRM 909c samples contained matrix peaks that interfered with the determination of the [2H6]-25(OH)D3 peak area. The chromatographic conditions for the C18 column were modified to remove this interference, but conditions that separated the matrix peaks from [2H6]-25(OH)D3 on the CN column could not be identified. The alternate internal standard [2H3]-25(OH)D3 did not suffer from matrix interferences and was used for quantitation of 25(OH)D3 in SRM 909c. During the evaluation of SRM 909c samples, a third method was developed using a pentafluorophenylpropyl column that also separates the diastereomers 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. The 25(OH)D3 was measured in SRM 909c using all three methods, and the results were compared. PMID:22533908

  19. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to categorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated compounds (...

  20. Specific estrogen-induced cell proliferation of cultured Syrian hamster renal proximal tubular cells in serum-free chemically defined media

    SciTech Connect

    Oberley, T.D.; Lauchner, L.J.; Pugh, T.D.; Gonzalez, A.; Goldfarb, S. ); Li, S.A.; Li, J.J. )

    1989-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the renal proximal tubular epithelium of the hamster is a bona fide estrogen target tissue. The effect of estrogens on the growth of proximal tubule cell explants and dissociated single cells derived from these explant outgrowths has been studied in culture. Renal tubular cells were grown on a PF-HR-9 basement membrane under serum-free chemically defined culture conditions. At 7-14 days in culture, cell number was enhanced 3-fold in the presence of either 17{beta}-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol. A similar 3-fold increase in cell number was also seen at 1 nM 17{beta}-estradiol in subcultured dissociated single tubular cells derived from hamster renal tubular explant outgrowths at 21 days in culture. Concomitant exposure of tamoxifen at 3-fold molar excess in culture completely abolished the increase in cell number seen with 17{beta}-estradiol. The proliferation effect of estrogens on proximal tubular cell growth appears to be species specific since 17{beta}-estradiol did not alter the growth of either rat or guinea pig proximal tubules in culture. In addition, at 7-10 days in culture in the presence of 17{beta}-estradiol, ({sup 3}H)thymidine labeling of hamster tubular cells was enhanced 3-fold. These results clearly indicate that estrogens can directly induce primary epithelial cell proliferation at physiologic concentrations and provide strong additional evidence for an important hormonal role in the neoplastic transformation of the hamster kidney.

  1. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    This work is directed toward the design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar-pumped I* lasers. In view of the desirability of preparing a perfluoroalkyl iodide absorbing strongly at 300 nm, the relationship betwen perfluoroalkyl iodide structure and the corresponding absorption wavelength was reexamined. Analysis of existing data suggests that, in this family of compounds, the absorption maximum shifts to longer wavelength, as desired, as the C-I bond in the lasant is progressively weakened. Weakening of the C-I bond correlates, in turn, with increasing stability of the perfluoroalkyl radical formed upon photodissociation of the iodide. The extremely promising absorption characteristics of perfluoro-tert-butyl iodide can be accounted for on this basis. A new technique of diode laser probing to obtain precise yields of I* atoms in photodissociation was also developed.

  2. Estrogen-Like Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids In Vivo and Interaction with Human and Rainbow Trout Estrogen Receptors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bisson, William H.; Koch, Daniel C.; Ehresman, David J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.2–289μM. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ERα-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10–1000nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ERα ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ERα. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ERα from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern. PMID:21163906

  3. Contamination profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region. PMID:25113179

  4. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a(PPARa) activation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPARa. Our previous studies showed that ind...

  5. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  6. Indoor and outdoor poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Korea determined by passive air sampler.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Kim, Kyeong-Soo; Park, Jong-Eun

    2012-03-01

    Despite concerns to their increasing contribution to ecological and human exposure, the atmospheric levels of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been determined mainly in Europe and North America. This study presents the indoor and outdoor air concentrations of volatile PFASs [fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols/sulfonamide ethyl acetate (FOSAs/FOSEs/FOSEA)] for the first time in Korean cities. In contrast to the good agreement observed for indoor FTOHs levels in Korea and Europea/North America, FOSAs/FOSEs levels were 10-100-fold lower in Korean indoor air, representing a cultural difference of indoor source. Korean outdoor air contained higher PFAS levels than indoor air, and additionally showed different PFAS composition profile from indoor air. Thus, indoor air would not likely be a main contributor to atmospheric PFAS contamination in Korea, in contrast to western countries. Inhalation exposure of volatile PFASs was estimated to be a minor contributor to PFOA and PFOS exposure in Korea. PMID:22243859

  7. Distribution of antifouling biocides and perfluoroalkyl compounds in sediments from selected locations in Indonesian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Harino, Hiroya; Arifin, Zainal; Rumengan, Inneke F M; Arai, Takaomi; Ohji, Madoka; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Coastal marine environments are considered to be the most sensitive areas for the accumulation of organotin (OT) compounds and other emerging new pollutants, such as perfluoroalkyl compounds. Contamination by these compounds is a matter of great concern due to their accumulation and possible negative impact on the coastal environment and organisms. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) compounds were greater in Indonesia, i.e., on the order of Bitung > Manado > Jakarta Bay > Gangga Island, and TBT in sediment from Bitung and Manado was the dominant species among butyltin (BT) compounds. Sea Nine 211, diuron, and irgarol 1051 were detected among alternative biocides in Bitung, Manado, and Gangga Island and irgarol 1051 was detected in Jakarta Bay. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorosulfonic acid (PFOS) in Jakarta Bay were detected at 0.25 to 6.1 μg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) and 0.58 to 3.7 μg kg(-1) dw, respectively, and the concentrations of PFOS at most sampling sites were greater than those of PFOA. Thus, coastal waters from Indonesia have already been contaminated by antifouling biocides and perfluoroalkyl compounds. PMID:22569989

  8. Survey of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors present in Japanese consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors have been used in various consumer products. However, limited information regarding their occurrence and concentration levels in products is available. In this study, we investigated 18 PFAAs and 14 PFAA precursors in various categories of consumer products purchased in Japan. Relatively high total concentrations of PFAAs and their precursors were found in sprays for fabrics and textiles (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (carbon chain length⩾7) were also detected in greater concentrations than short chain PFCAs (⩽6). This result suggests that consumer products are one of the important sources of long-chain PFCAs in the environment. PMID:25753850

  9. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-01

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body. PMID:23057644

  10. Effect of body condition on tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Aas, Camilla Bakken; Fuglei, Eva; Herzke, Dorte; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

    2014-10-01

    Arctic animals undergo large seasonal fluctuations in body weight. The effect of body condition on the distribution and composition of 16 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated in liver, blood, kidney, adipose tissue, and muscle of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard (n = 18, age 1-3 years). PFAS concentrations were generally highest in liver, followed by blood and kidney, while lowest concentrations were found in adipose tissue and muscle. Concentrations of summed perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates were five and seven times higher, respectively, in adipose tissue of lean compared to fat foxes. In addition, perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) and perfluoroheptanesulfonate (PFHpS) concentrations in liver, kidney, and blood, and, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in liver and blood, were twice as high in the lean compared to the fat foxes. The ratio between perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and its metabolite perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was lowest in liver, muscle, and kidney, while significantly higher proportions of FOSA were found in adipose tissue and blood. The results of the present study suggest that toxic potential of exposure to PFAS among other pollutants in Arctic mammals may increase during seasonal emaciation. The results also suggest that body condition should be taken into account when assessing temporal trends of PFASs. PMID:25215880

  11. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440μgkg(-1) (median 75μgkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82μgkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215μgkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107μgkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233μgkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low μgL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  12. Competing mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl acid accumulation in plants revealed using an Arabidopsis model system.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia E; LeFevre, Gregory H; Timofte, Anca E; Hussain, Fatima A; Sattely, Elizabeth S; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) bioaccumulate in plants, presenting a human exposure route if present in irrigation water. Curiously, accumulation of PFAAs in plant tissues is greatest for both the short-chain and long-chain PFAAs, generating a U-shaped relationship with chain length. In the present study, the authors decouple competing mechanisms of PFAA accumulation using a hydroponic model plant system (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to a suite of 10 PFAAs to determine uptake, depuration, and translocation kinetics. Rapid saturation of root concentrations occurred for all PFAAs except perfluorobutanoate, the least-sorptive (shortest-chain) PFAA. Shoot concentrations increased continuously, indicating that PFAAs are efficiently transported and accumulate in shoots. Tissue concentrations of PFAAs during depuration rapidly declined in roots but remained constant in shoots, demonstrating irreversibility of the translocation process. Root and shoot concentration factors followed the U-shaped trend with perfluoroalkyl chain length; however, when normalized to dead-tissue sorption, this relationship linearized. The authors therefore introduce a novel term, the "sorption normalized concentration factor," to describe PFAA accumulation in plants; because of their hydrophobicity, sorption is the determining factor for long-chain PFAAs, whereas the shortest-chain PFAAs are most effectively transported in the plant. The present study provides a mechanistic explanation for previously unexplained PFAA accumulation trends in plants and suggests that shorter-chained PFAAs may bioaccumulate more readily in edible portions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1138-1147. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26383989

  13. Bioconcentration of perfluoroalkyl substances by Chironomus plumosus larvae in water with different types of dissolved organic matters.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wu; Xia, Xinghui; Chen, Xi; Wang, Haotian; Zhu, Baotong; Li, Husheng; Li, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effects of four types of dissolved organic matters (DOM) on the bioconcentration of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Chironomus plumosus larvae have been studied. The PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA). The DOM included humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), tannic acid (TA), and a protein, peptone (PEP), and their concentrations ranged from 0 to 50 mg L(-1). The results showed that, upon bioconcentration equilibrium, the body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs (PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA and PFDoA) decreased with PEP and HA concentrations while increased with FA and TA concentrations. When FA and TA concentrations increased from 0 to 50 mg L(-1), body burdens of these PFASs increased by 7.5%-148.8% and 5.7%-37.1%, respectively. However, the DOM had no significant impact on the body burdens of shorter perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs (PFOA and PFNA). All of the four types of DOM lowered not only the uptake rate constants (ku) of PFASs due to the decrease of freely dissolved PFAS concentrations, but also the elimination rate constants (ke) due to the inhibition effect of DOM on the PFAS elimination from the larvae. The reduction in the two constants varied with both DOM and PFAS types. In the presence of PEP and HA with larger molecular weights, the ku values decreased more than ke, leading to the decreased body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs. As for FA and TA with smaller molecular weights, the ke values decreased more than ku, resulting in increased body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs. This study suggests that the effects of DOM on PFAS bioconcentration depend not only on the concentration but also on the molecule weight of DOM, which should be considered in the bioavailability assessment of PFASs. PMID:26925752

  14. Association between perfluorinated compound concentrations in cord serum and birth weight using multiple regression models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eung-Sun; Han, Sehee; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exposure to the perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on birth weight have been examined in several studies, but other PFASs have not been considered. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of newborns in Seoul, South Korea, collecting 118 serum samples, for 85 of which we had a full range of information. We conducted multiple regression analyses to examine the association between nine PFAS concentrations in cord serum and birth weight. Seven PFASs were found in cord serum, PFOA and PFOS being dominant, with mean concentrations of 1.11 and 0.87ng/mL, respectively. The adjusted birth weight changes (natural log) were -0.14 (95% confidence interval -0.33-0.03) for PFOS and -0.03 (95% confidence interval -0.25-0.18) for PFOA. None of the PFASs were statistically associated with birth weight in this population. PMID:26562669

  15. Transcriptional changes in steroidogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFOA and PFOS) regulate the synthesis of sex hormones in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Soon; Choi, Jin-Soo; Park, June-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two of the most widely used perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Because of their strong persistence, they have become widely distributed throughout the environment and human bodies. PFOA and PFOS are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system based upon many in vivo studies, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the endocrine-related effects of PFOA and PFOS using in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivation assays and steroidogenesis assay. The results showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited weak antagonistic ER transactivation but did not exhibit agonistic ER or AR transactivation. In the steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS induced 17β-estradiol (E2) level and reduced testosterone level, which would be caused by the induction of aromatase activity. The qPCR analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis indicates that PFOA and PFOS associate with sex hormone synthesis by the transcriptional induction of two genes, cyp19 and 3β-hsd2. Moreover, the transcriptional induction of cyp11b2 by PFOS suggests that this chemical may underlie the disruption of several physiological functions related to aldosterone. The results of the current study suggest that PFOA and PFOS are potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and provide information for further studies on the molecular events that initiate the adverse endocrine effects. PMID:27139122

  16. Simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl phosphonates, carboxylates, and sulfonates in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Alsberg, Tomas; Berger, Urs

    2011-09-16

    A trace analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl phosphonates (PFPAs, carbon chain lengths C6,8,10), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C5-12), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs, C4,6,8,10) in drinking water (tap water). Analytes were enriched on a mixed mode co-polymeric sorbent (C8+quaternary amine) using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Extend C18 reversed phase column using a mobile phase gradient consisting of water, methanol, and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium acetate and 5 mM 1-methyl piperidine. The mass spectrometer was operated in electrospray negative ion mode. Use of 1-methyl piperidine in the mobile phase resulted in a significant increase in instrument sensitivity for PFPAs through improved chromatographic resolution, background suppression, and increased ionization efficiency. Method detection limits for extraction of 500 mL tap water were in the ranges of 0.095-0.17 ng/L, 0.027-0.17 ng/L, and 0.014-0.052 ng/L for PFPAs, PFCAs, and PFSAs, respectively. Whole method recoveries at a spiking level of 0.5 ng/L to 500 mL HPLC grade water were 40-56%, 56-97%, and 55-77% for PFPAs, PFCAs, and PFSAs, respectively. A matrix effect (signal enhancement) was observed in the detection of PFPAs in tap water extracts, leading to calculated recoveries of 249-297% at a 0.5 ng/L spiking level. This effect resulted in an additional improvement of method sensitivity for PFPAs. To compensate for the matrix effect, PFPAs in tap water were quantified using matrix-matched and extracted calibration standards. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of drinking water collected from six European countries. PFPAs were not detected except for perfluorooctyl phosphonate (PFOPA) at close to the detection limit of 0.095 ng/L in two water samples from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Highest levels were found for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS, 18.8 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 8.6 ng/L) in samples from Amsterdam as well as for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 8.8 ng/L) in tap water from Stockholm, Sweden. PMID:21791340

  17. Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in surface sediments of five major rivers in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Jun; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have received great attention from the public and scientific community due to their potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem and human health. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of 16 PFASs from 2 classes of PFASs-perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids-in the archived surface sediments of five major rivers (Yellow River, Hai River, Liao River, Zhujiang River, and Dongjiang River) in northern and southern China. The study was also performed during the wet and dry seasons. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid were the most frequently detected (detection frequency = 100 and 63 %, respectively) in the sediments of the five rivers; the concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 0.99 ng/g dry weight (dw) and were lower than the limit of detection (

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in a terrestrial raptor: relationships to environmental conditions and individual traits.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Ahrens, Lutz; Herzke, Dorte; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife may be influenced by the physical and biotic environment, and concentrations vary greatly among areas, seasons, and individuals. Different hypotheses about sources of variation in perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations were examined in eggs (n = 107) of tawny owls (Strix aluco) collected over a 24-yr period (1986-2009) in Norway. Predictor variables included the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), temperature, snow, food availability (vole abundance), and individual traits such as age, body condition, and clutch size. Concentrations of both perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) varied several fold in the population, both inter- and intra-annually. Moreover, individuals laid eggs with several times higher or lower PFAS concentrations within few years (1 yr-5 yr). After controlling for temporal trends (i.e., declining PFOS and increasing PFCA concentrations), both PFOS and PFCAs were positively associated to the winter NAO in the previous year (NAOy - 1 ), suggesting that atmospheric transport may be affecting the input of PFASs to the local ecosystem. Perfluoro-octane sulfonate was negatively related to temperature, but the pattern was complex as there was an interaction between temperature and the feeding conditions. The PFOS accumulation was highest in years with high vole abundance and low to medium temperatures. For PFCAs, there was an interaction between NAOy - 1 and feeding conditions, suggesting that strong air transport toward Norway and high consumption of voles led to a moderate increase in PFCA accumulation. The individual traits, however, had very little impact on the concentrations of PFASs in the eggs. The present study thus suggests that annual variation in environmental conditions influences the concentrations of PFASs in a terrestrial raptor such as the tawny owl. PMID:25323676

  19. Transcriptional and cellular responses of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, David; Houde, Magali; Douville, Mlanie; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), a new class of perfluoroalkyl substances used primarily in the industrial sector as surfactants, were recently detected in surface water and wastewater treatment plant effluents. Toxicological effects of PFPAs have as yet not been investigated in aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of perfluorooctylphosphonic acid (C8-PFPA) and perfluorodecylphosphonic acid (C10-PFPA) exposure (31-250?g/L) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using genomic (qRT-PCR), biochemical (reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and lipid peroxidation), and physiological (cellular viability) indicators. After 72h of exposure, no differences were observed in cellular viability for any of the two perfluorochemicals. However, increase in ROS concentrations (36% and 25.6% at 125 and 250?g/L, respectively) and lipid peroxidation (35.5% and 35.7% at 125 and 250?g/L, respectively) was observed following exposure to C10-PFPA. C8-PFPA exposure did not impact ROS production and lipid peroxidation in algae. To get insights into the molecular response and modes of action of PFPA toxicity, qRT-PCR-based assays were performed to analyze the transcription of genes related to antioxidant responses including superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX I). Genomic analyses revealed that the transcription of CAT and APX I was up-regulated for all the C10-PFPA concentrations. In addition, PFPAs were quantified in St. Lawrence River surface water samples and detected at concentrations ranging from 250 to 850pg/L for C8-PFPA and 380 to 650pg/L for C10-PFPA. This study supports the prevalence of PFPAs in the aquatic environment and suggests potential impacts of PFPA exposure on the antioxidant defensive system in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25621396

  20. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. PMID:24814036

  1. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in wastewater: Significance of unknown precursors, manufacturing shifts, and likely AFFF impacts.

    PubMed

    Houtz, Erika F; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, June-Soo; Sedlak, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    In late 2014, wastewater effluent samples were collected from eight treatment plants that discharge to San Francisco (SF) Bay in order to assess poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) currently released from municipal and industrial sources. In addition to direct measurement of twenty specific PFAS analytes, the total concentration of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) precursors was also indirectly measured by adapting a previously developed oxidation assay. Effluent from six municipal treatment plants contained similar amounts of total PFASs, with highest median concentrations of PFHxA (24 ng/L), followed by PFOA (23 ng/L), PFBA (19 ng/L), and PFOS (15 ng/L). Compared to SF Bay municipal wastewater samples collected in 2009, the short chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFBA and PFHxA rose significantly in concentration. Effluent samples from two treatment plants contained much higher levels of PFASs: over two samplings, wastewater from one municipal plant contained an average of 420 ng/L PFOS and wastewater from an airport industrial treatment plant contained 560 ng/L PFOS, 390 ng/L 6:2 FtS, 570 ng/L PFPeA, and 500 ng/L PFHxA. The elevated levels observed in effluent samples from these two plants are likely related to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) sources impacting their influent; PFASs attributable to both current use and discontinued AFFF formulations were observed. Indirectly measured PFAA precursor compounds accounted for 33%-63% of the total molar concentration of PFASs across all effluent samples and the PFAA precursors indicated by the oxidation assay were predominately short-chained. PFAS levels in SF Bay effluent samples reflect the manufacturing shifts towards shorter chained PFASs while also demonstrating significant impacts from localized usage of AFFF. PMID:26990839

  2. Quantitative analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds in water matrices using high resolution mass spectrometry: optimization for a laser diode thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriel; Vo Duy, Sung; Budzinski, Hélène; Labadie, Pierre; Liu, Jinxia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-06-30

    An alternative analysis technique for the quantitation of 15 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water matrices is reported. Analysis time between each sample was reduced to less than 20s, all target molecules being analyzed in a single run with the use of laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD/APCI) coupled with high resolution accurate mass (HRMS) orbitrap mass spectrometry. LDTD optimal settings were investigated using either one-factor-at-a-time or experimental design methodologies, while orbitrap parameters were optimized simultaneously by means of a Box-Behnken design. Following selection of an adequate sample concentration and purification procedure based on solid-phase extraction and graphite clean-up, the method was validated in an influent wastewater matrix. Environmentally significant limits of detection were reported (0.3-4ngL(-1) in wastewater and 0.03-0.2ngL(-1) in surface water) and out of the 15 target analytes, 11 showed excellent accuracies (±20% of the target values) and recovery rates (75-125%). The method was successfully applied to a selection of environmental samples, including wastewater samples in 7 locations across Canada, as well as surface and tap water samples from the Montreal region, providing insights into the degree of PFAS contamination in this area. PMID:26041525

  3. GC-MS analysis of amino acid enantiomers as their N(O,S)-perfluoroacyl perfluoroalkyl esters: application to space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampolli, M.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Pietrogrande, M. C.; Buch, A.; Dondi, F.; Raulin, F.

    The search for optical activity in extraterrestrial sample is an important key for the study of the origin of life With this aim detection of chemical biomarkers i e of organic molecules which play an important role in biochemistry will be one of the main goals of future space missions To reach this goal an investigation of a GC-MS method based on the derivatization of amino acids by using a mixture of perfluorinated alcohols and perfluorinated anhydrides has been performed Amino acids are converted in their N O S -perfluoroacyl perfluoroalkyl esters in a single step procedure using different combinations of the derivatization reagents trifluoroacetic anhydride TFAA - 2 2 2-trifluoro-1-ethanol TFE TFAA-2 2 3 3 4 4 4-heptafluoro-1-butanol HFB heptafluorobutyric anhydride HFBA -HFB The obtained derivatives are analyzed using two different chiral columns a Chirasil-L-Val and a gammat cyclodextrin Rt- gamma -DEXsa stationary phases which show different and complementary enantiomeric selectivity The mass spectra of the derivatized compounds are studied and mass fragmentation patterns are proposed significant fragment ions can be identified to detect amino acid derivatives The obtained results are compared in terms of the enantiomeric separation achieved and mass spectrometric response Linearity studies and the measurement of the limit of detection LOD prove that the proposed method is suitable for a quantitative determination of several amino acids enantiomers 1 The use of a PTV Programmed Temperature Vaporiser

  4. Hazard assessment of fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors: status quo, ongoing challenges and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Because of concerns over the impact of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on humans and the environment, PFAAs and their precursors are being substituted by alternative substances including fluorinated alternatives that are structurally similar to the substances they replace. Using publicly accessible information, we aimed to identify the status quo of the hazard assessment of identified fluorinated alternatives, to analyze possible systemic shortcomings of the current industrial transition to alternative substances, and to outline possible solutions. Fluorinated alternatives, particularly short-chain PFAAs and perfluoroether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), possess high environmental stability and mobility implying that they have a high global contamination potential. In addition to their potential for causing global exposures, certain fluorinated alternatives have been identified as toxic and are thus likely to pose global risks to humans and the environment. Various factors, particularly the information asymmetry between industry and other stakeholders, have contributed to the current lack of knowledge about the risks posed by fluorinated alternatives. Available cases show that a non-fluorinated substitution strategy (employing either chemical or functionality substitutions) can be a possible long-term, sustainable solution and needs to be further developed and assessed. PMID:25461427

  5. Influence Of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles And Perfluoroalkylated Amphiphilic Phosphates On Red Blood Cells And Caco-2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moersdorf, Daniel; Hugounenq, Pierre; Phuoc, Lai Truonc; Mamlouk-Chaouachi, Hind; Nikolova, Gergana; Krafft, Marie Pierre; Waton, Gilles; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pourroy, Geneviève; Bernhardt, Ingolf

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of two types of cells (red blood cells (RBCs), Caco-2 cells) with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (non-grafted, citrate-grafted, dendrimer-grafted) of 11 nm in size, and with three perfluoroalkylated amphiphilic phosphates varying in chain length and number of fluorine atoms have been investigated. We focused on two important physiological parameters of the cells, the intracellular pH and the intracellular Ca2+ content. The results show that the nanoparticles do not have a significant influence on the pH and Ca2+ content of Caco-2 cells. The Ca2+ content of RBCs is also not affected but the intracellular pH is slightly reduced. In addition, the perfluoroalkylated phosphates do not affect the Caco-2 cells. However, these molecules have a small effect on the intracellular pH of RBCs. Furthermore, they influence significantly the Ca2+ content of a subpopulation of the RBCs.

  6. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p < 0.002) positively correlated with lipid content for all brain regions. Lipid-normalized PFOS and PFCA (C(10) -C(15) ) concentrations were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. PMID:23280712

  7. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼400nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction. PMID:26764109

  8. Contribution of selected perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances to the adsorbable organically bound fluorine in German rivers and in a highly contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Willach, Sarah; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Lange, Frank T

    2016-02-01

    Due to the lack of analytical standards the application of surrogate parameters for organofluorine detection in the aquatic environment is a complementary approach to single compound target analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFASs). The recently developed method adsorbable organically bound fluorine (AOF) is based on adsorption of organofluorine chemicals to activated carbon followed by combustion ion chromatography. This AOF method was further simplified to enable measurement of larger series of environmental samples. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.77 μg/L F. The modified protocol was applied to 22 samples from German rivers, a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and four groundwater samples from a fire-fighting training site. The WWTP effluent (AOF = 1.98 μg/L F) and only three river water samples (AOF between 0.88 μg/L F and 1.47 μg/L F) exceeded the LOQ. The AOF levels in a PFASs plume at a heavily contaminated site were in the range of 162 ± 3 μg/L F to 782 ± 43 μg/L F. In addition to AOF 17 PFASs were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 32-51% of AOF in the contaminated groundwater samples were explained by individual PFASs wheras in the surface waters more than 95% remained unknown. Organofluorine of two fluorinated pesticides, one pesticide metabolite and three fluorinated pharmaceuticals was recovered as AOF by >50% from all four tested water matrices. It is suggested that in the diffusely contaminated water bodies such fluorinated chemicals and not monitored PFASs contribute significantly to AOF. PMID:26692511

  9. Occurrence of select perfluoroalkyl substances at U.S. Air Force aqueous film-forming foam release sites other than fire-training areas: Field-validation of critical fate and transport properties.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R Hunter; Long, G Cornell; Porter, Ronald C; Anderson, Janet K

    2016-05-01

    The use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to extinguish hydrocarbon-based fires is recognized as a significant source of environmental poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Although the occurrence of select PFASs in soil and groundwater at former fire-training areas (FTAs) at military installations operable since 1970 has been consistently confirmed, studies reporting the occurrence of PFASs at other AFFF-impacted sites (e.g. emergency response locations, AFFF lagoons, hangar-related AFFF storage tanks and pipelines, and fire station testing and maintenance areas) are largely missing from the literature. Further, studies have mostly focused on a single site (i.e., FTAs at military installations) and, thus, lack a comparison of sites with diverse AFFF release history. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate select PFAS occurrence at non-FTA sites on active U.S. Air Force installations with historic AFFF use of varying magnitude. Concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), an important PFOS precursor, were measured from several hundred samples among multiple media (i.e., surface soil, subsurface soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater) collected from forty AFFF-impacted sites across ten installations between March and September 2014, representing one of the most comprehensive datasets on environmental PFAS occurrence to date. Differences in detection frequencies and observed concentrations due to AFFF release volume are presented along with rigorous data analyses that quantitatively demonstrate phase-dependent (i.e., solid-phase vs aqueous-phase) differences in the chemical signature as a function of carbon chain-length and in situ PFOS (and to a slightly lesser extent PFHxS) formation, presumably due to precursor biotransformation. PMID:26786021

  10. Fast determination of thyroid stimulating hormone in human blood serum without chemical preprocessing by using infrared spectroscopy and least squares support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Mello, Cesar; Marangoni, Antônio; Poppi, Ronei; Noda, Isao

    2011-06-24

    The least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was used to model infrared spectral data for TSH hormone secreted by thyroid, which regulates the basal metabolic rate. This model was used for direct estimation of the content of TSH in blood serum samples, and the results were comparable with those obtained with the conventional analytical method based on chemoluminescence methodology. Excellent agreement was observed between the conventional method and the newly developed calibration model based in analysis of spectral data with LS-SVM. The latter has clear advantages, because it is fast and requires no reagent once the measurements were done directly in the serum by using a simple mid-infrared spectrometer in the ATR mode. An important advantage observed in this calibration method based on LS-SVM is the remarkable capacity to avoid overfitting in the model-building step, that is, the developed method is highly robust. PMID:21621031

  11. Synthesis of platinum complexes with 2-(5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3yl)-pyridine and 2-(3-perfluoroalkyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5yl)-pyridine ligands and their in vitro antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Simona; Pibiri, Ivana; Costantino, Cristina; Buscemi, Silvestre; Girasolo, Maria Assunta; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Five new mononuclear Pt(II) complexes with 5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl-pyridine and 3-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-pyridine ligands are reported. The ligands 2-(5-perfluoroheptyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3yl)-pyridine (pfhop), 2-(5-perfluoropropyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3yl)-pyridine (pfpop), 2-(3-perfluoroheptyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5yl)-pyridine (pfhtp), 2-(3-perfluoropropyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5yl)-pyridine (pfptp) and their complexes [PtCl2(pfhop)2]·1.5 DMSO (2a), [PtCl2(pfpop)2]·1.5 DMSO (3a), [PtCl2(pfhtp)2]·1.5 DMSO (4a), PtCl2(pfhtp) (4b), [PtCl2(pfptp)2]·1.5 DMSO (5a) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The complexes 2a, 3a, 4a and 5a have the same chemical environment of Pt(II) where PtCl2 moieties coordinate two molecules of ligand via N1 atom of pyridine in the case of pfhop and pfpop, and N2 atom of 1,2,4-triazole in the case of pfhtp and pfptp. For 4b, pfhtp behaves as bidentate ligand, coordinating Pt(II) ion via N4 atom of triazole and N1 atom of pyridine. All complexes have been tested in vitro by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)bromide-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) test on four tumor cell lines MCF-7 (human breast cancer), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), HCT116 (human colorectal carcinoma). Compounds 2a and 4b showed a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect against the three tumor cell lines whereas did not affect viability of intestinal normal-like differentiated Caco-2 cells. The cell death of HepG2, MCF-7 and HCT116 induced by the compounds, was considered to be apoptotic by measuring the exposure of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane and observing the typical apoptotic morphological change by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. PMID:26684582

  12. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2013-11-01

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF<1) in any of the investigated tissues. Biotransfer factors (BTFs; defined as the concentration in tissue divided by the total daily intake) were calculated for muscle and milk. Log BTFs ranged from -1.95 to -1.15 day kg(-1) with the highest BTF observed for PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios. PMID:23644948

  13. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011-29703-C02-01 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02 References Campo, J., Pérez, F., Masiá, A., Picó, Y., Farré, M., Barceló, D., 2014. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain). Science of the Total Environment DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.094. Masiá, A., Campo J., Vázquez-Roig, P., Blasco, C., Picó Y., 2013. Screening of currently used pesticides in water, sediments and biota of the Guadalquivir River Basin (Spain). J. Hazard. Mater. 263P, 95-104.

