Science.gov

Sample records for serum proteins including

  1. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePLUS

    This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation Globulin electrophoresis

  2. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  3. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  4. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  5. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  6. Soy protein and serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Potter, S M

    1996-08-01

    Evidence exists indicating that substitution of soy for animal protein reduces both total ahd LDL-cholesterol concentrations in humans. There are a number of biologically active compounds associated with soy protein; however, the precise mechanism and the component(s) of soy responsible have not been fully established. Some studies suggest that, when soy protein is fed, cholesterol absorption or bile acid reabsorption, or both, is impaired. This is observed in some animal species such as rabbits and rats but not in humans, nor when amino acids replace intact soy protein. Other workers have proposed that changes in endocrine status are responsible, however, this again has not been observed in humans. Increases in LDL receptor activity in both animals and humans have been reported after ingestion of soy protein or various extracts of soy, or both. Furthermore, the soybean isoflavone genistein may inhibit lesion and thrombus formation via inhibition of second messengers. PMID:8883502

  7. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Mir, Sartaj Ahmad; Renuse, Santosh; Manda, Srikanth S.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Solanki, Hitendra Singh; Manju, H.C.; Syed, Nazia; Sharma, Rakesh; Christopher, Rita; Vijayakumar, M.; Kumar, K.V. Veerendra; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Ramaswamy, Girija; Kumar, Rekha V.; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Blood based biomarkers of gastric cancer have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. Proteins that show altered levels in the circulation of gastric cancer patients could prove useful as putative biomarkers. We used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that show altered levels in the sera of patients with gastric cancer. Our study resulted in identification of 643 proteins, of which 48 proteins showed increased levels and 11 proteins showed decreased levels in serum from gastric cancer patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Proteins that showed increased expression in gastric cancer included inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), Mannose-binding protein C (MBL2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), serum amyloid A protein (SAA1), Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) and extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu–Zn] (SOD3). We used multiple reaction monitoring assays and validated elevated levels of ITIH4 and SAA1 proteins in serum from gastric cancer patients. Biological significance Gastric cancer is a highly aggressive cancer associated with high mortality. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable interest in diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases including cancers. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Pathological diagnosis using biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable importance as they are minimally invasive. In this study, we carried out quantitative proteomic profiling of serum from gastric cancer patients to identify proteins that show altered levels in gastric cancer patients. We identified more than 50 proteins that showed altered levels in gastric cancer patient sera. Validation in a large cohort of well classified patient samples would prove useful in identifying novel blood based biomarkers for gastric cancers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25952687

  9. Multiplexed microfluidic quantification of proteins in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Nitin; Rajauria, Sukumar; Cleland, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and low cost immunoassays targeting proteins in blood or other bodily fluids are highly sought after for point-of-care devices and early screening of patients. Immunoturbidimetric assays utilize latex particles functionalized with antibodies, with particle aggregation in the presence of the analyte detected by a change in absorbance. Using a high throughput micro-fluidic particle analyzer based solely on electrical signals (resistive pulse sensing), we are able to accurately quantify the degree of aggregation by analyzing the changes in the particle size distribution. Thus we study the aggregation of streptavidin (SAv) coated beads in the presence of biotinylated bovine serum albumin as a proof-of-principle assay and extract the binding capacity of the SAv beads from the dose-response curve. We also use our aggregation measurement platform to characterize a commercial C-reactive protein (CRP) immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP, Diazyme Inc.). We obtain a linear calibration curve as well as a better limit of detection of CRP than that obtained by absorbance measurements. By using different bead sizes functionalized with different antibodies, multiplexed analyte detection is also possible. We demonstrate this by combining the commercial anti-CRP functionalized beads (0.4 microns) with biotin coated beads (1.0 microns), and carry out the simultaneous detection of SAv and CRP in a single sample.

  10. Nanoparticle-Assisted Removal of Protein in Human Serum for Metabolomics Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Mouzhe; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Among human body fluids, serum plays a key role for diagnostic tests and, increasingly, for metabolomics analysis. However, the high protein content of serum poses significant challenges for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics studies because it can strongly interfere with metabolite signal detection and quantitation. Although several methods for protein removal have been proposed, including ultrafiltration and organic-solvent-induced protein precipitation, there is currently no standard operating procedure for the elimination of protein from human serum samples. Here, we introduce novel procedures for the removal of protein from serum by the addition of nanoparticles. It is demonstrated how serum protein can be efficiently, cost-effectively, and environmentally friendly removed at physiological pH (pH 7.4) through attractive interactions with silica nanoparticles. It is further shown how serum can be processed with nanoparticles prior to ultrafiltration or organic-solvent-induced protein precipitation for optimal protein removal. After examination of all of the procedures, the combination of nanoparticle treatment and ultrafiltration is found to have a minimal effect on the metabolite content, leading to remarkably clean homo- and heteronuclear NMR spectra of the serum metabolome that compare favorably to other methods for protein removal. PMID:26605638

  11. Assessment of Oritavancin Serum Protein Binding across Species?

    PubMed Central

    Arhin, Francis F.; Belley, Adam; McKay, Geoffrey; Beaulieu, Sylvain; Sarmiento, Ingrid; Parr, Thomas R.; Moeck, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical methods to study the binding of oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide, to serum protein are confounded by nonspecific drug adsorption to labware surfaces. We assessed oritavancin binding to serum from mouse, rat, dog, and human by a microbiological growth-based method under conditions that allow near-quantitative drug recovery. Protein binding was similar across species, ranging from 81.9% in human serum to 87.1% in dog serum. These estimates support the translation of oritavancin exposure from nonclinical studies to humans. PMID:20498314

  12. Assessment of oritavancin serum protein binding across species.

    PubMed

    Arhin, Francis F; Belley, Adam; McKay, Geoffrey; Beaulieu, Sylvain; Sarmiento, Ingrid; Parr, Thomas R; Moeck, Gregory

    2010-08-01

    Biophysical methods to study the binding of oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide, to serum protein are confounded by nonspecific drug adsorption to labware surfaces. We assessed oritavancin binding to serum from mouse, rat, dog, and human by a microbiological growth-based method under conditions that allow near-quantitative drug recovery. Protein binding was similar across species, ranging from 81.9% in human serum to 87.1% in dog serum. These estimates support the translation of oritavancin exposure from nonclinical studies to humans. PMID:20498314

  13. A PHASE RULE STUDY OF THE PROTEINS OF BLOOD SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Eloise; Roberts, Dorothy Brown

    1937-01-01

    A method has been developed for applying the phase rule to systems of several protein components in serum. The globulin fractions which have been investigated appear to be homogeneous substances. PMID:19873049

  14. Spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anadi; Bylund, Quentin; Prasanna, Manu; Margalit, Yotam; Tihan, Tarik

    2013-03-01

    First measurements of biomedical imaging using quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are presented. We report spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using QCLs as an example for monitoring surface biocontamination. We found that dry smears of human serum can be spectroscopically imaged, identified, and quantified with high sensitivity and specificity. The core parts of the imaging platform consist of optically multiplexing three QCLs and an uncooled microbolometer camera. We show imaging of human serum proteins at 6.1, 9.25, and 9.5 ?m QCLs with high sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity limit of 3???g/cm˛ of the human serum spot was measured at an S/N=3.The specificity of human serum detection was measured at 99% probability at a threshold of 77???g/cm˛. We anticipate our imaging technique to be a starting point for more sophisticated biomolecular diagnostic applications. PMID:23515866

  15. A new aspect of serum protein binding of tolbutamide.

    PubMed

    Ayano?lu, G; Uihlein, M; Grigoleit, H G

    1986-02-01

    Tolbutamide is known to bind highly to serum proteins. Quite different values have, however, been reported for binding, ranging from 80 to 99 percent. In this study, in vivo and in vitro binding of increasing concentrations of tolbutamide to human serum proteins were evaluated. In vitro studies were done serum from three healthy males and for in vivo studies serum samples from eight healthy males who had received 1,000 mg tolbutamide were used. Protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis, using DIANORM system. Tolbutamide concentrations were determined by HPLC method of Uihlein and Hack. The results suggest that there is an increase in percent tolbutamide bound with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. Generally, an inverse relationship between the total concentration of a drug in serum and its bound fraction is observed. Our findings seem to be contrary to this, at least within the concentration range studied. There exist at least two binding sites on albumin with different affinities for tolbutamide and most probably, at low concentrations, the drug binds mainly to the high affinity sites, whereas at higher concentrations additional drug will bind to the lower affinity sites leading to the observed increase in fraction bound with concentration. In conclusion it may be said that serum protein binding is a much more complicated phenomenon than generally stated and that the normal observations are only true for some ideal compounds where only one site of adsorption has to be taken into account. PMID:3957494

  16. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) contain four developmentally regulated serum thyroid hormone distributor proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Tianna Natalia; Manzon, Richard Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are very lipophilic molecules which require a distribution network for efficient transport in serum. Despite observations that THs function in a wide variety of processes, including aspects of fish development (i.e., flat fish metamorphosis and smoltification), the proteins responsible for TH distribution in fish serum remain poorly studied. We chose to investigate the serum TH distributor proteins (THDPs) in lampreys. As one of only two extant agnathans, data on lamprey THDPs may offer new insights into the evolution of the vertebrate TH distribution network and serum proteins in general. Moreover, lampreys appear to contradict the vertebrate model of an increase in TH concentrations initiating and driving vertebrate metamorphosis. We show for the first time that sea lamprey serum contains at least four THDPs and that their presence in serum is temporally regulated throughout the life cycle. The albumin, glycoprotein AS is the dominant THDP present in the sera of larval and metamorphosing sea lamprey. In stage seven of metamorphosis, three additional THDPs appear, including the albumin, glycoprotein SDS-1; the glycolipoprotein CB-III; and an unidentified low molecular weight protein temporarily named Spot-5. The sera of parasitic and upstream migrant sea lampreys lack AS; their serum THDPs are SDS-1, CB-III, and Spot-5. Our data indicate that despite the change in type and number of THDPs, the overall total TH binding capacity of sea lamprey serum remains fairly stable until stage 7 of metamorphosis when a only modest decrease in total binding capacity is observed. Collectively these data indicate that the decline in serum TH concentrations observed during lamprey metamorphosis is not a consequence of a reduction in the distribution and storage capacity of the serum. PMID:21163261

  17. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  18. Serum Proteins and Aqueous Outflow Resistance in Bovine Eyes

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Mark

    in the outflow pathway similar to that found in unperfused eyes. Use of cuprolinic blue in a critical electrolyteSerum Proteins and Aqueous Outflow Resistance in Bovine Eyes Mark Johnson,* Haiyan Gong,\\X Thomas F in investigating the possible hydrodynamic implications of these proteins. Methods. Bovine eyes were perfused

  19. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  20. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  1. Candida albicans Shaving to Profile Human Serum Proteins on Hyphal Surface

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Elvira; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Hernández-Haro, Carolina; Hernáez, María L.; Nombela, César; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human opportunistic fungus and it is responsible for a wide variety of infections, either superficial or systemic. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus and its ability to switch between yeast and hyphae is essential for its virulence. Once C. albicans obtains access to the human body, the host serum constitutes a complex environment of interaction with C. albicans cell surface in bloodstream. To draw a comprehensive picture of this relevant step in host-pathogen interaction during invasive candidiasis, we have optimized a gel-free shaving proteomic strategy to identify both, human serum proteins coating C. albicans cells and fungi surface proteins simultaneously. This approach was carried out with normal serum (NS) and heat inactivated serum (HIS). We identified 214 human and 372 C. albicans unique proteins. Proteins identified in C. albicans included 147 which were described as located at the cell surface and 52 that were described as immunogenic. Interestingly, among these C. albicans proteins, we identified 23 GPI-anchored proteins, Gpd2 and Pra1, which are involved in complement system evasion and 7 other proteins that are able to attach plasminogen to C. albicans surface (Adh1, Eno1, Fba1, Pgk1, Tdh3, Tef1, and Tsa1). Furthermore, 12 proteins identified at the C. albicans hyphae surface induced with 10% human serum were not detected in other hypha-induced conditions. The most abundant human proteins identified are involved in complement and coagulation pathways. Remarkably, with this strategy, all main proteins belonging to complement cascades were identified on the C. albicans surface. Moreover, we identified immunoglobulins, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic proteins such as apolipoproteins and others. Additionally, we identified more inhibitors of complement and coagulation pathways, some of them serpin proteins (serine protease inhibitors), in HIS vs. NS. On the other hand, we detected a higher amount of C3 at the C. albicans surface in NS than in HIS, as validated by immunofluorescence. PMID:26696967

  2. Charged Gold Nanoparticles with Essentially Zero Serum Protein Adsorption in Undiluted Fetal Bovine Serum

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Avinash K.; Stover, Robert J.; Hardin, William G.; Schramm, Robert; Nie, Golay D.; Gourisankar, Sai; Truskett, Thomas M.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of even a single serum protein molecule on a gold nanosphere used in biomedical imaging may increase the size too much for renal clearance. Herein, we design charged ~5 nm Au nanospheres coated with binary mixed charge ligand monolayers that do not change in size upon incubation in pure fetal bovine serum (FBS). This lack of protein adsorption is unexpected given the Au surface is moderately charged. The mixed charge monolayers are comprised of anionic citrate ligands modified by place exchange with naturally-occurring amino acids: either cationic lysine or zwitterionic cysteine ligands. The zwitterionic tips of either the lysine or cysteine ligands interact weakly with the proteins and furthermore increase the distance between the “buried” charges closer to the Au surface and the interacting sites on the protein surface. The ~5 nm nanospheres were assembled into ~20 nm diameter nanoclusters with strong NIR absorbance (of interest in biomedical imaging and therapy) with a biodegradable polymer, PLA(1k)-b-PEG(10k)-b-PLA(1k). Upon biodegradation of the polymer in acidic solution, the nanoclusters dissociated into primary ~5 nm Au nanospheres, which also did not adsorb any detectable serum protein in undiluted FBS. PMID:23565806

  3. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (?25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included ?2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin ? and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, ?2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  4. Temperature-Triggered Protein Adsorption on Polymer-Coated Nanoparticles in Serum.