  14. Investigation of the excited state iodine lifetime in the photodissociation of perfluoroalkyl iodides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Stephen H.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of prospective laser materials for a space-based solar pumped laser system over the past decade has resulted in the identification of the iodine photodissociation laser as that system best suited to solar-pumped high energy operation. The active medium for the solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser is from the family of perfluoroalkyl iodides. These lasants have the general form C(n)F(2n + 1)I, often abbreviated as RI. These iodides are known to exhibit photodissociaiton of the C-I bond when irradiated by near UV photons. The focus was on the experimental determination of the lifetime of the excited iodine atom following photodissociation of C4F9I, and also to monitor fluorescence from the iodine molecule at 500 nm to determine if I2 is being produced in the process. Photodissociation is achieved using an XeCl excimer laser with an output wavelength of 308 nm. The XeCl beam is focused into the middle of a cylindrical quartz cell containing the lasant. The laser pulse is detected with a fast risetime photomultiplier tube as it exits the cell. Other aspects of the investigation are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Sim, Won-Jin; Lee, Eung-Sun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a significant source of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in natural water. In this study, 10 PFCs were analyzed in influent and effluent wastewater and sludge samples in 15 municipal, 4 livestock and 3 industrial WWTPs in Korea. The observed distribution pattern of PFCs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in the sludge samples with a concentration ranging from 3.3 to 54.1 ng/g, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was dominant in wastewater and ranged from 2.3 to 615 ng/L and 3.4 to 591 ng/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) results provided an explanation for this variation in PFC distribution patterns in the aqueous and sludge samples. The fates of PFCs in the WWTPs were related with the functional groups. The PFOS concentrations tended to decrease after treatment in most WWTPs, whereas PFOA increased. The different fates of PFOA and PFOS in WWTPs were attributed to the higher organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficient of perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFASs) than that of the carboxylate analog, indicating the preference of PFASs to partition to sludge. Although industrial WWTPs contained high concentration of PFCs, they are not the main source of PFCs in Korean water environment because of their small release amount. WWTPs located in big cities discharged more PFCs, suggesting household sewage is one of the significant sources of PFCs contamination in the environment. PMID:20417541

  16. Input characterization of perfluoroalkyl substances in wastewater treatment plants: source discrimination by exploratory data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Halbach, Thomas R; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on multivariate data analysis for identifying input sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across more than 40 cities in the state of Minnesota (USA). Exploratory analysis of data points has been carried out by unsupervised pattern recognition (cluster analysis), correlation analysis, ANOVA and per capita discharges in an attempt to discriminate sources of PFASs in WWTPs. Robust cluster solutions grouped the database according to the different PFAS profiles in WWTP influent. Significantly elevated levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and/or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in influent have been found in 18 out of 37 WWTPs (49%). A substantial increase in the concentrations of PFHxA and/or PFOA from influent to effluent was observed in 59% of the WWTPs surveyed, suggestive of high concentration inputs of precursors. The fate of one precursor (8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol) in WWTP was modeled based on fugacity analysis to understand the increasing effluent concentration. Furthermore, population-related emissions cannot wholly explain the occurrence and levels of PFASs in WWTPs. Unusually high influent levels of PFASs were observed in WWTPs located in specific industrial areas or where known contamination had taken place. Despite the restriction on the production/use of PFOA and PFOS, this paper demonstrates that wastewater from industrial activities is still a principal determinant of PFAS pollution in urban watersheds. PMID:22483712

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

  18. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations. PMID:23376515

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinel la; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6-C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01-3.67 ng g(-1)) and biota (0.79-431 μg kg(-1)) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01-233 ng L(-1)). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L(-1) was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. PMID:24935262

  20. A review of sources, multimedia distribution and health risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been recognized as emerging pollutants because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, biota and humans. In order to investigate their sources, fate and environmental effects, a great number of surveys have been carried out over the past several years. In the present review, we summarized the status of sources and emission, concentration, distribution and risks of PFAAs in China. Concentrations of PFAAs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in various environmental media including water, sediment, soil, rain, snow and organisms, as well as human tissues are summarized based on the available data. Concentrations of PFAAs in aquatic systems are higher in relatively more industrialized and urbanized areas than those from the less populated and remote regions in China, indicating that their emission and distribution are closely related to regional urbanization and industrialization. PFAAs and related products have been widely used over the past several decades, which have brought about high concentrations detected in environmental matrixes, biota and even local residents. Ecological risk assessment of PFAAs is still less developed in China. Most existing studies compared concentrations of PFAAs to guideline values derived for single species to evaluate the risk. In order to reveal the transport, partitioning and degradation of PFAAs in the environment, further studies on their behavior, fate, bioaccumulation and adverse effects in different trophic levels should be conducted. PMID:25262946

  1. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-12-15

    In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5-229ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08-107ng/L), PFOS (3.52-54.3ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66-44.8ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21-23.6ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5-56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors. PMID:26280369

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Paxman, Christopher J; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigates the occurrence and fate of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and one fluorotelomer sulfonate from a firefighting training ground (FTG) that was contaminated by intensive use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). The contamination levels and their spatial and vertical distribution are assessed in the structure. At the surface of the pad, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is the dominant PFASs measured, with concentration varying from 10 to 200 μg g(-1). PFASs were also detected in a concrete core at up to 12 cm depth, suggesting the vertical movement and higher transport potential of shorter chain compounds. The estimated mass load of linear PFOS in this specific pad was >300 g with a total of 1.7 kg for the sum of all PFASs analyzed. The kinetics of desorption of PFOS, PFOA and 6:2FTS from the concrete into an overlaying static water volume has been measured under field conditions at two constant temperatures. Fitting the desorption data and estimated rainfall/runoff to a kinetic model suggests that this and similar firefighting training pads will likely remain a source of PFASs for many decades (t0.5=25 years for PFOS). PMID:25966923

  3. Neutral Poly-/perfluoroalkyl Substances in Air and Snow from the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhen; Mi, Wenying; Möller, Axel; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Levels of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (nPFASs) in air and snow collected from Ny-Ålesund were measured and their air-snow exchange was determined to investigate whether they could re-volatilize into the atmosphere driven by means of air-snow exchange. The total concentration of 12 neutral PFASs ranged from 6.7 to 39 pg m−3 in air and from 330 to 690 pg L−1 in snow. A significant log-linear relationship was observed between the gas/particle partition coefficient and vapor pressure of the neutral PFASs. For fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOHs) and fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), the air-snow exchange fluxes were positive, indicating net evaporative from snow into air, while net deposition into snow was observed for perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (Me/EtFOSEs) in winter and spring of 2012. The air-snow exchange was snow-phase controlled for FTOHs and FTAs, and controlled by the air-phase for FOSEs. Air-snow exchange may significantly interfere with atmospheric concentrations of neutral PFASs in the Arctic. PMID:25746440

  4. A Simple Pharmacokinetic Model of Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs).

    PubMed

    Verner, Marc-André; Ngueta, Gérard; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Fromme, Hermann; Völkel, Wolfgang; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Granum, Berit; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2016-01-19

    Most children are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) through placental transfer, breastfeeding, and other environmental sources. To date, there are no validated tools to estimate exposure and body burden during infancy and childhood. In this study, we aimed to (i) develop a two-generation pharmacokinetic model of prenatal and postnatal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS); and to (ii) evaluate it against measured children's levels in two studies. We developed a pharmacokinetic model consisting of a maternal and a child compartment to simulate lifetime exposure in women and transfer to the child across the placenta and through breastfeeding. To evaluate the model, we performed simulations for each mother-child dyad from two studies in which maternal PFAS levels at delivery and children's PFAS levels were available. Model predictions based on maternal PFAS levels, sex of child, body weight, and duration of breastfeeding explained between 52% and 60% of the variability in measured children's levels at 6 months of age and between 52% and 62% at 36 months. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the daily intake through breastfeeding and resulting internal PFAS levels can be much higher in nursing infants than in mothers. This pharmacokinetic model shows potential for postnatal exposure assessment in the context of epidemiological studies and risk assessment. PMID:26691063

  5. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Etterson, Matthew A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150–200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed.

  6. Microminipigs as a new experimental animal model for toxicological studies: comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluoroalkyl acids.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Yamazaki, Eriko; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Yamanaka, Noriko; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Sato, Masumi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel minipig strain, the Microminipig (MMPig), as an animal model for studying the pharmacokinetics of a mixture of 10 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). After a single oral dose was given, we found that the blood depuration of PFAAs (blood t1/2), which we calculated using first-order elimination curves, ranged from 1.6 to 86.6 days. Among the five body compartments analyzed, the liver was the greatest site of accumulation of perfluorooctanesulfonate and longer chain perfluorinated carboxylates such as perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorododecanoic acid. We observed an increasing accumulation trend of perfluorinated carboxylates in the organs associated with the fluorinated carbon chain length. The perfluorononanoic acid burden was the highest among the treated compounds 21 days after a single exposure, as 29% of the given perfluorononanoic acid dose was accumulated in the tissues. The persistence of PFAAs in edible pig tissues even after 21 days post-exposure raises concerns about the safety of swine products. This was the first study to use MMPigs to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of a group of environmental pollutants. We found that MMPigs could be excellent experimental animals for toxicological studies due to their easy handling, cost efficacy for target compounds and ease of waste treatment. PMID:25877231

  7. Delivery of unprecedented amounts of perfluoroalkyl substances towards the deep-sea.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Canals, Miquel; Barceló, Damià; Puig, Pere; Calafat, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    The finding of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in particles sinking to the deep northwestern Mediterranean Sea confirms the role of the latter as ballast for the transfer of pollutants to the deep sea. The transfer of particulate matter down to the deep is enhanced during atmosphere-driven, high-energy physical oceanographic processes like dense shelf water cascading (DSWC), which is caused by winter surface heat losses and evaporation. Here we present data from samples collected during winter 2012, when dense shelf water formation and subsequent cascading triggered the flushing of large amounts of PFASs through a submarine canyon to depths in excess of 1000 m. The finding of quantifiable concentrations of long-chain PFOA, PFOS and PFNA substances and significantly high concentrations of the short-chain substances PFHxA and PFBA indicates that these compounds, sorbed onto particulate matter, are quickly and directly transferred to the ocean's interior, thus highlighting the role of DSWC in removing those pollutants from the coastal ocean. Eventually, uncertainties about our results arising from the limited number of samples available are counterbalanced by their intrinsic value as intense DSWC events, like the one in 2012, occur only every 5-7 years in the study area, which seriously restricts sampling opportunities. Our results add PFASs to the list of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons known to be conveyed to the deep marine environment. PMID:25918891

  8. Approaches to prepare perfluoroalkyl and pentafluorophenyl copper couples for cross-coupling reactions with organohalogen compounds.

    PubMed

    Kremlev, Mikhail M; Mushta, Aleksej I; Tyrra, Wieland; Yagupolskii, Yurii L; Naumann, Dieter; Schäfer, Mathias

    2015-12-01

    The reactions of iodoperfluoroalkanes CnF2n+1I (n = 2, 3, 4) and n-BuLi at low temperatures give NMR spectroscopic evidence for LiCnF2n+1 which were converted into LiCu(CnF2n+1)2 derivatives upon treatment with 0.5 mol copper(i) bromide, CuBr. An alternative route to obtain perfluoroorgano copper couples, Cu(Rf)2Ag (Rf = n-C3F7, n-C4F9, C6F5) was achieved from the reactions of the corresponding perfluoroorgano silver(i) reagents, AgRf, and elemental copper through redox transmetallations. The composition of the resulting reactive intermediates was investigated by means of (19)F NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. Perfluoro-n-propyl and perfluoro-n-butyl copper-silver reagents prepared by the oxidative transmetallation route exhibited good properties in C-C bond formation reactions with acid chlorides even under moderate conditions. Substitution of bromine directly bound to aromatics for perfluoroalkyl groups was achieved at elevated temperatures, while success in halide substitution reactions using lithium copper couples remained poor. PMID:26488228

  9. Aqueous phase hydration and hydrate acidity of perfluoroalkyl and n:2 fluorotelomer aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-01

    The SPARC software program and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the aqueous phase hydration equilibrium constants (Khyd) of perfluoroalkyl aldehydes (PFAlds) and n:2 fluorotelomer aldehydes (FTAlds). Both classes are degradation products of known industrial compounds and environmental contaminants such as fluorotelomer alcohols, iodides, acrylates, phosphate esters, and other derivatives, as well as hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Prior studies have generally failed to consider the hydration, and subsequent potential hydrate acidity, of these compounds, resulting in incomplete and erroneous predictions as to their environmental behavior. In the current work, DFT calculations suggest that all PFAlds will be dominantly present as the hydrated form in aqueous solution. Both SPARC and DFT calculations suggest that FTAlds will not likely be substantially hydrated in aquatic systems or in vivo. PFAld hydrates are expected to have pKa values in the range of phenols (ca. 9 to 10), whereas n:2 FTAld hydrates are expected to have pKa values ca. 2 to 3 units higher (ca. 12 to 13). In order to avoid spurious modeling predictions and a fundamental misunderstanding of their fate, the molecular and/or dissociated hydrate forms of PFAlds and FTAlds need to be explicitly considered in environmental, toxicological, and waste treatment investigations. The results of the current study will facilitate a more complete examination of the environmental fate of PFAlds and FTAlds. PMID:26980678

  10. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Leo W Y; De Silva, Amila O; Loi, Eva I H; Marvin, Chris H; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg(-1) d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased. PMID:23911339

  12. Quantifying diffuse and point inputs of perfluoroalkyl acids in a nonindustrial river catchment.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia E; Spiess, Nora; Gerecke, Andreas C; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the role of diffuse inputs of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) into surface waters has been investigated. It has been observed that river loads increased during rain and that street runoff contained considerable loads of PFAAs. This study aims at quantifying these diffuse inputs and identifying the initial sources in a small nonindustrial river catchment. The river was sampled in three distinct subcatchments (rural, urban, and wastewater treatment plant) at high temporal resolution during two rain events and samples were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorosulfonates. Additionally, rain, stormwater runoff, wastewater effluent, and drinking water were sampled. PFAA concentrations in river water were all low (e.g., < 10 ng/L for perfluorooctanoate, PFOA), but increased during rainfall. PFAA concentrations and water discharge data were integrated into a mass balance assessment that shows that 30-60% of PFAA loads can be attributed to diffuse inputs. Rain contributed 10-50% of the overall loads, mobilization of dry deposition and outdoor release of PFAA from products with 20-60%. We estimated that within a year 2.5-5 g of PFOA originating from rain and surface runoff are emitted into this small catchment (6 km(2), 12,500 persons). PMID:22035097

  13. A Comparison of RIA and LC-MS/MS Methods to Quantify Steroids in Rat Serum and Urine Following Exposure to an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercially available radio immunoassays (RIM) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIM to th...

  14. Spatial distribution and partition of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liuwei; Li, Juying; Wang, Xinxuan; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water from 67 sampling sites along rivers of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. Sixteen PFAAs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-14, C16 and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8 and C10) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Total PFAA concentrations (? PFAAs) in the surface water ranged from 1.53 to 33.5 ngL(-1) with an average of 7.58 ngL(-1). Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 28%, 16% and 10% of ? PFAAs, respectively. Higher concentrations of ? PFAAs were found in the samples collected from Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities which had very well-developed manufacturing industries. PCA model was employed to quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. Factor 1 (72.48% of the total variance) had high loading for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), PFBS and PFOS. For factor 2 (10.93% of the total variance), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) got high loading. The sorption of PFCAs on suspended particulate matter (SPM) increased by approximately 0.1 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that on sediment was approximately 0.8 log units lower than the SPM logKd values. In addition, the differences in the partition coefficients were influenced by the structure discrepancy of absorbents and influx of fresh river water. These data are essential for modeling the transport and environmental fate of PFAAs. PMID:25889539

  15. Probing the binding of an endocrine disrupting compound-Bisphenol F to human serum albumin: Insights into the interactions of harmful chemicals with functional biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fang; Xu, Tianci; Yang, Lijun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) as an endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) pollutant in the environment poses a great threat to human health. To evaluate the toxicity of BPF at the protein level, the effects of BPF on human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated at three temperatures 283, 298, and 308 K by multiple spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results showed that BPF effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites, the binding constant, the thermodynamic parameters and the binding subdomain were measured, and indicated that BPF could spontaneously bind with HSA on subdomain IIA through H-bond and van der Waals interactions. Furthermore, the conformation of HSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of BPF. The work provides accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanisms of BPF with HSA in vivo and is helpful for understanding its effect on protein function during its transportation and distribution in blood.

  16. Identification of Novel Perfluoroalkyl Ether Carboxylic Acids (PFECAs) and Sulfonic Acids (PFESAs) in Natural Waters Using Accurate Mass Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS).

    PubMed

    Strynar, Mark; Dagnino, Sonia; McMahen, Rebecca; Liang, Shuang; Lindstrom, Andrew; Andersen, Erik; McMillan, Larry; Thurman, Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Ball, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Recent scientific scrutiny and concerns over exposure, toxicity, and risk have led to international regulatory efforts resulting in the reduction or elimination of certain perfluorinated compounds from various products and waste streams. Some manufacturers have started producing shorter chain per- and polyfluorinated compounds to try to reduce the potential for bioaccumulation in humans and wildlife. Some of these new compounds contain central ether oxygens or other minor modifications of traditional perfluorinated structures. At present, there has been very limited information published on these "replacement chemistries" in the peer-reviewed literature. In this study we used a time-of-flight mass spectrometry detector (LC-ESI-TOFMS) to identify fluorinated compounds in natural waters collected from locations with historical perfluorinated compound contamination. Our workflow for discovery of chemicals included sequential sampling of surface water for identification of potential sources, nontargeted TOFMS analysis, molecular feature extraction (MFE) of samples, and evaluation of features unique to the sample with source inputs. Specifically, compounds were tentatively identified by (1) accurate mass determination of parent and/or related adducts and fragments from in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID), (2) in-depth evaluation of in-source adducts formed during analysis, and (3) confirmation with authentic standards when available. We observed groups of compounds in homologous series that differed by multiples of CF2 (m/z 49.9968) or CF2O (m/z 65.9917). Compounds in each series were chromatographically separated and had comparable fragments and adducts produced during analysis. We detected 12 novel perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids in surface water in North Carolina, USA using this approach. A key piece of evidence was the discovery of accurate mass in-source n-mer formation (H(+) and Na(+)) differing by m/z 21.9819, corresponding to the mass difference between the protonated and sodiated dimers. PMID:26392038

  17. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  18. A targeted/non-targeted screening method for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and sulfonates in whole fish using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MS(e).

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Bernard S; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M

    2014-02-01

    A new method for measuring perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) in biological matrices has been developed. An ultra-high pressure liquid chromatograph equipped with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QToF) was optimized using a continuous precursor/product ion monitoring mode. Unlike traditional targeted studies that isolate precursor/product ion pairs, the current method alternates between two ionization energy channels to continuously capture standard electrospray ionization (low energy) and collision induced dissociation (high energy) spectra. The result is the indiscriminant acquisition of paired low and high energy spectra for all constituents eluting from the chromatographic system. This technique was evaluated for the routine analysis of perfluoroalkyl species. Using this technique, linear perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (C4 to C14) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, C8 and C10) exhibited a linear range spanning over three orders of magnitude and were detectable at levels less than 1 pg on column with a root mean squared signal to noise ratio of 5 to 20. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and National Institutes of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1946 were used to evaluate matrix effects and the accuracy of this method when applied to a whole fish extract. The current method was also evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify unknown PFCs using experimental fragmentation patterns, mass defect filtering and Kendrick plots. PMID:24352588

  19. Evaluation of additivity of binary mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARa) activation in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment and in animal tissues, and are present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that in vivo effects of PFAAs are mediated by PPARL. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate ...

  20. Biotin/Folate-decorated Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles of Docetaxel: Comparison of Chemically Conjugated Nanostructures and Physically Loaded Nanoparticles for Targeting of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nateghian, Navid; Goodarzi, Navid; Amini, Mohsen; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-01-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with very low water solubility. Conjugation of DTX to human serum albumin (HSA) is an effective way to increase its water solubility. Attachment of folic acid (FA) or biotin as targeting moieties to DTX-HSA conjugates may lead to active targeting and specific uptake by cancer cells with overexpressed FA or biotin receptors. In this study, FA or biotin molecules were attached to DTX-HSA conjugates by two different methods. In one method, FA or biotin molecules were attached to remaining NH2 residues of HSA in DTX-HSA conjugate by covalent bonds. In the second method, HSA-FA or HSA-biotin conjugates were synthesized separately and then combined by DTX-HSA conjugate in proper ratio to prepare nanoparticles containing DTX-HSA plus HSA-FA or HSA-biotin. Cell viability of different nanoparticle was evaluated on MDA-MB-231 (folate receptor positive), A549 (folate receptor negative), and 4T1 (biotin receptor positive) and showed superior cytotoxicity compared with free docetaxel (Taxotere(®) ). In vivo studies of DTX-HSA-FA and DTX-HSA-biotin conjugates in BULB/c mice, tumorized by 4T1 cell line, showed the conjugates prepared in this study were more powerful in the reduction in tumor size and increasing the survival rate when compared to free docetaxel. PMID:26216713

  1. Chemical composition of natural and polyphenol-free apple pomace and the effect of this dietary ingredient on intestinal fermentation and serum lipid parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Boros, Danuta

    2011-09-14

    Unprocessed pomace containing 61% of dietary fiber (DF) and 0.23% of polyphenols (PP) and ethanol- or ethanol/acetone-extracted pomaces containing 66% DF and 0.10% PP and 67% DF and 0.01% PP, respectively, were subjected to a 4 week study in rats. The aim of the study was assessing the advantages of dietary supplementation with the above pomaces. To measure the animal response to dietary treatments, parameters describing cecal fermentation and lipoprotein profile were assessed. The dietary use of 5% unprocessed pomace caused an increase in cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and a decrease in blood triacylglycerols, leading to a drop in serum atherogenic index. Ethanol-extracted pomace increased the glycolytic activity of cecal microbiota and decreased cecal branched-chain fatty acid production, whereas acetone extraction led to lower cecal ammonia concentration, decreased colonic pH value, and higher HDL/total cholesterol ratio. The variations in the atherogenic index indicate flavonoids as the key pomace component in relation to blood lipid profile benefits. PMID:21805963

  2. Accumulation of perfluoroalkyl compounds in tibetan mountain snow: temporal patterns from 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Halsall, Crispin; Codling, Garry; Xie, Zhiyong; Xu, Baiqing; Zhao, Zhen; Xue, Yonggang; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The use of snow and ice cores as recorders of environmental contamination is particularly relevant for per- and polyfluoroalky substances (PFASs) given their production history, differing source regions and varied mechanisms driving their global distribution. In a unique study perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were analyzed in dated snow-cores obtained from high mountain glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). One snow core was obtained from the Mt Muztagata glacier (accumulation period of 1980-1999), located in western Tibet and a second core from Mt. Zuoqiupo (accumulation period: 1996-2007) located in southeastern Tibet, with fresh surface snow collected near Lake Namco in 2010 (southern Tibet). The higher concentrations of ∑PFAAs were observed in the older Mt Muztagata core and dominated by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (61.4-346 pg/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (40.8-243 pg/L), whereas in the Mt Zuoqiupu core the concentrations were lower (e.g., PFOA: 37.8-183 pg/L) with PFOS below detection limits. These differences in PFAA concentrations and composition profile likely reflect the upwind sources affecting the respective sites (e.g., European/central Asian sources for Mt Muztagata and India sources for Mt Zuoqiupu). Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) dominated the recent surface snowpack of Lake Namco which is mainly associated with India sources where the shorter chain volatile PFASs precursors predominate. The use of snow cores in different parts of Tibet provides useful recorders to examine the influence of different PFASs source regions and reflect changing PFAS production/use in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:24320138

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution and mass loadings of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Yangtze River of China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qian-Qian

    2014-09-15

    A systematic investigation into contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in both surface water and sediments of Yangtze River was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in summer and winter of 2013. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water and sediment of Yangtze River ranged from 2.2 to 74.56 ng/L and 0.05 to 1.44 ng/g dry weights (dw), respectively. The PFAS concentrations were correlated to some selected water quality parameters such as pH, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and conductivity in water, and some sediment properties, such as total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and TN in sediment. The monitoring results for the water and sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFAS compound found both in water and sediment for the two seasons with its maximum concentration of 18.03 ng/L in water and 0.72 ng/g in sediment, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) with its maximum concentration of 41.9 ng/L in water in Wuhan, whereas the lowest concentrations of PFASs were observed at Poyang lake. The annual loadings of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), PFBS, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and the total PFASs in the Yangtze River were 6.8 tons, 2.2 tons, 8.2 tons, 0.88 tons, and 20.7 tons, respectively. Wuhan and Er'zhou of Hubei contributed the most amounts of PFASs into the Yangtze River. A correlation was found between some PFASs, for example PFBS and PFOS, which suggests that both of these PFASs originate from common sources in the region. PMID:24982023

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances and organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Huaihe watershed in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Giesy, John P; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-11-01

    Twelve perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified in surface sediments from the Huaihe River, China, along which there are intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Concentrations of PFASs ranged from 0.06 to 0.46ng/g dry weight (dw), and concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.48 to 32.65ng/gdw. Compared with other areas in China, concentrations of PFASs were lesser than the national mean value, while concentrations of OCPs were moderate. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) ranged from n.d. (not detected) to 0.03 and n.d. to 0.10ng/gdw, respectively. Among the three groups of OCPs, mean concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 5.62±4.35, 2.43±3.12 and 1.55±4.17ng/gdw, respectively. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs decreased from upstream to downstream along the mainstream of the Huaihe River. When compared to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB would pose adverse biological effects. In general, contamination by PFASs in the upstream of the Huaihe River was more severe than that in the downstream, which was mainly caused by interception from dams, locks and industrial emissions. And OCPs from tributaries, especially the Yinghe River and Wohe River, were higher than those from Huaihe mainstream, and primarily came from historical inputs. PMID:25458673

  5. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl surfactants in water, fish, and birds from New York State.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ewan; Mayack, David T; Roblee, Kenneth; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and several other perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) were determined in nine major water bodies (n = 51) of New York State (NYS). These PASs were also measured in the livers of two species of sport fish (n = 66) from 20 inland lakes in NYS. Finally, perfluorinated compounds were measured in the livers of 10 species of waterfowl (n = 87) from the Niagara River region in NYS. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS) were ubiquitous in NYS waters. PFOA was typically found at higher concentrations than were PFOS and PFHS. Elevated concentrations of PFOS were found in surface waters of Lake Onondaga, and elevated concentrations of PFOA were found in the Hudson River. PFOS was the most abundant perfluorinated compound in all fish and bird samples. PFOS concentrations in the livers of fishes ranged from 9 to 315 ng/g wet weight. PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamide) concentrations in smallmouth and largemouth bass (taken together) caught in remote mountain lakes with no known point sources of PAS contamination were 14 to 207, < 1.5 to 6.1, and < 1.5 to 9.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively. PFOS concentrations in the livers of birds ranged from 11 to 882 ng/g wet weight. PFOS concentrations were 2.5-fold greater (p = 0.001) in piscivorous birds than in non-piscivorous birds. However, PFOA, PFOSA, and PFHS were not found in bird livers. Overall, average concentrations of PFOS in fish were 8850-fold greater than those in surface water. An average biomagnification factor of 8.9 was estimated for PFOS in common merganser relative to that in fish. This study highlights the significance of dietary fish in PFOS accumulation in the food chain. Furthermore, our results provide information on the distribution of PASs in natural waters, fish, and several bird species in NYS. PMID:16435086

  6. Biomagnification and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Goeritz, Ina; Falk, Sandy; Stahl, Thorsten; Schäfers, Christoph; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the biomagnification potential as well as the substance and tissue-specific distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout with an average body weight of 314 ± 21 g were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in the diet for 28 d. The accumulation phase was followed by a 28-d depuration phase, in which the test animals were fed with nonspiked trout feed. On days 0, 7, 14, 28, 31, 35, 42, and 56 of the present study, fish were sampled from the test basin for PFAS analysis. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all test compounds were determined based on a kinetic approach. Distribution factors were calculated for each test compound to illustrate the disposition of PFASs in rainbow trout after 28 d of exposure. Dietary exposure of market-size rainbow trout to PFASs did not result in biomagnification; BMF values were calculated as 0.42 for PFOS, >0.23 for PFNA, >0.18 for PFHxS, >0.04 for PFOA, and >0.02 for PFBS, which are below the biomagnification threshold of 1. Liver, blood, kidney, and skin were identified as the main target tissues for PFASs in market-size rainbow trout. Evidence was shown that despite relative low PFAS contamination, the edible parts of the fish (the fillet and skin) can significantly contribute to the whole-body burden. PMID:23686590

  7. Distribution, source characterization and inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changsheng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Du, Ping; Liu, Sisi; Lv, Jiapei; Xu, Fengxia; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    The levels, distribution, possible sources, and inventory of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the eutrophic freshwater Taihu Lake, East China were investigated in this study. Among the target 11 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.15-73.9 ng L(-1)) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (

  8. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ. PMID:26366629

  9. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Masi, Ana; Pic, Yolanda; Farr, Marinella; Barcel, Dami

    2014-02-15

    The concentrations of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylates, C4, C6-C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in influent, effluent and sludge from 16 different sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the Ebro (6), Guadalquivir (5), Jucar (2) and Llobregat (3) Rivers, in two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by Liquid Chromatography triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples, except two sludges from Guadalquivir River STPs, were contaminated with at least one PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) were the most frequently detected. The highest concentration in water was determined in 2010 in a Guadalquivir River STP (perfluorohexanoate, PFHxA: 5.60?gL(-1)) and, in 2011, in an Ebro River STP (perfluorobutane sulfonate, L-PFBS: 0.31?gL(-1)). In sludge samples, the maximum concentration in 2010 was 1.79?gg(-1)dry weight (dw) (L-PFOS, in a Llobregat River STP), and in 2011, 1.88?gg(-1)dw (PFBA, in one Guadalquivir River STP). High PFAS values in sludge could be related to positive removal efficiencies, and can be attributed to their adsorption. Distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined ranging between 0.32Lkg(-1) (perfluorohexane sulfonate, L-PFHxS) and 36.6 10(3)Lkg(-1) (PFBA). The total PFAS loads discharged into the basins showed high values for the Ebro River STPs (66.9gday(-1)) while in the others, the loads were between 3.97gday(-1), in the Jucar STPs, and 32.2gday(-1), in the Guadalquivir STPs. PMID:24342098