    PubMed

    Koshkina, Olga; Lang, Thomas; Thiermann, Raphael; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Secker, Christian; Schlaad, Helmut; Weidner, Steffen; Mohr, Benjamin; Maskos, Michael; Bertin, Annabelle

    2015-08-18

    The protein corona, which forms on the nanoparticle's surface in most biological media, determines the nanoparticle's physicochemical characteristics. The formation of the protein corona has a significant impact on the biodistribution and clearance of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, the ability to influence the formation of the protein corona is essential to most biomedical applications, including drug delivery and imaging. In this study, we investigate the protein adsorption on nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic radius of 30 nm and a coating of thermoresponsive poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) in serum. Using multiangle dynamic light scattering (DLS) we demonstrate that heating of the nanoparticles above their phase separation temperature induces the formation of agglomerates, with a hydrodynamic radius of 1 ?m. In serum, noticeably stronger agglomeration occurs at lower temperatures compared to serum-free conditions. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) revealed a high packing density of agglomerates when serum was not present. In contrast, in the presence of serum, agglomerated nanoparticles were loosely packed, indicating that proteins are intercalated between them. Moreover, an increase in protein content is observed upon heating, confirming that protein adsorption is induced by the alteration of the surface during phase separation. After cooling and switching the surface back, most of the agglomerates were dissolved and the main fraction returned to the original size of approximately 30 nm as shown by asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF-FFF) and DLS. Furthermore, the amounts of adsorbed proteins are similar before and after heating the nanoparticles to above their phase-separation temperature. Overall, our results demonstrate that the thermoresponsivity of the polymer coating enables turning the corona formation on nanoparticles on and off in situ. As the local heating of body areas can be easily done in vivo, the thermoresponsive coating could potentially be used to induce the agglomeration of nanoparticles and proteins and the accumulation of nanoparticles in a targeted body region. PMID:26209261

  5. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for bacterial pathogens. PMID:25962917

  6. Serum proteins of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Sulkin, S.T.; Henny, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Serum proteins from nine subspecies of Canada Geese (Brunta canadensis) were analyzed through the use of column and slab acrylamide electrophoresis. Variation was minimal within a subspecies, although all the subspecies were closely related. B. c. leucopareia appeared to be the most distinct subspecies, while maxima and moffitti were the most similar. Our preliminary findings suggest that the electrophoresis techniques are sensitive enough to identify some of the subspecies; however, baseline data from breeding ranges of all subspecies are required.

  7. Serum protein profile of Crohn's disease treated with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Gazouli, Maria; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Papadopoulou, Aggeliki; Vaiopoulou, Anna; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Theodoropoulos, George E; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Tsangaris, George Th

    2013-11-01

    The infliximab (IFX) has dramatically improved the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). However, the need for predictive factors, indicative of patients' response to IFX, has yet to be met. In the current study, proteomics technologies were employed in order to monitor for differences in protein expression in a cohort of patients following IFX administration, aiming at identifying a panel of candidate protein biomarkers of CD, symptomatic of response to treatment. We enrolled 18 patients, who either had achieved clinical and serological remission (Rm, n=6), or response (Rs, n=6) and/or were PNRs (n=6), to IFX. Serum samples were subjected to two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis. Following evaluation of densitometrical data, protein spots exhibiting differential expression among the groups, were further characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS. Identified proteins where evaluated by immunoblot analysis while functional network association was carried out to asses significance. Proteins apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), apolipoprotein E (APOE), complement C4-B (CO4B), plasminogen (PLMN), serotransferrin (TRFE), beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (APOH), and clusterin (CLUS) were found to be up-regulated in the PNR and Rs groups whereas their levels displayed no changes in the Rm group when compared to baseline samples. Additionally, leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (A2GL), vitamin D-binding protein (VTDB), alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and complement C1r subcomponent (C1R) were significantly increased in the serum of the Rm group. Through the incorporation of proteomics technologies, novel serum marker-molecules demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity are introduced, hence offering an innovative approach regarding the evaluation of CD patients' response to IFX therapy. PMID:23562004

  8. Interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V.; Velagapudi, R.B.; McLean, A.M.; Wilcox, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins could influence the drug's disposition and pharmacological activities in mammals. Ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis, and ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods have been used to study the reversible binding of apomorphine to bovine, human, rat, and swine plasma proteins. The degree of binding was generally greater than 90%, but variations were noted in some instances on the basis of drug concentrations and pH over the range of 6.8-7.8. Incubation of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine with bovine serum albumin led to retention of radioactivity and a stoichiometrically controlled released of tritium which arose from the reaction of an electrophilic drug oxidation product and protein, producing drug-protein conjugates. In vitro experiments with mouse striatal brain preparations indicated parallel covalent binding reactions. In vivo experiments in mice indicated accumulation of radioactivity in brain regions and other tissues following daily injections of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine for 14 days. The physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with mammalian tissue proteins could be the cause of longer disposition half-lives in mammals than those previously reported. The covalent interactions, in particular, may be important in elucidating the mechanism of apomorphine-induced behavioral effects in mice.

  9. The proteins and protein-bound carbohydrates of the serum of the developing pig

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, J. W. T.; Southgate, D. A. T.

    1967-01-01

    1. The concentrations of total nitrogen, hexosamine and protein-bound hexose and the amounts of these constituents precipitated by trichloroacetic acid were determined in the serum of pigs at various ages from 57 days after copulation to 42 days after birth. The concentrations of the same constituents were also determined in the serum of mature pigs. 2. A rise in the concentrations of total nitrogen, hexosamine and protein-bound hexose between 90 days' gestation and term was entirely due to material soluble in trichloroacetic acid. This material disappeared from the serum by 7 days after birth. 3. Electrophoresis of the serum proteins showed that the concentration of ?1-globulin fell steadily during gestation, being lower at term than at 57 days' gestation. No ?1-globulin was detected at 7 days of age. 4. It was concluded that high values for non-protein nitrogen in the serum of newborn piglets, determined after precipitation of the proteins with trichloroacetic acid, is largely due to the presence of one or more mucoproteins and not to ?1-globulin. 5. The protein migrating in the ?1-globulin position is possibly a foetal protein of the fetuin type. PMID:4166366

  10. A Multicenter Trial Defining a Serum Protein Signature Associated with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtsson, Anna S.; Malats, Núria; Säll, Anna; Real, Francisco X.; Porta, Miquel; Skoog, Petter; Persson, Helena; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with rapid tumor progression and poor prognosis. This study was motivated by the lack of sensitive and specific PDAC biomarkers and aimed to identify a diagnostic, serum protein signature for PDAC. Methods. To mimic a real life test situation, a multicenter trial comprising a serum sample cohort, including 338 patients with either PDAC or other pancreatic diseases (OPD) and controls with nonpancreatic conditions (NPC), was analyzed on 293-plex recombinant antibody microarrays targeting immunoregulatory and cancer-associated antigens. Results. Serum samples collected from different hospitals were analyzed and showed that (i) sampling from five different hospitals could not be identified as a preanalytical variable and (ii) a multiplexed biomarker signature could be identified, utilizing up to 10 serum markers that could discriminate PDAC from controls, with sensitivities and specificities in the 91–100% range. The first protein profiles associated with the location of the primary tumor in the pancreas could also be identified. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that robust enough serum signatures could be identified in a multicenter trial, potentially contributing to the development of a multiplexed biomarker immunoassay for improved PDAC diagnosis. PMID:26587286

  11. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  12. Single Nanoparticle Detection for Multiplexed Protein Diagnostics with Attomolar Sensitivity in Serum and Unprocessed Whole Blood

    E-print Network

    Single Nanoparticle Detection for Multiplexed Protein Diagnostics with Attomolar Sensitivity single gold nanoparticles to identify protein biomarkers in unprocessed serum and blood samples. IRIS and physically large sensor area, (iii) detects protein targets with conjugated very small nanoparticle tags (40

  13. Serum opsonic activity in acute protein-energy malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Keusch, Gerald T.; Urrutia, Juan J.; Guerrero, Oscar; Castaneda, Gustavo; Smith, Harry

    1981-01-01

    Phagocytic host defence mechanisms require both normally functioning cells and humoral factors. For example, activated complement components and/or specific immunoglobulin are essential for effective ingestion and killing of bacteria by neutrophils, and complement is especially important early in infection, before specific antibody has been produced. Abnormalities of serum complement have previously been reported in malnutrition, and the present study investigated the levels of serum opsonins in children with protein—energy malnutrition (PEM). Opsonic activity for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was depressed in acute PEM patients, but recovered to higher levels with treatment. This depression was detected only when low concentrations of serum (10-20 ml/litre) were used. Marked and persistent opsonin deficiencies were associated with poor clinical response. Reduced opsonic activity may adversely affect host defence mechanisms and contribute to morbidity and mortality from pyogenic infections in PEM. Replacement therapy with fresh or fresh frozen plasma might restore opsonic activity in these patients and reduce the risk of septicaemia and its attendant high mortality. PMID:6802507

  14. Ultrafast hydration dynamics in protein unfolding: Human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, J. K. Amisha; Zhao, Liang; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2004-01-01

    We report studies of unfolding and ultrafast hydration dynamics of the protein human serum albumin. Unique in this study is our ability to examine different domains of the same protein and the intermediate on the way to the unfolded state. With femtosecond resolution and site-selective labeling, we isolate the dynamics of domains I and II of the native protein, domain I of the intermediate at 2 M guanidine hydrochloride, and the unfolded state at 6 M of the denaturant. For studies of unfolding, we used the fluorophores, acrylodan (covalently bound to Cys-34 in domain I) and the intrinsic tryptophan (domain II), whereas for hydration dynamics, we probed acrylodan and prodan; the latter is bound to domain II. From the time-dependent spectra and the correlation functions, we obtained the time scale of dynamically ordered water: 57 ps for the more stable domain I and 32 ps for the less stable domain II, in contrast to ?0.8 ps for labile, bulk-type water. This trend suggests an increased hydrophilic residues–water interaction of domain I, contrary to some packing models. In the intermediate state, which is characterized by essentially intact domain I and unfolded domain II, the dynamics of ordered water around domain I is nearly the same (61 ps) as that of native state (57 ps), whereas that in the unfolded protein is much shorter (13 ps). We discuss the role of this fluidity in the correlation between stability and function of the protein. PMID:15353599

  15. Serum protein biomarkers relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma and their detection.

    PubMed

    Waidely, Eric; Al-Yuobi, Abdul-Rahman Obaid; Bashammakh, A S; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Leblanc, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most recurrent and lethal cancers worldwide. The low survival rate of this particular strain of carcinoma is largely due to the late stages at which it is diagnosed. Tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is most frequently detected through ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans, however, these methods are poor for detection of early tumor development. This review presents alternative hepatocellular carcinoma detection techniques through the use of protein and enzyme/isozyme biomarkers. The detection methods used to determine the serum levels of ?-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), ?-l-fucosidase (AFU), des-?-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are presented and each marker's respective validity in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is evaluated. PMID:26606739

  16. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI) while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ? 1%) and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ? 0.01). Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP) and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1). Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity) while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring revascularization. Osteopontin (14 times) and resistin (10 times) were most frequently represented among these diagnostic signatures. The most efficacious protein signature in validation studies comprised osteopontin (OPN), resistin, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and interferon ? (IFN?) as a four-marker panel while the addition of either CRP or adiponectin (ACRP-30) yielded comparable results in five protein signatures. Conclusions Proteins in the serum of CAD patients predominantly reflected (1) a positive acute phase, inflammatory response and (2) alterations in lipid metabolism, transport, peroxidation and accumulation. There were surprisingly few indicators of growth factor activation or extracellular matrix remodeling in the serum of CAD patients except for elevated OPN. These data suggest that many symptomatic patients without significant CAD could be identified by a targeted multiplex serum protein test without cardiac catheterization thereby eliminating exposure to ionizing radiation and decreasing the economic burden of angiographic testing for these patients. PMID:23216991

  17. Discovery and verification of serum differential expression proteins for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; He, Xiao; Li, Hongtao; Zhou, Yi; Zang, Ning; Hu, Shuixiu; Zheng, Yanyan; He, Min

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease and has remained a severe threat to public health. Valuable biomarkers for improving the detection rate are crucial for controlling this disease. The purpose of this study was to discover potential biomarkers in sera from PTB patients compared with pneumonia patients and normal healthy controls. A total of 336 human serum specimens were enrolled in this study. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using iTRAQ method combining with MALDI-TOF-MS. Data was analyzed using relative bioinformatics methods. Potential biomarkers were further validated by IHC, ELISA and Western blot. As a result, 489 non-redundant proteins were identified in the sera, and 159 of which could be quantified by calculating their iTRAQ ratios. Compared to the controls, 26 differentially expressed proteins were recognized among PTB patients, including 16 overexpressed proteins and 10 downregulated proteins. Analysis of their functional interactions revealed that 12 proteins appeared in the center of the functional network. One of these key proteins, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), was found to be significantly elevated among PTB patients as compared with the controls examined by IHC, ELISA and Western blot. This result was consistent with the iTRAQ result. An independent blinded testing set to examine serum SHBG by ELISA achieved an accuracy of 78.74%, sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 91.5% in diagnosing PTB. In summary, iTRAQ in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS technology can efficiently screen differentially expressed proteins in sera from the PTB patients. SHBG is suggested to be a possible and novel serum biomarker for PTB. PMID:26276261