  10. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Dana L; Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2016-01-01

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a sustainable practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation that has become increasingly common worldwide, concerns remain that this practice may become a source of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the temporal trends of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pollutants of global consequence, in limed Class B biosolids from a municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF), also know as a wastewater treatment plant. PFASs are of significant concern due to their extensive presence and persistence in environmental and biotic samples worldwide, most notably human blood samples. Class B biosolids were collected from the WRRF, prior to land-application, approximately every two to three months, from 2005 to 2013. Overall, this study found that concentrations of the 7 detectable PFAS compounds remained unchanged over the 8-year period, a result that is consistent with other temporal studies of these compounds in sewage sludges. From these analyzed compounds, the highest mean concentrations observed over the study period were 25.1 ng/g dw, 23.5 ng/g dw, and 22.5 ng/g dw for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), respectively, and these compounds were detected at concentrations 2.5-5 times higher than the remaining, detectable PFASs. Furthermore, it was observed that PFOS, while demonstrating no overall change during the study, exhibited a visible spike in concentration from late 2006 to early 2007. This study indicates that concentrations of PFASs in WRRFs have been stagnant over time, despite regulation. This study also demonstrates that the use of glass jars with polytetrafluoroethylene-lined lids, a common storage method for environmental samples, will not influence PFOA and PFNA concentrations in archived biosolids samples. PMID:26413802

  11. Interaction of perfluoroalkyl acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Nan; Li, Juan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Aiqian; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent and bioaccumulative, resulting in their broad distribution in humans and the environment. The liver is an important target for PFAAs, but the mechanisms behind PFAAs interaction with hepatocyte proteins remain poorly understood. We characterized the binding of PFAAs to human liver fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) and identified critical structural features in their interaction. The binding interaction of PFAAs with hL-FABP was determined by fluorescence displacement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay. Molecular simulation was conducted to define interactions at the binding sites. ITC measurement revealed that PFOA/PFNA displayed a moderate affinity for hL-FABP at a 1:1 molar ratio, a weak binding affinity for PFHxS and no binding for PFHxA. Moreover, the interaction was mainly mediated by electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. Substitution of Asn111 with Asp caused loss of binding affinity to PFAA, indicating its crucial role for the initial PFAA binding to the outer binding site. Substitution of Arg122 with Gly caused only one molecule of PFAA to bind to hL-FABP. Molecular simulation showed that substitution of Arg122 increased the volume of the outer binding pocket, making it impossible to form intensive hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen bonds with PFOA, and highlighting its crucial role in the binding process. The binding affinity of PFAAs increased significantly with their carbon number. Arg122 and Asn111 played a pivotal role in these interactions. Our findings may help understand the distribution pattern, bioaccumulation, elimination, and toxicity of PFAAs in humans. PMID:25370009

  12. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were collected from the Netherlands (n = 95) and Greece (n = 76). The egg yolks were analysed for 11 PFASs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. PFAS levels in yolk were higher in home produced eggs from the Netherlands (median 3.1, range < LOQ - 31.2 ng g(-1)) and Greece (median 1.1, range < LOQ - 15.0 ng g(-1)) compared to the eggs collected from supermarkets. In these eggs, all PFAS levels were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng g(-1), except for a small amount of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 1 sample in each country (1.1 ng g(-1) and 0.9 ng g(-1) for the Netherlands and Greece respectively). PFOS was the predominant PFAS, making up on average 85% of ∑PFASs. The highest PFOS concentration was detected in a Dutch home produced egg sample (24.8 ng g(-1)). The contamination pattern was similar in both countries with the long-chain PFASs (C ≥ 8) being most frequently detected, while short-chain PFASs were rarely found. The most likely cause of the contamination of home produced eggs is ingestion of soil through pecking. Although regular consumption of home produced eggs will lead to an increased PFOS exposure, it is not expected that it will lead to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake established by EFSA. PMID:26583292

  13. Synthesis of novel polymethacrylates with siloxyl bridging perfluoroalkyl side-chains for hydrophobic application on cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lu; Dai, Li; Yuan, Yanhua; Liu, Anqi; Zhanxiong, Li

    2016-05-01

    Three novel fluorinated methacrylate monomers with siloxyl bridging perfluoroalkyl groups were synthesized and characterized. Afterwards, the corresponding polymethacrylate latexes, namely monofluoroalkylsiloxyl polymethacrylate (PMFSMA), bisfluoroalkylsiloxyl polymethacrylate (PBFSMA) and trisfluoroalkylsiloxyl polymethacrylate (PTFSMA), were prepared and coated onto cotton fabrics to make them water-repellent. Particle size, particle size distribution, zeta potential and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) were tested to assess the emulsion stability and particle morphology. Thermal properties of PTFSMA were evaluated by thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface properties of the coated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), adhesive force and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the incorporation of more perfluoroalkyl chains and the annealing process could decrease the surface free energy of polymer film to 13.7 mN/m. Furthermore, the EDS spectra of PTFSMA film after annealing showed an enrichment of fluorine in the film-air interface.

  14. Highly Enantioselective Fluorescent Recognition of Both Unfunctionalized and Functionalized Chiral Amines by a Facile Amide Formation from a Perfluoroalkyl Ketone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Anbaei, Parastoo; Pu, Lin

    2016-05-17

    The H8 BINOL-based perfluoroalkyl ketone (S)-2 is found to exhibit highly enantioselective fluorescent enhancements toward both unfunctionalized and functionalized chiral amines. It greatly expands the substrate scope of the corresponding BINOL-based sensor. A dramatic solvent effect was observed for the reaction of the amines with compound (S)-2. In DMF, cleavage of the perfluoroalkyl group of compound (S)-2 to form amides was observed but not in other solvents, such as methylene chloride, chloroform, THF, hexane, and perfluorohexane. Thus, the addition of another solvent, such as THF, can effectively quench the reaction of compound (S)-2 with amines in DMF to allow stable fluorescent measurement. This is the first example that the formation of strong amide bonds under very mild conditions is used for the enantioselective recognition of chiral amines. The mechanism of the reaction of compound (S)-2 with chiral amines is investigated by using various analytical methods including mass spectrometry as well as NMR and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. PMID:27061205

  15. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunfixation Protein electrophoresis

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-07-15

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA; 232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root-soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with increasing chain length (0.11 to 0.36 log decrease per CF2 group). The biggest decrease (0.54-0.58 log decrease per CF2 group) was seen in fruit-soil concentration factors (FCFs). Crop anatomy and PFAA properties were utilized to explain data trends. In general, fruit crops were found to accumulate fewer long-chain PFAAs than shoot or root crops presumably due to an increasing number of biological barriers as the contaminant is transported throughout the plant (roots to shoots to fruits). These data were incorporated into a preliminary conceptual framework for PFAA accumulation in edible crops. In addition, these data suggest that edible crops grown in soils conventionally amended for nutrients with biosolids (that are not impacted by PFAA industries) are unlikely a significant source of long-chain PFAA exposure to humans. PMID:24918303

  17. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids into edible crops via land applied biosolids: field and greenhouse studies.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

    2013-12-17

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids destined for use in agriculture has raised concerns about their potential to enter the terrestrial food chain via bioaccumulation in edible plants. Uptake of PFAAs by greenhouse lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) and tomato ( Lycopersicon lycopersicum ) grown in an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil was measured. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the edible portions of both lettuce and tomato. Dry weight concentrations observed in lettuce grown in a soil amended (biosolids:soil dry weight ratio of 1:10) with PFAA industrially contaminated biosolids were up to 266 and 236 ng/g for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), respectively, and reached 56 and 211 ng/g for PFBA and PFPeA in tomato, respectively. BAFs for many PFAAs were well above unity, with PFBA having the highest BAF in lettuce (56.8) and PFPeA the highest in tomato (17.1). In addition, the BAFs for PFAAs in greenhouse lettuce decreased approximately 0.3 log units per CF2 group. A limited-scale field study was conducted to verify greenhouse findings. The greatest accumulation was seen for PFBA and PFPeA in both field-grown lettuce and tomato; BAFs for PFBA were highest in both crops. PFAA levels measured in lettuce and tomato grown in field soil amended with only a single application of biosolids (at an agronomic rate for nitrogen) were predominantly below the limit of quantitation (LOQ). In addition, corn ( Zea mays ) stover, corn grains, and soil were collected from several full-scale biosolids-amended farm fields. At these fields, all PFAAs were below the LOQ in the corn grains and only trace amounts of PFBA and PFPeA were detected in the corn stover. This study confirms that the bioaccumulation of PFAAs from biosolids-amended soils depends strongly on PFAA concentrations, soil properties, the type of crop, and analyte. PMID:24206563

  18. Determinants of plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in pregnant Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, KW; Ydersbond, TA; Haug, LS; Haugen, M; Knutsen, HK; Thomsen, C; Meltzer, HM; Becher, G; Sabaredzovic, A; Hoppin, JA; Eggesbø, M; Longnecker, MP

    2013-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread pollutants that have been associated with adverse health effects although not on a consistent basis. Diet has been considered the main source of exposure. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants of four plasma PFASs in pregnant Norwegian women. Methods This study is based in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Our sample included 487 women who enrolled in MoBa from 2003–2004. A questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, medical, and reproductive history was completed at 17 weeks gestation and a dietary questionnaire was completed at 22 weeks gestation. Maternal plasma samples were obtained around 17 weeks of gestation. Plasma concentrations of four PFASs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA)) were examined in relation to demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and pregnancy-related covariates. Predictors were identified by optimizing multiple linear regression models using Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Results Parity was the determinant with the largest influence on plasma PFAS concentrations, with r2 between 0.09 and 0.32 in simple regression models. In optimal multivariate models, when compared to nulliparous women, parous women had 46%, 70%, 19%, and 62% lower concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA respectively (p<0.001 except for PFHxS, p<0.01). In all these models, duration of breastfeeding was associated with reduced PFAS levels. PFOA showed the largest reduction from breastfeeding, with a 2–3% reduction per month of breastfeeding in typical cases. Levels of PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA increased with time since most recent pregnancy. While pregnancy-related factors were the most important predictors, diet was a significant factor explaining up to 4% of the variance. One quartile increase in estimated dietary PFAS intake was associated with plasma PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA concentration increases of 7.2%, 3.3%, 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively, resulting in small, although non-trivial absolute changes in PFAS concentrations. Conclusion The history of previous pregnancies and breastfeeding were the most important determinants of PFASs in this sample of pregnant women. PMID:23419425

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Canadian environment: multi-media assessment of current status and trends.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Backus, Sean M; De Silva, Amila O; Ahrens, Lutz; Armellin, Alain; Evans, Marlene; Fraser, Susan; Gledhill, Melissa; Guerra, Paula; Harner, Tom; Helm, Paul A; Hung, Hayley; Khera, Nav; Kim, Min Gu; King, Martha; Lee, Sum Chi; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela; Marvin, Chris; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Myers, Anne L; Pelletier, Magella; Pomeroy, Joe; Reiner, Eric J; Rondeau, Myriam; Sauve, Marie-Claude; Sekela, Mark; Shoeib, Mahiba; Smith, Daniel W; Smyth, Shirley Anne; Struger, John; Spry, Doug; Syrgiannis, Jim; Waltho, Jasmine

    2013-09-01

    In Canada, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been the focus of several monitoring programs and research and surveillance studies. Here, we integrate recent data and perform a multi-media assessment to examine the current status and ongoing trends of PFAAs in Canada. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in air, water, sediment, fish, and birds across Canada are generally related to urbanization, with elevated concentrations observed around cities, especially in southern Ontario. PFOS levels in water, fish tissue, and bird eggs were below their respective Draft Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines, suggesting there is low potential for adverse effects to the environment/organisms examined. However, PFOS in fish and bird eggs tended to exceed guidelines for the protection of mammalian and avian consumers, suggesting a potential risk to their wildlife predators, although wildlife population health assessments are needed to determine whether negative impacts are actually occurring. Long-term temporal trends of PFOS in suspended sediment, sediment cores, Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from Lake Ontario increased consistently from the start of data collection until the 1990s. However, after this time, the trends varied by media, with concentrations stabilizing in Lake Trout and Herring Gull eggs, and decreasing and increasing in suspended sediment and the sediment cores, respectively. For PFCAs, concentrations in suspended sediment, sediment cores, and Herring Gulls generally increased from the start of data collection until present and concentrations in Lake Trout increased until the late 1990s and subsequently stabilized. A multimedia comparison of PFAA profiles provided evidence that unexpected patterns in biota of some of the lakes were due to unique source patterns rather than internal lake processes. High concentrations of PFAAs in the leachate and air of landfill sites, in the wastewater influent/effluent, biosolids, and air at wastewater treatment plants, and in indoor air and dust highlight the waste sector and current-use products (used primarily indoors) as ongoing sources of PFAAs to the Canadian environment. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of integrating data from different media. Simultaneous evaluation of spatial and temporal trends in multiple media allows inferences that would be impossible with data on only one medium. As such, more co-ordination among monitoring sites for different media is suggested for future sampling, especially at the northern sites. We emphasize the importance of continued monitoring of multiple-media for determining future responses of environmental PFAA concentrations to voluntary and regulatory actions. PMID:23831544

  20. Perfluoroalkyl acid uptake in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) irrigated with reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hyland, Katherine C; Stushnoff, Cecil; Dickenson, Eric R V; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-12-16

    Using reclaimed water to irrigate food crops presents an exposure pathway for persistent organic contaminants such as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to enter the human food chain. This greenhouse study used reclaimed water augmented with varying concentrations (0.2-40 μg/L) of PFAAs, including perfluorocarboxylates (C3F7COO(-) to C8F17COO(-)) and perfluorosulfonates (C4F9SO2O(-), C6F13SO2O(-), C8F17SO2O(-)), to investigate potential uptake and concentration-response trends in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa). In addition, studies were conducted to evaluate the role of soil organic carbon concentrations on plant uptake of PFAAs. PFAA concentrations in lettuce leaves and strawberry fruit were measured for each aqueous PFAA concentration applied. PFAA plant concentrations increased linearly with the aqueous concentration for all PFAAs, with PFCAs bioaccumulating to a greater degree than PFSAs in the edible portions of the tested plants. Chain-length-dependency trends were evident in both lettuce shoot and strawberry fruit, with decreasing concentrations associated with increasing chain length. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), both short-chain PFAAs (<8 carbon chain length), accumulated the most compared with other PFAAs tested in the edible parts of both lettuce and strawberry. PFAA concentrations in strawberry root and shoot were also measured at selected PFAA aqueous concentrations (0.4, 4, and 40 μg/L). Short-chain perfluorocarboxylates were the dominant fraction in the strawberry fruit and shoot compartments, whereas a more even distribution of all PFAAs appeared in the root compartment. Lettuce grown in soils with varying organic carbon contents (0.4%, 2%, 6%) was used to assess the impact of organic carbon sorption on PFAA bioaccumulation. The lettuce grown in soil with the 6% organic carbon content had the lowest bioaccumulation of PFAAs. Bioaccumulation factors for lettuce were correlated to carbon chain length of PFAAs, showing approximately a 0.4 to 0.6 log decrease per CF2 group. This study confirms that PFAAs can enter and bioaccumulate in food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. Bioaccumulation potential depends on analyte functional group and chain length, concentration in the reclaimed water, and organic carbon content of the soil. PMID:25386873

  1. Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: Data from NHNAES 2007–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ram B.

    2013-10-15

    The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007–2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. -- Highlights: • Levels of total triiodothyronine were found to increase with the levels of PFOA. • Total thyroxine increased with increase in levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid. • There was a positive association between the levels of PFOA and TSH. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of TSH, total T3 and T4. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of thyroglobulin.

  2. Compounds of transition metals with sigma-bonded fluorine-containing groups. VI. A new method for the perfluoroalkylation of aromatic compounds by means of the perfluoroalkyl complexes of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Gerus, I.I.; Yagupol'skii, Yu.L.; Yagupol'skii, L.M.

    1986-02-10

    The action of silver fluoride on C/sub 3/F/sub 7/Fe(CO)/sub 4/)I in the presence of aromatic substrates (benzene, toluene, anisole, furan) at 20/sup 0/C led to the formation of perfluoroalkylation products. On the basis of the isomeric composition of the obtained perfluoropropyl derivatives of toluene and anisole it was concluded that the process was cationic in nature. Perfluoropropyltoluenes were obtained when C/sub 3/F/sub 7/Fe(CO)/sub 4/OCOCF/sub 3/ or (C/sub 3/F/sub 7/)/sub 2/Fe(CO)/sub 4/ were heated in toluene. The cationic complex (C/sub 3/F/sub 7/Fe(CO)/sub 4/)/sup +/BF/sub 4//sup -/ reacts with dimethylaniline and with sodium p-toluene-thiolate to form p-perfluoropropyldimethylaniline and p-tolyl perfluoropropyl sulfide.

  3. Identification of perfluoroalkyl acid sources in Swiss surface waters with the help of the artificial sweetener acesulfame.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia E; Gerecke, Andreas C; Alder, Alfredo C; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-05-01

    Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously found in surface waters around the globe. Emissions from households, industries and also atmospheric transport/deposition are discussed as the possible sources. In this study, these sources are evaluated using Switzerland as the study area. Forty-four surface water locations in different rivers and an Alpine lake were investigated for 14 PFAAs, four precursors and acesulfame, an artificial sweetener used as a population marker. Concentrations of individual PFAAs were generally low, between 0.02 and 10 ng/L. Correlation analysis showed that some PFAAs concentrations correlated well with population and less with catchment area, indicating that emissions from population, i.e., from consumer products, is the most important source to surface waters in Switzerland. The correlation with the population marker acesulfame confirmed this observation but highlighted also a few elevated PFAA levels, some of which could be attributed to industrial emissions. PMID:21310517

  4. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Poganski, Beth H.; Solem, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) samples were collected at a reference lake and a nearby lake (Lake Johanna) in east central Minnesota, USA contaminated with perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids. Tissues were analyzed for a suite of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) to quantify exposure and to determine if there was an association between egg concentrations of PFCs and reproductive success of tree swallows. Concentrations of perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) were elevated in all tree swallow tissues from Lake Johanna compared to tissues collected at the reference lake. Other PFCs, except for two, were elevated in blood plasma at Lake Johanna compared to the reference lake. PFOS was the dominant PFC (>75%) at Lake Johanna, but accounted for <50% of total PFCs at the reference lake. There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150 ng/g wet weight.

  5. Ombrotrophic peat bogs are not suited as natural archives to investigate the historical atmospheric deposition of perfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Thuens, Sabine; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-17

    As ombrotrophic peat bogs receive only atmospheric input of contaminants, they have been identified as suitable natural archives for investigating historical depositions of airborne pollutants. To elucidate their suitability for determining the historical atmospheric contamination with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), two peat cores were sampled at Mer Bleue, a bog located close to Ottawa, Canada. Peat cores were segmented, dried, and analyzed in duplicate for 25 PFASs (5 perfluororalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), 7 perfluororalkyl sulfonamido substances). Peat samples were extracted by ultrasonication, cleaned up using a QuEChERS method, and PFASs were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Twelve PFCAs and PFSAs were detected regularly in peat samples with perfluorooctane sulfonate (85-655 ng kg(-1)), perfluorooctanoate (150-390 ng kg(-1)), and perfluorononanoate (45-320 ng kg(-1)) at highest concentrations. Because of post depositional relocation processes within the peat cores, true or unbiased deposition fluxes (i.e., not affected by post depositional changes) could not be calculated. Apparent or biased deposition rates (i.e., affected by post depositional changes) were lower than measured/calculated deposition rates for similar urban or near-urban sites. Compared to PFAS production, PFAS concentration and deposition maxima were shifted about 30 years toward the past and some analytes were detected even in the oldest segments from the beginning of the 20th century. This was attributed to PFAS mobility in the peat profile. Considerable differences were observed between both peat cores and different PFASs. Overall, this study demonstrates that ombrotrophic bogs are not suited natural archives to provide authentic and reliable temporal trend data of historical atmospheric PFAS deposition. PMID:22680699

  6. Spatial distribution and partitioning behavior of selected poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in freshwater ecosystems: a French nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriel; Giraudel, Jean-Luc; Botta, Fabrizio; Lestremau, François; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Budzinski, Hélène; Labadie, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution and partitioning of 22 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 133 selected rivers and lakes were investigated at a nationwide scale in mainland France. ΣPFASs was in the rangeperfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) often dominating the PFAS profile (e.g., PFCAs>99% of ΣPFASs in the sediment, likely as a consequence of industrial point source discharge). Several treatments for data below detection limits (non-detects) were used to compute descriptive statistics, differences among groups, and correlations between congeners, as well as log Kd and log Koc partition coefficients; in that respect, the Regression on Order Statistics (robust ROS) method was preferred for descriptive statistics computation while the Akritas-Theil-Sen estimator was used for regression and correlation analyses. Multiple regression results suggest that PFAS levels in the dissolved phase and sediment characteristics (organic carbon fraction and grain size) may be significant controlling factors of PFAS levels in the sediment. PMID:25721143

  7. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation Globulin electrophoresis

  8. Hazard quotient profiles used as a risk assessment tool for PFOS and PFOA serum levels in three distinctive European populations.

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, Jan K; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Toft, Gunnar; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Heederik, Dick; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) blood levels are commonly used as biomarkers of human environmental exposure to these compounds. Many biomonitoring studies indicate 100% detection for PFOS and PFOA thus justifying a concern of possible risk for the most exposed individuals. This study addresses the predictive value of hazard quotients (HQs) calculated on the basis of serum PFOS and PFOA in male and female populations of reproductive age in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Overall, 2026 results of PFOS and PFOA serum concentrations (589 males, 1437 females) were obtained from the INUENDO database. HQs were calculated from the actual biomonitoring results and literature-based animal data linking toxicological outcomes and critical PFOS/PFOA serum levels. HQs for serum PFOS were calculated based on Points of Departure (PoD) at 13μgmL(-1) (cynomolgus monkeys, 183days, changes in THS and T3) and for PFOA at 7.1μgmL(-1) serum (male rats, 90days, hepatocellular necrosis, increased liver weight). Uncertainty factors were applied to reflect interspecies differences and human variability. Serum HQs were expressed as a ratio relative to the point of departure for each PFOS and PFOA. Only in the three cases of males in Greenland were there serum PFOS levels showing HQ values exceeding 1, so indicating that such serum levels may be of concern. The mean serum concentration of PFOS was significantly higher in male than in female populations. Despite significant differences between HQ profiles for PFOS and PFOA in donors from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, the concentrations of these perfluoroalkylated compounds do not indicate a cause for concern, except for the three aforementioned cases from Greenland. This study demonstrates that the HQ approach can help to interpret human biomonitoring data and thus serve as a valuable tool in further risk assessment priority settings and may also be used as a basis for taking decisions in risk management. PMID:25454227

  9. Temporal trends and spatial differences of perfluoroalkylated substances in livers of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) populations from Northern Europe, 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sandra; Ahrens, Lutz; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Siebert, Ursula; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Víkingsson, Gísli A; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-03-01

    Long-term temporal trends (1991-2008) and spatial differences of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were investigated in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) liver samples of juvenile females from the Baltic and North Sea. Additionally, spatial differences between the populations in the Baltic Sea and Atlantic Ocean (i.e. Iceland and Norway) and the influence of the body mass, age and sex on the PFAS concentrations were examined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant compound with a concentration range of 160-2425 ng/g wet weight (ww), followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, 1-237 ng/g ww) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA, 3-124 ng/g ww). In terms of temporal trends, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and PFOSA concentrations decreased over time, while, conversely, the C(9)-C(13) perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (PFCA) concentrations increased. Spatial distribution of the contaminant concentrations showed consistently higher concentrations in the Baltic Sea and lowest concentrations in the Icelandic population of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:22285090

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances assessment in drinking waters from Brazil, France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Schwanz, Thiago G; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) occurs primarily via dietary intake and drinking water. In this study, 16 PFASs have been assessed in 96 drinking waters (38 bottled waters and 58 samples of tap water) from Brazil, France and Spain. The total daily intake and the risk index (RI) of 16 PFASs through drinking water in Brazil, France and Spain have been estimated. This study was carried out using an analytical method based on an online sample enrichment followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The quality parameters of the analytical method were satisfactory for the analysis of the 16 selected compounds in drinking waters. Notably, the method limits of detection (MLOD) and method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were in the range of 0.15 to 8.76ng/l and 0.47 to 26.54ng/l, respectively. The results showed that the highest PFASs concentrations were found in tap water samples and the more frequently found compound was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with mean concentrations of 7.73, 15.33 and 15.83ng/l in French, Spanish and Brazilian samples, respectively. In addition, PFOS was detected in all tap water samples from Brazil. The highest level of PFASs contamination in a single sample was 140.48ng/l in a sample of Spanish tap water. In turn, in bottled waters the highest levels were detected in a French sample with 116ng/l as the sum of PFASs. Furthermore, the most frequent compounds and those at higher concentrations were perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) with a mean of frequencies in the three countries of 51.3%, followed by perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) (27.2%) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (23.0%). Considering that bottled water is approximately 38% of the total intake, the total PFASs exposure through drinking water intake for an adult man was estimated to be 54.8, 58.0 and 75.6ng/person per day in Spain, France and Brazil, respectively. However, assuming that the water content in other beverages has at least the same levels of contamination as in bottled drinking water, these amounts were increased to 72.2, 91.4 and 121.0ng/person per day for an adult man in Spain, France and Brazil, respectively. The results of total daily intake in different gender/age groups showed that children are the most exposed population group through hydration with maximum values in Brazil of 2.35 and 2.01ng/kg body weight (BW)/day for male and female, respectively. Finally, the RI was calculated. In spite of the highest values being found in Brazil, it was demonstrated that, in none of the investigated countries, drinking water pose imminent risk associated with PFASs contamination. PMID:26360456

  11. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the conformation and activity of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Kang, Yijun; Cao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is among the most prominent contaminates in human serum and has been reported to possess potential toxicity to the human body. In this study, the effects of PFOS on the conformation and activity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated in vitro. The results indicated that the binding interaction of PFOS with BSA destroyed the tertiary and secondary structures of protein with the loss of α-helix structure and the increasing of hydrophobic microenvironment of the Trp or Tyr residues. During the thermal denaturation protein, PFOS increases the protein stability of BSA. The proportion of α-helix decreased on increasing the PFOS concentration and the microenvironment of the Trp or Tyr residues becomes more hydrophobic. The results from molecular modeling indicated that BSA had not only one possible binding site to bind with PFOS by the polar interaction, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces. In addition, the BSA relative activities were decreased with the increase of PFOS concentration. Such loss of BSA activity in the presence of PFOS indicated that one of the binding sites in BSA is located in subdomain IIIA, which is in good agreement with the fluorescence spectroscopic experiments and molecular modeling results. This study offers a comprehensive picture of the interactions of PFOS with serum albumin and provides insights into the toxicological effect of perfluoroalkylated substances. PMID:27031195

  12. QUANTIFICATION OF FLUOROTELOMER-BASED CHEMICALS IN MAMMALIAN MATRICES BY MONITORING PERFLUOROALKYL CHAIN FRAGMENTS WITH GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), have been identified as persistent, bioaccurnulative and potentially toxic compounds. The structural analog, 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH) is considered the probable ...

  13. Mechanisms of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) toxicity: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha (PPAR) molecular signals.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of environmentally persistent perfluorinated compounds and are found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in rats and mice. Exposure in utero reduces...

  14. Serum factors and clinical characteristics associated with serum E-Screen activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hemming, Jocelyn D. C.; Hedman, Curtis J.; Sprague, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The E-Screen bioassay can measure the mitogenicity of human serum and thus may be useful as a biomarker in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. While the assays MCF-7 cells are known to proliferate in response to estrogen, the specific determinants of variation in E-Screen activity in human serum samples are poorly understood. We sought to identify serum molecules and patient characteristics associated with serum E-Screen activity among postmenopausal women. Methods Postmenopausal women (N=219) aged 5570 with no history of postmenopausal hormone use or breast cancer completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum was analyzed for E-Screen activity and a variety of molecules including sex hormones, growth factors, and environmental chemicals. Stepwise selection procedures were used to identify correlates of E-Screen activity. Results Serum samples from all women had detectable E-Screen activity, with a median estradiol equivalents value of 0.027 ng/mL and interquartile range of 0.0180.036 ng/mL. In the final multivariable-adjusted model, serum E-Screen activity was positively associated with serum estradiol, estrone, IGFBP-3, and testosterone levels (p<0.05), as well as body mass index (p=0.03). Serum E-Screen activity was lower among women with higher SHBG (p<0.0001) and progesterone levels (p=0.03). Conclusion Serum E-Screen activity varies according to levels of endogenous estrogens and other serum molecules. Obesity appears to confer additional serum mitogenicity beyond its impact on the measured hormones and growth factors. Impact By capturing mitogenicity due to a variety of patient and serum factors, the E-Screen may provide advantages for use as a biomarker in breast cancer studies. PMID:23588007

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acids in municipal landfill leachates from China: Occurrence, fate during leachate treatment and potential impact on groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Cousins, Ian T; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-08-15

    Raw and treated landfill leachate samples were collected from 5 municipal landfill sites in China to measure the concentrations and contamination profile of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leachate during different steps of treatment. The total concentration of PFAAs (∑PFAAs) ranged from 7280 to 292,000 ng L(-1) in raw leachate and from 98.4 to 282,000 ng L(-1) in treated leachate. The dominant compounds measured were PFOA (mean contribution 28.8% and 36.8% in raw and treated leachate, respectively) and PFBS (26.1% and 40.8% in raw and treated leachate, respectively). A calculation of mass flows during the leachate treatment processes showed that the fate of individual PFAAs was substance and treatment-specific. The Chinese national leakage of ∑PFAAs to groundwater from landfill leachate was estimated to be 3110 kg year(-1), which is a significant environmental release that is potentially threatening the sustainable use of groundwater as a drinking water source. PMID:25889541

  16. Using blood gene signatures for assessing effects of exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans: the NOWAC postgenome study

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Waaseth, Marit; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Lund, Eiliv

    2011-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously present in human blood samples and the effects of these compounds on human health are not fully characterized. This study was conducted in order to investigate the applicability of peripheral blood gene expressions for exploring the impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) exposure on the general population. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were analyzed in blood samples from a representative group of 270 healthy, postmenopausal Norwegian women (48-62 years). Gene expression was measured in the same samples using the Applied Biosystems microarray platform. Forty-eight different gene sets, all previously linked to PFAA exposure were explored in relation to the selected PFAAs. Two gene sets, both related to the citric acid cycle, were differentially expressed between the “PFOS high” (>30ng/ml, n=42) and the “PFOS low” (<30ng/ml, n=228) group. Based on the results of this study we believe that blood gene signatures have a large potential for elucidating which biological pathways are being affected by environmental pollutants. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the impact of PFAAs on blood gene expressions in humans from the general population. PMID:21915359

  17. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ΣPFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749–3450 kg/year, of which about 1375–2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467–587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:23562984

  18. Role of ingestion route in the perfluoroalkyl substance bioaccumulation by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yawei; Xia, Xinghui; Zhao, Xiuli; Dong, Haiyang; Zhu, Baotong; Xia, Na; Dong, Jianwei

    2016-01-25

    The role of ingestion route in the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with four types of carbonaceous materials (CMs) was studied. The results showed that the body burden of PFASs decreased in the presence of CMs at mass ratios of 0.2-2%, regardless of ingestion. PFASs accumulated by the larvae with ingestion exposure were higher than those without ingestion, and the role of ingestion route was altered in the presence of CMs. The contribution of ingestion route to PFAS bioaccumulation was 2.7-31.6% without CMs, and it increased to more than 61.4% in the presence of fullerene at mass ratios of 0.2-2%. The enhancement of the ingestion route contribution caused by CMs is due to the fact that the CMs can be ingested and CM-associated PFASs can be partly desorbed in larvae. The maximum desorption efficiency of perfluorooctanoic acid was 20.8% from fullerene by the larval digestive juice. This study suggests that CM-associated PFASs could be accumulated partly by organisms, and the ecological risk of PFASs might increase in some cases with the presence of CMs. This should be considered when applying CMs in PFAS and other hydrophobic organic compound pollution remediation. PMID:26489915

  19. Physical and Biological Release of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) from Municipal Solid Waste in Anaerobic Model Landfill Reactors.

    PubMed

    Allred, B McKay; Lang, Johnsie R; Barlaz, Morton A; Field, Jennifer A

    2015-07-01

    A wide variety of consumer products that are treated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and related formulations are disposed of in landfills. Landfill leachate has significant concentrations of PFASs and acts as secondary point sources to surface water. This study models how PFASs enter leachate using four laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors filled with municipal solid waste (MSW) and operated over 273 days. Duplicate reactors were monitored under live and abiotic conditions to evaluate influences attributable to biological activity. The biologically active reactors simulated the methanogenic conditions that develop in all landfills, producing ∼140 mL CH4/dry g refuse. The average total PFAS leaching measured in live reactors (16.7 nmol/kg dry refuse) was greater than the average for abiotic reactors (2.83 nmol/kg dry refuse), indicating biological processes were primarily responsible for leaching. The low-level leaching in the abiotic reactors was primarily due to PFCAs ≤C8 (2.48 nmol/kg dry refuse). Concentrations of known biodegradation intermediates, including methylperfluorobutane sulfonamide acetic acid and the n:2 and n:3 fluorotelomer carboxylates, increased steadily after the onset of methanogenesis, with the 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate becoming the single most concentrated PFAS observed in live reactors (9.53 nmol/kg dry refuse). PMID:26055930

  20. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances. PMID:25812627

  1. Characterizing direct emissions of perfluoroalkyl substances from ongoing fluoropolymer production sources: A spatial trend study of Xiaoqing River, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Xu, Lin; Song, Xiaowei; Niu, Xiameng; Zhang, Chunhui; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-11-01

    The spatial trend of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) along Xiaoqing River and its tributaries was studied to characterize isomer profiles and quantify emissions from fluoropolymer (FP) manufacturers in China. Substantially elevated ∑PFAS concentrations downstream of tributary 4 demonstrated that the emissions from this FP manufacturer dominated total riverine discharges. Isomer profiles of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water displayed a stepwise increase in percentage branched PFOA downstream of tributary 3 (14.0%) and 4 (22.7%) reflecting the importance of FP sources. Strong positive correlations between PFOA isomers in water downstream of tributary 4 indicated that isomer profiles were conserved from emission sources to the final reservoir. Riverine discharges of PFOA (23-67 t/yr) were in agreement with theoretical emission calculations from FP production (68 t/yr) whereas large discrepancies between the two methodologies were observed for perfluorobutanoic acid and perfluoropentanoic acid. Collectively, this study fills critical knowledge gaps for understanding ongoing global sources of PFASs. PMID:26160670

  2. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Ruoshi; Giesy, John P

    2016-04-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97mg/L in surface water and 10.5μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log KOC values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174kg/d of PFAAs including 159kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions. PMID:26775106

  3. Efficient Sorption and Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) from Aqueous Solution by Metal Hydroxides Generated in Situ by Electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Yujuan; Niu, Junfeng; Yue, Zhihan; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-09-01

    Removal of environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), that is, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C4 ∼ C10) were investigated through sorption on four metal hydroxide flocs generated in situ by electrocoagulation in deionized water with 10 mM NaCl as supporting electrolyte. The results indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs yielded the highest removal efficiency with a wide range concentration of PFOA/PFOS (1.5 μM ∼ 0.5 mM) at the zinc dosage <150 mg L(-1) with the energy consumption <0.18 Wh L(-1). The sorption kinetics indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs had an equilibrium adsorbed amount (qe) up to 5.74/7.69 mmol g(-1) (Zn) for PFOA/PFOS at the initial concentration of 0.5 mM with an initial sorption rate (v0) of 1.01 × 10(3)/1.81 × 10(3) mmol g(-1) h(-1). The sorption of PFOA/PFOS reached equilibrium within <10 min. The sorption mechanisms of PFAAs on the zinc hydroxide flocs were proposed based on the investigation of various driving forces. The results indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was primarily responsible for the PFAAs sorption. The electrocoagulation process with zinc anode may have a great potential for removing PFAAs from industrial wastewater as well as contaminated environmental waterbody. PMID:26244813

  4. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A.; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D.; Toor, Gurpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas. PMID:26909512

  5. Seasonal variations and spatial distributions of perfluoroalkyl substances in the rivers Elbe and lower Weser and the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Tang, Jianhui; Sturm, Renate; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distributions and seasonal variations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters were investigated for the German rivers Elbe and lower Weser, and the North Sea. ∑PFAS concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 250ngL(-1) in the River Elbe, from 3.8 to 16ngL(-1) in the lower Weser, and from 0.13 to 10ngL(-1) in the North Sea. The most abundant compound was perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) with a proportion of 24% in river water and 31% in seawater samples. The concentrations of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in Elbe River water showed significant seasonal variation in 2011. The seasonal variations might be related to the variations of water discharge. The highest concentrations of PFOA and PFHxA were detected in August. Pearson correlations showed that perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and PFBS had different sources from other PFASs, and the current manufacturing and use of C4-based products could explain the distinction. The estimated fluxes of individual substances and ∑PFASs in the River Elbe showed no significant seasonal variation. The annual fluxes of PFASs to the North Sea were estimated to be 335±100kgyear(-1) from the River Elbe and 102±22kgyear(-1) from the River Weser. PMID:24768527

  6. Levels and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in China Liaodong Bay basin with concentrated fluorine industry parks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Sun, Ruijun; Kong, Xiangyun; Wang, Xiaomeng; He, Xin

    2015-12-30

    Eighteen different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 35 river water samples and 34 sediment samples collected from rivers in the Liaodong Bay basin containing two fluorine industry parks. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in freshwater, with median concentrations of 26.5ng/L and 1.87ng/L, respectively. However, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) had the highest maximum concentration (up to 124.1ng/L, approximately two orders of magnitude higher) in water at a site which is the nearest to the industrial source of PFASs. Total PFASs in water at this site were also the highest. In contrast, PFOA and perfluorooctadecanoate (PFOcDA) were the most abundant PFASs in sediment, with median concentrations of 1.19ng/g and 0.35ng/g, respectively. Total PFAS concentrations in sediment from the site near to the industrial park were significantly higher than the other rivers. Mass loading of total PFASs from the rivers flowing into Liaodong Bay was estimated to be 506kg/year. PMID:26506027

  7. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas. PMID:26909512

  8. Effects of film-forming conditions on surface properties and structures of diblock copolymer with perfluoroalkyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Yoshimasa; Nishino, Takashi

    2005-03-15

    Film-forming conditions (cast solvents and film-forming technique: casting or spin-coating) are found to regulate the surface free energy of a diblock copolymer composed of methyl methacrylate and 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (PMMA-b-PFEMA). The surface properties and structures both in the solid state and in the solution of this polymer were investigated using dynamic contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, reflection-adsorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and surface pressure measurements. The surface free energy of the PMMA-b-PFEMA film drastically changed from 7.8 to 28.4 mJ/m(2), depending on the film-forming conditions. For the film cast from the micellar solution, the surface free energy is governed by the unimers, localized at the air-solution interface. On the other hand, higher amounts of micelles with the laid perfluoroalkyl side chains were exposed on the surface of the spin-coated film, which yielded a relatively high surface free energy. These findings demonstrated a significant effect of the in-solution molecular association on the surface structures and properties of the solid. In particular, the in-solution unimers played the most important role in lowering the surface free energy of the PMMA-b-PFEMA films. PMID:15752060

  9. Serum Free Light Chains

    MedlinePlus

    ... SFLC; FLC; Kappa and Lambda Free Light Chains; Quantitative Serum Free Light Chains with Ratio Formal name: ... Free Kappa/Lambda Ratio Related tests: Protein Electrophoresis , Quantitative Immunoglobulins , Complete Blood Count , Bone Marrow Aspiration and ...

  10. Effects of Perfluorinated Phosphonic Acid Exposure during pregnancy in the mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) are a member of the perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) family, and are structurally similar to the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates. These chemicals have recently been detected in the environment, particularly in surface wa...

  11. Contribution of diffuse inputs to the aqueous mass load of perfluoroalkyl acids in river and stream catchments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Li, Dong-Hao; Shoeib, Mahiba; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies disagree regarding the contributions of point versus non-point sources to the aqueous mass loads of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). This study investigated the longitudinal change in PFAA mass load from upstream to downstream stations along rivers and/or streams to assess the relative contributions of point versus nonpoint inputs. With concentrations 10 to 100 times higher than running water, point sources such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent and airport ditch-outlet (ADO) water were separated from neighboring upstream and downstream running waters using principal component analysis. Source waters were characterized by certain predominant components [e.g., perfluorobutylsulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in WWTP effluent and perfluorohexylsulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) in ADO water], which were minor components of running water. From a mass balance assessment of PFAA mass load, certain compounds such as PFOA and PFBS dominated the contribution of point sources to the mass load in the running water at downstream stations or in small catchment basins with high levels of industrial activity. Most of the mass load in the investigated catchments was attributable to upstream running water with a minor influence from industrial, commercial, and domestic human activities. Furthermore, the negative relationship of per capita emission factors (hereafter, EFs) with population density and a lower contribution of PFAA from WWTPs (~30% on average) compared to the running water-derived mass load at the national level indicated that diffuse inputs were more important contributors to aqueous PFAA contamination in each catchment basin as well as the entire watershed of the country (Korea). Volatile precursor compounds, which are readily dispersed to neighboring basins and transformed to PFAAs in the ambient environment, can be an important source of these diffuse inputs and will become more significant over time. PMID:23849806

  12. Comparing humic substance and protein compound effects on the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances by Daphnia magna in water.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Dai, Zhineng; Rabearisoa, Andry Harinaina; Zhao, Pujun; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2015-01-01

    The influence of humic substances and protein compounds on the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Daphnia magna was compared. The humic substances included humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), the protein compounds included chicken egg albumin (albumin) and peptone, and the PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid. Four concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) of the four dissolved organic matter (DOM) types were investigated. At the 1 mg L(-1) level, HA and albumin enhanced all tested PFAS bioaccumulation, whereas FA and peptone only enhanced the bioaccumulation of shorter-chain PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA). However, all four DOM types decreased all tested PFAS bioaccumulation at the 20 mg L(-1) level, and the decreasing ratios of bioaccumulation factors caused by FA, HA, albumin, and peptone were 1-49%, 23-77%, 17-58%, and 8-56%, respectively compared with those without DOM. This is because DOM not only reduced the bioavailable concentrations and uptake rates of PFASs but also lowered the elimination rates of PFASs in D. magna, and these opposite effects would change with different DOM types and concentrations. Although the partition coefficients (L kg(-1)) of PFASs between HA and water (10(4.21)-10(4.98)) were much lower than those between albumin and water (10(4.92)-10(5.86)), their effects on PFAS bioaccumulation were comparable. This study suggests that although PFASs are a type of proteinophilic compounds, humic substances also have important effects on their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. PMID:25303657

  13. Perfluoroalkyl compounds in dust from Asian, Australian, European, and North American homes and UK cars, classrooms, and offices.

    PubMed

    Goosey, Emma; Harrad, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were measured in dust from Australian, Canadian, French, German, Kazahkstani, Thai, UK, and US homes, and UK cars, classrooms, and offices. Most PFCs were significantly lower in Kazahkstan and Thailand than elsewhere; 2-(N-methylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamido)-ethanol (MeFOSE) and 2-(N-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamido)-ethanol (EtFOSE) were significantly lower in Canada than in the UK and the US; perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was significantly lower in Canada than in the UK, and N-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamide (EtFOSA) was significantly higher in Australia than in the UK. High EtFOSA concentrations in some samples may be consistent with its use as an insecticide. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), PFHxS, and MeFOSE were significantly higher in classrooms than in cars, homes, and offices; N-methylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamide (MeFOSA) was significantly lower in classrooms than in homes and offices, and perfluoro-1-octanesulfonamide (FOSA) was significantly lower in classrooms than in cars, homes, and offices. While homes are usually the most important vector of dust exposure (typically > 60%), offices and classrooms make important contributions. While diet is usually the main exposure pathway for UK adults and children (~1-6 years) for PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS; dust ingestion can be significant under high dust ingestion scenarios. Even under high-end exposure scenarios for dust and diet, PFOS and PFOA exposures are well within the European Food Safety Authority tolerable daily intakes. PMID:20810169

  14. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in drinking water utilities and related waters from the United States.

    PubMed

    Quiones, Oscar; Snyder, Shane A

    2009-12-15

    The prevalence and persistence of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in environmental and biological systems has been well documented, and a rising number of reports suggest that certain PFCs can result in adverse health effects in mammals. As traditional water sources become increasingly impacted by waste discharge and the demand for planned potable reuse grows, there is recent interest in determining PFC occurrence in drinking water supplies. Here we report monitoring results from drinking water treatment facility samples collected across the United States, and from associated surface, ground, and wastewater sources. Using automated solid phase extraction (SPE) and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS), samples were screened for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA). Method reporting limits (MRLs) were established at 1.0 ng/L for all monitored PFCs except PFOA, for which the MRL was set at 5.0 ng/L given elevated procedural and instrumental background levels. PFOS was the only investigated PFC detected in minimally impacted surface waters, with individual site averages of 2.0 ng/L and lower. Conversely, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and other highly impacted waters had almost 100% detection frequency for all PFCs except PFUdA and PFDoA, which were not detected above MRL in any samples. Of the investigated PFCs, PFOA averaged the highest overall concentration at any site at 115 ng/L. Substantial impacts from treated wastewater generally caused increased summed PFC concentrations at downstream drinking water facilities, although levels and distribution suggest geographical variability. No discernible differences between influent and effluent PFC levels were observed for drinking water facilities. Removal of PFCs, however, was observed at an indirect potable reuse facility using microfiltration and reverse osmosis for wastewater treatment, in which case all PFC levels in effluents were below the MRL. PMID:20000497

  15. Quantitative profiling of perfluoroalkyl substances by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-01

    The accurate determination of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFSAs) in water, sediment, fish, meat, and human milk was achieved by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) with an ABSciex Triple TOF®. A group of 21 PFSAs was selected as target to evaluate the quantitative possibilities. Full scan MS acquisition data allows quantification at relevant low levels (0.1-50 ng L(-1) in water, 0.05-2 ng g(-1) in sediments, 0.01-5 ng g(-1) in fish and meat, and 0.005-2 ng g(-1) in human milk depending on the compound). Automatic information dependent acquisition product ion mass spectrometry (IDA-MS/MS) confirms the identity even for those compounds that presented only one product ion. The preparation of a homemade database using the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) Manager of the software based upon retention time, accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and MS/MS library searching achieves not only the successful identification of PFSAs but also of some pharmaceuticals, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and gemfibrozid. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) were 67-99% (9-16% RSD) for water, 62-103% (8-18% RSD) for sediment, 60-95% (8-17% RSD) for fish, 64-95% (8-15% RSD) for meat, and 63-95% (8-16%) for human milk. The quantitative data obtained for 60 samples by UHPLC-QqTOF-MS agree with those obtained by LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole (QqQ). PMID:25633215

  16. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health. PMID:27179427

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  18. Optimization and comparison of several extraction methods for determining perfluoroalkyl substances in abiotic environmental solid matrices using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2015-07-01

    In this study, four extraction methods of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils and sediments were validated and compared in order to select the one that provides the best recoveries and the highest sensitivity. The determination of PFASs was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction methods compared were based on (i) an aqueous solution of acetic acid and methanol (recoveries 44-125%, relative standard deviation (RSD) <25%), (ii) methanol (34-109%, <25%), (iii) sodium hydroxide digestion (24-178%, <49%), and (iv) ion pair (35-179%, <31%). The best results were obtained with methanol extraction, which recovered a greater number of PFASs and provided values between 45-103% in sediment and 34-109% in soil with RSDs <25% and limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.02-0.31 and 0.01-6.00 ng g(-1), respectively. The selected method was successfully applied to Segura River sediments and soil samples taken near the Turia River. This study demonstrates the presence of PFASs in the studied rivers of the Valencian Community (0.07-14.91 ng g(-1) in Segura River sediments; 0.02-64.04 ng g(-1) in Turia River soils). Graphical Abstract Selected matrices and extraction methods for determination of perfluoroalkyl substances. PMID:26025550

  19. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-11-01

    In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vänern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the μg/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist. PMID:23463275

  20. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  1. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  2. [Autologous serum in treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Babi?, Gordana Stankovi?; Ceki?, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The treatment of dry eye by autologous serum is a simple and inexpensive treatment option. It is particularly effective in severe forms of dry eye as well as for chemical eye injuries, and it is justified by the presence of essential tear components which are not found in preparations of artificial tears. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of autologous serum therapy in the patients with dry eye. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We monitored the effect of one-month treatment of dry eye by autologous serum (used with artificial tear preparations) in 50 rheumatology patients (23 men and 27 women) aged 26-65 years at the Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Center Nis. We analyzed ocular discomfort and the values of objective parameters for the evaluation of tear film at baseline and one month later (Schirmer I, Tears Break Up Time and Rose Bengal). RESULTS. A statistically significant reduction of subjective complaints was found in the patients after the treatment by autologous serum (p<0.05), along with a minimal improvement of objective tests for checking the tear film quality. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. The use ofautologous serum in dry eye therapy should provide benefit to the patients, relieve symptoms and improve objective parameters for the evaluation of dry eye. Both doctors and patients should be adequately informed, and proper screening of potential users of this method should be done. Not only additional tests of therapeutic effect of autologous serum (as well as of umbilical cord serum or autologous plasma) are needed but also parallel clinical and histopathological examination and analysis of the effects of this type of treatment of dry eye. PMID:23297619

  3. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  4. Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (≤ 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (β = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (β = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (β = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (β = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (β = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors. Citation: Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Just AC, Yolton K, Calafat AM, Sjödin A, Hauser R, Webster GM, Chen A, Lanphear BP. 2014. Gestational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 4- and 5-year-old children: the HOME Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:513–520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307261 PMID:24622245

  5. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-11-02

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration (r = +0.87).

  6. Quantitation of gas-phase perfluoroalkyl surfactants and fluorotelomer alcohols released from nonstick cookware and microwave popcorn bags.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ewan; Kim, Seung Kyu; Akinleye, Henry B; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-02-15

    Fluoropolymer dispersions are used for coating certain cookware products and food-contact packaging to impart oil and water repellency. Since salts of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used as a processing aid in the manufacture of many fluoropolymers, it is necessary to determine if these compounds are still present as residuals after the process used to coat nonstick cookware or packaging, and could be released during typical cooking conditions. In this study, we identified and measured perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), particularly PFOA, and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs; 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH), released from nonstick cookware into the gas phase under normal cooking temperatures (179 to 233 degrees C surface temperature). PFOA was released into the gas phase at 7-337 ng (11-503 pg/cm2) per pan from four brands of nonstick frying pans. 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH were found in the gas phase of four brands of frying pans, and the sources of FTOHs released from nonstick cookware are under investigation. We observed a significant decrease in gas-phase PFOA following repeated use of one brand of pan, whereas the other brand did not show a significant reduction in PFOA release following multiple uses. PFOA was found at >5 ng during the fourth use of both brands of pans. FTOHs were not found after the second use of either brand of pans. PFOA was found at 5-34 ng in the vapors produced from a prepacked microwave popcorn bag. PFOA was not found in the vapors produced from plain white corn kernels popped in a polypropylene container. 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH were measured in the vapors produced from one brand of prepacked microwave popcorn at 223 + 37 ng and 258 +/- 36 ng per bag, respectively, but not measured at >20 ng (LOQ) in the other two brands. On the packaging surface of one brand of microwave popcorn several PFCAs, including C5-C12, 6:2 FTOH, and 8:2 FTOH, were found at concentrations in the order of 0.5-6.0 ng/cm2. This study suggests that residual PFOA is not completely removed during the fabrication process of the nonstick coating for cookware. They remain as residuals on the surface and may be off-gassed when heated at normal cooking temperatures. PMID:17593716

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated with health effects in humans, our findings raise concern on the potential health effects of PFASs in polar bears from Svalbard. Effort should be made to examine the potential health effects of PFASs in polar bears. PMID:23010253

  8. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in various food items of animal origin collected in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Hlouskova, Veronika; Hradkova, Petra; Poustka, Jan; Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filipps, Stefania Paola; D'Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven; Herzke, Dorte; Huber, Sandra; de Voogt, Pim; Pulkrabova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    This study summarises the results of the levels of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 50 selected pooled samples representing 15 food commodities with the special focus on those of animal origin, as meat, seafood, fish, milk, dairy products and hen eggs, which are commonly consumed in various European markets, e.g. Czech, Italian, Belgian and Norwegian. A new, rapid sample preparation approach based on the QuEChERS extraction procedure was applied. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode was used for the quantification of target analytes. Method quantification limits (MQLs) were in the range of 1-10 ng kg(-1) (ng l(-1)) for fish, meat, hen eggs, cheese and milk, and in the range of 2.5-125 ng kg(-1) for butter. Only 16 of the group of 21 PFASs were found in at least one analysed sample. From 16 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most frequently detected analyte present in approximately 50% of samples (in the range of 0.98-2600 ng kg(-1)). PFCAs with C8-C14 carbon chain were presented in approximately 20% of samples. The concentration ranges of individual compounds in the respective groups of PFASs were: 2.33-76.3 ng kg(-1) for PFSAs (without PFOS), 4.99-961 ng kg(-1) for PFCAs, 10.6-95.4 ng kg(-1) for PFPAs, and 1.61-519 ng kg(-1) for FOSA. The contamination level in the analysed food commodities decreased in the following order: seafood > pig/bovine liver > freshwater/marine fish > hen egg > meat > butter. When comparing the total contamination and profiles of PFASs in food commodities that originated from various sampling countries, differences were identified, and the contents decreased as follows: Belgium > Norway, Italy > Czech Republic. PMID:24107131

  9. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in Lake Ontario Lake Trout: detailed examination of current status and long-term trends.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; De Silva, Amila O; Backus, Sean M; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Keir, Michael J; Small, Jeff; Melymuk, Lisa; Muir, Derek C G

    2012-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) were determined in Lake Ontario Lake Trout sampled annually between 1997 and 2008 in order to assess how current trends are responding to recent regulatory bans and voluntary phase-outs. We also combined our measurements with those of a previous study to provide an updated assessment of long-term trends. Concentrations of PFCs generally increased from the late 1970s until the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, after which concentrations either remained unchanged (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylates) or declined (perfluorodecanesulfonate (PFDS)). The temporal trends were assessed using three models, quadratic, exponential rise to maximum, and two-segment linear piecewise function, and then evaluated for best fit using Akaike Information Criteria. For PFOS and perfluorocarboxylates, the exponential rise to maximum function had the best fit. This is particularly interesting for PFOS as it suggests that although concentrations in Lake Ontario Lake Trout may have stopped increasing in response to voluntary phase-outs in 2000-2002, declines have yet to be observed. This may be due to continuing input of PFOS from products still in use and/or slow degradation of larger precursor molecules. A power analysis of PFOS suggested that 15 years of data with a within-year sample size of 10 is required to obtain sufficient power (80%) to detect a 5% decreasing trend. However, the length of the monitoring program had a greater influence on the ability to detect a trend compared to within-year sample size. This provides evidence that additional sampling years are required to detect a response to bans and phase-outs, given the variability in the fish data. The lack of observed declines of perfluorocarboxylate residues in fish may be expected as regulations for these compounds were only recently enacted. In contrast to the other compounds, the quadratic model had the best fit for PFDS. The results of this study emphasize the importance of long-term monitoring for assessing the effectiveness of bans and phase-outs on PFCs in the environment. PMID:22553902

  10. Serum S100β

    PubMed Central

    Kanner, Andrew A.; Marchi, Nicola; Fazio, Vincent; Mayberg, Marc R.; Koltz, Michael T.; Siomin, Vitaly; Stevens, Glen H. J.; Masaryk, Thomas; Ayumar, Barbara; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Barnett, Gene H.; Janigro, Damir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND S100β protein is expressed constitutively by brain astrocytes. Elevated S100β levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum reported after head trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke were correlated with the extent of brain damage. Because elevated serum S100β also was shown to indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in the absence of apparent brain injury, it remains unclear whether elevation of serum levels of S100β reflect BBB dysfunction, parenchymal damage, or both. METHODS The authors conducted a prospective study of serum S100β levels in six patients who underwent hyperosmotic BBB disruption (BBBD) with intraarterial chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma. In addition, 53 serum S100β samples were measured in 51 patients who had a variety of primary or metastatic brain lesions at the time of neuroimaging. RESULTS S100β was correlated directly with the degree of clinical and radiologic signs of BBBD in patients who were enrolled in the hyperosmotic study. In patients with neoplastic brain lesions, gadolinium enhancement on a magnetic resonance image was correlated with elevated S100β levels (n = 45 patients; 0.16 ± 0.1 μg/L; mean ± standard error of the mean) versus nonenhancing scans (n = 8 patients; 0.069 ± 0.04 μg/L). Primary brain tumors (n = 8 patients; 0.12 ± 0.08) or central nervous system metastases also presented with elevated serum S100β levels (n = 27 patients; 0.14 ± 0.34). Tumor volume was correlated with serum S100β levels only in patients with vestibular schwannoma (n = 6 patients; 0.13 ± 0.10 μg/L) but not in patients with other brain lesions. CONCLUSIONS S100β was correlated directly with the extent and temporal sequence of hyperosmotic BBBD, further suggesting that S100β is a marker of BBB function. Elevated S100β levels may indicate the presence of radiologically detectable BBB leakage. Larger prospective studies may better determine the true specificity of S100β as a marker for BBB function and as an early detection or follow-up marker of brain tumors. PMID:12767094

  11. Occurrence and distribution of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Gallen, C; Drage, D; Kaserzon, S; Baduel, C; Gallen, M; Banks, A; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-07-15

    The levels of perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDDs) were studied in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids. Leachate was collected from 13 landfill sites and biosolids were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), across Australia. Perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (12-5700ng/L) was the most abundant investigated persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemical in leachate. With one exception, mean concentrations of PFASs were higher in leachate of operating landfills compared to closed landfills. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDDs) were detected typically at operating landfills in comparatively lower concentrations than the PFASs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (<0.4-2300ng/g) and perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS) (

  12. Risk assessment and source identification of perfluoroalkyl acids in surface and ground water: Spatial distribution around a mega-fluorochemical industrial park, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Johnson, Andrew C; Sarvajayakesavalu, Suriyanarayanan; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can be released to water bodies during manufacturing and application of PFAA-containing products. In this study, the contamination pattern, attenuation dynamics, sources, pathways, and risk zoning of PFAAs in surface and ground water was examined within a 10km radius from a mega-fluorochemical industrial park (FIP). Among 12 detected PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated, followed by shorter-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFAA-containing waste was discharged from the FIP, with levels reaching 1.86mg/L in the nearby rivers flowing to the Bohai sea together with up to 273μg/L in the local groundwater in the catchment. These levels constitute a human health risks for PFOA and other shorter-chained PFCAs within this location. The concentrations of ∑PFAAs in surface water strongly correlated with the local groundwater. The dominant pollution pathways of PFAAs included (i) discharge into surface water then to groundwater through seepage, and (ii) atmospheric deposition from the FIP, followed by infiltration to groundwater. As the distance increased from the source, PFAAs levels in groundwater showed a sharp initial decrease followed by a gentle decline. The contamination signal from the FIP site on PFAAs in groundwater existed within a radius of 4km, and at least 3km from the polluted Dongzhulong River. The major controlling factor in PFAA attenuation processes was likely to be dilution together with dispersion and adsorption to aquifer solids. The relative abundance of PFOA (C8) declined while those of shorter-chained PFCAs (C4-C6) increased during surface water seepage and further dispersion in groundwater. PMID:26909815

  13. Assays of Serum Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Herati, Amin S; Cengiz, Cenk; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of male hypogonadism depends on an assessment of the clinical signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and serum testosterone level. Current clinical laboratory testosterone assay platforms include immunoassays and mass spectrometry. Despite significant advances to improve the accuracy and precision of the currently available assays, limited comparability exists between assays at the lower and upper extremes of the testosterone range. Because of this lack of comparability, there is no current gold standard assay for the assessment of total testosterone levels. PMID:27132574

  14. The Human Serum Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  15. The human serum metabolome.

    PubMed

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L; Smith, Steven R; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  16. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology*

    PubMed Central

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4′-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692. PMID:26385339

  17. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology.

    PubMed

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8 (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692. PMID:26385339

  18. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. PMID:25989421

  19. Synthesis, structure, electronic spectroscopy, photophysics, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly-electron-deficient [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Goll, J.G.; Moore, K.T.; Therien, M.J.; Ghosh, A.