  18. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/?l in serum samples and 126 pg/?l in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/?l, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  19. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  20. Comparison of composition and sensory properties of 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2010-05-01

    Milk serum protein concentrates (SPC) are proteins found in cheese whey that are removed directly from milk. Because SPC are not exposed to the cheese-making process, enzymatic or chemical reactions that can lead to off-flavors are reduced. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of 80% protein SPC and whey protein concentrates (WPC). Each pair of 80% SPC and WPC was manufactured from the same lot of milk and this was replicated 3 times. At each replication, spray-dried product from each protein source was collected. Commercial 80% WPC were also collected from several manufacturers for sensory and volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of the rehydrated powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing of acidified 6% protein beverages made with 80% SPC and WPC produced in the pilot plant and with WPC from commercial sources was conducted. The SPC was lower in fat and had a higher pH than the WPC produced in the pilot plant or commercial WPC. Few sensory differences were found between the rehydrated SPC and WPC manufactured in this study, but their flavor profiles were distinct from the flavor of rehydrated commercial WPC. The pilot-plant WPC had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products compared with SPC, which may be related to the higher fat content of WPC. There was a large difference in appearance between 80% SPC and WPC: solutions of SPC were clear and those of WPC were opaque. Concentrations of lipid oxidation products in commercial WPC were generally higher than those in pilot-plant SPC or WPC. Sensory profiles of the peach-flavored protein beverage included cereal, free fatty acid, and soapy flavors and bitter taste in beverages made from pilot-plant products, whereas cardboard flavors were detected in those made with commercial WPC. Consumer liking scores for the beverages made with SPC were ranked highest or equally high with beverages made with WPC for aroma, appearance, and mouthfeel, but the beverages made with SPC had lower flavor and overall liking scores compared with beverages made with 3 of the 4 WPC. PMID:20412896

  1. Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-07-05

    We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion and the multiplexing potential of this technique. Limits of quantification (LOQs) at low ng/mL levels with a median CV of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum using as little as 2 µL serum. PRISM-SRM provided up to ~1000-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional SRM measurements. Multiplexing capability of PRISM-SRM was also evaluated by two sets of serum samples with 6 and 21 target peptides spiked at the low attomole/µL levels. The results from SRM measurements for pooled or post-concatenated samples were comparable to those obtained from individual peptide fractions in terms of signal-to-noise ratios and SRM peak area ratios of light to heavy peptides. PRISM-SRM was applied to measure several ng/mL-level endogenous plasma proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, in clinical patient sera where correlation coefficients > 0.99 were observed between the results from PRISM-SRM and ELISA assays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can be successfully used for quantification of low-abundance endogenous proteins in highly complex samples. Moderate throughput (50 samples/week) can be achieved by applying the post-concatenation or fraction multiplexing strategies. We anticipate broad applications for targeted PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance cellular proteins in systems biology studies as well as candidate biomarkers in biofluids.

  2. Dye-promoted precipitation of serum proteins. Mechanism and application.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Kopperschläger, G

    1991-11-01

    Immobilized dyes have been used primarily for purification of nucleotide dependent enzymes and proteins from plasma and other sources. Due to their low costs, high protein binding capacity and resistance to degradation dyes bear the potential as ligand for affinity separation of proteins on a large scale. In this paper dyes have been used for precipitation of proteins. Using albumin, prealbumin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and immunoglobulin G as model proteins we could demonstrate that dye-promoted precipitation depends on several factors which include the structure of the dye, the pH of the solution, the dye/protein molar ratio and the intrinsic properties of the proteins. It revealed that most of the dyes tested were endowed with the precipitating potential. The efficacy of precipitation was found to increase with the complexity of the dye structure. However, the amount of a dye required for total precipitation was found to be different for a given protein. Electrostatic as well as hydrophobic forces are involved in the mechanism of precipitation. It was demonstrated that by optimizing the conditions, mixtures of proteins can be resolved by dye-promoted precipitation. The high sensitivity of the reaction offers the possibility of using this method for rapid concentration of very diluted protein solutions. PMID:1367693

  3. Prion protein detection in serum using micromechanical resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Madhukar; Waggoner, Philip S; Montagna, Richard A; Craighead, Harold G

    2009-12-15

    Prion proteins that have transformed from their normal cellular counterparts (PrP(c)) into infectious form (PrP(res)) are responsible for causing progressive neurodegenerative diseases in numerous species, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (also known as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Due to a possible link between BSE and CJD it is highly desirable to develop non-invasive and ante mortem tests for the detection of prion proteins in bovine samples. Such ante mortem tests of all cows prior to slaughter will help to prevent the introduction of PrP(res) into the human food supply. Furthermore, detection of PrP(res) in donated blood will also help to prevent the transmission of CJD among humans through blood transfusion. In this study, we have continued development of a micromechanical resonator array that is capable of detecting PrP(c) in bovine blood serum. The sensitivity of the resonators for the detection of PrP(c) is further enhanced by the use of secondary mass labels. A pair of antibodies is used in a sandwich immunoassay format to immobilize PrP(c) on the surface of resonators and attach nanoparticles as secondary mass labels to PrP(c). Secondary mass labeling is optimized in terms of incubation time to maximize the frequency shifts that correspond to the presence of PrP(c) on the surface of resonators. Our results show that a minimum of 200 pg mL(-1) of PrP(c) in blood serum can be detected using micromechanical resonator arrays. PMID:19836525

  4. The serum protein fetuin-B is involved in the development of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Seo, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hwan Myung; Park, Eun Seok; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Bokyung

    2015-07-01

    The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is one of the main causes of coronary artery thrombotic occlusion, leading to myocardial infarction. However, the exact mechanism and causal risk factors for plaque rupture remain unclear. To identify a potential molecule that can influence atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we investigated protein expression in serum from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stable angina (SA), using proteomic analysis. The expression of six proteins, including fibrinogen, fetuin-B, keratin 9, proapolipoprotein and fibrinogen, were altered in serum from patients with AMI compared with serum from those with SA. Of these, fetuin-B, proapolipoprotein, fibrinogen ?-B-chain precursors and fibrinogen expression were greater in serum from patients with AMI than from patients with SA. Increased fetuin-B expression in serum from AMI patients was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Treatment with recombinant human fetuin-B increased the migration in monocytes and macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Fetuin-B also affected vascular plaque-stabilizing factors, including lipid deposition and cytokine production in macrophages, the activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in monocytes, and the activation of apoptosis and MMP-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, in vivo administration of fetuin-B decreased the collagen accumulation and smooth muscle cell content and showed an increased number of macrophages in the vascular plaque. From these results, we suggest that fetuin-B may act as a modulator in the development of AMI. This study may provide a therapeutic advantage for patients at high risk of AMI. PMID:25671698

  5. A multiplexed bead assay for profiling glycosylation patterns on serum protein biomarkers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Zolotarevsky, Eugene; Thompson, Ian; Anderson, Michelle A.; Simeone, Diane M.; Casper, John M.; Mullenix, Michael C.; Lubman, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplexed bead-based immunoassay was developed to simultaneously profile glycosylation patterns of serum proteins to investigate their usefulness as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The multiplex assay utilized protein-specific capture antibodies chemically coupled individually to beads labeled with specific amounts of fluorescent dye. Captured proteins were detected based on the extent and specific type of glycosylation as determined by successive binding of fluorescent lectin probes. Advantages to this technique include the fact that antibodies coupled to the beads had minimal nonspecific binding to the lectins ConA/SNA, avoiding the step of chemically blocking the antibody glycans and the bead assays were performed in a 96-well filter plate enabling high-throughput screening applications with improved reproducibility. The assay was tested with ConA and SNA lectins to examine the glycosylation patterns of ?-1-? glycoprotein (A1BG) and serum amyloid p (SAP) component for use as potential biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer based on the results from prior biomarker studies. The results showed that the SNA response on the captured A1BG protein could distinguish chronic pancreatitis samples from pancreatic cancer with a p-value of 0.035 and for the SAP protein with SNA, a p-value of 0.026 was found between the signal of normal controls and the pancreatic cancer samples. For the ConA response, a decline in the signal for both proteins in the serum samples was found to distinguish pancreatic cancer from normal controls and renal cell carnoma samples (A1BG, p<0.05; and SAP, p<0.0001). PMID:21732554

  6. Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas Table A20. Total protein foods including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%

  7. Adsorption and adhesion of common serum proteins to nanotextured gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Lauren E.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Bryan, Isaac; Collazo, Ramón; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules, particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization.As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules, particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures demonstrating the adhesion force magnitude (Fig. S1) and lateral steppe surface topography (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06353h

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF PREGNANCY AND LACTATION UPON THE REGENERATION OF SERUM PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Daniel; Cowgill, George R.

    1937-01-01

    1. In view of the markedly short period of gestation in the dog and in view of the relatively large litters that are cast and nursed, this species when compared with the human being undergoes a much greater physiological strain during pregnancy and lactation. This is evidenced by marked decreases in the hematocrit values, in total cell volumes and in the serum protein concentrations, by an appreciable plasma hydration, and in some cases by significant reductions in the total circulating serum protein. 2. When pregnant dogs are fed a protein-free diet at a high level of caloric intake and are subjected to our standardized plasmapheresis technique, it is possible to deplete the animal of its reserve serum protein stores and reduce the serum protein concentration to the basal level (3.5 to 4.2 per cent) within the extremely short period of from 2 to 3 days. This indicates that the dog during pregnancy possesses a very limited amount of reserve serum protein. 3. Once the basal serum protein level is attained, the pregnant or lactating dog exhibits a marked impairment in its ability to regenerate serum protein. The synthesis of body proteins in the fetus during pregnancy and the milk proteins during lactation is considered to be actually an internal plasmapheresis, leading to a depletion of the serum protein by the preferential utilization of the materials from which this complex is made. These parasitic effects on the maternal organism are believed to be of primary importance, over and above any hydremia, in causing the lowered serum protein concentrations characteristic of pregnancy. PMID:19870680

  9. Temperature dependence of serum protein adsorption in PEGylated PNIPAm microgels.

    PubMed

    Trongsatitkul, Tatiya; Budhlall, Bridgette M

    2013-03-01

    The effect of PEGylation on the thermal response and protein adsorption resistance of crosslinked PNIPAm microgels was investigated. It was found that the presence of PEG, its molecular weight (M(n) 300 and 1100 g/mol) and its concentration (10, 20, and 30 wt.%) each significantly influenced both the value and breadth of the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) and the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surface of the microgels. Specifically, as the degree of PEGylation increased, the value and breadth of the VPTT increased, and the adsorption of BSA decreased significantly. The critical concentration that minimizes protein adsorption on PNIPAm-co-PEGMa microgels was found to be 20 wt.% of PEGMa. This critical concentration was confirmed qualitatively using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Evidence for the effect of the molecular weight of PEG on the structure of PNIPAm-co-PEGMa microgels was provided by thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry. The VPTT study revealed significant differences in the composition of the microgels when PEGMa samples with two different molecular weights were used as comonomers with PNIPAm. It was determined that the molecular weight and concentration of PEGMa controls the structure of the microgels, which in turn influences their temperature response and protein adsorption resistance properties of the microgels. Our work establishes specific design concepts for controlling the molecular architecture of the hydrogels in order to tune their temperature response and biocompatibility for use in a variety of biomedical applications such as, cell encapsulation, drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PMID:23201744

  10. Identification of anti-adipogenic proteins in adult bovine serum suppressing 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongho; Park, Jihyun; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jihoe

    2013-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is a complex developmental process forming adipocytes from various precursor cells. The murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line has been most frequently used in the studies of adipocyte differentiation. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes includes a medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) with hormonal induction. In this study, we observed that differentiation medium containing adult bovine serum (ABS) instead of FBS did not support differentiation of preadipocytes. Impaired adipocyte differentiation was due to the presence of a serum protein factor in ABS that suppresses differentiation of preadipocytes. Using a proteomic analysis, alpha-2-macroglobulin and paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which were previously shown to suppress differentiation of preadipocytes, were identified as anti-adipogenic proteins. Although their functional mechanisms have not yet been elucidated, the anti-adipogenic effects of these proteins are discussed. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(12): 582-587] PMID:24195790

  11. Electrochemical detection of glycan and protein epitopes of glycoproteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Shah, Alok K; Hill, Michelle M; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2014-11-21

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is associated with a range of pathological conditions including cancer and possesses diagnostic importance. Translation of glycoprotein biomarkers will be facilitated by the development of a rapid and sensitive analytical platform that simultaneously interrogates both the glycan and protein epitopes of glycoproteins in body fluids such as serum or saliva. To this end, we developed an electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of a lectin on the gold electrode surface to recognize/capture a target glycan epitope conjugated to glycoproteins, followed by detection of the protein epitope using a target protein-specific antibody. Electrochemical signals are generated by label-free voltammetric or impedimetric interrogation of a ferro/ferricyanide redox couple (e.g. [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) on the sensing surface, where the change in voltammetric current or interfacial electron transfer resistance was measured. The detection system was demonstrated using the model glycoprotein chicken ovalbumin with Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA lectin), and exhibits femtomolar sensitivity in the background of diluted human serum. The results obtained in this proof-of-concept study demonstrate the possibility of using electrochemical detection for developing cheap point-of-care diagnostics with high specificity and sensitivity for blood glycoprotein biomarkers. PMID:25267970