    1996-09-04

    The synthesis, optical spectroscopy, photophysical properties, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base analogs are reported. The title compounds were prepared by a condensation methodology that utilizes perfluoro-1-(2`-pyrrolyl)-1-alkanol precursors and employs continuous water removal throughout the course of the reaction to yield the meso perfluorocarbon-substituted porphyrins. The nature of the porphyrin-pendant meso-perfluoroalkyl group exerts considerable influence over the macrocycle`s solubility properties. The structure of the monopyridyl adduct of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(heptafluoropropyl)porphinato] zinc(II) features an S{sub 4}-distorted porphyrin core; X-ray data are given. Electrochemical studies carried out on these porphyrin and (porphinato)zinc(II) complexes indicate that meso-perfluoroalkylporphyrins are among the most electron-deficient porphyrinic species known. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments corroborate the electron poor nature of these systems and evince extreme stabilization of the nitrogen ls orbitals, consonant with particularly effective removal of electron density from the macrocycle by the meso-perfluoroalkyl moieties that is modulated by {sigma}-symmetry orbitals. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  1. The Denver Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Theodore C; Graves, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    At the University of Colorado, Dr. Gordon Meiklejohn pursed the study of influenza and other respiratory pathogens for an unbroken period of 40 years, under the auspices of the Commission on Influenza of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board through a series of contracts with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Sera, throat washings, and other specimens for diagnosis were sent to Dr. Meiklejohn's laboratory. After serologic and virologic studies were carried out, aliquots of sera and virus samples were logged in and frozen. Sera were stored at -20°C and virus specimens at -70°C. These specimens became known as the Denver Serum Bank. The Bank supported military research programs and other researchers nationally and internationally until the 1990s when lacking of funding and considerations of administration, space, and cost resulted in the destruction of all specimens. PMID:26444895

  2. XPS analysis of 316 LVM corroded in serum and saline.

    PubMed

    Merritt, K; Wortman, R S; Millard, M; Brown, S A

    1983-01-01

    Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was undertaken on 316 LVM stainless steel in the attempt to better understand corrosion occurring in vivo. Samples were dipped in saline or in blood serum, corroded in serum or saline by the application of a 5 volt anodic potential, or corroded by fretting. The products produced by fretting corrosion were also examined. XPS analysis revealed rapid protein coating of the stainless steel surfaces exposed to serum, changes in the oxidation state of the surfaces, and changes in the chlorine on the surface. In addition it was demonstrated that the corrosion products generated by fretting in saline had an oxidation state similar to that of chronic chloride whereas the corrosion products generated in serum had an oxidation state similar to that of potassium dichromate. These findings may have important implications since the chromium in dichromate is more biologically active than that in chronic chloride. PMID:6615991

  3. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and their correlation with serum minerals over the lifespan of sheep.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina P; Azevedo, Jorge T; Silva, Amélia M; Viegas, Carlos A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Dias, Isabel R

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone isoform (BALP) levels during the ageing and in different physiologic states of sheep, in order to expand the knowledge about the variation of these biomarkers over the sheep lifespan. Ninety female sheep were divided into nine groups of various ages and physiological states (dry, lactation and pregnancy). Serum ALP, BALP and mineral levels were determined by commercial immunoassay, molecular absorbance spectrophotometry and chemical luminescence for BALP determination. Serum ALP and BALP decreased as sheep aged, and no statistically significant differences were obtained between ewes in different physiologic states. The continuous decline of serum BALP concentration along the sheep lifespan, namely in mature and old sheep, is a sign of decreasing bone turnover associated with ageing. Serum calcium concentrations increased slightly until 2 years of age and then showed a tenuous but statistically significant decrease in mature sheep, while serum phosphorus maintained an uninterrupted decrease as sheep matured. The knowledge of serum values of bone biomarkers throughout the sheep lifespan may be useful in preclinical orthopaedic research studies and for animal science studies using sheep. PMID:24334071

  4. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY, Bossi R, Henriksen TB, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Olsen J. 2015. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances: a nested case–control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:367–373; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408412 PMID:25616253

  5. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK)

    PubMed Central

    Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, McDougall R, Maisonet M, Marcus M, Kishi R, Miyashita C, Chen MH, Hsieh WS, Andersen ME, Clewell HJ III, Longnecker MP. 2015. Associations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with lower birth weight: an evaluation of potential confounding by glomerular filtration rate using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK). Environ Health Perspect 123:1317–1324; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408837 PMID:26008903

  6. Circulating serum xenoestrogens and mammographic breast density

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Humans are widely exposed to estrogenically active phthalates, parabens, and phenols, raising concerns about potential effects on breast tissue and breast cancer risk. We sought to determine the association of circulating serum levels of these chemicals (reflecting recent exposure) with mammographic breast density (a marker of breast cancer risk). Methods We recruited postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin (N = 264). Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample that was analyzed for mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA). Percentage breast density was measured from mammograms by using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Results Serum BPA was positively associated with mammographic breast density after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other potentially confounding factors. Mean percentage density was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4 to 14.0) among the 193 women with nondetectable BPA levels, 13.7% (95% CI, 10.7 to 17.1) among the 35 women with detectable levels below the median (<0.55 ng/ml), and 17.6% (95% CI, 14.1 to 21.5) among the 34 women with detectable levels above the median (>0.55 ng/ml; Ptrend = 0.01). Percentage breast density was also elevated (18.2%; 95% CI, 13.4 to 23.7) among the 18 women with serum mono-ethyl phthalate above the median detected level (>3.77 ng/ml) compared with women with nondetectable BPA levels (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.9 to 14.3; Ptrend = 0.07). No other chemicals demonstrated associations with percentage breast density. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with high serum levels of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate had elevated breast density. Further investigation of the impact of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate on breast cancer risk by using repeated serum measurements or other markers of xenoestrogen exposure are needed. PMID:23710608

  7. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  8. SERUM BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (UH1 and RH1) were incubated in fresh human serum. The UH1 strain was serum-resistant, whereas the RH1 strain was serum-susceptible. The bactericidal activity of fresh serum was abrogated by heating. Serum resistance of L. pneumop...

  9. E-Screen - potential tool for assessment of relative serum estrogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The E-Screen bioassay, used to measure estrogenic activity of environmental water samples, feedstuffs, and pure chemicals, was evaluated for its usefulness in estrogenicity assessment of porcine, ovine, bovine, and piscine serum. High concentrations of swine, cattle, and fish serum were toxic to th...

  10. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in Pacific cods from coastal areas in northern Japan: a major source of human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yukiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Kimura, Osamu; Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) contamination of edible fish muscle from Japanese coastal waters. The concentrations of PFCAs with 8-14 carbon atoms (C8-C14) in Pacific cods in Hokkaido, Japan were 51 (median: pg/g-wet weight) for C8, 93 for C9, 99 for C10, 746 for C11, 416 for C12, 404 for C13, and 93 for C14. The levels of C9-C14 PFCAs in fish were strongly correlated to each other, but not to C8 and the other chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, indicating that C9-C14 PFCAs have a different emission source and/or bioaccumulation mechanism. The relative ratios between estimated PFCAs intake through fish consumption and the reported total dietary exposure of PFCAs were less than 1 for C8 to C9, but were more than 1 for C10 to C14. This result strongly suggests that fish consumption is a significant source of human dietary exposure to C10-C14 PFCAs. PMID:25618364

  11. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water. PMID:25139477

  12. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Michela; Rusconi, Marianna; Valsecchi, Sara; Martins, Claudia P. B.; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. PMID:25834752

  13. Analysis of zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic poly- and perfluoroalkyl surfactants in sediments by liquid chromatography polarity-switching electrospray ionization coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriel; Duy, Sung Vo; Labadie, Pierre; Botta, Fabrizio; Budzinski, Hélène; Lestremau, François; Liu, Jinxia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-05-15

    A new analytical method is proposed for the determination of a wide span of fluoroalkylated surfactants (PFASs) of various chain lengths and polarities in sediments, including newly-identified compounds such as zwitterionic and cationic PFASs. Extraction conditions were optimized so as to maintain a common preparation procedure for all analytes (recovery range: 60-110%). Instrumental analysis was performed with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry through polarity-switching electrospray ionization. Calibration curves with excellent coefficients of determination (R(2)>0.994) were generally obtained over 0.002-10ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and limits of detection were in the range 0.0006-0.46ngg(-1) dw. Intra-day precision remained<9% and inter-day precision<23%. While perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) generally prevailed over other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sediments from mainland France, fluorotelomer sulfonamide amines and fluorotelomer sulfonamide betaines were also ubiquitous in these samples, especially in the vicinity of airports wherein firefighting training activities may occur on a regular basis. PMID:26992541

  14. Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, Part I: production and emissions from quantifiable sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Scheringer, Martin; Buck, Robert C; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-09-01

    We quantify global emissions of C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues during the life-cycle of products based on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF), and fluorotelomer compounds. We estimate emissions of 2610-21400 tonnes of C4-C14 PFCAs in the period from 1951 to 2015, and project 20-6420 tonnes to be emitted from 2016 to 2030. The global annual emissions steadily increased in the period 1951-2002, followed by a decrease and then another increase in the period 2002-2012. Releases from fluoropolymer production contributed most to historical PFCA emissions (e.g. 55-83% in 1951-2002). Since 2002, there has been a geographical shift of industrial sources (particularly fluoropolymer production sites) from North America, Europe and Japan to emerging Asian economies, especially China. Sources differ between PFCA homologues, sometimes considerably, and the relative contributions of each source change over time. For example, whereas 98-100% of historical (1951-2002) PFOA emissions are attributed to direct releases during the life-cycle of products containing PFOA as ingredients or impurities, a much higher historical contribution from PFCA precursor degradation is estimated for some other homologues (e.g. 9-78% for PFDA). We address the uncertainties of the PFCA emissions by defining a lower and a higher emission scenario, which differ by approximately a factor of eight. PMID:24932785

  15. Binding of aluminum to human serum transferrin, human serum albumin and rat serum proteins

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae, A.K.H.; Zeid, M.M.A.; Abdel-Rahman, F.H.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Human serum transferrin (HSTF), human serum albumin (HSA) and rat serum were compared for their interaction with AlCl[sub 3], in a Tris-HCl buffer solutions. The AlCl[sub 3] was tested in series of concentrations in the range of 50 [mu]M up to 500 [mu]M. HSTF, HSA and their 1:1 mixture and rat serum were incubated at 37 C with series of AlCl[sub 3] concentrations. The protein profile of the incubated solutions were compared to control using SDS-PAGE and FPLC tests. The results indicated that HSTF was more specifically responsive to AlCl[sub 3] showing a characteristic increase in it UV absorption, peak and area dimensions. Simultaneously, HSA was less affected, but it showed a significant shift with an increase in molecular weight accompanied with a change in its profile. The respective bands of transferrin and albumin in rat serum behaved similarly.

  16. Serum Bacteriostasis of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenkranz, N. Joel; Elliott, David F.; Zarco, Romeo

    1971-01-01

    Serum bacteriostasis of Staphylococcus aureus was characterized quantitatively and quantitatively. Bacteriostasis was proportional to the concentration of serum. Reproducibility was good; freezing and thawing did not materially affect the end point. Four of six different strains, including the propagating S. aureus strain for phage 73 which does not produce coagulase, were susceptible to serum bacteriostasis in similar titers; two were not susceptible at all. All six strains were effective inhibitors of bacteriostasis. Active and inactive coagulase were also inhibitors. In contrast to sensitive S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus salivarius were not uniformly susceptible to bacteriostasis by different serums. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella montevideo, S. zymogenes, and Diplococcus pneumoniae were not susceptible. Among gram-positive bacteria, only D. pneumoniae inhibited S. aureus bacteriostasis. Agglutinins of S. aureus and nonspecific substances such as lysozyme, β-lysin, C-reactive protein, and transferrin were not responsible for S. aureus serum bacteriostasis. After diethylaminoethyl column fractionation of serum, the bacteriostatic principle was eluted in proximity to blood group antibody; immunoglobulins A, G, and M appeared to be present in bacteriostatic fractions. It is suggested that S. aureus bacteriostasis by serum is due to natural antibody and that inhibitory reactions with pneumococci and coagulase are due to common antigens. PMID:16558034

  17. Determination of hormones, a plasticizer, preservatives, perfluoroalkylated compounds, and a flame retardant in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) is a novel extraction technique commonly applied for the extraction on a specific group of compounds. In this paper, the applicability of ultrasound-assisted DLLME-SFO for multiresidue extraction has been evaluated. A method for the simultaneous extraction of four hormones (17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol and estrone), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), three preservatives (methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkylated compounds (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, from C4 to C8), and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane) has been developed and validated for their extraction from surface water and tap water. Determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Recoveries of the target compounds were highly dependent on their log K(ow) values. Linear relationship between recoveries and log K(ow) values was observed for compounds from the same group (hormones, preservatives and perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acids). The lowest recoveries were obtained for the less hydrophobic compounds (estriol (43%), methylparaben (32%), ethylparaben (45%) and the perfluorinated compounds of shorter alkyl chain (C4: 17%, C5: 41% and C6: 57%)). Recoveries of the other pollutants were higher than 80%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range from 1% to 16%. Method detection limits were in the range 0.001-1.126 µg L(-1), for surface water, and 0.001-1.446 µg L(-1) for tap water. No important matrix effect was observed. PMID:26078168

  18. Operation of a DNA-Based Autocatalytic Network in Serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graugnard, Elton; Cox, Amber; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.

    The potential for inferring the presence of cancer by the detection of miRNA in human blood has motivated research into the design and operation of DNA-based chemical amplifiers that can operate in bodily fluids. As a first step toward this goal, we have tested the operation of a DNA-based autocatalytic network in human serum and mouse serum. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to prevent degradation by nuclease activity, the network was found to operate successfully with both DNA and RNA catalysts.

  19. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  20. Maternal Exposure to Synthetic Chemicals and Obesity in the Offspring: Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Peterson, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposures to synthetic chemicals may be associated with early onset obesity, although this hypothesis has not been extensively examined in humans. This article summarizes the evidence relating maternal perinatal exposure to common persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated biphenyl, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane), perfluoroalkyls, perfluorooctane sulfonate, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tributyltin, and nonpersistent compounds (phthalates, bisphenol A) on child obesity during sensitive developmental periods. Twenty-two epidemiologic studies published from 2011 to 2015 offer inconsistent support for the obesogenic effects of most substances and are limited by relatively small sample sizes and indirect measures of adiposity. The clearest findings suggest an influence of maternal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene exposure on offspring overweight and obesity. Recommendations for future epidemiological research include longer follow-up of effects of pre- and postnatal exposures in large samples; utilization of direct measures of adiposity; and consideration of effect modification by sex, birth weight, dietary fat, and maternal weight status. PMID:26403844

  1. Development and evaluation of a mechanistic bioconcentration model for ionogenic organic chemicals in fish.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Mackay, Don

    2013-01-01

    A mechanistic mass balance bioconcentration model is developed and parameterized for ionogenic organic chemicals (IOCs) in fish and evaluated against a compilation of empirical bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The model is subsequently applied to a set of perfluoroalkyl acids. Key aspects of model development include revised methods to estimate the chemical absorption efficiency of IOCs at the respiratory surface (E(W) ) and the use of distribution ratios to characterize the overall sorption capacity of the organism. Membrane-water distribution ratios (D(MW) ) are used to characterize sorption to phospholipids instead of only considering the octanol-water distribution ratio (D(OW) ). Modeled BCFs are well correlated with the observations (e.g., r(2)  = 0.68 and 0.75 for organic acids and bases, respectively) and accurate to within a factor of three on average. Model prediction errors appear to be largely the result of uncertainties in the biotransformation rate constant (k(M) ) estimates and the generic approaches for estimating sorption capacity (e.g., D(MW) ). Model performance for the set of perfluoroalkyl acids considered is highly dependent on the input parameters describing hydrophobicity (i.e., log K(OW) of the neutral form). The model applications broadly support the hypothesis that phospholipids contribute substantially to the sorption capacity of fish, particularly for compounds that exhibit a high degree of ionization at biologically relevant pH. Additional empirical data on biotransformation and sorption to phospholipids and subsequent incorporation into property estimation approaches (e.g., k(M) , D(MW) ) are priorities with respect to improving model performance. PMID:23023933

  2. ACTIVATION ASSAY FOR PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR- ALPHA (PPARÁ) BY PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS (PFAAS) IN COS-1 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFAAs have been found to elicit various physiological effects including peroxisome proliferation, indicating the mechanism of action for these chemicals could involve PPAR. This study investigates the ability of PFAAs to bind and activate mouse and human PPARα in COS-1 cell...

  3. ACTIVATION ASSAY FOR PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR- ALPHA (PPAR) BY PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS (PFAAS) IN COS-1 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFAAs have been found to elicit various physiological effects including peroxisome proliferation, indicating the mechanism of action for these chemicals could involve PPAR. This study investigates the ability of PFAAs to bind and activate mouse and human PPAR? in COS-1 cell...

  4. Comparative assessment of the environmental hazards of and exposure to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs): Current knowledge, gaps, challenges and research needs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Berger, Urs; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Scheringer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs) are sub-groups of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that have been commercialized since the 1970s, particularly as defoamers in pesticide formulations and wetting agents in consumer products. Recently, C4/C4 PFPiA and its derivatives have been presented as alternatives to long-chain PFASs in certain applications. In this study, we systematically assess the publicly available information on the hazardous properties, occurrence, and exposure routes of PFPAs and PFPiAs, and make comparisons to the corresponding properties of their better-known carboxylic and sulfonic acid analogs (i.e. PFCAs and PFSAs). This comparative assessment indicates that [i] PFPAs likely have high persistence and long-range transport potential; [ii] PFPiAs may transform to PFPAs (and possibly PFCAs) in the environment and biota; [iii] certain PFPAs and PFPiAs can only be slowly eliminated from rainbow trout and rats, similarly to long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs; [iv] PFPAs and PFPiAs have modes-of-action that are both similar to, and different from, those of PFCAs and PFSAs; and [v] the measured levels of PFPAs/PFPiAs in the global environment and biota appear to be low in comparison to PFCAs and PFSAs, suggesting, for the time being, low risks from PFPAs and PFPiAs alone. Although risks from individual PFPAs/PFPiAs are currently low, their ongoing production and use and high persistence will lead to increasing exposure and risks over time. Furthermore, simultaneous exposure to PFPAs, PFPiAs and other PFASs may result in additive effects necessitating cumulative risk assessments. To facilitate effective future research, we highlight possible strategies to overcome sampling and analytical challenges. PMID:26922149

  5. Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds on mRNA Expression Levels of Thyroid Hormone-Responsive Genes in Primary Cultures of Avian Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vongphachan, Viengtha; Cassone, Cristina G.; Wu, Dongmei; Chiu, Suzanne; Crump, Doug; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in assessing the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting potential of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Several studies have reported in vitro and in vivo effects related to neuronal development, neural cell differentiation, prenatal and postnatal development and behavior. PFC exposure altered hormone levels and the expression of hormone-responsive genes in mammalian and aquatic species. This study is the first to assess the effects of PFCs on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in primary cultures of neuronal cells in two avian species: the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) and herring gull (Larus argentatus). The following thyroid hormone (TH)–responsive genes were examined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR: type II iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase (D2), D3, transthyretin (TTR), neurogranin (RC3), octamer motif–binding factor (Oct-1), and myelin basic protein. Several PFCs altered the mRNA expression levels of genes associated with the TH pathway in avian neuronal cells. Short-chained PFCs (less than eight carbons) altered the expression of TH-responsive genes (D2, D3, TTR, and RC3) in chicken embryonic neuronal cells to a greater extent than long-chained PFCs (more than or equal to eight carbons). Variable transcriptional changes were observed in herring gull embryonic neuronal cells exposed to short-chained PFCs; mRNA levels of Oct-1 and RC3 were upregulated. This is the first study to report that PFC exposure alters mRNA expression in primary cultures of avian neuronal cells and may provide insight into the possible mechanisms of action of PFCs in the avian brain. PMID:21212296

  6. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylic acids in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) from Midway Island, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Wang, Jun; Leong, Gladys; Woodward, Lee Ann; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a gyre of marine plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean, and nearby is Midway Atoll which is a focal point for ecological damage. This study investigated 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate [collectively perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)] in black-footed albatross tissues (collected in 2011) from Midway Atoll. Of the 18 PFCAs and PFSAs monitored, most were detectable in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues. The concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs were higher than those in most seabirds from the arctic environment, but lower than those in most of fish-eating water birds collected in the U.S. mainland. The concentrations of the PFAAs in the albatross livers were 7-fold higher than those in Laysan albatross liver samples from the same location reported in 1994. The concentration ranges of PFOS were 22.91-70.48, 3.01-6.59 and 0.53-8.35 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively, in the liver, muscle and adipose. In the liver samples PFOS was dominant, followed by longer chain PFUdA (8.04-18.70 ng g(-1) ww), PFTrDA, and then PFNA, PFDA and PFDoA. Short chain PFBA, PFPeA, PFBS and PFODA were below limit of quantification. C8-C13 PFCAs showed much higher composition compared to those found in other wildlife where PFOS typically predominated. The concentrations of PFUdA in all 8 individual albatross muscle samples were even higher than those of PFOS. This phenomenon may be attributable to GPGP as a pollution source as well as PFAA physicochemical properties. PMID:26037817

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

  8. Isomeric specific partitioning behaviors of perfluoroalkyl substances in water dissolved phase, suspended particulate matters and sediments in Liao River Basin and Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fang, Shuhong; Zhang, Yifeng; Yang, Liping

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eleven perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were investigated in water dissolved phase, sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in two typical watersheds in China: Liao River Basin and Taihu Lake. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the dissolved phase were 44.4-781 ng/L in Liao River with high contribution of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (75.7%) and PFOA (9.86%). The ∑PFASs in the dissolved phase in Taihu Lake was 17.2-94.4 ng/L with PFOA (39.8%), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (30.1%) and PFOS (16.8%) as the dominant PFASs. The log Koc values of the PFASs in both SPM and sediment increased with increasing the perfluorinated carbon chain length. In Liao River Basin, the long chain perfluorocarboxylates (C10-12) bound with SPM contributed >30% to the total amount in water, suggesting that SPM could not be ignored when the environmental load of long chain PFASs in water was assessed. For the isomers of PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA, the linear isomers always displayed higher partition coefficients on particulate phases than the branched ones. An established isomer-profiling technique was applied to assess the relative contributions of various industrial origins for PFOA. In Liao River, when SPM was included in the water samples, there were contributions of PFOA from electrochemical fluorination (ECF) (∼55%), linear telomer (∼41%) and isopropyl telomer (∼4%) sources. While, the results based on the dissolved phase alone indicated more contribution of ECF (∼70%) source and lower contribution from linear telomer (∼26%) source. The discrepancy suggests that omitting SPM from water samples might lead to misunderstanding on the industrial origins of PFOA. In Taihu Lake, the isomer profile of PFOA was influenced mainly by ECF (∼88%) and partially by linear-telomer (∼12%) sources. PMID:26005784

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (

  10. Validation of a screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances in biota.

    PubMed

    Berger, Urs; Haukås, Marianne

    2005-07-22

    A screening method for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in biota samples has been developed and validated using liver samples from polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). The method was based on extraction of target compounds from homogenised samples into the solvent mixture used as mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), i.e. methanol/water (50:50; 2 mM ammonium acetate). The extract was filtered and directly injected into a HPLC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system. Quantification was performed using 7H-perfluoroheptanoic acid as internal standard and a calibration standard solution dissolved in sample extract for each matrix type (matrix-matched calibration standard). The method is very time and cost efficient. Except for long-chain compounds and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (which cannot be covered by this method), recoveries were between 60% and 115% and method detection limits were in the range 0.04-1.3 ng/g wet weight. Blank values could be neglected with the exception of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). One of the major challenges in PFAS analysis is ionisation disturbance by co-eluting matrix in the ion source of the mass spectrometer. Both matrix and analyte specific signal enhancement and suppression was observed and quantified. Repeated extractions (n = 3) gave relative standard deviations (RSD) <35% for all PFAS. Accuracy was examined by comparing the screening method to the generally applied ion pair extraction (IPE) method. PFAS concentration values of a glaucous gull liver sample deviated by less than 30% for the two methods, provided that matrix-matched calibration standards were employed in both methods. PMID:16038211

  11. Uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester and its degradation products by carrot and lettuce from compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Zabaleta, I; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-06-01

    The present work studied the uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (diPAP) by two different crops (lettuce and carrot) and two different amended soils. Firstly, the possible degradation of 8:2 diPAP in the absence of crop was studied and 8:2 monoPAP (monophosphate), 8:2 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 8:2 FTUCA (unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 7:3 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), PFHpA (perfluoroheptanoic acid), PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) were detected. In the presence of crops, different degradation products were detected in the soil and, while PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid), PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA (perfluoropentacoic acid), PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), 7:3 FTCA and PFOA were determined in the cultivation media when carrot was grown, PFOA was the only degradation product detected in the case of lettuce experiments. Regarding the uptake in carrot, all the degradation products except 7:3 FTCA were translocated from the soil to the carrot. Carrot core, peel and leaves bioconcentration factors, BCFs, were determined for 8:2 diPAP and its degradation products. Values lower than method detection limits for core and low BCFs in peel (0.025-0.042) and leaves (0.028-0.049) were achieved for 8:2 diPAP. Regarding to the degradation products, the higher their water solubility, the higher the plant translocation. In this sense, the lower the carbon chain length of PFCAs, the higher the BCFs determined (PFBA > PFHxA > PFHpA > PFOA > PFNA). In general, lower total BCFs were achieved when the total organic carbon of the soils increased. For lettuce experiments, 8:2 diPAP (0.04-0.18) and PFOA (0.28-1.57) were only determined in lettuce heart. PMID:26991379

  12. Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: a case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Woldegiorgis, Andreas; Norström, Karin; Bibi, Momina; Lindberg, Maria; Österås, Ann-Helen

    2015-06-01

    Historical usage of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at military airports is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the nearby environment. In this study, the distribution of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil, groundwater, surface water, tap water well, and fish muscle was investigated at a closed down military airfield (F18) and its surroundings in Stockholm, Sweden. The presence of PFOS at AFFF training sites was inventoried. One major finding of the study is that a former airfield, abandoned since 1994, may still be a point source of PFAAs to nearby recipients. PFOS and PFOA were ubiquitous in the soil samples at former AFFF training sites with concentrations ranging from 2.18 to 8520ngg(-1) dry weight and <0.12-287ngg(-1) dry weight respectively. The sum of PFAAs in the groundwater and surface waters ranged from 738 to 51000ngL(-1) and

  13. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    PubMed

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. PMID:26774262

  14. Analysis of the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in water, sediment and biota of the Jucar River (E Spain). Sources, partitioning and relationships with water physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Lorenzo, María; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinel la; Barceló, Damià

    2016-05-01

    The presence, sources and partitioning of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6-C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were assessed in water, sediment, and biota of the Jucar River basin (E Spain). Considering the three matrices, perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the most frequent compounds, being remarkable the high occurrence of short-chain PFASs (C≤8), which are intended to replace the long-chain ones in several industrial and commercial applications. In general, all samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, with the exception of three fish samples. Mean concentrations detected in sediments (0.22-11.5ng g(-1)) and biota (0.63-274µgkg(-1)) samples were higher than those measured in water (0.04-83.1ngL(-1)), which might suggest (bio) accumulation. The occurrence of PFAS is related to urban and industrial discharges (Cuenca city in the upper part of basin, and car's factory, and effluents of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Alzira, in the lower part). Increasing pollution gradients were found. On the other hand, higher contamination levels were observed after regulation dams of the catchment pointing out their importance in the re-distribution of these contaminants. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). PFAS concentrations found in this study can be considered in acceptable levels if compared to existing Regulatory Legislation and, consequently, they do not pose an immediate human health risk. PMID:26974364

  15. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Patients Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Haji Hosseini, Reza; Esfandiari, Malek Ashtar; Najafian, Nastaran; Najafian, Bita; Golbedagh, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of endopeptidases which comprised of various types. These proteolytic enzymes are zinc-dependent and play role in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Various types of cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, synovial cells and some epithelial cells secrete MMPs. According to previous studies on bronchiolitis and respiratory tract lesions in these patients and unknown pathophysiology mechanism up to date, this cross–sectional study was performed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the serum MMP level in patients with chemical injuries and normal people and also determine the role of these parameters in pulmonary disorders . Materials and Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 25 Iranian patients exposed to the sulfur mustard and 25 unexposed participants as the control group were enrolled. Serum samples were collected from two groups and stored at -70˚C until the measurement of MMPs and TIMPs. ELISA kit was used for measurement of MMP and TIMP based on the kit's instruction. For validations in measurement, all samples were analyzed duplicate and in some cases triplicate. Results: The mean level of MMP-9 in serum of chemically-injured group was 1592.42 and this amount in normal group was 679.72 .So there was a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.001) and the mean level of MMP-8 in serum of patients group was 49.10 and in normal group was 35.53. Then there was no significant difference between two groups (P = 0.197). The mean levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 was not significantly different (P value > 0.05) in the patient and normal groups. And also the mean levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the patients and normal groups. Conclusions: In summary, serum MMPs in chemically-injured has shown no significant difference with normal people except for the MMP-9. PMID:24829780

  16. [Serum resistance of Escherichia coli in chronic pyelonephritis. 1. Serum resistance in the human serum pool].

    PubMed

    Falkenhagen, U; Handschuck, I; Ulisko, I N; Ratiner YuA; Nimmich, W; Zingler, G; Naumann, G

    1984-07-01

    123 patients of the kidney department of the Clinic for Inner Medicine of Rostock University suffering from chronic pyelonephritis were taken into microbiological observation for between one and four years. 170 E. coli strains were bred from 59 patients with significant bacteriuria in the course of the disease and their serum resistence was determined with pooled human serum using Taylor's method. 78.24% of the strains examined were serum-sensitive, 11.18% intermediate and 10.59% serum-resistent. All strains were O-, K- and H-typed. 57.06% were successfully O-typed and were distributed over 40 O-serogroups. 24.12% were not typable and 18.82% were rough colonies. 86.50% of the resistent and intermediate strains strains were O-typable, 13.50% could not be typed. The significance of E. coli antigens (O, K, H) and serum resistence for the maintenance of a chronic infection is discussed. PMID:6385542

  17. Integrated Risk Index of Chemical Aquatic Pollution (IRICAP): case studies in Iberian rivers.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Francesc; Marquès, Montse; Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Barceló, Damià; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2013-12-15

    The hazard of chemical compounds can be prioritized according to their PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity) properties by using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The objective of the present study was to develop an Integrated Risk Index of Chemical Aquatic Pollution (IRICAP), useful to evaluate the risk associated to the exposure of chemical mixtures contained in river waters. Four Spanish river basins were considered as case-studies: Llobregat, Ebro, Jucar and Guadalquivir. A SOM-based hazard index (HI) was estimated for 205 organic compounds. IRICAP was calculated as the product of the HI by the concentration of each pollutant, and the results of all substances were aggregated. Finally, Pareto distribution was applied to the ranked lists of compounds in each site to prioritize those chemicals with the most significant incidence on the IRICAP. According to the HI outcomes, perfluoroalkyl substances, as well as specific illicit drugs and UV filters, were among the most hazardous compounds. Xylazine was identified as one of the chemicals with the highest contribution to the total IRICAP value in the different river basins, together with other pharmaceutical products such as loratadine and azaperol. These organic compounds should be proposed as target chemicals in the implementation of monitoring programs by regulatory organizations. PMID:23810233

  18. Serum haptoglobin in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Roger; Speyer, Barbara E.; Billing, Barbara H.

    1961-01-01

    Serum haptoglobin levels have been measured in 115 cases of widely differing liver disease. Although low levels were found in some cases of cirrhosis and a number of patients with obstructive jaundice had increased levels, 70% of the values fell within the normal range. The estimation was of no help in distinguishing between intra- and extrahepatic obstructive jaundice. A characteristic pattern was observed in infective hepatitis, and a falling serum haptoglobin in the presence of increasing jaundice is diagnostic of the latter condition. The cause of these changes is uncertain. Low levels could not be accounted for by increased red cell breakdown and there was no correlation with the serum albumin level. Prednisolone therapy produced a rise in serum haptoglobin level in cirrhosis, which was accompanied by an improvement in liver function. Temporary rises in level were observed in intrahepatic obstructive jaundice and were probably due to a non-specific effect of prednisolone. In the latter condition norethandrolone therapy was often associated with high levels. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:14007214

  19. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies such as Herceptin and Cetuximab. The PEMS displayed a limit of detection of 100 fg/mL, which was 100 times lower than the current methods of protein detection in serum, such as ELISA. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the PEMS device allows it to be capable of determining the dissociation constant, K d, of selective receptors such as antibodies. Using the dose response trials of Her2, Kd has been deduced for H3 scFv, and Herceptin, a commercial antibody specific for Her2.

  20. Escherichia coli Agglutinins in Cow Serum, Colostrum and the Nursing Calf

    PubMed Central

    Jacks, T. M.; Glantz, P. J.

    1970-01-01

    Immunochemical properties of Escherichia coli O antibodies present in bovine serum and colostrum were investigated. Dam and calf serum samples plus colostral whey samples were fractionated by gel filtration, and the 7S and 19S fractions isolated. Antibody activity against the O antigens of four recognized E. coli bovine pathogens was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test on the whole serum and colostral whey samples and the 7S and 19S fractions thereof. Mercaptoethanol reduction was used to chemically study the immunochemistry of the E. coli O antibodies. The E. coli O antibodies in dam serum were entirely 19S macroglobulins and appeared to be IgM immunoglobulins. The antibodies in colostrum and calf serum were both 7S and 19S globulins. Reasons for believing these 7S antibodies may be IgG, and the 19S antibodies IgA, immunoglobulins are presented. PMID:4248443

  1. Serum lipids regulate dendritic cell CD1 expression and function

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, David S; Dascher, Christopher C; Cembrola, Katherine; Townes, Maria A; Hava, David L; Hugendubler, Lynne C; Mueller, Elisabetta; Fox, Lisa; Roura-Mir, Carme; Moody, D Branch; Vincent, Michael S; Gumperz, Jenny E; Illarionov, Petr A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Reynolds, Carol G; Brenner, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play a vital role in stimulating nave T cells. Treatment of human blood monocytes with the cytokines granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 stimulates them to develop into immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in vitro. DCs generated by this pathway have a high capacity to prime and activate resting T cells and prominently express CD1 antigen-presenting molecules on the cell surface. The presence of human serum during the differentiation of iDCs from monocytes inhibits the expression of CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, but not CD1d. Correspondingly, T cells that are restricted by CD1c showed poor responses to DCs that were generated in the presence of human serum, while the responses of CD1d-restricted T cells were enhanced. We chemically fractionated human serum to isolate the bioactive factors that modulate surface expression of CD1 proteins during monocyte to DC differentiation. The human serum components that affected CD1 expression partitioned with polar organic soluble fractions. Lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin were identified as lipids present in normal human serum that potently modulate CD1 expression. Control of CD1 expression was mediated at the level of gene transcription and correlated with activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear hormone receptors. These findings indicate that the ability of human DCs to present lipid antigens to T cells through expression of CD1 molecules is sensitively regulated by lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin in serum, which are ligands that can activate PPAR transcription factors. PMID:18445008

  2. Serum lipids regulate dendritic cell CD1 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Leslie, David S; Dascher, Christopher C; Cembrola, Katherine; Townes, Maria A; Hava, David L; Hugendubler, Lynne C; Mueller, Elisabetta; Fox, Lisa; Roura-Mir, Carme; Moody, D Branch; Vincent, Michael S; Gumperz, Jenny E; Illarionov, Petr A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Reynolds, Carol G; Brenner, Michael B

    2008-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play a vital role in stimulating nave T cells. Treatment of human blood monocytes with the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 stimulates them to develop into immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in vitro. DCs generated by this pathway have a high capacity to prime and activate resting T cells and prominently express CD1 antigen-presenting molecules on the cell surface. The presence of human serum during the differentiation of iDCs from monocytes inhibits the expression of CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, but not CD1d. Correspondingly, T cells that are restricted by CD1c showed poor responses to DCs that were generated in the presence of human serum, while the responses of CD1d-restricted T cells were enhanced. We chemically fractionated human serum to isolate the bioactive factors that modulate surface expression of CD1 proteins during monocyte to DC differentiation. The human serum components that affected CD1 expression partitioned with polar organic soluble fractions. Lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin were identified as lipids present in normal human serum that potently modulate CD1 expression. Control of CD1 expression was mediated at the level of gene transcription and correlated with activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear hormone receptors. These findings indicate that the ability of human DCs to present lipid antigens to T cells through expression of CD1 molecules is sensitively regulated by lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin in serum, which are ligands that can activate PPAR transcription factors. PMID:18445008

  3. Serum Survivin Increases in Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dellal, Fatma Dilek; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Gorar, Suheyla; Ademoglu, Esranur; Candan, Zehra; Bekdemir, Handan; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Kaya, Fatih Oner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolactinoma is the most common adult pituitary adenoma. Survivin is a member of the family of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Its expression is observed in many tumors. Survivin expression has shown in prolactinoma tissue before but no study exists showing serum survivin level. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum survivin levels in patients with prolactinoma and demonstrate its value in diagnosis of the disease. Methods The group of patients consisted of 25 women, aged from 17 to 51 years. As a control group, 21 healthy women, aged from 22 to 45 years were included. Twenty patients had microprolactinoma, while five patients had macroprolactinoma. All patients had received dopamine agonist treatment. Serum survivin levels were measured in all of the groups. Results Survivin levels were significantly higher in prolactinoma patients compared to controls (19.04 (10 - 38) pg/mL; 15.05 (8 - 22) pg/mL; P = 0.042). There was no difference between microadenoma and macroadenoma patients in survivin levels (19.22 (10 - 38) pg/mL; 18.40 (16 - 22) pg/mL; P = 0.914). In correlation analysis, survivin was not correlated with other parameters. Conclusions We consider that higher survivin levels might be a molecular marker predicting the presence of prolactinoma and may be useful for the diagnosis. But large-scale research is needed to clarify its role in diagnosis of prolactinoma patients. PMID:25699121

  4. Modulation of. beta. -adrenergic response in rat brain astrocytes by serum and hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.K.; Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat cerebrum respond to isoproterenol, a ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, with a transient rise in cAMP production. This astroglial property was regulated by serum, a chemically defined medium (serum-free medium plus hydrocortisone, putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2/, insulin, and fibroblast growth factor) and epidermal growth factor. Compared to astrocytes grown in serum-supplemented medium, astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium were nonresponsive to isoproterenol stimulation, and this difference did not appear to be due to selection of a subpopulation of cells by either medium. The data suggest that a decreased ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number and an increased degradation of cAMP may account for the reduced response to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. The nonresponsive state of astrocytes in the defined medium was reversible when the medium was replaced with serum-supplemented medium. An active substance(s) in serum was responsible for restoring the responsiveness of astrocytes. Each of the five components of the defined medium had little effect by itself; however, together they acted synergistically to desensitize astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, epidermal growth factor, a potent mitogen for astrocytes, was very competent by itself in reducing the cAMP response of astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. Thus purified astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium appear to be a good model for the study of hormonal interactions and of serum factors which may modulate the ..beta..-adrenergic response.

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Chemical Emergencies Under certain conditions, chemicals which are normally safe can be poisonous or harmful to your health. A major chemical emergency is an accident that releases a hazardous amount ...

  6. [Study on material basis of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin decoction for anti-inflammation and immune suppression based on combined method of serum pharmacochemistry and serum pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Liang, Shao-yu; Chen, Fei-long; Tang, Qing-fa; Tan, Xiao-mei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate me material basis of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin decoction (MFXD) for anti-inflammation and immune-suppression based on the combined method of serum chemical and serum pharmacological. The LC-MS/MS fingerprints of MFXD, drug-containing serum and blank serum were compared to define the components in plasma. Histamine, ?-hexosaminidase released from RBL-2H3 cell infulenced by drug-containing serum at different time points were measured by ELISA. The effect of drug-containing serum on lipopolysaccharide-induced splenocyte proliferation at different time points were determined by MTT. A correlation analysis was made on components of MFXD and pharmacological indexes based the stepwise regression method. After the intragastrical administration with MFXD, 32 components were discovered in rat serum, including 27 prototype components (10 from Mahuang, 13 from Fuzi and four from Xixin) and five unknown components. Compared with blank serum, drug-containing serum could reduce the release of histamine from RBL-2H3 induced by antigen at different time points (P < 0.05); except the 4-hour drug-containing serum, all of the remaining drug-containing serums could inhibit the RBL-2H3 mastocyte degranulation induced by antigen at different time points (P < 0.05). Drug-containing serum could significantly lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse splenocyte proliferation at 15 and 30 min (P < 0.05). A regression analysis was made on the chemical data of components absorbed into blood and pharmacological indexes, i. e. release rate of histamine, release rate of ?-hexosaminidase and inhibition rate of splenocyte. This suggested the close correlations among methyl pseudo-ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and histamine released from RBL-2H3 induced by antigen; pseudoephedrine, hypaconine, methyl pseudoephedrine and ?-hexosaminidase released from RBL-2H3 induced by antigen; as well as benzoyl hypaconine, benzoylaconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-mesaconine, mesaconine and lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse splenocyte proliferation. Methylpseudoephedrine, pseudoephedrine, benzoyl hypaconine, benzoylaconine and mesaconine may be part of material basis of MFXD on anti-inflammation and immune suppression. PMID:26390658

  7. Serum neopterin levels in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Milena-Abril, A; González-García, C

    1993-09-01

    Serum neopterin levels have been determined by RIA in 105 patients affected by chronic alcoholic liver disease, 68 of them cirrhotics, and in 12 controls. Serum Neopterin was significantly higher in patients than in controls, correlated with Pughs' score and Child's classification, and also with serum laminin and type III collagen N-terminal propeptide, and with histomorphometrically determined liver fibrosis. Serum neopterin levels were higher in patients who died than in survivors, serum neopterin levels over 19.15 nmol/l being associated with higher mortality rates. PMID:8261879

  8. Evidence for the involvement of xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors in transcriptional effects upon perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in diverse species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongzu; Vallanat, Beena; Nelson, David M; Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Lam, Paul K S; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Corton, J Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Humans and ecological species have been found to have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) that work through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). Recent studies indicate that along with PPAR alpha other nuclear receptors are required for transcriptional changes in the mouse liver after PFOA exposure including the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) that regulate xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME). To determine the potential role of CAR/PXR in mediating effects of PFAAs in rat liver, we performed a meta-analysis of transcript profiles from published studies in which rats were exposed to PFOA or PFOS. We compared the profiles to those produced by exposure to prototypical activators of CAR, (phenobarbital (PB)), PXR (pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)), or PPAR alpha (WY-14,643 (WY)). As expected, PFOA and PFOS elicited transcript profile signatures that included many known PPAR alpha target genes. Numerous XME genes were also altered by PFOA and PFOS but not WY. These genes exhibited expression changes shared with PB or PCN. Reexamination of the transcript profiles from the livers of chicken or fish exposed to PFAAs indicated that PPAR alpha, CAR, and PXR orthologs were not activated. Our results indicate that PFAAs under these experimental conditions activate PPAR alpha, CAR, and PXR in rats but not chicken and fish. Lastly, we discuss evidence that human populations with greater CAR expression have lower body burdens of PFAAs. PMID:19162173

  9. Simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl iodides, perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, fluorotelomer alcohols, fluorotelomer iodides and fluorotelomer acrylates and methacrylates in water and sediments using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Boiteux, Virginie; Hemard, Jessica; Colin, Adeline; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2016-05-27

    Here, we developed and validated a headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) method for the determination of 14 volatile perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in water and sediment samples according to SANTE 11945/2015 guidelines. Three fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), two perfluoroalkyl iodides (PFIs), three fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs), four fluorotelomer acrylates and methacrylates (FTACs and FTMACs) and two perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASAs) were analysed simultaneously to assess the occurrence of these compounds from their emission sources to the outlets in water treatment plants. Several SPME parameters were optimised for both water and sediment to maximise responses and keep analysis time to a minimum. In tap water, the limits of quantification (LOQs) were found to be between 20ng/L and 100ng/L depending on the analyte, with mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 126%. For sediments, LOQs ranged from 1 to 3ng/g dry weight depending on the target compound, with mean recoveries ranging from 74 to 125%. SPME considerably reduced sample preparation time and its use provided a sensitive, fast and simple technique. We then used this HS-SPME-GC/MS method to investigate the presence of volatile PFASs in the vicinity of an industrial facility. Only 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH were detected in a few water and sediment samples at sub-ppb concentration levels. Moreover, several non-target fluorotelomers (12:2 FTOH, 14:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTI) were identified in raw effluent samples. These long-chain fluorotelomers have high bioaccumulative potential in the aquatic environment compared with short-chain fluorotelomers such as 6:2 FTOH and 6:2 FTI. PMID:27125188

  10. Characterization of chick serum lipoproteins isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vico, F; Lopez, J M; Castillo, M; Zafra, M F; Garcia-Peregrin, E

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoproteins from 12h fasted male chicks (15-day-old) were separated into 20 fractions by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. A new procedure was described by collecting the different fractions from the bottom of tube instead of by aspiration from the meniscus of each tube. Analyses of chemical composition of serum lipoproteins have permitted to reevaluate the density limits of major classes: VHDL, d greater than 1.132 g/ml; HDL, d 1.132-1.084 g/ml; LDL, d 1.084-1.038; IDL, d 1.038-1.022; and VLDL d less than 1.022. HDL fractions clearly predominated (approx. 77% of total lipoproteins) while IDL and VLDL were present at low percentage. LDL was the fraction richest in cholesterol; triacylglycerol content clearly increased from HDL to VLDL, while protein content decreased. All the chemical components of chick serum lipoproteins were accumulated in HDL, although triacylglycerol was relatively distributed in all the lipoprotein classes. PMID:1380327

  11. SERUM LIPIDS : NEW BIOLOGICAL MARKERS IN DEPRESSION ?

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Abdul; Lal, Narottam; Trivedi, J.K.; Dalal, P.K.; Asthana, O.P.; Srivastava, J.S.; Akhtar, Asif

    1998-01-01

    Several studies suggest that a low cholesterol concentration is associated with depression. The authors sought to determine whether an association exists between serum lipid concentrations and depression. 28 drug-naive patients of major depression diagnosed according to DSMlll- R criteria were included in the study and severity of depression was measured on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Suicidal intent was assessed on Suicidal Intent Questionnaire. 28 normal healthy controls were selected and matched for age, sex and body-mass index with the depressives. Serum lipid estimations were done in each subject after 12 hours overnight fasting. The main finding of the study is that total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum LDL cholesterol are decreased while serum HDL cholesterol is increased in depression and these changes were more marked in depressed subjects with definite suicidal intent. On regression analysis, total serum cholesterol was the most important predictive variable of the severity of depression. PMID:21494476

  12. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  13. Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Saharov, Igor; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels. Objectives We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log10-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived < 2 km from Khimprom had higher total TEQs (picograms per gram lipid) [adjusted mean = 30.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 26.8–35.0] than boys who lived > 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2–20.6). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant. PMID:20019911

  14. Assay of the Antibiotic Activity of Serum

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Walter H.

    1969-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of the “tube dilution” method for the assay of antibiotics in human serum has been illustrated by utilizing serum-sensitive and serum-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. In the case of serum-sensitive strains, it was found that fresh serum alone may account for the same degree of inhibition and thus yield minimal inhibitory concentrations identical to those obtained with serum combined with antibiotics, that is, “simulated” serum assay specimens. This fallacy of the method is discussed with regard to those instances in which laboratories were merely to utilize the patient's own coliform organism as the test organism, or with respect to the assay of, for example, polymyxins, in which inadvertently a R(ough) and therefore, serum-sensitive strain of E. coli were to be used as the indicator organism. It is recommended that serum-resistant laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus or E. coli of known antibiotic susceptibility be employed as the test organisms proper in order to circumvent the inherent bactericidal activity of serum. PMID:4309084

  15. Host and environmental determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in serum of adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A; Den Hond, Elly M; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Fagard, Robert; Thijs, Lutgarde; Winneke, Gerhard; Roels, Harry A

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated host factors and environmental factors as potential determinants of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) in serum of adolescents. We recruited 200 participants (80 boys and 120 girls), with a mean age of 17.4 years (SD, 0.8), in Belgium from a rural control area (Peer) and from two polluted suburbs of Antwerp where a nonferrous smelter (Hoboken) and waste incinerators (Wilrijk) are located. We quantified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; congeners 138, 153, and 180) in serum by gas chromatography and obtained the toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCAHs in serum with the chemically activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX). Serum PCB concentration was higher in boys than in girls (1.67 vs. 1.02 nmol/L or 377 vs. 210 pmol/g serum lipids; p< 0.001). In the whole adolescent group, multiple regression showed that serum PCB concentration decreased 0.06 nmol/L per 1% increase in body fat content (p< 0.001) and increased 0.39 nmol/L and 0.14 nmol/L per 1 mmol/L increase in serum concentrations of triglycerides (p < 0.001) and cholesterol (p = 0.002), respectively. Host factors explained 44% of the serum PCB variance. In the same model, serum PCB concentration increased 0.14 nmol/L with 10 weeks of breast-feeding (p< 0.001) and 0.06 nmol/L with intake of 10 g animal fat per day (p < 0.001), and was associated with residence in the waste incinerator area (9% higher; p = 0.04); 11% of the variance could be explained by these environmental factors. The geometric mean of the serum TEQ value was similar in boys and girls (0.15 TEQ ng/L or 33.0 pg/g serum lipids). In multiple regression, TEQ in serum decreased 0.03 ng/L per centimeter increase in triceps skinfold (p = 0.006) and was 29% higher in subjects living close to the nonferrous smelter (p < 0.001). This study showed that in 16- to 18-year-old teenagers host factors are important determinants of serum concentrations of PCAHs, whereas environmentally related determinants may to some extent contribute independently to human exposure to these persistent chemicals in the environment. PMID:12055049

  16. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.40, p=0.003, ∑PFSA; rp=-0.37, p=0.007; n=52). AChE activity and D2 density were negatively correlated with single PFCAs in several brain regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether the observed alterations in neurochemical signaling are currently having negative effects on neurochemistry in East Greenland polar bears. However given the importance of these systems in cognitive processes and motor function, the present results indicate an urgent need for a better understanding of neurochemical effects of PFAS exposure to wildlife. PMID:25682255

  17. Disturbance of Serum Viscosity in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Donald E.

    1974-01-01

    The serum viscosity of diabetic patients has been found to be increased. The elevation averaged 8% above healthy subjects and 6% above nondiabetic patients. The serum viscosity elevation was greater when diabetic sequelae associated with microangiopathy were present. No relation of serum viscosity to age, sex, obesity, duration of disease, or type of treatment was demonstrated. Serum total protein and glucose levels were found to be correlated with serum viscosity, and increases in their serum concentrations were observed in diabetes. Analysis demonstrated that their elevation did not explain either the viscosity increase or the difference in viscosity between diabetics with and without sequelae. Intrinsic viscosity, abbreviated [η], is a concentration-independent solute property related to molecular shape. [η] was found to be 7% higher in diabetic than in normal serum. The [η] difference accounted for at least half of the serum viscosity elevation. The rest of the increase was due to increased serum protein level and increased nonprotein solids, presumably glucose and lipid. Associated with increased [η] was a decline in albumin: globulin ratio and elevation of the acute phase reactant proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin. Studies comparing diabetic and normal serum fractionated by using 21.5% sodium sulfate showed that changes in [η] were attributable to changes in serum protein composition rather than an inherent qualitative disturbance of protein present in one of the fractions. Since serum viscosity is elevated in early diabetes, it may be a part of the metabolic disturbance of diabetes and could play a role in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. PMID:4205523

  18. SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, H.; Dalal, P.K.; Asthana, O.P.; Srivastava, J.S.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ramakant; Sinha, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Practical difficulties associated with assessment of central parameters necessitates the development of peripheral markers of suicidal risk. Recent research suggest that serum lipid profile may be a useful indicator of suicidal behaviour. Serum lipid profiles of forty suicide attempters were compared with forty age, sex and BMI matched controls. Total serum cholesterol, serum Triglyceride, LDL levels and HDL levels were found to be lower in suicide attempters but were not statistically significant. Statistically significant negative con-elation was seen between risk-rescue score and above mentioned parameters. No statitically significant difference was observed when various diagnostic break-up groups of patients were compared. PMID:21430801

  19. Equilibrium Sorption of Structurally Diverse Organic Ions to Bovine Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2016-05-17

    Reliable partitioning data are essential for assessing the bioaccumulation potential and the toxicity of chemicals. In contrast to neutral organic chemicals, the partitioning behavior of ionogenic organic chemicals (IOCs) is still a black box for environmental scientists. Partitioning to serum albumin, the major protein in blood plasma, strongly influences the freely dissolved concentration of many chemicals (including IOCs), which affects their transport and distribution in the body. Because consistent data sets for partitioning of IOCs are rarely available, bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients (KBSA/w) were measured in this study for 45 anionic and 4 cationic organic chemicals, including various substituted benzoic and naphthoic acids, sulfonates and several pesticides and pharmaceuticals. The results of this study suggest that binding to BSA is substantially influenced by the three-dimensional structure of the chemicals and the position of substitutions on the sorbing molecules. For example, we found a difference of >1.5 log units between isomeric chemicals such as 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 1-naphthoic acid and 2-naphthoic acid. Conventional modeling approaches (e.g., based on octanol-water partition coefficients) poorly predict log KBSA/w of organic ions (R(2) ≤ 0.5), partially because they do not capture the observed steric effects. Hence, alternative modeling strategies will be required for accurate prediction of serum albumin-water partition coefficients of organic ions. PMID:27098963

  20. Effect of cord blood serum on ex vivo human limbal epithelial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anindita; Dutta, Jayanta; Das, Sumantra; Datta, Himadri

    2012-12-01

    Limbal cell transplantation is an efficacious procedure for rehabilitation of visual acuity in patients with severe ocular surface disorders. Cultivation of limbal epithelial stem cell with fetal bovine serum for transplantation has been a promising treatment for reconstructing the ocular surface in severe limbal stem cell deficiency caused by Steven Johnson syndrome, chemical or thermal injury. This technique of "cell therapy" has been accepted worldwide but the cost of cultivating the cells for transplantation is high. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cord blood serum in place of fetal bovine serum on the growth of human limbal epithelial cell culture. Our group has experimented with human cord blood serum which was obtained free of cost from willing donors. The use of human cord blood serum in place of fetal bovine serum for ex vivo culture of limbal stem cell has helped us in reducing the cost of culture. Fresh human limbal tissues from donor cadavers were cultured on intact and denuded amniotic membrane. Cells were proliferated in vitro with cell culture media containing human cord blood serum. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence cytochemistry of cultured human limbal epithelial stem cell was done for characterization of the cells. PMID:24596943

  1. Review: Modifications of Human Serum Albumin and Their Binding Effect

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philbert; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) regulates the transport and availability of numerous chemical compounds and molecules in the blood vascular system. While previous HSA research has found that HSA interacts with specific varieties of ligands, new research efforts aim to expand HSA’s ability to interact with more different drugs in order to improve the delivery of various pharmacological drugs. This review will cover fatty acid chain and post-translational modifications of HSA that potentially modulate how HSA interacts with various pharmacological drugs, including glycation, cysteinylation, S-nitrosylation, S-transnitrosation and S-guanylation. PMID:25732553

  2. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  3. Improved perfluoroalkyl ether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Smythe, Mark E.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It is found that the experimental material obtained in 66 percent yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6 x 1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  4. Serum Trace Element Concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, Maryam; Ayati, Razie; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hejazi, Sepideh; Saghafi, Massoud; Saadati, Nayyereh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition that is associated with oxidative stress. Serum trace elements and their related transport proteins, e.g., albumin and ceruloplasmin, play an important role in the antioxidant defense. Trace element status may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of RA or be affected by the disease activity of this chronic inflammatory condition. The study participants were 110 patients with RA and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, selenium, zinc, copper, and zinc/copper ratio were measured in all subjects. The relationship between these parameters and disease activity score was also assessed. Lower concentrations of serum Alb, Zn, and Se were independently related to disease activity index. High concentrations of serum copper were associated with the presence of RA. Serum Cu concentrations were positively related to disease activity as assessed by the disease activity score. Low serum concentrations of Zn and Se, and high serum Cu concentrations may be associated with the presence of RA or be a consequence of this condition. Of the trace elements that were investigated in the present study, only serum Cu was positively correlated with disease activity. PMID:26450515

  5. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  6. ALLOTYPY OF RABBIT SERUM PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Jacques

    1960-01-01

    The relationships between six of the seven allotypes or families of allotypes (a, b, c, d, f, g) described in the preceding paper, have been studied from the standpoints of (1) their antigenic specificities, (2) their mutual influence on the limitation of their respective frequencies, and (3) their genetic control. Although the six different allotypes (or families) react quite differently with the rabbit antisera, at least five of them react identically with a guinea pig antiserum. Therefore, a large portion of the antigenic specificity of these allotypes, distinct from their allotypic specificity, is uniform in all the individuals of the rabbit species and is termed for this reason "isotypic specificity." In the early period of the rabbit's life, allotypes may be found in the serum, which are not determined by the genotype of the individual, but are directly transmitted by the mother. The allotypes of the antigenic species of globulin studied in this paper, which were synthesized by the young animal, did not appear in its serum before a certain period of time. Allelic relationships between the genes which control allotypes were indicated by, (1) the absence of certain kinds of groupings of the allotypes, which limits the number of allotypic formulas in the population sample studied, (2) dosage effects, the concentration of certain allotypes (drawn from the penetration of the zones in gel tubes) being smaller in supposed heterozygotes than in supposed homozygotes, (3) the results of the analysis of the sera of a number of rabbits and of their parents. Eight of the different antigenic substances studied in this paper (allotype e excluded) appear to be allotypic forms of what would have been considered to be a uniform protein antigen. They may be classified as follows: a first group which contains two allotypes b and d and a family of two allotypes c and c' apparently controlled by three allelic genes b c d, c and c' being controlled by the same gene; a second group which contains two allotypes a and f and a family g, g' apparently controlled by three allelic genes a f g. There are reasons to believe that this list is not complete, especially in the b c d group. PMID:13731717

  7. Measuring Serum Melatonin in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Ann W.; Meyer, Tamra E.; Niwa, Shelley; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Chu, Lisa W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic data on serum melatonin, a marker of circadian rhythms, and cancer are sparse due largely to the lack of reliable assays with high sensitivity to detect relatively low melatonin levels in serum collected during daylight, as commonly available in most epidemiologic studies. Methods To help expand epidemiologic research on melatonin, we assessed the reproducibility and refined a currently available melatonin radioimmunoassay, and evaluated its application to epidemiologic investigations by characterizing melatonin levels in serum, urine, and/or plasma in 135 men from several ethnic groups. Results Reproducibility was high for the standard 1.0 ml serum- (mean coefficient of variation (CV)=6.9%, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=97.4%, n=2 serum pools in triplicate) and urine-based (mean CV=3.5%, ICC=99.9%) assays. Reproducibility for the 0.5 ml refined-serum assay was equally good (mean CV=6.6%%;ICC=99.0%). There was a positive correlation between morning serum melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in 24-hour urine(r=0.46, P=0.008; n=49 subjects). Melatonin levels in serum-plasma pairs had a high correlation (r=0.97, P<1 × 10−4; n=20) Morning serum melatonin levels were five times higher than those from the afternoon (before 9 AM mean = 11.0 pg/mL versus after 11 AM mean=2.0 pg/mL). Chinese men had lower melatonin levels (mean=3.4 pg/mL), while Caucasian, African American, and Ghanaian men had similar levels (mean=6.7–8.6 pg/mL). Conclusions These results suggest that melatonin can be detected reliably in serum samples collected in epidemiologic studies in various racial groups. Impact With improved assays, it may be possible to investigate the role of melatonin and the emerging circadian rhythm hypothesis in cancer etiology in epidemiologic studies. PMID:20332275

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum concentrations, lifestyle and time-to-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, G.M.; Dmochowski, J.; Lynch, C.; Kostyniak, P.; McGuinness, B.M.; Vena, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Consumption of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and prenatal PCB serum concentrations have been associated with a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP). However, the relationship between preconception serum PCBs concentrations and TTP has not been previously studied. METHODS Eighty-three women (contributing 442 menstrual cycles) planning pregnancies completed daily diaries regarding menstruation, intercourse, home pregnancy test results, and reported use of alcohol and cigarettes. TTP denoted the number of observed menstrual cycles required for pregnancy. Preconception blood specimens underwent toxicologic analysis for 76 PCB congeners via gas chromatography with electron capture; serum lipids were quantified with enzymatic methods. A priori, PCB congeners were summed into a total and three groupings—estrogenic, anti-estrogenic and other—and entered into discrete analogs of Cox models with time-varying covariates to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FOR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic PCB concentrations (ng/g serum) conferred reduced FORs in fully adjusted models (0.32; 95% CI 0.03, 3.90 and 0.01: 95% CI < 0.00, 1.99, respectively). Reduced FORs (0.96) were observed for alcohol consumption standardized to a 28-day menstrual cycle in the same adjusted model (FOR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 1.00). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that environmental exposures including those amenable to change, such as alcohol consumption, may impact female fecundity. The findings are sensitive to model specification and PCB groupings, underscoring the need to further assess the impact of chemical mixtures on sensitive reproductive outcomes, such as TTP, especially in the context of lifestyle factors which are amenable to change, thereby improving reproductive health. PMID:18940895

  9. Reactions of trimethylphosphine analogues of auranofin with bovine serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Isab, A.A.; Shaw, C.F. III; Hoeschele, J.D.; Locke, J.