  12. Overcoming inactivation of the lung surfactant by serum proteins: a potential role for fluorocarbons?

    PubMed

    Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2015-08-14

    In many pulmonary conditions serum proteins interfere with the normal adsorption of components of the lung surfactant to the surface of the alveoli, resulting in lung surfactant inactivation, with potentially serious untoward consequences. Here, we review the strategies that have recently been designed in order to counteract the biophysical mechanisms of inactivation of the surfactant. One approach includes protein analogues or peptides that mimic the native proteins responsible for innate resistance to inactivation. Another perspective uses water-soluble additives, such as electrolytes and hydrophilic polymers that are prone to enhance adsorption of phospholipids. An alternative, more recent approach consists of using fluorocarbons, that is, highly hydrophobic inert compounds that were investigated for partial liquid ventilation, that modify interfacial properties and can act as carriers of exogenous lung surfactant. The latter approach that allows fluidisation of phospholipid monolayers while maintaining capacity to reach near-zero surface tension definitely warrants further investigation. PMID:26110877

  13. Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

  14. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease. PMID:25314816

  15. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)*

    PubMed Central

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Pederson, LeeAnna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. There is high genomic synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. We applied activity-based protein profiling to compare unique or overexpressed activity-based probe-reactive proteins of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 360 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has a significantly greater number of ABP-reactive proteins across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Activity-based protein profiling identified a number of processes that were induced by human serum in A. fumigatus relative to N. fischeri and A. clavatus. These included actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher activity-based probe-protein reaction over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely pathogenic aspergilli. These unique activity-based probe-protein responses to culture condition may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis. PMID:23599423

  16. May the Thyroid Gland and Thyroperoxidase Participate in Nitrosylation of Serum Proteins and Sporadic Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (p<0.006), not in advanced disease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (p<0.05), the indicators of nitrosative stress. The thyroidectomized subjects showed very low levels of serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (78% reduction vs. controls) and, among these proteins, the nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein was nearly absent. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum ?-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2143–2148. PMID:25125346

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  19. Intact-protein analysis system for discovery of serum-based disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618-625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009-2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  20. Intact-Protein Analysis System for Discovery of Serum-Based Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618–625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009–2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  1. Mature Erythrocyte Surface Antigen Protein Identified in the Serum of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Muhi, Jamail; Abdu Sani, Asmahani Azira; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to identify circulating Plasmodium falciparum proteins in patient serum, which may be useful as diagnostic markers. Depletion of highly abundant proteins from each pooled serum sample obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients and healthy individuals was performed using the Proteoseek Antibody-Based Albumin/IgG Removal Kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL). In analysis 1, the depleted serum was analyzed directly by NanoLC-MS/MS. In analysis 2, the depleted serum was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by western blot analysis. Subsequently, the selected band was analyzed by NanoLC-MS/MS. The result of analysis 1 revealed the presence of two mature erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA) proteins and chloroquine resistance transporter protein (PfCRT). In addition, analysis 2 revealed an antigenic 75-kDa band when the membrane was probed with purified IgG from the pooled serum obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients. MS/MS analysis of this protein band revealed fragments of P. falciparum MESA proteins. Thus, in this study, two different analyses revealed the presence of Plasmodium MESA protein in pooled serum from malaria patients; thus, this protein should be further investigated to determine its usefulness as a diagnostic marker. PMID:26392156

  2. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  3. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  4. Evaluation of the role of maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in predicting early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Eric; Gulbis, Béatrice; Jamil, Amna; Jurkovic, Davor

    2015-03-01

    Maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) was evaluated in predicting spontaneous abortion in spontaneous pregnancies presenting with threatened spontaneous abortion. Seventy-one cases of threatened spontaneous abortion (group A) and 71 asymptomatic controls (group B), matched for gestational and maternal age, body mass index and smoking status, were included. Maternal serum samples were evaluated for HCG, progesterone, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and HSCRP using standard bio-assays. No difference was observed in ultrasound measurements, and median progesterone maternal serum level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. In group A, the median of all ultrasound and maternal serum parameters was significantly lower (P < 0.01) compared with group B. The median gestational sac diameter, volume and median HSCRP and PAPP-A levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in group A, with a normal outcome compared with group B, probably owing to the inflammatory reaction associated with intrauterine bleeding. In group A patients destined to abortion, the gestational sac development and corresponding protein synthesis fell before the fetal heart activity stopped; in spontaneous pregnancies, maternal serum HSCRP did not provide additional information for the management of threatened spontaneous abortion but warrants further research in assisted reproduction pregnancies. PMID:25596909

  5. Multiarray formation of CHO spheroids cocultured with feeder cells for highly efficient protein production in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Kutsuzawa, Koichi; Takahashi, Chihiro; Sato, Ryohei; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Murakami, Akiichi; Azuma, Takachika; Abe, Ryo; Otsuka, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    Functional proteins like antibody, cytokine and growth factor have been widely used for basic biological research, diagnosis and cancer therapy. Particularly, antibody drugs as attractive biopharmaceuticals will be expected to create an enormous new market. Chinese hamster ovay (CHO) cells are being increasingly used in industry for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins including antibody drugs. Although three-dimensional culture is preferred to two-dimensional monolayer culture for the efficient large scale culture of CHO cells and subsequent mass production of recombinant proteins, it has the limitation of low protein production. Therefore, a new cell culture em essentially required for an efficient protein production. Here we report on a new three-dimensional cell culture system as a spheroid cell culture on the micropattern array for efficient production of protein in CHO cells. Furthermore, cocultivation of CHO spheroids with feeder cells including bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and NIH 3T3 was essential to more increase a protein production. The results indicated that CHO heterospheroids cocultured with BAECs were much superior to either CHO monolayers or CHO homospheroids in protein production. Significantly, the above cocultured spheroids in the serum-free medium drastically enhanced protein expression level up to 3-fold compared with CHO spheroids in serum medium, suggesting that a coculture of spheroid system with feeder layer cells is a promising method to enhance protein production under serum-free condition. The spheroid array constructed here is highly usuful as a platform of biopharmaceutical manufacturing as well as tissue and cell based biosensors to detect a wide variety of clinically active compounds through a cellular physiological response. PMID:23646721

  6. Elevated serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes are associated with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Dan; Cheng, Yuhang; Li, Zhili

    2015-11-30

    Emerging evidence suggests an underlying immune and inflammatory response for a variety of psychiatric disorders. Herein, we employed an optimized native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to isolate psychosis-related serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes (IIRPCs) from 147 patients with schizophrenia (SCH), 158 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 132 patients with other psychosis, and 145 normal controls. All participants could be classified into four categories based on serum IIRPCs, which correspond to 290, 215, 70, and 7 serum samples, correspondingly. For each category, significantly enhanced levels of serum IIRPCs in patients with SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups were observed compared with normal controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that serum IIRPCs have excellent diagnostic performance to differentiate SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups from normal controls, with high sensitivities and specificities of >85%. Total serum amounts of IgG, IgA, and IgM in all patients were significantly decreased compared with normal controls. PMID:26337482

  7. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-12-15

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-?52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  8. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L.; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J.; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K.; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-?52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  9. Prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis is increased in systemic sclerosis and is associated with serum proteins: a cross-sectional, controlled study of carotid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Au, Karen M.; McMahon, Maureen A.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Divekar, Anagha; Singh, Ram R.; Furst, Daniel E.; Clements, Philip J.; Ragvendra, Nagesh; Zhao, Wenpu; Maranian, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. SSc is associated with an increased prevalence of atherosclerosis (ATS). This study assessed the prevalence of subclinical ATS as measured by carotid US and explored serum proteins to identify potential biomarkers of SSc-ATS. Methods. Forty-six SSc female patients and 46 age- and ethnicity-matched controls underwent carotid US to assess the presence of plaque and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Abstracted data included demographics, ATS risk factors and serum measurements [cholesterol, proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein (piHDL), CRP, lipoproteins]. Serum cytokines/proteins analyses included circulating type I IFN activity by quantifying IFN-inducible genes, soluble junctional adhesion molecule A (sJAM-A) and 100 serum proteins by using a microplate-based multiplex platform. Proteins significant at P < 0.05 on bivariate analyses for the presence of plaque were used to develop a composite measure. Results. Patients with SSc had more plaque (45.6% vs 19.5%, P = 0.01) but similar CIMT compared with controls. Multiplex analysis detected significant associations between serum proteins of inflammation, vasculopathy and fibrosis with ATS in SSc, including IL-2, IL-6, CRP, keratinocyte growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, endoglin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 associated with carotid plaque. Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 1, serum amyloid A, thrombomodulin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and Clara cell secretory protein 16 kD correlated with CIMT. The median composite score for the plaque group was 6 and for the no plaque group it was 2 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Patients with SSc have a higher prevalence of carotid plaque than matched controls, and patients with SSc-plaque vs patients without plaque have elevated serum proteins implicated in both vasculopathy and fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of these proteins in SSc compared with healthy controls. PMID:24357811

  10. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

  11. Role of Serum Interleukin 6, Albumin and C-Reactive Protein in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emami Ardestani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a non-specific inflammation, which involves the airways, lung parenchyma and pulmonary vessels. The inflammation causes the activation of inflammatory cells and the release of various inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6 and tumor necoris factor alpha (TNF-a). The purpose of the present study was to measure serum IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) (as a positive phase reactant) and albumin level (as a negative phase reactant) in COPD patients (only due to cigarette smoking not bio-mass), non COPD smokers and healthy subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we compared the differences in inflammatory factors among groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 males were enrolled in this study and divided into three equal groups. The first group was 60 smokers who had COPD. The second group included 60 smokers without COPD and the third group consisted of people who were not smokers and did not have COPD; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from all participants and it was collected in a test tube containing anticoagulant and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. Serum was separated and used to measure the amount of IL-6, CRP and albumin. Spirometry was performed according to the criteria set by the American Thoracic Society. Results: The mean serum level of IL-6 was 83.2±7.5 pg/mL in group I, 54.9±24.3 pg/mL in group II and 46.9±10.4 pg/mL in group III. There was a significant difference among the three groups (P<0.001). The mean serum level of CRP was 28.9±14.9 mg/dL in the first group, 19.9±8.5 mg/dL in the second group and 4.2±2.3 mg/dL in the third group (P=0.02). But by controlling the confounding effects of age, this difference was not significant (P=0.49). The mean serum level of albumin was I 4.1±0.57 mg/dL in group I, 4.3±0.56 mg/dL in group II and 4.1±0.53 mg/dL in group III. There was no significant difference among the three groups in this regard (P=0.099).There was a significant inverse relationship between serum levels of IL-6 and FEV 1 (r=?0.341, P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant inverse relationship between serum levels of IL-6 and FEV1/FVC (r=?0.309, P<0.001). Serum albumin level was not different among various stages. Level of CRP and IL6 increased as the stage of COPD got worse in smokers. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of IL-6 predicts development of COPD in smokers with a high sensitivity among all inflammatory factors namely CRP, IL-6, and albumin. PMID:26528368

  12. Cockroach Larval-specific Protein, a Tyrosine-rich Serum Protein* (Received for publication, June9, 1983)

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    Cockroach Larval-specific Protein, a Tyrosine-rich Serum Protein* (Received for publication, June9 in the hemolymph of cockroaches shortly be- fore molting, but is rapidly cleared from the hemo- lymph during themolting cycle of cockroaches has been studied in syn- chronouslymoltingcultures (1-3). Among

  13. Significance of serum protein S100 levels in screening for melanoma metastasis: does protein S100 enable early detection of melanoma recurrence?

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauff, B; Schittek, B; Ellwanger, U; Stroebel, W; Blum, A; Schwarz, M; Rassner, G; Garbe, C

    2000-10-01

    A number of recent reports suggest serum protein S100 as a prognostic parameter in patients with metastatic melanoma. In the present study, serum protein S100 was investigated as a tumour marker for screening for melanoma metastasis in patients attending regular follow-up examinations. During the period from September 1997 to December 1998, serum protein S100 levels were measured by an immunoluminometric assay in 411 consecutive high risk melanoma patients (666 samples) and in 120 control subjects. Melanoma patients with resected primary tumours with a tumour thickness of 1.5 mm or more with resected metastasis were included in the study. Overall, 41 of the 411 patients developed metastasis during the period of observation. According to the distribution of protein S100 levels, the following different cut-off values were examined: 0.08 microg/l (95 percentile of the control group) and 0.13 microg/l (95 percentile of the group of melanoma patients without metastasis). The test efficiency for protein S100 as a diagnostic test for the detection of metastasis was highest for the cut-off value of 0.13 microg/l. In eight of the 41 patients (19.5%), elevation of protein S100 was the first sign of recurrence. Of the 41 patients with metastatic disease, 13 had elevated protein S100, giving a sensitivity of 0.32. The specificity for the detection of metastasis was 0.96. In eight of the 14 patients (57%) who developed distant metastasis, elevated S100 values were the first sign of tumour progression. In conclusion, determination of serum protein S100 levels enables earlier detection of distant metastasis in patients at high risk for metastasis. The impact on survival time needs to be investigated in follow-up studies. PMID:11095406

  14. Association of increased serum heat shock protein 70 and C-reactive protein concentrations and decreased serum alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein concentration with the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.