    1988-10-05

    The reactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with (trimethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I), Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, and its chloro analogue, Me/sub 3/PAuCl, were studied to develop insights into the role of the phosphine ligand in the serum chemistry of the related antiarthritic drug auranofin (triethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I). /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy, protein modification, and gel-exclusion chromatography methods were employed. Comparison of the reactions of the methyl derivatives to the previously reported reactions of auranofin and Et/sub 3/PAuCl with BSA demonstrated that similar chemical species are formed but revealed three major differences. Despite these differences, the results for the methyl analogues provide important confirmation for previously developed chemical models of auranofin reactions in serum. Me/sub 3/PO was not observed in reaction mixtures lacking tetraacetylthioglucose (AtgSH); this result affirms the role of AtgSH, displaced by the reaction of Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg at Cys-34, in the generation of the phosphine oxide (an important metabolite in vivo). The weak binding sites on albumin react with Me/sub 3/PAuCl, but not Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, demonstrating the importance of the strength and reactivity of the anionic ligand-gold bond on the reactions of auranofin analogues. The gold binding capacity of albumin is enhanced after Me/sub 3/PO is formed, consistent with reductive cleavage of albumin disulfide bonds by trimethylphosphine. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  10. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

  11. Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  12. Chemical microsensors

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  13. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

  14. [Behavior of serum zinc levels during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Nelina F; Meertens, Lesbia; Peña, Evelyn; Sánchez, Armando; Solano, Liseti

    2005-09-01

    The zinc intervenes in the growth and development, being of vital importance in the pregnancy. In order to determine the behavior of the serum zinc levels during the pregnancy associating it to the anthropometric nutritional status and dietary intake, 108 pregnants were assessed longitudinally, between March 1998 and December 1999, in the 12, 22 and 33 week pregnancy. Anthropometric parameters, serum zinc and albumin, and dietary intake of energy, proteins, zinc and fiber were determined. Descriptive standards and frequencies were calculated and Student's t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation test were made. Significant decrease of the serum zinc and albumin was observed during the gestation. The serum zinc levels in the first trimester differed significantly according to intake of oligoelement. In the second trimester, zinc concentrations differed significantly according to maternal age and weight gain, while no significant differences were found by parity, pregestational body mass index, height-for-age in none of the trimesters. Changes in the serum zinc concentrations are confirmed throughout the pregnancy, these modifications are explained partially by the decrease of serum albumin. Serum levels of zinc during gestation do not depend of parity or pregestational anthropometric nutritional status. PMID:16454049

  15. Serum and urinary NGAL in septic newborns.

    PubMed

    Smertka, Mike; Wroblewska, Jolanta; Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta; Maruniak-Chudek, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

  16. Serum Dexamethasone Levels After Decadron Phonophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Heather; Schulthies, Shane; Draper, David; Ricard, Mark; Measom, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine serum levels of dexamethasone at several intervals after administration of Decadron (dexamethasone sodium phosphate) phonophoresis. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a 2-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on 1 factor (blood draws). Independent variables were group (gel/sham, gel/ ultrasound, dexamethasone/sham, dexamethasone/ultrasound) and blood draws (pretreatment, posttreatment, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes). The dependent variable was the serum level of dexamethasone. Subjects: Forty healthy college students (21 males, 19 females; mean age = 22 1.3 years) with no known drug allergies or current medication use were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. The treatment site was the left forearm. Measurements: After the pretreatment blood draw, a 10- minute ultrasound treatment was administered, followed by a posttreatment blood draw. Two additional blood draws followed at 15-minute intervals. A total of 4 serum samples (5 cc each) from each subject were centrifuged, and the pipetted serum was frozen for later analysis by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results: No significant amounts of serum dexamethasone were detected in 12 consecutive samples. Testing of additional samples was, therefore, discontinued. Conclusions: Decadron phonophoresis as used in this experiment did not result in detectable serum levels of dexamethasone. More study is needed to validate the efficacy of Decadron phonophoresis on serum dexamethasone levels. PMID:16558583

  17. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  18. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  19. Chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

  20. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  1. A hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column with integrated nanoelectrospray ionization emitter for determination of perfluoroalkyl acids by nano-liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Ou, Junjie; Wei, Yinmao; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhongshan; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid fluorous monolithic column was simply prepared via photo-initiated free radical polymerization of an acrylopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (acryl-POSS) and a perfluorous monomer (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoroheptyl acrylate) in UV-transparent fused-silica capillaries within 5min. The physical characterization of hybrid fluorous monolith, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement was performed. Chromatographic performance was also evaluated by capillary liquid chromatography (cLC). Due to the fluorous-fluorous interaction between fluorous monolith and analytes, fluorobenzenes could well be separated, and the column efficiencies reached 86,600-92,500plates/m at the velocity of 0.87mm/s for alkylbenzenes and 51,900-76,000plates/m at the velocity of 1.10mm/s for fluorobenzenes. Meanwhile, an approach to integrate nanoelectrospray ionization (ESI) emitter with hybrid fluorous monolithic column was developed for quantitative determination of perfluoroalkyl acids by nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The integration design could minimize extracolumn volume, thus excluding undesirable peak broadening and improving separation performance. PMID:26916593

  2. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in halibut and shrimp from coastal areas in the far north of Norway: Small survey of important dietary foodstuffs for coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Crosse, John D; Halsall, Crispin; Evenset, Anita; Heimstad, Eldbjørg S; Harju, Mikael

    2016-04-15

    Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and shrimps (Pandalus borealis) are regular foodstuffs for communities in northern Norway and important species for the coastal fishing industry. This is the first study to present a comprehensive overview of the contaminant status of these species, with emphasis on unregulated perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS). The contaminant concentrations were low and within tolerable levels for human dietary exposure. Median Σpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were 4.9 and 2.5ng/g ww for halibut and unpeeled shrimps, respectively. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) - the most abundant PFASs - were 0.9 and 2.7ng/g ww in halibut and shrimp, respectively. The halibut fillets were dominated by PCBs, which contributed to 50% of the total POPs load, followed by ΣDDTs; 26% and PFASs (18%), whereas shrimps were dominated by PFASs (74%). ΣPBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) contributed to 1-4% of the total POP load. Local sources are not contributing significantly to the contaminant burden in these species. PMID:26948293

  3. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid metabolome in response to EMS consumption. PMID:26076487

  4. Vibrio cholerae interactions with Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes mediated by serum components

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Stauder, Monica; Grande, Chiara; Bavestrello, Margherita; Papetti, Adele; Vezzulli, Luigi; Pruzzo, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Edible bivalves (e.g., mussels, oysters) can accumulate large amount of bacteria in their tissues and act as passive carriers of pathogens to humans. Bacterial persistence inside bivalves depends, at least in part, on hemolymph anti-bacterial activity that is exerted by both serum soluble factors and phagocytic cells (i.e., the hemocytes). It was previously shown that Mytilus galloprovincialis hemolymph serum contains opsonins that mediate D-mannose-sensitive interactions between hemocytes and Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor bacteria that carry the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA). These opsonins enhance phagocytosis and killing of vibrios by facilitating their binding to hemocytes. Since V. cholerae strains not carrying the MSHA ligand (O1 classical, non-O1/O139) are present in coastal water and can be entrapped by mussels, we studied whether in mussel serum, in addition to opsonins directed toward MSHA, other components can mediate opsonization of these bacteria. By comparing interactions of O1 classical and non-O1/O139 strains with hemocytes in artificial sea water and serum, it was found that M. galloprovincialis serum contains components that increase by at approximately twofold their adhesion to, association with, and killing by hemocytes. Experiments conducted with high and low molecular mass fractions obtained by serum ultrafiltration indicated that these compounds have molecular mass higher than 5000 Da. Serum exposure to high temperature (80°C) abolished its opsonizing capability suggesting that the involved serum active components are of protein nature. Further studies are needed to define the chemical properties and specificity of both the involved bacterial ligands and hemolymph opsonins. This information will be central not only to better understand V. cholerae ecology, but also to improve current bivalve depuration practices and properly protect human health. PMID:24367358

  5. Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina Toddler Cohort: Associations with Handwipes, House Dust, and Socioeconomic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Sarah; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives: We used handwipes to estimate exposure to PBDEs in house dust among toddlers and examined sex, age, breast-feeding, race, and parents’ education as predictors of serum PBDEs. Methods: Eighty-three children from 12 to 36 months of age were enrolled in North Carolina between May 2009 and November 2010. Blood, handwipe, and house dust samples were collected and analyzed for PBDEs. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. Results: PBDEs were detected in all serum samples (geometric mean for ΣpentaBDE in serum was 43.3 ng/g lipid), 98% of the handwipe samples, and 100% of the dust samples. Serum ΣpentaBDEs were significantly correlated with both handwipe and house dust ΣpentaBDE levels, but were more strongly associated with handwipe levels (r = 0.57; p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.35; p < 0.01). Multivariate model estimates revealed that handwipe levels, child’s sex, child’s age, and father’s education accounted for 39% of the variation in serum ΣBDE3 levels (sum of BDEs 47, 99, and 100). In contrast, age, handwipe levels, and breast-feeding duration explained 39% of the variation in serum BDE 153. Conclusions: Our study suggests that hand-to-mouth activity may be a significant source of exposure to PBDEs. Furthermore, age, socioeconomic status, and breast-feeding were significant predictors of exposure, but associations varied by congener. Specifically, serum ΣBDE3 was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, whereas serum BDE-153 was positively associated with duration of breast-feeding and mother’s education. PMID:22763040

  6. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  7. Relation of serum molindone levels to serum prolactin levels and antipsychotic response.

    PubMed

    Pandurangi, A K; Narasimhachari, N; Blackard, W G; Landa, B S

    1989-10-01

    The antipsychotic drug molindone is considered to be atypical in its mode of action and to have mild side effects. Currently no data are available on the range of serum levels of this drug during treatment. By means of a high performance liquid chromatographic technique, serum molindone levels were measured in 14 psychotic patients receiving a wide range of doses of this drug. Molindone levels as high as 350 ng/mL were obtained and were not associated with any toxic effects. Significant relations were noted between the serum level of the drug and both serum prolactin level and treatment response. The authors suggest that molindone may have a range of serum levels consistent with therapeutic benefit. Serum molindone and prolactin levels might help assess resistance to molindone treatment. PMID:2676994

  8. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  9. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  10. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  11. Is there an association between early childhood caries and serum iron and serum ferritin levels?

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Darakhshan, Reza; Bagherian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental caries that can destroy the primary dentition of preschool children. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between ECC with serum iron and serum ferritin levels. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 204 children aged 24–71 months were recruited for a double-blind, randomized cross-sectional study. Each child was examined clinically for dental caries using the World Health Organization criteria in Rafsanjan, Iran. Decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth (deft) index was used to measure the dental caries. To determine serum iron and serum ferritin levels 2 mL blood was collected from each child. Data were then analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and t-test using SPSS-16.0 software. Results: The mean values and their standard deviations of the deft index and levels of serum iron and ferritin were 2.4(± 3.3), 93.8(± 29.0) μg/dL and 63.1(± 32.2) ng/mL, respectively, with the two latter within. There was no significant difference between genders. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that there was a statistically significant inverse association between ECC and serum iron level (P<0.05); but no association was found with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion: The deft index decreased significantly with increasing serum iron levels, but there was no association between ECC experience and serum ferritin levels. PMID:23087734

  12. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    PubMed

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees. PMID:24827474

  13. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  14. Chemical pneumonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fertilizer dust Noxious fumes from pesticides Smoke (from house fires and wildfires) Chronic chemical pneumonitis can occur after only low levels of exposure to the irritant over a long time. This causes inflammation and may lead to ...

  15. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... be unintentional, as in the case of an industrial accident. They could also be planned, as in ... and VX. Many hazardous chemicals are used in industry - for example, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene. Some can ...

  16. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the eyes and around the mouth). Freckles. Melasma. Rough-feeling skin. Sun-damage skin. Insurance coverage: Chemical peels are considered a cosmetic treatment. Insurance does not cover the cost of cosmetic ...

  17. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  18. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  19. Serum Prolactin Level of Subfertile Women.

    PubMed

    Anwary, S A; Fatima, P; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Rahman, M M; Bari, N

    2016-01-01

    Subfertility is a major reproductive health problem all over the world as well as Bangladesh, and the problem is increasing day by day. This study was done to estimate the serum prolactin concentration in primary and secondary subfertile women. Laboratory investigation included serum prolactin level, as well as LH, FSH, TSH blood glucose (2 hours after 75gm glucose load) of 50 women who attended infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2009 and February 2010. In most cases, common age group 26 30 years (52%), primary subfertility (74%), duration of marriage >5 years (60%), trying to conceive duration ≤5 years (54%), BMI >25kg/m² (60%), menstrual cycle regular (58%), history of abortion absent (90%), and history of menstrual regulation absent (94%). Common investigation findings was normal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 1.0 10.0mIU/ml in 82%, normal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.0 10.0mIU/ml in 50%, normal serum prolactin 1.9 25.0ng/ml in 36%, normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4 4.0μIU/ml in 56%, and normal blood glucose level (2 hours after breakfast) (<7.8mmol/) in 66% women. Ultrasonographic finding of lower abdomen was normal in 14% women. Common finding of semen analysis husbands of the study women was normozoospermia in 88% cases. Serum prolactin concentration may have role to play in subfertility of women. PMID:26931256

  20. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Serum iron status among visceral leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Paul, U K; Chakraborty, P K; Hoque, M R; Jafrin, W; Sarkar, S; Akhter, S; Roy, A S

    2014-10-01

    This case control cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh in cooperation with the Department of Microbiology, Medicine units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Fulbaria & Muktagacha Upazilla Health Complexes, Mymensingh during the period of July 2006 - June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum iron among visceral leishmaniasis patients in Bangladesh as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups - Group I (Control) consisting of 60 apparently healthy persons matched by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case) consisting of 60 "ICT for Kala-azar" positive VL patients. Serum iron was estimated by colorimetric method with ferrozine from each sample. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD (Standard Deviation) of Group I and Group II serum iron were 100.67±20.83 and 76.76±8.64μgm/dl respectively. By comparing Group I with Group II highly significant difference were found in case of serum iron (P<0.001). It is evident from the study that serum iron level significantly decreases among visceral leishmaniasis patients in Bangladesh. PMID:25481581

  2. Serum proteomics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ijsselstijn, Linda; Papma, Janne M; Dekker, Lennard J M; Calame, Wim; Stingl, Christoph; Koudstaal, Peter J; Prins, Niels D; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; Luider, Theo M

    2013-08-01

    We have explored proteins related to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The serum proteome of 35 amnestic MCI patients and 35 cognitively healthy persons was investigated by LC MS. We identified 108 differentially expressed peptides between MCI patients and controls, belonging to 39 proteins. Eight proteins were selected for further investigation by quantitative protein measurements using a MRM assay; apolipoprotein E, carboxypeptidase N subunit 2, complement factor B (CFAB), galectin-3 binding protein (LG3BP), lumican, serum amyloid A-4 protein (SAA4), serum amyloid P-component, and sex hormone binding globulin. Results of the quantitative protein measurements showed significantly decreased levels of carboxypeptidase N subunit 2, CFAB, LG3BP, SAA4, and serum amyloid P-component in serum from amnestic MCI patients compared with cognitive healthy controls (two-sided t-test; p < 0.05). Apolipoprotein E and lumican showed no significant difference in protein levels, sex hormone binding globulin could not be quantified since the MRM assay did not reach the required sensitivity. A model based on the three most significantly decreased proteins (CFAB, LG3BP, and SAA4) showed a sensitivity and specificity of 73 and 66%, respectively, for the initial sample set. A small external validation set yielded 77% sensitivity and 75% specificity. PMID:23868823

  3. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  4. Automated bichromatic analysis of serum ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Hohbadel, D C; McNeely, M D; Sunderman, F W

    1975-01-01

    An automated micromethod is described for measurement of serum ceruloplasmin by assay of its p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity using the Abbott bichoromatic analyzer. Ten mul of serum are mixed with 250 mul of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) substrate (9.2 mmole per liter) in acetate buffer (0.1 mole per liter, pH 5.45). Spectrophotometric measurements of the rate of formation of the purple oxidation porduct of PPD are performed after a 10 min delay for thermal equilibration at 37 degrees and for avoidance of the lag-phase of the enzymatic reaction. The coefficients of variation of replicate analyses of normal serum by this technique are 1.1 percent (within-the-run) and 3.3 percent (day-to-day). Measurements of ceruloplasmin concentrations in serums from 75 patients by this automated method provided close correlation with measurements by a manual reference procedure (correlation coefficient=0.973). The mean concentration of ceruloplasmin in serums from 64 healthy men was 29 mg per dl (central 95th percentile limits=22 to 40 mg per dl). PMID:1111442

  5. A natural heterohaemagglutinin in Xenopus laevis serum.

    PubMed Central

    Jurd, R D

    1978-01-01

    In most adult Xenopus laevis the serum contains a 'natural' factor capable of lysing the erythrocytes from a wide variety of amniote species. The factor has no effect on the erythrocytes of another amphibian, Ambystoma mexicanum, nor will serum from one animal lyse red cells from another Xenopus individual. No lysing factor was present in the serum of larval (tadpole) Xenopus. Heating of Xenopus serum to 56 degrees for 30 min, absorption of the serum with zymosan or inulin, or removal of calcium and magnesium ions results in loss of lytic activity, although haemagglutinating activity remains, suggesting that the factor can fix complement. The factor elutes from a gel chromatography column in the 19S peak, and is inactivated by thiol reduction and subsequent alkylation. These findings, coupled with immunoabsorption studies suggest that the haemagglutinin is an immunoglobulin of the IgM class. The significance of this suggestion is discussed in the light of previous reports of 'natural' heterohaemagglutinins in other species. PMID:580428

  6. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for bacterial pathogens. PMID:25962917

  7. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  8. Chemical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  9. Clinical Usefulness of the Serum Anion Gap

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo

    2006-01-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 124 mEq/L down 63 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that support their practice. While an increase in the anion gap is almost always caused by retained unmeasured anions, a decrease in the anion gap can be generated by multiple mechanisms. PMID:24459484

  10. Serum Klotho Levels in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mostafidi, Elmira; Moeen, Akbar; Nasri, Hamid; Ghorbani Hagjo, Amir; Ardalan, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klotho is an anti-aging protein that is predominantly secreted by the kidneys. Objectives: The aim of the study was to measure and compare the circulating Klotho levels in the serum of trained athletes and in healthy, non-athlete controls. Materials and Methods: Thirty trained football players were enrolled and their serum Klotho levels were measured the morning after their last evening exercise training. Results: The plasma free Klotho concentration was significantly higher in the athlete group (3.375 ± 1.48 ng/mL) compared to the non-athletes (1.39 ± 0.43 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Regular aerobic exercise could increase plasma Klotho levels, and this could be an explanation for exercise-related anti-aging effects. PMID:26981496

  11. How does whisky lower serum urate level?

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners. PMID:24022993

  12. The Effects of Perfluorinated Chemicals on Adipoctye Differentiation In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture system has been used to examine numerous compounds that influence adipocyte differentiation or function. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications, are of concern as environmental contaminants tha...

  13. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary. PMID:24550655

  14. Determination of silicon in serum and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhuo-er

    1995-09-01

    A sensitive, simple and accurate method for the routine determination of trace silicon in serum and urine by Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The samples are directly determined after 20-fold dilution of serum and 100-fold dilution of urine. No L'vov platform is used. The signal enhancement of silicon atomization in pyrolytic graphite coated graphite tubes is achieved by using a mixture of calcium chloride and lanthanum nitrate as chemical modifier. The interferences arising from the biological matrices have been eliminated by the addition of ammonium dihydrogenphosphate in the sample solutions. The aqueous calibration curve is linear to at least 300 μg l -1, the characteristic mass is 37 pg (integrated absorbance signal), whereas the detection limit (3SD) is 1.5 μg l -1 for silicon in both diluted serum and urine samples. The recoveries of silicon added to the diluted samples are 101 ± 1.8% for sera and 98.2 ± 3.5% for the urine specimens, independent of the dilution ratio. The silicon measurement results for the serum and urine from healthy adults and for the serum from the patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis are presented.

  15. Predictors of Serum Dioxin, Furan and PCB Concentrations among Women from Chapaevsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. METHODS Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23–52 years were collected between 2003–2005 as part of the Russian Children’s Study. Serum dioxin, furan and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The median total PCB concentrations and total TEQs were 260 ng/g lipid and 25 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In multivariate analyses, both total PCB concentrations and total TEQs increased significantly with age, residential proximity to a local chemical plant, duration of local farming, and consumption of local beef. Both decreased with longer breastfeeding, recent increases in body mass index, and later blood draw date. These demographic and lifestyle predictors showed generally similar associations with the various measures of serum dioxins, furans, and PCBs. PMID:20578718

  16. Serum suppressive activity of HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Israel-Biet, D; Ekwalanga, M; Venet, A; Even, P; Andrieu, J M

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which HIV induces immunosuppression are still poorly understood so far. Several pathways of CD4 cell destruction are known, including cytolysis with or without syncitium formation and killing by cytotoxic effectors of HIV infected or non-infected CD4 cells. However, a discrepancy exists between the small number of actually infected cells in vivo and the extent of HIV-related immunodeficiency. Among other possible immunosuppressive factors, serum blocking factors have been reported, but only in AIDS-related opportunistic infections (OI), i.e. in a quite specific type of full-blown HIV disease. The purpose of this work was to determine whether serum blocking activity was unique to this group of patients, or if it was also expressed in other clinical presentations and, moreover, at earlier stages of the disease. We also attempted to delineate the nature of these seric factors. In order to do so, we assessed serum suppressive activity of 50 HIV seropositive patients, seven with OI, eight with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and 35 with no clinical AIDS. Our results confirm the existence of serum inhibiting factors in AIDS, and demonstrate their presence at earlier stages of the disease. They also highlight the fact that the level of serum suppression does not correlate with patients clinical status, but increases with the severity of the disease. The lower the CD4 count, the higher the suppression exerted. Furthermore, we showed that the suppression was at least partly mediated by small size molecules, which are not complement-mediated or directly lymphocytotoxic. On the other hand, this activity does not correlate with the serum level of p24 HIV core protein. The possible relation with other viral components is discussed. The relevance of these data to prognosis and pathogenesis of HIV disease deserves further investigation. PMID:2975974

  17. HPTLC determination of diclofenac sodium from serum.

    PubMed

    Lala, L G; D'Mello, P M; Naik, S R

    2002-07-01

    Diclofenac sodium is one of the potent Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present work deals with the estimation of diclofenac sodium from serum by a novel High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method developed in our laboratory. Standard diclofenac sodium was spotted on Silica Gel 60 F(254) precoated plates, which were developed using the mobile phase toluene:acetone:glacial acetic acid (80:30:1,v/v/v). Densitometric analysis of diclofenac sodium was carried out at 280 nm with diclofenac being detected at an R(f) of 0.58. The method was subsequently developed to estimate diclofenac sodium from serum. Diclofenac sodium was extracted with ethyl acetate from serum samples, spotted on Silica Gel 60 F(254) plates and the plates were developed using the above mentioned mobile phase. The method was validated for selectivity, extraction efficiency, sensitivity, accuracy, and intra and inter-day reproducibility studies. The extraction efficiency was found to range from 76 to 80%. The Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) of diclofenac sodium in serum were found to be 90 and 120 ng, respectively. The calibration curve of diclofenac sodium in serum was found to be linear in the range of 200-800 ng. The mean values (+/-S.D.) of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were found to be 0.9876 (+/-0.0105), 0.0228 (+/-0.0036) and 6.15 (+/-1.4), respectively. The mean percentage coefficient of variation for accuracy, intra-day and inter-day analysis at 200-800 ng of diclofenac sodium were found to be 3.2, 6.35 and 8.025, respectively. The proposed method is a simple and sensitive method with good precision and reproducibility for the estimation of diclofenac sodium form serum samples. PMID:12062654

  18. Chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablekov, V. K.; Denisov, Iu. N.; Proshkin, V. V.

    1983-08-01

    Recent developments in the theory and application of chemical lasers (CLs) are surveyed in a translation of a book published in Russian in 1980. The laws governing the gas-phase chemical reactions typical of CLs are introduced, the principles of quantum-mechanical description of molecular systems are reviewed, and the kinetics of CL processes are examined. The four general classes of CL are then presented in detail: static-gas, subsonic, supersonic, and detonation CLs. Graphs, diagrams, and drawings of experimental setups are provided.

  19. Chemical releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Evans, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A Chemical Release Module to be carried into orbit by the shuttle is described. The module would release chemicals from orbiting satellites in order understand processes within the Earth's magnetosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere. A large number of potential experiments are identified, ranging from introducing traceable material into the solar wind in order to study its transport to and within the magnetosphere, to injecting material into the outer magnetosphere to simulate the precipitation of trapped charged particles, to the release of material at lower altitudes to create waves both mechanical and electromagnetic.

  20. Serum creatine kinase in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Haibach, H; Hosler, M W

    1985-01-15

    Serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) and CK-MB activity were determined in 21 trained runners participating in a marathon race (42.2 km). Enzyme activities immediately after the race increased two to three times compared with activities before the race. The greatest increases were found in the slowest runners, suggesting greater skeletal muscular trauma in the least trained or fit. As these are likely to include the older athletes who are also more likely to suffer acute myocardial injury during strenuous exercise, our findings assume special import in the interpretation of increased CK and CK-MB serum activities of older athletes. PMID:3967735

  1. Thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayén-Mondragón, R.; Yánez-Limón, J. M.; Palomares, P.; Sosa, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.

    2005-06-01

    Using a thermal lens experimental set up, the thermal diffusivity of human serum and plasma were measured. Several samples were studied and the results are reported as the average, including the standard deviation. The samples of serum and plasma were obtained in healthy adult donors from the Guanajuato State Blood Transfusion Center, Mexico; the donors were clinically tested and they were free of hepatitis, AIDS and other infectious diseases. The parameters reported were obtained using the thermal lens aberrant model with the lasers arranged in the mismatched mode.

  2. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends were variable and concentrations were higher in males than in females. Global use has been in decline since around 2002 and hence primary exposure levels are expected to be decreasing. Further biomonitoring will allow assessment of PFAS exposures to confirm trends in exposure as primary and eventually secondary sources are depleted. PMID:24980755

  3. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric

  4. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  5. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  6. Delicious Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    This paper presents an approach to chemistry and nutrition that focuses on food items that people consider delicious. Information is organized according to three categories of food chemicals that provide energy to the human body: (1) fats and oils; (2) carbohydrates; and (3) proteins. Minerals, vitamins, and additives are also discussed along with…

  7. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  8. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). PMID:25539770

  9. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  10. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  11. Radioassay for serum and red cell folate.

    PubMed

    Longo, D L; Herbert, V

    1976-01-01

    A simple, reliable assay for serum and red cell folate is described. It uses plain untreated liquid or powdered milk, requiring no special handling or purification, as binder. Such milk makes it possible to ignore endogenous serum folate binder, since crude (but not purified) milk contains a factor which releases folate from serum binder. It simplifies counting radioactivity by employing a gamma emitting isotope of pteroylglutamic acid (PGA), namely the 125I-tyramide of PGA. Like the 3H-PGA assay of Givas and Gutcho, it permits the use of stable PGA rather than unstable methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MeTHFA) standards, because it is carried out at pH 9.3, a pH at which milk folate binder is unable to distinguish PGA from MeTHFA, which is the predominat folate in human tissues. The equipment required to do the radioassay is present in most diagnostic chemistry laboratories. Results are essentially identical to the generally accepted Lactobacillus casel microbiologic method of folate assay, except that false low results are not produced in the radioassay by antibiotics, tranquilizers, and chemotherapeutic agents. Three caveats in its use are the relative instability of 125I-PGA as compared to 3H-PGA, the fact that various powdered milks differ widely in folate-binding capacity, and that only about 60 per cent of commercially obtained skim or powdered milk preparations appear to contain the substance which splits folate from serum binder. PMID:1452

  12. Radioreceptor assay of narcotic analgesics in serum.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Thomas, J; Richards, M L; Sadée, W

    1984-09-01

    A sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) to determine the serum concentrations of fentanyl, pentazocine and morphine was developed on the basis of the drug's competition with a labeled tracer ((3)H-naloxone) for the membrane bound opioid receptor in rat brain homogenates. The binding data were computer-fitted to a standard curve by means of nonlinear least square regression. Sensitivity of the assay applied directly to serum samples without extraction was limited to approximately 3, 5 and 25 ng/ml for fentanyl, morphine and pentazocine, respectively, because of endogenous plasma constituents that interfere with the opioid receptor binding. With the use of petrol-ether extraction the sensitivity was improved to 0.3 ng/ml fentanyl and 3 ng/ml pentazocine (0.3 ml serum samples). No RRA-active metabolites were detectable after HPLC separation of serum from a patient treated with fentanyl. The plasma concentration time course of fentanyl in a patient, measured by RRA, was similar to that obtained by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The RRA represents a general procedure for the detection of clinically used opioid analgesics and their active metabolites. PMID:24277330

  13. Serum sickness-like reaction to Pamabrom.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jil K; English, Joseph C

    2006-03-01

    Pamabron is a common over-the-counter diuretic used for relief of menstrual-associated symptoms. An urticarial eruption, with systemic complaints consistent with a serum sickness-like reaction, attributed to Pamabron is described. A review of the literature concerning Pamabron and dermatology is discussed. PMID:16573265

  14. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  15. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, P. G.; Sridhar, G. R.; Sujatha, V.; Anita, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml) were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women. PMID:22701850

  16. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer. PMID:26580700

  17. Exercise and Serum Androgens in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlind, Kim C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examining the effect of a 10-week hydraulic resistance exercise program on serum androgen levels, strength, and lean body weight in 18 college women revealed that training did not result in significant increases in androgen hormones, although there were significant gains in strength. (Author/CB)

  18. Menaquinones content of human serum and feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterially-synthesized menaquinones (MKn) may contribute to vitamin K (VK) nutriture. There are limited data on interindividual variability in endogenous MK synthesis and its relation to circulating forms of VK. Serum and fecal VK concentrations were assessed in 13 healthy adults (45-65 yr) consumi...

  19. Serum amyloid P inhibits dermal wound healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The repair of open wounds depends on granulation tissue formation and contraction, which is primarily mediated by myofibroblasts. A subset of myofibroblasts originates from bone-marrow-derived monocytes which differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits ...