    PubMed

    Molvarec, Attila; Prohászka, Zoltán; Nagy, Bálint; Kalabay, László; Szalay, János; Füst, Georg; Karádi, István; Rigó, János

    2007-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine serum Hsp70 concentrations in HELLP syndrome. We measured also the serum concentrations of three acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha(2)-macroglobulin (AMG) and alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). Ten severe preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome, 20 severe preeclamptic patients without HELLP syndrome and 20 normotensive, healthy pregnant women were included in this case-control study. Serum concentrations of Hsp70, CRP, AMG and AHSG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Hsp70), particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay (CRP) and radial immunodiffusion (AMG, AHSG). The serum Hsp70 and CRP concentrations were significantly higher, whereas the serum AHSG concentration was significantly lower in the HELLP group (H) than the severe preeclamptic (P) and control (C) groups (median (25-75 percentile); Hsp70: 2.02 ng/ml (0.76-2.23) (H) versus 0.54 ng/ml (0.47-0.79) (P), p<0.01, and 0.30 ng/ml (0.27-0.33) (C), p<0.001; CRP: 43.9 mg/l (27.1-84.5) (H) versus 6.5 mg/l (2.7-10.7) (P), p<0.001, and 2.5 mg/l (1.1-6.7) (C), p<0.001; AHSG: 588 microg/ml (492-660) (H) versus 654 microg/ml (576-768) (P), p<0.05, and 738 microg/ml (666-804) (C), p<0.01, respectively). The serum AMG concentration did not differ between the study groups. In the HELLP group, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between serum Hsp70 concentration and platelet count (Spearman R=-0.69, p=0.026). In conclusion, serum Hsp70 and CRP concentrations are increased, whereas serum AHSG concentration is decreased, in HELLP syndrome. The maternal systemic inflammation seems to be more pronounced in HELLP syndrome than preeclampsia without HELLP syndrome, as suggested by the alterations in serum CRP and AHSG levels. However, it requires further investigation to determine whether these changes are causes or consequences of the disease. PMID:17023052

  15. Glutathione-Coated Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles: A Surface Ligand for Minimizing Serum Protein Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) are known for their high resistance to serum protein adsorption. Our studies show that these NPs can serve as surface ligands to significantly enhance the physiological stability and lower the serum protein adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), in addition to rendering the NPs the luminescence property. After the incorporation of GS-AuNPs onto the surface of SPIONs to form the hybrid nanoparticles (HBNPs), these SPIONs’ protein adsorption was about 10-fold lower than those of the pure glutathione-coated SPIONs suggesting that GS-AuNPs are capable of providing a stealth effect against serum proteins. PMID:25029478

  16. Glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles: a surface ligand for minimizing serum protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vinluan, Rodrigo D; Liu, Jinbin; Zhou, Chen; Yu, Mengxiao; Yang, Shengyang; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Shasha; Dean, Andrew; Sun, Xiankai; Zheng, Jie

    2014-08-13

    Ultrasmall glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) are known for their high resistance to serum protein adsorption. Our studies show that these NPs can serve as surface ligands to significantly enhance the physiological stability and lower the serum protein adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), in addition to rendering the NPs the luminescence property. After the incorporation of GS-AuNPs onto the surface of SPIONs to form the hybrid nanoparticles (HBNPs), these SPIONs' protein adsorption was about 10-fold lower than those of the pure glutathione-coated SPIONs suggesting that GS-AuNPs are capable of providing a stealth effect against serum proteins. PMID:25029478

  17. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100?L/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: ?2-microglobulin (?2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum ?2M to as low as 13ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay simple and reliable. This study illustrates a significant step forward in rapid monitoring of several protein markers in serum samples, with utility in biomarker validation and other therapeutic applications. PMID:26452893

  18. In vitro induction and proteomics characterisation of a uranyl-protein interaction network in bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Szyrwiel, ?ukasz; Liauchuk, Viktoryia; Chavatte, Laurent; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl ions (UO2(2+)) were shown to interact with a number of foetal serum proteins, leading to the formation of a complex that could be isolated by ultracentrifugation. The molecular weight of the complex was estimated based on size-exclusion chromatography as 650?000 Da. Online ICP AES detection indicated that UO2(2+) in the complex co-eluted with minor amounts of calcium and phosphorous, but not with magnesium. A 1D gel electrophoresis of the U-complex produced more than 10 bands of similar intensity compared with only 2-3 intense bands corresponding to the main serum proteins in the control serum, indicative of the specific interaction of UO2(2+) with minor proteins. A proteomics approach allowed for the identification of 74 proteins in the complex. Analysis of the protein-protein interaction network in the UO2(2+) complex identified 32 proteins responsible for protein-protein complex formation and 34 with demonstrated ion-binding function, suggesting that UO2(2+) stimulates the formation of protein functional networks rather than using a particular molecule as its target. PMID:26506398

  19. Probing thyroglobulin in undiluted human serum based on pattern recognition and competitive adsorption of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran; Huang, Shuai; Li, Jing; Chae, Junseok

    2014-10-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive indicator of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin. Detection of Tg in human serum is challenging as bio-receptors, such as anti-Tg, used in immunoassay have relatively weak binding affinity. We engineer sensing surfaces using the competitive adsorption of proteins, termed the Vroman Effect. Coupled with Surface Plasmon Resonance, the "cross-responsive" interactions of Tg on the engineered surfaces produce uniquely distinguishable multiple signature patterns, which are discriminated using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Tg-spiked samples, down to 2 ng/ml Tg in undiluted human serum, are sensitively and selectively discriminated from the control (undiluted human serum).

  20. Undetectable pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in antenatal serum Down's syndrome screening: a case of assay interference.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Hambridge, K; Petchey, M; Martin, J A; Spencer, K

    2015-09-01

    Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is measured in Down's syndrome screening, routinely offered to women in pregnancy. We present the case of an undetectable pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A concentration on the PerkinElmer AutoDELFIA system where immunoassay interference was suspected. Investigations performed, including dilution and recovery studies and antibody-blocking tube incubations, all yielded serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A concentrations of <25?mU/L. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A was also undetectable on two alternative pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assays. An experimental manual Delfia procedure suggested the site of interference was between the secondary antibody and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A molecule. This case of negative interference in the PerkinElmer pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assay produced a falsely high Down's syndrome risk that might have led to an unnecessary invasive procedure with the potential for fetal loss. This highlights the need for Down's syndrome screening laboratories to be vigilant to immunoassay interference due to the significant impact of the results on patient decision outcome. PMID:25995284

  1. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    SciTech Connect

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound /sup 125/I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

  2. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.

  3. Low serum sodium is associated with protein energy wasting and increased interdialytic weight gain in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Poulikakos, Dimitrios; Marks, Victoria; Lelos, Nicholas; Banerjee, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    Background Low serum sodium (Na) has been associated with decreased body mass index and increased cardiovascular mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined the relationship between serum Na and selected nutritional parameters of protein energy wasting that are not affected from the hydration status in a cohort of HD patients. Methods Triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), handgrip strength (HGS) and subjective global assessment (SGA) were assessed in maintenance HD patients using standard techniques. MAMC was calculated with the formula MAMC (cm) = MAC (cm) ?3.142 × TSF cm. Pre-dialysis serum Na values from routine monthly laboratory measurements were averaged for the last 6 months prior to the nutritional assessment. Results Altogether 172 patients with anthropometric data were included in the final analysis. Mean age was 66 ± 14, females 62 (36%) and diabetics 48 (28.9%). Patients with pre-dialysis serum Na below the mean value (136.2 mEq/L) had lower MAMC, HGS, SGA scores and albumin levels (23.50 ± 3.16 cm versus 24.58 ± 3.71 cm, P = 0.048; 21.7 ± 13.6 kg versus 28.0 ± 12.4 kg, P = 0.030; 5.1 ± 1.2 versus 5.7 ± 1.0, P = 0.012 and 31.65 ± 4.73 mg/L versus 32.25 ± 3.91 mg/L, P = 0.022, respectively) and higher interdialytic weight gains. Pre-dialysis serum Na correlated positively with MAMC, handgrip and SGA (Pearson's correlation r = 0.165, P = 0.031, r = 0.237, P = 0.022 and r = 0.195, P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusion This study demonstrates that low serum sodium is associated with protein energy wasting and increased interdialytic weight gain in HD patients. PMID:25852864

  4. Suppression of severe lesions, myonecrosis and hemorrhage, caused by Protobothrops flavoviridis venom with its serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Chijiwa, Takahito; So, Shuhei; Hattori, Shosaku; Yoshida, Aichi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ohno, Motonori

    2013-12-15

    Protobothrops flavoviridis serum proteins precipitated with ammonium sulfate were chromatographed on a DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column at pH 7.5 with stepwise increase or with linear gradient of NaCl concentration. Peaks 3 and 4 serum proteins, obtained by linear gradient elution and named Fr(de3) and Fr(de4), contained Habu serum factors (HSF) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors (PfPLI), respectively. The serum proteins eluted at 0.2 M NaCl by stepwise elution, named Fr(0.2NaCl), effectively suppressed myonecrosis and hemorrhage caused by P. flavoviridis venom in rat or mouse thigh muscles. The Fr(0.2NaCl) were fractionated by HPLC and the fractions, after SDS-PAGE, underwent far-western blot analysis with PLA2 ([Asp(49)]PLA2) and BPI ([Lys(49)]PLA2) as the probes. Four PfPLIs, namely, Pf?PLI-A, Pf?PLI-B, Pf?PLI-A and Pf?PLI-B, were identified together with their selective binding specificities to PLA2 species. In addition, a new 9 kDa protein, which is specifically bound to BPI, was found. Suppression of P. flavoviridis venom-induced severe lesions, such as myonecrosis, hemorrhage and edema, with its serum proteins was histopathologically observed in the present work for the first time. The cooperative use of P. flavoviridis antivenom and its serum proteins as medication for P. flavoviridis snake bites is discussed. PMID:24139850

  5. Isoforms of procarboxypeptidase B, (pancreas-specific protein, PASP) in human serum, pancreatic tissue and juice.

    PubMed

    Fernstad, R; Kylander, C; Tsai, L; Tydén, G; Pousette, A

    1993-01-01

    Human Pancreas-Specific Protein (PASP) has been described as a useful serum marker for pancreatic graft rejection and acute pancreatitis. By molecular cloning PASP has recently been identified as procarboxypeptidase B (PCPB). By use of SDS-gel electrophoresis and Western blots, PASP isoforms (proteins interacting with PASP-antiserum) have now been explored in serum and pancreatic tissue and juice. In serum from healthy volunteers, six different isoforms could be visualised. Their MW varied as follows: > 100 K, about 100 K, 45 K, 35-40 K (two bands) about 30 K and 16 K. The 45 K band, corresponding to PASP purified from pancreatic tissue, was always the major band. In pancreatic cytosol and pancreatic juice, the major band corresponded to PASP (45 K) but weak bands were also seen at MW of 40, 30 and 16 K. In serum from 15 patients with acute pancreatitis, PASP was highly increased. Bands corresponding to PASP/PCPB as well as carboxypeptidase B (CPB) were seen simultaneously. During recovery PASP in serum was normalised and the CPB band disappeared. During 12 episodes of pancreatic graft rejection, PASP in serum was also increased but no changes of isoforms in serum were detected. However during these episodes isoforms in pancreatic juice changed dramatically. The band corresponding to PASP disappeared or became much weaker and only bands with lower MW were seen. We have thus observed changes in PASP/PCB serum isoforms during episodes of acute pancreatitis but not at graft rejection episodes although the total increase of PASP in serum was of the same magnitude.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8322019

  6. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet. PMID:20668250

  7. Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Lun; Wu, Yen-Wen; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2), which is mainly expressed from adipose tissue, is demonstrated to be involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Because several adipocytokines are known to be associated with heart failure (HF), here we investigated the association of ANGPTL2 and HF in Taiwanese subjects. Methods and Results A total of 170 symptomatic HF patients and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from clinic. The echocardiography was analyzed in each patient, and stress myocardial perfusion study was performed for clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. Detailed demographic information, medications, and biochemical data were recorded. Circulating adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) and ANGPTL2, were analyzed. Compared with the control group subjects, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were significantly higher in HF group patients. In correlation analyses, ANGPTL2 level was positively correlated to creatinine, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hsCRP, TNF-?, NT-proBNP and A-FABP levels, and negatively correlated with HDL-C and left ventricular ejection fraction. In multiple regression analysis, A-FABP, hsCRP, and HDL-C levels remained as independent predictors for ANGPTL2 level. To determine the association between serum ANGPTL2 concentrations and HF, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with subjects divided into tertiles by ANGPTL2 levels. For the subjects with ANGPTL2 levels in the highest tertile, their risk of HF was about 2.97 fold (95% CI = 1.24–7.08, P = 0.01) higher than those in the lowest tertile. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a higher circulating ANGPTL2 level in patients with HF, and the upregulating ANGPTL2 levels might be associated with metabolic derangements and inflammation. PMID:26397985

  8. Low Serum Level ?-Synuclein and Tau Protein in Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Cetin, Ihsan; Tarakç?o?lu, Mahmut Cem; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Kaçar, Selma; Çimen, Behzat

    2015-12-01

    ?-Synuclein (?-syn) and tau proteins are thought to be related with the synaptic loss and cell death underlying several important neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate serum ?-syn and tau levels in autism. Serum levels of ?-syn and tau were measured, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) severity was assessed at admission using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) total score. The mean CARS score of the autism group on admission was 47.91 points (SD: 5.97). The results indicated that the mean serum ?-syn and serum tau levels were significantly (p?serum ?-syn levels and serum levels of tau identified by Pearson correlation analysis (r?=?0.922, n?=?28, p?serum ?-syn and tau may be implicated in the relationship between synaptic activity and autism. PMID:26479762