  20. Computational Modeling of Thyroid Hormone Regulated Neurodevelopment for Chemical Prioritization (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for normal brain development. Environmental chemicals may disrupt TH homeostasis through a variety of physiological systems including membrane transporters, serum transporters, synthesis and catabolic enzymes, and nuclear receptors. Current comp...

  1. Serum periostin in obstructive airways disease

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Irene; Travers, Justin; Bowles, Darren; Strik, Rianne; Siebers, Rob; Holweg, Cecile; Matthews, John; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Serum periostin is a potential biomarker of response to therapies that target type 2 inflammation in asthma. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels. Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18–75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months. In 49 ICS-naïve patients, periostin levels were measured again after 12 weeks of budesonide (800 μg·day−1). The distribution of serum periostin levels was right skewed (mean±sd 57.3±18.6 ng·mL−1, median (interquartile range) 54.0 (45.1–65.6) ng·mL−1, range 15.0–164.7 ng·mL−1). Periostin was positively associated with exhaled nitric oxide (Spearman's rho=0.22, p<0.001), blood eosinophil count (Spearman's rho=0.21, p<0.001), and total IgE (Spearman's rho=0.14, p=0.007). The Hodges–Lehmann estimator (95% CI) of change in periostin level after ICS therapy was −4.8 (−6.7– −3.2) ng·mL−1 (p<0.001). These findings provide data on the distribution of serum periostin in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction, the weak associations between periostin and other type 2 markers, and the reduction in periostin with inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26917610

  2. Serum periostin in obstructive airways disease.

    PubMed

    Fingleton, James; Braithwaite, Irene; Travers, Justin; Bowles, Darren; Strik, Rianne; Siebers, Rob; Holweg, Cecile; Matthews, John; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Serum periostin is a potential biomarker of response to therapies that target type 2 inflammation in asthma. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels.Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months. In 49 ICS-naïve patients, periostin levels were measured again after 12 weeks of budesonide (800 μg·day(-1)).The distribution of serum periostin levels was right skewed (mean±sd 57.3±18.6 ng·mL(-1), median (interquartile range) 54.0 (45.1-65.6) ng·mL(-1), range 15.0-164.7 ng·mL(-1)). Periostin was positively associated with exhaled nitric oxide (Spearman's rho=0.22, p<0.001), blood eosinophil count (Spearman's rho=0.21, p<0.001), and total IgE (Spearman's rho=0.14, p=0.007). The Hodges-Lehmann estimator (95% CI) of change in periostin level after ICS therapy was -4.8 (-6.7- -3.2) ng·mL(-1) (p<0.001).These findings provide data on the distribution of serum periostin in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction, the weak associations between periostin and other type 2 markers, and the reduction in periostin with inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26917610

  3. Serum chemerin levels during normal human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Garces, Maria F; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I; Rubio-Romero, Jorge Andrés; Angel-Müller, Edith; Suarez, Miguel A; Bohórquez, Luisa F; Bravo, Susana B; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Caminos, Jorge E

    2013-04-01

    During gestation there are important changes in maternal metabolism and an increase in insulin resistance, coinciding with an increase in adiposity. Chemerin is an adipocytokine which is expressed and secreted in various tissues, including placenta, and may play an important role in metabolic regulation during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of chemerin during gestation and compare them to other indicators of insulin resistance. A cross-sectional study was carried out analyzing serum chemerin levels of 20 pregnant women during three gestational periods, early, middle, and late (between the 10th and 14th, the 23rd and 26th, and the 34th and 37th week) and 20 non-pregnant women were used as a control group. An analysis of chemerin levels during the menstrual cycle was performed in an eumenorrheic group (n=16) in the early follicular (cycle day 4±1) and the midluteal phase (cycle day 22±1), demonstrating that serum chemerin levels did not fluctuate significantly. Serum levels of chemerin were significantly elevated during late gestation when compared to early (P<0.001) and middle (P=0.001) gestation and a negative correlation between serum chemerin and adiponectin levels (r=-0.1643) became more significant when the non-pregnant group was included in the calculations (r=-0.2471). There was no significant association of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, and HOMA levels with chemerin. Although chemerin rose significantly and is negatively associated with adiponectin levels, it is not correlated with other markers of insulin sensitivity, suggesting that more study is needed to determine whether chemerin is useful in predicting insulin resistance during gestation. PMID:23313148

  4. Protocol of Blood Serum Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Katsakoulas, Ioannis; Lougovoi, Claudia; Paraskevopoulou, Penelope; Vougioukas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries. This report demonstrates a formulation of blood serum eye drops with the purpose of providing an alternative to the marked absence of a universally established protocol. Exclusion criteria, equipment, preservation, dosage, duration, and guidelines for patients are described. Also included are details on the treatment of one representative embodiment. All (pre-/post-)analytical considerations and the total cost are addressed. Outcome measures such as Schirmer' s test, break up time, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score are recorded before treatment, at 1 and 2 months, ideally as monotherapy with 100% serum q.i.d. Blood serum isolated under aseptic conditions maintained throughout is delivered as a ready-to-use formulation to the patient. Serum eye drops should be included in the modern armamentarium against keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and, hopefully, their eventual widespread application will result in coverage by most if not all insurance funds. The implementation described contributes to the hopeful establishment of a standardized protocol and provides a potentially benefit of a low-cost, applicable treatment of the ocular epithelium without side effects. PMID:26714366

  5. The effects of perfluorinated chemicals on adipocyte differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew M; Wood, Carmen R; Lin, Mimi T; Abbott, Barbara D

    2015-01-15

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture system has been used to examine numerous compounds that influence adipocyte differentiation or function. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications, are of concern as environmental contaminants that are detected worldwide in human serum and animal tissues. This study was designed to evaluate the potential for PFAAs to affect adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (5-100 µM), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (5-100 µM), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (50-300 µM), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (40-250 µM), the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) PPARα agonist Wyeth-14,643 (WY-14,643), and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. The PPARγ agonist was included as a positive control as this pathway is critical to adipocyte differentiation. The PPARα agonist was included as the PFAA compounds are known activators of this pathway. Cells were assessed morphometrically and biochemically for number, size, and lipid content. RNA was extracted for qPCR analysis of 13 genes selected for their importance in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. There was a significant concentration-related increase in cell number and decreased cell size after exposure to PFOA, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFNA. All four PFAA treatments produced a concentration-related decrease in the calculated average area occupied by lipid per cell. However, total triglyceride levels per well increased with a concentration-related trend for all compounds, likely due to the increased cell number. Expression of mRNA for the selected genes was affected by all exposures and the specific impacts depended on the particular compound and concentration. Acox1 and Gapdh were upregulated by all six compounds. The strongest overall effect was a nearly 10-fold induction of Scd1 by PFHxS. The sulfonated PFAAs produced numerous, strong changes in gene expression similar to the effects after treatment with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. By comparison, the effects on gene expression were muted for the carboxylated PFAAs and for the PPARα agonist WY-14,643. In summary, all perfluorinated compounds increased cell number, decreased cell size, increased total triglyceride, and altered expression of genes associated with adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PMID:25448844

  6. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  7. Influence of in vitro biomimicked stem cell 'niche' for regulation of proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to myocardial phenotypes: serum starvation without aid of chemical agents and prevention of spontaneous stem cell transformation enhanced by the matrix environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Shin, Sang-Hyun; Li, Tian Zhu; Suh, Hwal

    2016-01-01

    Niche appears important for preventing the spontaneous differentiation or senescence that cells undergo during in vitro expansion. In the present study, it was revealed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) undergo senescence-related differentiation into the myocardial lineage in vitro without any induction treatment. This phenomenon occurred over the whole population of MCSs, much different from conventional differentiation with limited frequency of occurrence, and was accompanied by a change of morphology into large, flat cells with impeded proliferation, which are the representative indications of MSC senescence. By culturing MSCs under several culture conditions, it was determined that induction treatment with 5-azacytidine was not associated with the phenomenon, but the serum-starvation condition, under which proliferation is severely hampered, caused senescence progression and upregulation of cardiac markers. Nevertheless, MSCs gradually developed a myocardial phenotype under normal culture conditions over a prolonged culture period and heterogeneous populations were formed. In perspectives of clinical applications, this must be prevented for fair and consistent outcomes. Hence, the biomimetic 'niche' was constituted for hBM-MSCs by cultivating on a conventionally available extracellular matrix (ECM). Consequently, cells on ECM regained a spindle-shape morphology, increased in proliferation rate by two-fold and showed decreased expression of cardiac markers at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, the outcome indicates that progression of MSC senescence may occur via myocardial differentiation during in vitro polystyrene culture, and this can be overcome by employing appropriate ECM culture techniques. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23897724

  8. Total Serum Fatty Acid Analysis by GC-MS: Assay Validation and Serum Sample Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jianwei; Mozurkewich, Ellen L.; Sen, Ananda; Vahratian, Anjel M.; Ferreri, Thomas G.; Morse, Alexander N.; Djuric, Zora

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of n3 fatty acids in serum samples has clinical applications in supplementation trials, but the analysis can be challenging due to low levels, stability issues and intra-individual variation. This study presents the single laboratory validation of a gas chromatographic-mass spectral (GC-MS) assay for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using sensitive single ion monitoring and provides data on fatty acid stability under different sample handling conditions. Recovery of total fatty acids from serum with Folch extraction was optimized and parallelism tests with spiked samples indicated that the serum matrix did not interfere with mass spectral quantitation. Precision and accuracy of the assay at the lowest limit of quantitation and at low, medium and high levels met with accepted guidelines for single laboratory validation. Several storage conditions that can be encountered with clinical samples also were evaluated for impact on fatty acid levels in serum. Serum from blood that was stored refrigerated for 3 days yielded similar results as serum that was prepared and frozen at −80°C immediately. Serum storage at room temperature for 3–24 hours and serum subjected to one freeze/thaw cycle had minimal effects on fatty acid levels. The intra-individual variability in pregnant women was reasonably small, with significant correlation coefficients ranging from 0.35 to 0.76 for blood drawn between 12–20 weeks versus 34–36 weeks of gestation. These results indicate that GC-MS with single ion monitoring is valid for the analysis of total fatty acids in clinical samples, even when blood processing cannot be performed in a timely manner. PMID:25110470

  9. Cooperative binding of drugs on human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, L. M.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M.; García, M.

    In order to explain the adsorption isotherms of the amphiphilic penicillins nafcillin and cloxacillin onto human serum albumin (HSA), a cooperative multilayer adsorption model is introduced, combining the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm with an amphiphilic ionic adsorbate, whose chemical potential is derived from Guggenheim's theory. The non-cooperative model has been previously proved to qualitatively predict the measured adsorption maxima of these drugs [Varela, L. M., García, M., Pérez-Rodríguez, M., Taboada, P., Ruso, J. M., and Mosquera, V., 2001, J. chem. Phys., 114, 7682]. The surface interactions among adsorbed drug molecules are modelled in a mean-field fashion, so the chemical potential of the adsorbate is assumed to include a term proportional to the surface coverage, the constant of proportionality being the lateral interaction energy between bound molecules. The interaction energies obtained from the empirical binding isotherms are of the order of tenths of the thermal energy, therefore suggesting the principal role of van der Waals forces in the binding process.

  10. Relationship between dietary exposure and serum perfluorochemical (PFC) levels--a case study.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, Anna; Harada, Kouji H; Inoue, Kayoko; Takasuga, Takumi; Ohi, Etsumasa; Koizumi, Akio

    2009-05-01

    Daily dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in relation to serum levels was assessed by determination of nine PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in matched daily diet duplicates and serum samples. Diet and serum were collected in year 2004 from 20 women in Osaka and Miyagi, Japan. Only PFOS and PFOA were detected in the diet samples and no significant difference between cities was seen. After adjusted by water content, diet concentration of PFOA was significantly higher in Osaka. The median daily intake calculated using the measured diet concentrations was 1.47 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 1.28 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Osaka, and 1.08 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 0.72 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Miyagi. A significant difference between cities was seen for the serum concentrations with median of 31 ng/mL PFOS and PFOA in Osaka, compared to 14 ng/mL PFOS and 4.6 ng/mL PFOA in Miyagi. Carboxylates such as perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were also detected in serum at median levels 6.9 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL (Osaka), and 2.8 ng/mL and 5.1 ng/mL (Miyagi). Based on one-compartment model under steady state, dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA accounted for only 22.4% and 23.7% of serum levels in Osaka females, and in contrast 92.5% and 110.6% in Miyagi females, respectively. PMID:19250678

  11. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  12. Chemical intolerance.

    PubMed

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven; Skovbjerg, Sine

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach. PMID:26088215

  13. Chemical durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuer, K.D.; Warhus, U.

    1986-03-01

    The chemical durability of NASICON (Na/sub 1+x/Zr/sub 2/Si/sub x/P/sub 3-x/O/sub 12/, x=0-3) versus molten sodium and sulfur at 600 K has been investigated. Degradation by molten sodium has been observed for phosphorus-containing compositions only. The pure silicate (x=3), however, appeared to be stable, because reduction of silicon demanded by thermodynamics did not occur at the given temperature for kinetic reasons. The latter composition has also been shown to have good durability against molten sulfur.

  14. Chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khariton, Y.

    1984-08-01

    The application and the advances of quantum electronics, specifically, of optical quantum generators lasers is reviewed. Materials are cut, their surfaces are machined, chemical transformations of substances are carried out, surgical operations are performed, data are transmitted, three dimensional images are produced and the content of microimpurities, in the atmosphere, are analyzed by use of a beam. Laser technology is used in conducting investigations in the most diverse fields of the natural and technical sciences from controlled thermonuclear fusion to genetics. Many demands are placed on lasers as sources of light energy. The importance of low weight, compactness of the optical generator and the efficiency of energy conversion processes is emphasized.

  15. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2012-05-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. PMID:22015388

  16. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with

  17. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  18. 21 CFR 610.16 - Total solids in serums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as otherwise provided by regulation, no liquid serum or antitoxin shall contain more than 20 percent...

  19. 21 CFR 610.16 - Total solids in serums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as otherwise provided by regulation, no liquid serum or antitoxin shall contain more than 20 percent...

  20. 21 CFR 610.16 - Total solids in serums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as otherwise provided by regulation, no liquid serum or antitoxin shall contain more than 20 percent...

  1. 21 CFR 610.16 - Total solids in serums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total solids in serums. 610.16 Section 610.16 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.16 Total solids in serums. Except as otherwise provided by regulation, no liquid serum or antitoxin shall contain more than 20 percent...

  2. Seasonal folate serum concentrations at different nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, Marica; Valachovicová, Martina; Blazícek, Pavel

    2013-03-01

    Folic acid (vitamin B9) rich sources are leafy green vegetables, legumes, whole grains, egg yolk, liver, and citrus fruit. In winter and early spring, there could be insufficient supply of vegetables and fruit and thus lower intake of folic acid and possible deficient folic acid blood concentrations. The aim of the study was to assess serum vitamin B9 concentrations depending on the season (the last third of winter - March, the last third of spring - May/June and the beginning of autumn - September) and different nutritional habits (apparently healthy adults non-smoking, non-obese 366 subjects; 204 persons of general population on traditional mixed diet; and 162 long-term lacto-ovo vegetarians). In general population group, the mean concentration of folate in March was low (narrowly above lower reference limit) with high incidence of deficient values - 31.5%. In May/ June vs. March was folate concentration significantly higher with deficient values in 13.2% of individuals. The highest serum values were observed in September with 11.1% of deficient values. In vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian group, significantly higher folate concentrations were found in each season with no deficient values. Folate and vitamin B12 are the regulators of homocysteinemia; plant food lacks of vitamin B12. The deficient folate serum values in March caused the mild hyperhomocysteinemia in 12.3% of individuals vs. only 5.9% and 4.8% of subjects in groups investigated in May/June and September. In spite of high folate concentrations in all investigations and no deficient value, 19.6-22.8% of vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of deficient vitamin B12 concentrations in one quarter of subjects. As far as the general population is concerned, our findings suggest that winter and early spring are critical seasons in regards to optimal serum folate concentrations. PMID:23741898

  3. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  4. Low Serum Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Travis, Victoria L.

    1978-01-01

    To gain information about the nature of disturbances in sympathetic nervous system control in congestive heart failure, serum dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) activity was measured in 30 patients with heart failure of diverse etiologies and 29 healthy normotensive controls. The heart failure patients had been symptomatic for at least 6 wk and had elevated filling pressures, low cardiac indices, low ejection fractions, and wide arteriovenous oxygen differences. DBH activity was 47.1±4.7 (mean±SE) for the controls and 14.4±2.7 IU for the heart failure patients (P < 0.001). Sera from some patients with heart failure had potent inhibitory effects on DBH activity of normal sera. The inhibitor was heat stable and dialyzable and could be demonstrated despite presence of N-ethylmaleimide or Cu++ in the reaction mixture. However, some inhibitory activity was also present in sera of normal patients; this inhibitory property was not demonstrable in unheated normal serum, but was unmasked when DBH was heat inactivated. It is proposed that although the inhibitor may have been a factor in low serum DBH activity in some patients with heart failure, the major cause of the low activity in the heart failure group was a reduced rate of synthesis or release of the enzyme by sympathetic nerves. This may reflect a dissociation between rates of neural release of norepinephrine and release of DBH in chronic, severe heart failure. The observation of low serum DBH levels in patients with heart failure suggests that measurement of DBH levels may serve as a useful indicator of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:711856

  5. Comparison of two immunoradiometric assays for serum thyrotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinin, B.; Drew, H.; La France, N.; Ladenson, P.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    An ultra-sensitive TSH assay capable of detecting subnormal TSH levels would be useful in confirming suppressed pituitary function as seen in hyperthyroidism. Two sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assays (IRMA's) were studied to determine how well they distinguished thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects. Serono Diagnostics' method employs three monoclonal antibodies specific for different regions of the TSH molecule with a minimum detectable dose (MDD) limit of 0.1 ..mu..IU/ml. Precision studies using a low TSH control in the 1.8 ..mu..IU/ml range gave CV's of 15.0%. Boots-Celltech Diagnostics method is a two site IRMA using two monoclonal antibodies. The MDD limit is 0.05 ..mu..IU/ml with precision CV's of 29.3% at a TSH control range of 0.62 ..mu..IU/ml. In 24 chemically thyrotoxic patients, the mean serum TSH concentration was significantly lower than in the normal control subjects: for Serono, 0.19 ..mu..IU/ml vs. 2.34 ..mu..IU/ml and for Boots Celltech, 0.18 IU/ml vs 2.06 ..mu..IU/ml. The range of TSH was 0 to 0.5 ..mu..IU/ml in thyrotoxic patients using Serono with the exception of one patient having a TSH value of 0.8 ..mu..IU/ml. The normal range was 0.6 to 6.0 ..mu..IU/ml. For Boots Celltech the thyrotoxic range was 0 to 0.2 ..mu..IU/ml with that same thyrotoxic patient giving a TSH value of 0.7 ..mu..IU/ml with a normal range of 0.6 to 5.0 IU/ml. Serum TSH measurements using both procedures are highly sensitive for distinguishing thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects and are useful to confirm suppressed pituitary function.

  6. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ? median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  7. Mammographic Breast Density and Serum Phytoestrogen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Sarah J.; Sprague, Brian L.; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Hedman, Curtis J.; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 5570 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.912.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.013.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.714.6) for < and ?median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  8. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    PubMed

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  9. Serum copeptin and pregnancy outcome in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Adediji, Isaac Oluwole; Rahamon, Sheu Kadiri; Fawole, Adeniran Olubukola; Tongo, Olukemi Oluwatoyin

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of biochemical predictors of preeclampsia have been reported, but little is known about their possible relationship with maternal and fetal outcomes. This study determined serum copeptin in pregnant women with preeclampsia and assessed its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with severe preeclampsia (SP), 30 with mild preeclampsia (MP), and 30 with uncomplicated pregnancy were enrolled into this study. Serum copeptin, creatinine, and liver function were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetry as appropriate. Pregnancy outcomes, both maternal and fetal, were taken using standard methods. Results: Copeptin was significantly elevated in preeclampsia subjects compared with controls and in SP compared with MP. Assessing the diagnostic property of copeptin for preeclampsia, the area under the curve for copeptin was 0.99. Nine (30%) and 3 (10%) of SP and MP, respectively had abruptio placenta while 6 (20%), 2 (6.7%), and 1 (3.3%) still births were recorded in SP, MP, and controls, respectively. Neonates of mothers with preeclampsia had significantly lower birth weight, infant length, ponderal index, and head circumference compared with neonates of the controls. Copeptin had a significant inverse relationship with birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, Apgar score, and infant length in neonates of mothers with preeclampsia. Conclusion: Serum copeptin level in the third trimester could predict preeclampsia and its elevation is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. PMID:26778890

  10. Arsenic trioxide binding to serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Shooshtary, Sara; Behtash, Sima; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) also known as Trisenox, is an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug which has been used in treating diagnosed and relapsed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Serum albumin is the most abundant of the proteins in blood plasma and is the major transporter for delivering several drugs in vivo. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential ability of human and bovine serum albumin for delivering arsenic trioxide. Therefore, interaction of arsenic trioxide with HSA and BSA was investigated in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to analyze arsenic trioxide and protein binding modes, the binding constants and the effect of drug complexation on HSA and BSA stability and conformation. Results of this study showed that drug complexation altered protein conformation by major reduction of α-helix and increase of turn structure which is indicative of a partial protein destabilization. Structural analysis revealed that arsenic trioxide bind HSA and BSA with overall binding constants of KATO-HSA=1.07 (±0.01)×10(4) M(-1) and KATO-BSA=1.27(±0.02)×10(4) M(-1). It could be concluded that serum albumins can be considered as good carriers for delivering arsenic trioxide to target tissue. PMID:25863441

  11. Predicting brain metastases of breast cancer based on serum S100B and serum HER2

    PubMed Central

    BECHMANN, TROELS; MADSEN, JONNA SKOV; BRANDSLUND, IVAN; LUND, ERIK DALSGAARD; ORMSTRUP, TINA; JAKOBSEN, ERIK HUGGER; JYLLING, ANNE MARIE BAK; STEFFENSEN, KARINA DAHL; JAKOBSEN, ANDERS

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prediction of brain metastases based on serum S100B and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). A total of 107 breast cancer patients were included in the current study from two prospective cohort studies with either elevated serum HER2 levels >15 ng/ml or brain metastases verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computer tomography (CT). Following the exclusion of six patients, the remaining 101 patients were divided into two groups: Group 0 (n=55), patients with normal MRI results; and group 1 (n=46), patients with brain metastases. The levels of serum S100B and HER2 in the two groups were analyzed prior to MRI or CT of the brain, and no significant differences were identified in the serum HER2 (P=0.060) or S100B levels (P=0.623) between the groups. The univariate analysis of prognostic factors for brain metastases showed a significant correlation with systemic disease (P<0.001), axillary lymph node metastases (P=0.001) and serum HER2 >30 ng/ml (P=0.002). Only systemic disease (P<0.001) remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, serum levels of S100B and HER2 did not predict the risk of brain metastases. In the multivariate analysis, brain metastases were only found to correlate with systemic disease. However, in the univariate analysis, serum HER2 levels >30 ng/ml were identified to correlate with increased risk of brain metastases, which calls for further investigation. PMID:24179506

  12. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Citation Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F, Manservisi F, Falcioni L, Bua L, Silva MJ, Ye X, Calafat AM, Chen J. 2016. Paired serum and urine concentrations of biomarkers of diethyl phthalate, methyl paraben, and triclosan in rats. Environ Health Perspect 124:39–45; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409586 PMID:26047088

  13. Temporal Variability of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations over One Year

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  14. Temporal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) serum concentrations over one year.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Carignan, Courtney C; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  15. Serum and tissue biomarkers in aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Tsourelis, Loukas; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Kogerakis, Nektarios; Cokkinos, Dennis V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is seen in a large proportion of individuals over 60 years. It is an active process, influenced by lipid accumulation, mechanical stress, inflammation, and abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. Various biomarkers (BMs) are studied, as regards mechanisms, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: In the calcified valves calcium deposition, elastin fragmentation and disorganization of cellular matrix were assessed, together with expression of OPN, OPG, osteocalcin (OCN) and RL2. We prospectively studied the following serum BMs in 60 patients with CAVS and compared them to 20 healthy controls, free from any cardiac disease: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), which regulate collagen turnover, inflammatory factors, i.e. tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa), interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) which regulates fibrosis, fetuin-A (fet-A), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and relaxin-2 (RL2) which positively or negatively regulate calcification. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) which regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also studied as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) an oxidative marker. Results: Extent of tissue valve calcification (Alizarin Red stain) was negatively correlated with tissue elastin, and RL2, and positively correlated with tissue OCN and serum TIMP1 and MCP-1 and negatively with MMP9. Tissue OCN was positively correlated with OPN and negatively with the elastin. Tissue OPN was negatively correlated with elastin and OPG. Tissue OPN OPG and RL2 were not correlated with serum levels In the serum we found in patients statistically lower TIMP1, fet-A and RL2 levels, while all other BMs were higher compared to the healthy group. Positive correlations between SOST and IL2, OPG and MDA but negative with TNFa and OPN were found; also MMP9 was negatively correlated with TNFa and MCP-1 was negatively correlated with TIMP1. Conclusion: We found that many BMs expressing calcification, collagen breakdown, or formation, and inflammation are increased in the valve tissue and in the serum of patients with CAVS as compared with healthy group. Our findings may give new insights towards diagnosis but also therapy. Thus antisclerostin, and antiflammatory agents could be tried for preventing aortic calcification progression. PMID:26779524

  16. Lipid oxidation in unfractionated serum and plasma.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, E; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Fainaru, M; Samuni, A M; Lichtenberg, D

    1998-05-01

    In an attempt to develop an assay for the susceptibility of plasma lipids to oxidation, we have studied the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in diluted serum and plasma prepared with different anticoagulants (heparin, citrate and EDTA) by monitoring the absorbance of oxidation-products at several wavelengths. These studies revealed the complex and interrelated effects of the water-soluble antioxidant ascorbic acid, citrate and chloride ions on the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation of plasma lipids. Specifically, the onset of oxidation induced by copper-citrate chelates is only slightly affected by chloride ions and is accelerated upon increasing the copper concentration. By contrast, in the absence of citrate, the lag preceding oxidation in diluted serum or plasma (but not the maximal rate of oxidation) depends markedly on the chloride concentration in the diluting medium. In the absence of Cl-, the lag preceding oxidation is a decreasing saturable function of copper concentration, whereas in a normal phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS), the lag shows a biphasic dependence on copper concentration such that at copper concentrations above 10-30 microM (depending on the extent of plasma dilution), increasing the concentration of copper results in prolongation of the lag. This dependence of copper-induced oxidation on the concentration of copper is not observed for dialyzed serum unless ascorbic acid is added. Our interpretation of these results is that water-soluble reductants and chloride ions act synergistically to stabilize Cu+, on the expense of Cu2+. Quenching of free radicals by Cu+ may be responsible for the prolongation of the lag at high copper concentrations, with no reduction of the maximal rate of oxidation. In spite of the complex dependencies described above, spectrophotometric monitoring of the kinetics of oxidation of plasma lipids, under 'optimized conditions' (50-fold diluted serum, in PBS containing 720 microM sodium citrate and 100 microM copper), agrees with independent measurements of the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Hence, the spectroscopic method may become useful for evaluation of the susceptibility of plasma lipids to oxidation. This possibility, however, has yet to be elucidated through investigations of the correlation between the susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation in vitro and clinical factors of significance. PMID:9682469

  17. Developmental toxicity and serum levels of perfluorononanoic acid in the wild-type and PPAR-alpha knockout mouse after gestational exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid detected in.the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARa) in vitro and negatively impacts development and survival of CD1 mice. Our objective wa...

  18. Serum- and substratum-dependent modulation of neuritic growth.

    PubMed

    Skaper, S D; Selak, I; Varon, S

    1983-01-01

    Explants of embryonic day 8 (E8) chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have been cultured with medium containing serum or the serum-free supplement N1 on one of three substrata: collagen, polyornithine (PORN), or PORN exposed to a polyornithine-binding neurite-promoting factor (PNPF-PORN). Replicate cultures were maintained with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF elicited its classical neuritic outgrowth on all three substrata in serum-containing or serum-free medium. In the absence of NGF, however, a gradation of increasing neurite growth was seen with: PNPF-PORN greater than PORN greater than collagen. This response occurred in both media. In addition, the neuritic halo in each instance was markedly more developed in the absence of serum, especially on PNPF-PORN. Nonneuronal behaviors reflected both serum and substratum influences: thus, nonneuronal outgrowth consisted mainly of flat cells with serum and collagen, was nonexistent with serum and PORN or PNPF-PORN, and involved mostly Schwann-like scattered cells in the absence of serum on any one substratum. The serum-dependent behaviors of ganglionic neurites were examined further with explants from chicken E11 sympathetic ganglia. A single substratum was used (PORN), without exogenous trophic factor. Neurite outgrowth was depressed by the presence of fetal calf serum, thus supporting the generality of this phenomenon. Lastly, PC12 cells, a clonal line of rat pheochromocytoma, will grow neurites in the presence of NGF after 48 hr in serum-free, but not serum-containing media. Addition of serum to serum-free cultures at this time results in the rapid and complete retraction of neurites. PMID:6876195

  19. Chemical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  20. Influence of thyroidectomy on postoperative serum calcium level regarding serum vitamin D status. A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Godazandeh, Gholamali; Kashi, Zahra; Godazandeh, Farnaz; Tayebi, Pouya; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypocalcemia is a well-recognized complication after total thyroidectomy. Hypovitaminosis D may have additional effect in the development of hypocalcemia. This study aimed to determine the effect of total thyroidectomy on postoperative serum calcium in patients with and without hypovitaminosis D. Methods: This prospective study was performed on patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from 2011 to 2014 in Imam Khomeini General Hospital of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Serum calcium and vitamin D values were recorded before and after surgery. The patients were classified according to serum vitamin D concentrations as less 10 ng/ml (vitamin D deficiency) or higher (control group). The mean values of postoperative calcium level for each class of serum vitamin D were determined and compared. Hypocalcemia was defined as a postoperative calcium level <8 mg/dl. Results: 125 patients due to thyroid disease underwent total thyroidectomy. The incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic hypocalcemia after surgery was 12% (n=15) and 3.2% (n=4) respectively. 82 (65.6%) patients had vitamin D deficiency and 43 (34.4%) patients had sufficient vitamin D level. There was not any significant difference in calcium level (8.67±0.58 mg/dl vs. 8.70±0.59 mg/dl) between two vitamin D studied groups after thyroid surgery (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that vitamin D deficiency had no significant effect on post-thyroidectomy serum calcium level. PMID:26221503