  9. Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein as a Specific Marker for Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in Pug Dogs

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKE, Hizuru; INOUE, Akiko; TANAKA, Miho; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT To evaluate the ability of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentration as a diagnostic marker for canine central nervous system (CNS) disorders, sera from dogs with various CNS (n=47) and non-CNS (n=56) disorders were measured for GFAP by using an ELISA kit. Healthy Beagles (n=15) and Pug dogs (n=12) were also examined as controls. Interestingly, only Pug dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) showed elevated serum GFAP concentrations (<0.01 to 1.14 ng/ml), while other breeds of dogs with NME did not. Among the Pug dogs with NME, serum GFAP concentrations did not correlate with their clinical features, such as ages or survival times. Our data indicate the usefulness of serum GFAP as a novel marker for Pug dogs with NME. PMID:23856761

  10. Serum levels of bone Gla-protein in inhabitants exposed to environmental cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Kido, T.; Honda, R.; Tsuritani, I.; Ishizaki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Nakagawa, H.; Nogawa, K.; Dohi, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Serum levels of bone Gla-protein (BGP)--the vitamin K-dependent CA2(+)-binding protein--were evaluated in 76 cadmium (Cd)-exposed subjects with renal tubular dysfunction (32 men, 44 women) and 133 nonexposed subjects (53 men, 80 women). Serum BGP levels were higher in the Cd-exposed subjects than in nonexposed subjects. Significant correlations between BGP and each index measured by bone microdensitometry (MD), serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and Cd in blood and urine were found. For all of the Cd-exposed and nonexposed men and women, BGP showed a significant standard partial regression coefficient (multiple regression analysis) with the metacarpal index (MCI), which was one of the MD indicators. Bone Gla-protein also correlated significantly with urinary beta 2-microglobulin in the men and with serum creatinine in the women. Serum BGP values strongly reflect the degree of bone damage and also reflect, although less strongly, the degree of renal damage induced by exposure to Cd.

  11. Serum from human burn victims impairs myogenesis and protein synthesis in primary myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Corrick, Katie L.; Stec, Michael J.; Merritt, Edward K.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Cross, James M.; Bamman, Marcas M.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological response to a severe burn injury involves a robust increase in circulating inflammatory/endocrine factors and a hypermetabolic state, both of which contribute to prolonged skeletal muscle atrophy. In order to characterize the role of circulating factors in muscle atrophy following a burn injury, human skeletal muscle satellite cells were grown in culture and differentiated to myoblasts/myotubes in media containing serum from burn patients or healthy, age, and sex-matched controls. While incubation in burn serum did not affect NF?B signaling, cells incubated in burn serum displayed a transient increase in STAT3 phosphorlyation (Tyr705) after 48 h of treatment with burn serum (? + 70%; P < 0.01), with these levels returning to normal by 96 h. Muscle cells differentiated in burn serum displayed reduced myogenic fusion signaling (phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), ??75%; ADAM12, ?-20%; both P < 0.01), and reduced levels of myogenin (??75%; P < 0.05). Concomitantly, myotubes differentiated in burn serum demonstrated impaired myogenesis (assessed by number of nuclei/myotube). Incubation in burn serum for 96 h did not increase proteolytic signaling (assessed via caspase-3 and ubiquitin levels), but reduced anabolic signaling [p-p70S6k (Ser421/Thr424), ?30%; p-rpS6 (Ser240/244), ?-50%] and impaired protein synthesis (?24%) (P < 0.05). This resulted in a loss of total protein content (?18%) and reduced cell size (?33%) (P < 0.05). Overall, incubation of human muscle cells in serum from burn patients results in impaired myogenesis and reduced myotube size, indicating that circulating factors may play a significant role in muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery following burn injury. PMID:26136691

  12. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-Nin; Wang, Guan-Song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-?-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-?-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:26071935

  13. Discovery and validation of serum protein changes in type 1 diabetes patients using high throughput two dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wenbo; Sharma, Ashok; Purohit, Sharad; Miller, Eric; Bode, Bruce; Anderson, Stephen W; Reed, John Chip; Steed, R Dennis; Steed, Leigh; Hopkins, Diane; She, Jin-Xiong

    2011-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is expected to cause significant changes in the serum proteome; however, few studies have systematically assessed the proteomic profile change associated with the disease. In this study, a semiquantitative spectral counting-based two dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry platform was used to analyze serum samples from T1D patients and controls. In this discovery phase, significant differences were found for 21 serum proteins implicated in inflammation, oxidation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity. To assess the validity of these findings, six candidate proteins including adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, serum amyloid protein A, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and transforming growth factor beta induced were selected for subsequent immune assays for 1139 T1D patients and 848 controls. A series of statistical analyses using cases and controls matched for age, sex, and genetic risk confirmed that T1D patients have significantly higher serum levels for four of the six proteins: adiponectin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, p = 10(-27)), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (OR = 2.02, p < 10(-20)), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.13, p = 0.007), serum amyloid protein A (OR = 1.51, p < 10(-16)); whereas the serum levels were significantly lower in patients than controls for the two other proteins: transforming growth factor beta induced (OR = 0.74, p < 10(-5)) and myeloperoxidase (OR = 0.51, p < 10(-41)). Compared with subjects in the bottom quartile, subjects in the top quartile for adiponectin (OR = 6.29, p < 10(-37)), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (OR = 7.95, p < 10(-46)), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.38, p = 0.025), serum amyloid protein A (OR = 3.36, p < 10(-16)) had the highest risk of T1D, whereas subjects in the top quartile of transforming growth factor beta induced (OR = 0.41, p < 10(-11)) and myeloperoxidase (OR = 0.10, p < 10(-43)) had the lowest risk of T1D. These findings provided valuable information on the proteomic changes in the sera of T1D patients. PMID:21900154

  14. Serum Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 Contributes to Discriminating Coronary Artery Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Soo; Hong, Oak-Kee; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Chung, Woo Baek; Choi, Yun Seok; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Lee, Man Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP-4) is a known pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokine. Here, we investigated whether the serum BMP-4 level predicts coronary artery disease (CAD) severity in humans. We measured serum BMP-4 concentrations in 1044 consecutive patients who underwent elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. CAD severity was estimated by the number of diseased vessels showing ?50% diameter stenosis. Among males, the serum BMP-4 level was significantly lower in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) compared with those with single-vessel disease (SVD) (16.3?±?22.6 vs. 22.0?±?28.4?pg/mL, P?serum BMP-4 level was an independent predictor for a decreased risk of MVD (odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.985–0.998; P?=?0.01) and patients in the lower tertile were 1.55-fold more likely to have MVD compared with upper tertile patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the serum BMP-4 level had a 54% sensitivity and 54% specificity for predicting MVD (area under the curve [AUC], 56.5%; 95% CI, 51.9–61.0%; P?Serum BMP-4 improved the predictive capability of risk factors for MVD (AUC with and without BMP-4: 64.9 and 63.6%, respectively). Considering the likelihood ratio and number of parameters, adding the serum BMP-4 level provided a better-fit model for predicting MVD compared with the model consisting of conventional risk factors (likelihood ratio ?2?=?6.20, P?=?0.01). However, an association between serum BMP-4 and CAD was not observed in females. Serum BMP-4 levels are independently associated with CAD severity and contribute to discriminating CAD severity in males. PMID:26426615

  15. Diagnostic value of serum Golgi protein 73 for HBV-related primary hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guosheng; Dong, Feibo; Xu, Xiaozhen; Hu, Airong; Hu, Yaoren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are routinely used for diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic diseases, but it has a limited value. Golgi protein 73 (GP73) has been suggested as a new marker for hepatic diseases. Objective: To explore the clinical value of serum GP73 in different diseases associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Method: Between January 2010 and August 2014, serum samples from 88 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 78 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 194 patients with HBV-related primary hepatic cancer (PHC) were collected. Serum samples from 30 healthy volunteers were used as controls. ELISA and microparticle enzyme immunoassay were used to measure serum GP73 and AFP levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum GP73 and AFP for PHC. Results: For the diagnosis of PHC, GP73 showed a sensitivity of 65.5% and specificity of 66.3%, while AFP levels showed sensitivity of 64.4% and specificity of 76.5%. Serial testing (both tests are positive) could increase the specificity (sensitivity of 45.9% and specificity of 85.5%) while parallel testing (any single positive test result) could increase the sensitivity (sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 57.2%). Serum GP73 and AFP levels were significantly different between Child-Pugh grades (P<0.001 for GP73 and P=0.044 for AFP). Significant differences in serum GP73 and AFP were found between TNM stages (all P<0.001). Conclusion: Serum GP73 had limited diagnostic value for HBV-related PHC. The combined use of serum GP73 and AFP levels improved the diagnostic efficacy.

  16. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

  17. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins Using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Aebersold, Reudi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible, and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. Here we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these now deglycosylated peptides by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen-induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared with their control littermates.

  18. Serum protein changes in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with various strains of Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1970-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  19. Novel serum protein biomarker panel revealed by mass spectrometry and its prognostic value in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Serum profiling using proteomic techniques has great potential to detect biomarkers that might improve diagnosis and predict outcome for breast cancer patients (BC). This study used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins in sera from BC and healthy volunteers (HV), with the goal of developing a new prognostic biomarker panel. Methods Training set serum samples from 99 BC and 51 HV subjects were applied to four adsorptive chip surfaces (anion-exchange, cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and metal affinity) and analyzed by time-of-flight MS. For validation, 100 independent BC serum samples and 70 HV samples were analyzed similarly. Cluster analysis of protein spectra was performed to identify protein patterns related to BC and HV groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to develop a protein panel to distinguish breast cancer sera from healthy sera, and its prognostic potential was evaluated. Results From 51 protein peaks that were significantly up- or downregulated in BC patients by univariate analysis, binary logistic regression yielded five protein peaks that together classified BC and HV with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area-under-the-curve value of 0.961. Validation on an independent patient cohort confirmed the five-protein parameter (ROC value 0.939). The five-protein parameter showed positive association with large tumor size (P?=?0.018) and lymph node involvement (P?=?0.016). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, immunoprecipitation and western blotting the proteins were identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein H (ApoH), ApoCI, complement C3a, transthyretin, and ApoAI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on 181 subjects after median follow-up of >5 years demonstrated that the panel significantly predicted disease-free survival (P?=?0.005), its efficacy apparently greater in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (n?=?50, P?=?0.003) compared to ER-positive (n?=?131, P?=?0.161), although the influence of ER status needs to be confirmed after longer follow-up. Conclusions Protein mass profiling by MS has revealed five serum proteins which, in combination, can distinguish between serum from women with breast cancer and healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. The five-protein panel significantly predicts recurrence-free survival in women with ER-negative tumors and may have value in the management of these patients. PMID:24935269

  20. Serum heat shock protein 70 levels are decreased in normal human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molvarec, Attila; Rigó, János; Nagy, Bálint; Walentin, Szilvia; Szalay, János; Füst, George; Karádi, István; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2007-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily known to be intracellular proteins with molecular chaperone and cytoprotective functions. However, Hsp60 and Hsp70 have been found in the serum and plasma of healthy non-pregnant individuals. We aimed to compare serum Hsp70 concentrations in healthy pregnant women with those of healthy non-pregnant women and to determine factors influencing serum Hsp70 levels in normal pregnancy. One hundred and seventy six healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (age, 17-44 years; gestational age, 20-41 weeks) and 81 healthy, age-matched non-pregnant women (age, 22-40 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum Hsp70 concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and were significantly lower in healthy pregnant women than in healthy non-pregnant women (median (25-75 percentile): 0.29 (0.20-0.35)ng/ml versus 1.27 (0.86-1.72)ng/ml; p<0.001). In healthy pregnant women, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between maternal age and serum Hsp70 concentration (Spearman R=-0.35; p<0.001) and a significant positive correlation between gestational age and serum Hsp70 level (Spearman R=0.35; p<0.001). The capacity of extracellular Hsp70 to elicit innate and adaptive proinflammatory immune responses might be harmful in pregnancy and lead to immune rejection of the fetal semi-allograft. We hypothesize that decreased circulating Hsp70 levels are due to unknown regulatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining immune tolerance in pregnancy. In conclusion, serum Hsp70 concentrations are decreased in normal human pregnancy; however, further studies are needed to explain the observed differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:17296233

  1. Analysis of blood gases, serum fat and serum protein: a new approach to estimate survival chances of stranded Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from the German North Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Facing numerous challenges, such as illness, storms or human disturbance, some harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups lose contact to their dams and are found abandoned along the North Sea coast. In Schleswig-Holstein, pups with the prospect of surviving rehabilitation are admitted to the Seal Center Friedrichskoog. Despite elaborate clinical health assessments on admission, including differential hematology, in 2010, 17% of 108 admitted pups did not survive the first 20 days. The death rate during the years 2006 and 2009 varied between 9 and 19%. To broaden the spectrum of variables which could be predictive for survival, blood gas and serum analyses were performed for 99 pups using venous blood. Variables included total CO2, pH, partial CO2, HCO3–, base excess and anion gap as well as glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride. Moreover, total serum protein and fat (triglyceride) concentrations were measured for all pups on admission. Results Repeated measurements of 12 randomly selected individuals revealed a significant (p = 0.002) positive influence of time in rehabilitation on triglyceride concentrations. This trend probably shows the improvement of the pups’ nutritional status as a consequence of the shift from milk replacer formula to fish. No such positive influence was detected for total protein concentrations though. Hematologic values, including blood gases, were not predictive for survival. Conclusions For the first time blood gas values are reported in this study for a large sample size (N = 99) of seal pups (regardless of their health status). The ranges and medians calculated from the data can serve as a stepping stone towards the establishment of reference values for neonate harbor seals. However, future investigations on the development of blood gases in harbor seals with different health conditions and ages over time are necessary to allow for a better understanding of acid–base regulation in harbor seals. PMID:24490584

  2. Label-Free Kinetic Studies of Hemostasis-Related Biomarkers Including D-Dimer Using Autologous Serum Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Winterhagen, Anna; Müller, Jens; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pötzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the elimination kinetics of hemostasis-related biomarkers including the prothrombin activation fragment F1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin-?2-antiplasmin complex (PAP), and D-dimer in humans. Autologous serum was used as a biomarker source and infused into 15 healthy volunteers. Serum was prepared from whole blood in the presence of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (final concentration 20 ?g/mL) to induce plasmin generation required for PAP and D-dimer formation. Serum transfusions (50 mL/30 min) were well tolerated by all subjects. Endogenous thrombin formation was not induced by serum infusions as measured using a highly sensitive oligonucleotide-based enzyme capture assay. Median peak levels (x-fold increase over baseline) of F1+2, TAT, PAP, and D-dimer of 3.7 nmol/L (28.9), 393 ng/mL (189.6), 3,829 ng/mL (7.0), and 13.4 mg/L (34.2) were achieved at the end of serum infusions. During a 48 h lasting follow-up period all biomarkers showed elimination kinetics of a two-compartment model. Median (interquartile range) terminal half-lives were 1.9 (1.3–3.6) h for F1+2, 0.7 (0.7–2.6) h for TAT, and 10.8 (8.8–11.4) h for PAP. With 15.8 (13.1–23.1) h the D-dimer half-life was about twice as long as previously estimated from radiolabeling studies in animals and small numbers of human subjects. The serum approach presented here allows label-free and simultaneous analysis of the elimination kinetics of various hemostasis-related biomarkers. Based on these data changes in biomarker levels could more precisely used to estimate the activity level of the hemostatic system. PMID:26658824

  3. Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Iki, Shigeo; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokosawa, Noriko; Nagata, Kyosuke; Fujii, Nobuhiro . E-mail: fujii@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-12-05

    The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection.

  4. Analysis of protein oxidation in serum of fetal and newborn piglets and the influence of iron dextran on induction of protein carbonyls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods were employed to evaluate serum biomarkers associated with protein oxidative stress and damage, to determine potential sources of metabolic stress in baby pigs. Protein carbonyls in serum were converted to dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives with DNP-hydrazine, precipitated with TCA, extracted i...

  5. Murine leukemia virus envelope protein in transgenic-mouse serum blocks infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Nihrane, A; Fujita, K; Willey, R; Lyu, M S; Silver, J

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing a murine retroviral envelope transgene (Fv4) have Fv4 gp70env (SU) in their serum in amounts sufficient to block infection by ecotropic virus in vitro. Fv4 Env in serum is derived largely but not exclusively from hematopoietic cells. Tail cells from Fv4 mice and cell lines transduced with the Fv4 env transgene synthesize both components of the envelope protein (gp70 SU and p15E TM) but secrete the gp70 moiety, in the absence of retroviral particles. Blocking of the ecotropic viral receptor by secreted gp70 SU may contribute to resistance to retroviral infection in these mice. PMID:8627713

  6. Simian virus 40-transformed cells express new species of proteins precipitable by anti-simian virus 40 tumor serum.

    PubMed Central

    Kress, M; May, E; Cassingena, R; May, P

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the virus-coded large-T and small-t antigens, two new classes of proteins were immunoprecipitated by anti-simian virus 40 (SV40) tumor serum from extracts of various SV40-transformed cell lines. These were as follows: (i) proteins (termed "super-T proteins") with an Mr higher than that of large-T antigen (86,000), which were found in many SV40-transformed cell lines derived from mouse and rat cells (super-T proteins and large-T antigen appeared to have closely related structures as judged by the Chromobead elution patterns of their methionine-labeled tryptic peptides); (ii) proteins (termed "55K proteins") with an Mr ranging from 50,000 to 60,000, which were present in all SV40-transformed cell lines examined so far, including those obtained by chromosome-mediated gene transfer. The 55K proteins were not structurally related to large-T antigens, as judged by the Chromobead elution patterns of their methionine-labeled tryptic peptides. Our data are compatible with the assumption that the 55K proteins are largely or totally cell coded. Images PMID:225566

  7. Serum surfactant protein D is correlated to development of dementia and augmented mortality.

    PubMed

    Nybo, Mads; Andersen, Kjeld; Sorensen, Grith L; Lolk, Anette; Kragh-Sorensen, Per; Holmskov, Uffe

    2007-06-01

    Development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with lipid dysregulation and inflammation. As the host defense lectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) has multiple effects in lipid homeostasis and inflammation, the correlation between SP-D concentrations and development of dementia was investigated. A total of 418 non-demented persons were included in the study and cognitively re-examined after 3 years, while survival was followed for 11 years. Serum SP-D concentrations were measured at baseline. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, smoking status, and CRP showed that Odds Ratio for developing dementia was 2.62 (1.12-6.15) with an SP-D concentration in the highest quartile compared to the other quartiles. The risk of AD was 2.55 (0.95-6.90). Cox regression controlling for the same variables showed that hazard ratio of death was 1.43 (1.06-1.92) in the highest quartile. SP-D concentration thus correlates to development of dementia as well as to augmented mortality. PMID:17449329

  8. Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

  9. Evaluation of steric exclusion chromatography on cryogel column for the separation of serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Bai, Shu; Tao, Shi-Peng; Sun, Yan

    2014-03-14

    Steric exclusion chromatography (SXC) is a new mode of protein chromatography, in which large proteins are retained on hydrophilic stationary phase surface due to the steric exclusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the mobile phase, and thereafter the retained proteins can be eluted by reducing PEG concentration. In this work, SXC was evaluated on a polyacrylamide cryogel monolith. Microscopic observation of ?-globulin precipitates on the gel surface in SXC was reported for the first time. Due to the compact packing of protein precipitates on the stationary phase surface, the dynamic retention capacity of the cryogel monolith for ?-globulin reached 20 mg/mL bed volume, much higher than those of cryogel beds in adsorption-based chromatography. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of PEG, solution pH and salt concentration on protein retention capacity was in agreement with the earlier work on SXC. Because the cryogel monoliths with interconnected macropores (10-100 ?m) allow much easy flow-through of viscous PEG buffer, the SXC can be operated at low back pressure. Hence, the cryogel monoliths are more suitable for SXC than other monoliths of narrow pores reported previously. In the separation of bovine serum proteins, albumin was recovered in the breakthrough fraction with high purity, and globulin was over eight times concentrated in the elution pool. This work has, thus, demonstrated the rapid serum protein separation and concentration by SXC on the cryogel monolith columns. PMID:24552971

  10. Tandem mass spectral libraries of peptides in digests of individual proteins: Human Serum Albumin (HSA).

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Yan, Xinjian; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Liang, Yuxue; Mirokhin, Yuri A; Roth, Jeri S; Rudnick, Paul A; Stein, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    This work presents a method for creating a mass spectral library containing tandem spectra of identifiable peptide ions in the tryptic digestion of a single protein. Human serum albumin (HSA(1)) was selected for this purpose owing to its ubiquity, high level of characterization and availability of digest data. The underlying experimental data consisted of ?3000 one-dimensional LC-ESI-MS/MS runs with ion-trap fragmentation. In order to generate a wide range of peptides, studies covered a broad set of instrument and digestion conditions using multiple sources of HSA and trypsin. Computer methods were developed to enable the reliable identification and reference spectrum extraction of all peptide ions identifiable by current sequence search methods. This process made use of both MS2 (tandem) spectra and MS1 (electrospray) data. Identified spectra were generated for 2918 different peptide ions, using a variety of manually-validated filters to ensure spectrum quality and identification reliability. The resulting library was composed of 10% conventional tryptic and 29% semitryptic peptide ions, along with 42% tryptic peptide ions with known or unknown modifications, which included both analytical artifacts and post-translational modifications (PTMs) present in the original HSA. The remaining 19% contained unexpected missed-cleavages or were under/over alkylated. The methods described can be extended to create equivalent spectral libraries for any target protein. Such libraries have a number of applications in addition to their known advantages of speed and sensitivity, including the ready re-identification of known PTMs, rejection of artifact spectra and a means of assessing sample and digestion quality. PMID:24889059

  11. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore »monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease.« less

  12. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease.

  13. Effect of processed foods on serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein among children with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Jin, Hyun Jung; Noh, Geounwoong

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in school-age children has increased in industrialized countries. As diet is one of the main factors provoking AD, some studies have suggested that food additives in processed foods could function as pseudoallergens, which comprise the non-immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an eosinophil granule protein released during allergic reactions to food allergens in patients with AD. Thus, serum ECP levels may be a useful indicator of ongoing inflammatory processes in patients with AD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming MSG in processed foods on serum ECP levels among children with AD. This study was performed with 13 patients with AD (age, 7-11 years) who had a normal range of total IgE levels (< 300 IU/ml). All participants ate normal diets during the first week. Then, six patients were allocated to a processed food-restricted group (PRDG) and seven patients were in a general diet group (GDG). During the second week, children in the PRDG and their parents were asked to avoid eating all processed foods. On the third week, children in the PRDG were allowed all foods, as were the children in the GDG throughout the 3-week period. The subjects were asked to complete a dietary record during the trial period. Children with AD who received the dietary restriction showed decreased consumption of MSG and decreased serum ECP levels and an improved SCORing score on the atopic dermatitis index (P < 0.05). No differences in serum ECP levels or MSG consumption were observed in the GDG. Serum total IgE levels were not changed in either group. In conclusion, a reduction in MSG intake by restricting processed food consumption may lead to a decrease in serum ECP levels in children with AD and improve AD symptoms. PMID:21779526

  14. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R.; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K.; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H. Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy–Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases. PMID:26039989

  15. Detection of Serum Protein Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhang, Junjie; Gao, Pengfei; Pei, Hang; Wang, Lei; Guo, Fei; Yu, Jiekai; Zheng, Shu; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify serum biomarkers for the detection of hepatoblastoma (HB). Serum samples were collected from 71 HB patients (stage I, n = 19; stage II, n = 19, stage III, n = 19; and stage IV, n = 14) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Differential expression of serum protein markers were screened using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), and the target proteins were isolated and purified using HPLC and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), SEQUEST, and bioinformatics analysis. Differential protein expression was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA). SELDI-TOF-MS screening identified a differentially expressed protein with an m/z of 9348 Da, which was subsequently identified as Apo A–I; its expression was significantly lower in the HB group as compared to the normal control group (1546.67 ± 757.81 vs. 3359.21 ± 999.36, respectively; p < 0.01). Although the expression level decreased with increasing disease stage, pair-wise comparison revealed significant differences in Apo A–I expression between the normal group and the HB subgroups (p < 0.01). ELISA verified the reduced expression of Apo A–I in the HB group. Taken together, these results suggest that Apo A–I may represent a serum protein biomarker of HB. Further studies will assess the value of using Apo A–I expression for HB diagnosis and staging. PMID:26053398

  16. Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Membrane Proteins in Human Serum: A New Concept for Detection of Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Crystal S F; Anderson, Kyle W; Benitez, Kenia Y Villatoro; Soloski, Mark J; Aucott, John N; Phinney, Karen W; Turko, Illarion V

    2015-11-17

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. The low abundance of bacterial proteins in human serum during infection imposes a challenge for early proteomic detection of Lyme disease. To address this challenge, we propose to detect membrane proteins released from bacteria due to disruption of their plasma membrane triggered by the innate immune system. These membrane proteins can be separated from the bulk of serum proteins by high-speed centrifugation causing substantial sample enrichment prior to targeted protein quantification using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. This new approach was first applied to detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins supplemented in human serum. Our results indicated that detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins, which are ?10(7) lower in abundance than major serum proteins, is feasible. Therefore, quantitative analysis was also carried out for serum samples from three patients with acute Lyme disease. We were able to demonstrate the detection of ospA, the major B. burgdorferi lipoprotein at the level of 4.0 fmol of ospA/mg of serum protein. The results confirm the concept and suggest that the proposed approach can be expanded to detect other bacterial infections in humans, particularly where existing diagnostics are unreliable. PMID:26491962

  17. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: Effect on cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Coffey, Paul D.; Swann, Marcus J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Welland, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  18. Smoking and lung cancer-induced changes in N-glycosylation of blood serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vasseur, Jacqueline A; Goetz, John A; Alley, William R; Novotny, Milos V

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is a key post-translational protein modification which appears important in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Abnormal glycosylation of different proteins can often be measured in the blood serum. In this study, we extend our serum-based structural investigations to samples provided by patients diagnosed with lung cancer, paying particular attention to the effects of smoking on the serum glycomic traces. Following a battery of glycomic tests, we find that several fucosylated tetra-antennary structures with varying degrees of sialylation are increased in their abundances in control samples provided by the former smokers, with further elevations in the lung cancer patients who were former smokers. Further detailed investigations demonstrated that the level of outer-arm fucosylation was elevated in the control samples of the former smokers and again in the lung cancer samples provided by the former smokers. This trend was particularly noticeable for the tri- and tetra-antennary structures. Different ratios of sialylation linkages were also observed that could be correlated with the different states of health and smoking status. Decreases in the abundance levels of isomers with two and three ?2,3-linked sialic acids and an increased abundance of an isomer with two ?2,6-linked sialic acids were noted for a fucosylated tri-sialylated tri-antennary glycan. These results demonstrate the long-term effects of smoking on glycomic profiles and that this factor needs to be considered in these and other serum-based analyses. PMID:22781126

  19. Comparison of effects of age and sex on serum protein electrophoretic pattern in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Semnan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-hamedani, M.; Ghazvinian, K.; Kokhaei, P.; Barati, M.; Mahdavi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the concentration of total serum protein measured by the biuret method and protein fractions determined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis in apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Blood samples were collected from 21 camels (12 males and 9 females). The camels were further divided into two groups: 12 young camels at the age of 3 months to 2 years and 9 adult camels at the age of 3-15 years. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins identified five protein fractions in adult camels as young camels, these five protein fractions include albumin, ?1 and ?2, ? and ?-globulins. In adult camels, serum levels (g/l) of total protein, albumin, ?1-globulins, ?2-globulins, ?-globulins and ?-globulins were 80.9±3.10, 42.9±3.10, 1.3±0.22, 2.2±0.30, 11.8±0.30 and 22.6±0.20, respectively. However, in young camels, these levels (g/l) were 66.8±2.90, 40.2±2.40, 1.0±0.14, 2.6±0.30, 10.6±0.80 and 12.3±1.20, respectively. The albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio was 2.08±0.28 in adult camels and 3.77±0.53 in young ones. The mean serum concentrations of total protein and ?-globulins were significantly (P<0.05) higher and the A/G ratio was significantly lower in adult camels compared to young camels. The mean concentrations of ?-globulins were significantly higher and the A/G ratio was significantly (P<0.05) lower in females compared to male camels. The results of the present study indicate a significant effect of age and sex on the concentrations of some of the serum protein fractions in dromedary camels.

  20. Chromatographic adsorption of serum albumin and antibody proteins in cryogels with benzyl-quaternary amine ligands.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Cheng, Xiuhong; Ye, Jialei; Shen, Shaochuan; Yang, Gensheng; Yao, Kejian; Kirsebom, Harald; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2015-02-13

    The preparation and characterization of mixed-mode adsorbents for a typical separation purpose are of great importance in bioseparation areas. In this work, we prepared a new monolithic cryogel with a combination of ion-exchange and hydrophobic functions by employing benzyl-quaternary amine groups. The fundamental cryogel properties, protein equilibrium adsorption isotherm and chromatographic adsorption in the cryogel were measured experimentally. The results showed that, by using bovine serum album as the model protein, the dual functional cryogel has protein binding capability even in salt solution and the buffer with pH close or below the protein isoelectric point due to both the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. A capillary-based adsorption model was developed, which provided satisfied insights of the microstructure, axial dispersion, mass transfer as well as protein adsorption characteristics within the cryogel bed. The chromatographic isolation of bioactive proteins from rabbit blood serum was carried out by the cryogel. Immunoglobulin G antibody with a purity of 98.2% and albumin with a purity of 96.8% were obtained, indicating that the cryogel could be an interesting and promising adsorbent in bioseparation areas. PMID:25618356

  1. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

  2. Association of the SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene rs17579600 polymorphism and serum lipid traits

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Bin, Yuan; Nie, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xia; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene (SPTY2D1) is a candidate gene for dyslipidemia. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs7934205 near SPTY2D1 locus was ethnic- and sex-specific associated with serum lipid levels in our previous study. Whether SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP and several environmental factors are associated with serum lipid profiles is unknown. A total of 712 participants of Han and 689 unrelated individuals of Mulao were included. The genotype and allele frequencies of SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP were different between the Han and Mulao populations (TT, 74.3% vs. 55.7%; TC, 17.6% vs. 31.2%, CC, 8.1% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.028; T, 83.1% vs. 71.3%; C, 16.9% vs. 28.7%, P = 0.044), and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The levels of serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in Han, triglyceride (TG) in Mulao, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1 and ApoB in Mulao males were difference among the genotypes. The C allele carriers had higher ApoA1 in Han, lower TG in Mulao, and lower TC, LDL-C and ApoB and higher ApoA1 in Mulao males than the C allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences suggesting there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP and serum lipid parameters in some ethnic groups. PMID:26722495

  3. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) subtypes in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Maury, C P; Ehnholm, C; Lukka, M

    1985-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA), a polymorphic high density lipoprotein associated plasma protein, is the putative circulating precursor of tissue AA protein fibrils in reactive (secondary) amyloidosis. In the present study we examined the SAA subtype pattern in various acute and chronic inflammatory states in order to find out whether disease-specific SAA isoform profiles exist. The method used to study the subtype pattern is based on electrofocusing of serum followed by immunoblotting. Our results show that the SAA subtype pattern is similar in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with or without amyloid. In addition, in amyloidotic subjects the SAA subtype response to acute tissue injury (arthroplasty) did not differ from that in patients without amyloidosis. Analysis of patients with acute and chronic infectious diseases and non-rheumatic inflammatory conditions showed similar SAA patterns in all subjects. These results suggest that the SAA subtype response to tissue injury and inflammation is similar irrespective of the initiating stimulus. Images PMID:3931569

  4. Does Binding of Complement Factor H to the Meningococcal Vaccine Antigen, Factor H Binding Protein, Decrease Protective Serum Antibody Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Sanjay; Beernink, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a principal antigen in a multicomponent meningococcal vaccine recently licensed in Europe for prevention of serogroup B diseases. The protein recruits the complement downregulator, factor H (fH), to the bacterial surface, which enables the organism to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Binding is specific for human fH. In preclinical studies, mice and rabbits immunized with fHbp vaccines developed serum bactericidal antibody responses, which in humans predict protection against developing meningococcal disease. These studies, however, were in animals whose fH did not bind to the vaccine antigen. Here we review the immunogenicity of fHbp vaccines in human fH transgenic mice. The data suggest that animals with high serum human fH concentrations have impaired protective antibody responses. Further, mutant fHbp vaccines with single amino acid substitutions that decrease fH binding are superior immunogens, possibly by unmasking epitopes in the fH binding site that are important for eliciting serum bactericidal antibody responses. Humans immunized with fHbp vaccines develop serum bactericidal antibody, but achieving broad coverage in infants required incorporation of additional antigens, including outer membrane vesicles, which increased rates of fever and local reactions at the injection site. The experimental results in transgenic mice predict that fHbp immunogenicity can be improved in humans by using mutant fHbp vaccines with decreased fH binding. These results have important public health implications for developing improved fHbp vaccines for control of serogroup B meningococcal disease and for development of vaccines against other microbes that bind host molecules. PMID:23740919

  5. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

  6. Regulation of serum amyloid A protein expression during the acute-phase response.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, L E; Whitehead, A S

    1998-01-01

    The acute-phase (AP) serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAA) are multifunctional apolipoproteins which are involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism, and in modulating numerous immunological responses during inflammation and the AP response to infection, trauma or stress. During the AP response the hepatic biosynthesis of A-SAA is up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and circulating concentrations can increase by up to 1000-fold. Chronically elevated A-SAA concentrations are a prerequisite for the pathogenesis of secondary amyloidosis, a progressive and fatal disease characterized by the deposition in major organs of insoluble plaques composed principally of proteolytically cleaved A-SAA, and may also contribute to physiological processes that lead to atherosclerosis. There is therefore a requirement for both positive and negative control mechanisms that permit the rapid induction of A-SAA expression until it has fulfilled its host-protective function(s) and subsequently ensure that its expression can be rapidly returned to baseline. These mechanisms include modulation of promoter activity involving, for example, the inducer nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and its inhibitor IkappaB, up-regulatory transcription factors of the nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) family and transcriptional repressors such as yin and yang 1 (YY1). Post-transcriptional modulation involving changes in mRNA stability and translation efficiency permit further up- and down-regulatory control of A-SAA protein synthesis to be achieved. In the later stages of the AP response, A-SAA expression is effectively down-regulated via the increased production of cytokine antagonists such as the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and of soluble cytokine receptors, resulting in less signal transduction driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9729453

  7. Detergents as probes of hydrophobic binding cavities in serum albumin and other water-soluble proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U; Hellec, F; de Foresta, B; le Maire, M; Mřller, J V

    2001-01-01

    As an extension of our studies on the interaction of detergents with membranes and membrane proteins, we have investigated their binding to water-soluble proteins. Anionic aliphatic compounds (dodecanoate and dodecylsulfate) were bound to serum albumin with high affinity at nine sites; related nonionic detergents (C12E8 and dodecylmaltoside) were bound at seven to eight sites, many in common with those of dodecanoate. The compounds were also bound in the hydrophobic cavity of beta-lactoglobulin, but not to ovalbumin. In addition to the generally recognized role of the Sudlow binding region II of serum albumin (localized at the IIIA subdomain) in fatty acid binding, quenching of the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan-214 by 7,8-dibromododecylmaltoside and 12-bromododecanoate also implicate the Sudlow binding region I (subdomain IIA) as a locus for binding of aliphatic compounds. Our data document the usefulness of dodecyl amphipathic compounds as probes of hydrophobic cavities in water-soluble proteins. In conjunction with recent x-ray diffraction analyses of fatty acid binding as the starting point we propose a new symmetrical binding model for the location of nine high-affinity sites on serum albumin for aliphatic compounds. PMID:11371462

  8. Association Between Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein and Free Thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Shih, Shyang-Ron; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) has been shown to be a biomarker of body weight change and atherosclerosis. Changes in thyroid function are associated with changes in body weight and risks of cardiovascular diseases. The association between AFABP and thyroid function status has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the serum AFABP concentrations in hyperthyroid patients and those in euthyroid individuals, and to evaluate the associations between serum AFABP and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. For this study, 30 hyperthyroid patients and 30 euthyroid individuals at a referral medical center were recruited. The patients with hyperthyroidism were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated. No medication was given to the euthyroid individuals. The body weight, body mass index, thyroid function, serum levels of AFABP, and biochemical data of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Associations between AFABP and fT4 levels were also analyzed. At the baseline, the hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum AFABP levels than the euthyroid individuals (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.8 [19.4, 30.6] ng/mL vs 18.6 [15.3, 23.2] ng/mL; P?=?0.038). With the antithyroid regimens, the AFABP serum levels of the hyperthyroid patients decreased to 16.6 (15.0, 23.9) ng/mL at the 6th month. No difference in the AFABP level was found between the hyperthyroid and the euthyroid groups at the 6th month. At baseline, sex (female vs male, ß?=?7.65, P?=?0.022) and fT4 level (ß?=?2.51, P?=?0.018) were significantly associated with AFABP levels in the univariate regression analysis. At the 6th month, sex and fT4 level (ß?=?8.09, P?serum AFABP levels than the individuals with euthyroidism. In the patients with hyperthyroidism, the serum AFABP concentrations decreased after the antithyroid treatment. In this study, the serum AFABP concentrations were positively associated with female sex and the serum fT4 level. PMID:26469926

  9. Human serum amyloid A. Three hepatic mRNAs and the corresponding proteins in one person.

    PubMed Central

    Kluve-Beckerman, B; Dwulet, F E; Benson, M D

    1988-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is a major acute-phase protein in humans and most other mammals. In addition, it is the serum precursor of the major protein constituent of reactive amyloid fibrils. Sequence analyses have identified a number of polymorphic forms of human SAA and amyloid A protein (AA), but the question of the number of genes encoding SAA in the human has not been addressed. In addition, there are insufficient data to predict whether one form of SAA predisposes to amyloid fibril formation. In the present study three separate SAA proteins have been isolated from the plasma of one individual and completely sequenced. While two of the SAA forms (SAA2 alpha and SAA2 beta) differ from each other only at position 71, they differ from the most abundant form (SAA1) at seven and eight other positions, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of cDNAs from a liver library of this individual identified all three mRNs coding for these proteins and proved that: (a) the often-reported absence of arginine at the amino terminus of SAA proteins must result from proteolytic processing of the protein; (b) the polymorphism involving histidine and arginine at position 71 is present at the DNA level and therefore is not due to an event at the translational level; (c) there are at least two genes coding for human SAA. Comparison of these data to published sequences of SAA and AA proteins may help in identifying genetically determined forms of SAA which predispose to reactive amyloid fibril formation. Images PMID:3183061

  10. Radial Immunodiffusion of Chicken Serum Proteins I. Standardization of Optimal Test Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. C.; Kramer, T. T.

    1970-01-01

    Optimal conditions were determined for the quantitaion of chicken serum albumin, conalbumin, IgG and IgM by the radial immunodiffusion test. The best diluent was 0.15 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2. The optimal concentration of the rabbit antiserum in the agar plate was inversely related to the molecular weight of the protein under study. The incubation time required for maximum ring formation was directly related to the molecular weight of the proteins under study. The reproducibility of the tests was evaluated using stored and fresh antiserum-agar plates. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 7. PMID:4249097

  11. Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Shota; Hara, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Noriho; Kubota, Hiroshi; Mine, Mariko; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is essential for biosynthesis and secretion of collagen molecules. Previous studies in experimental animal fibrosis models have shown that downregulation of HSP47 expression reduces collagen production and diminishes fibrosis progression. In this study, serum HSP47 levels were evaluated to elucidate pathogenic differences involving HSP47 between AE-IPF and stable (S)-IPF. Subjects comprised 20 AE-IPF and 33 S-IPF patients. Serum levels of HSP47, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung HSP47 expression was determined in biopsy and autopsy tissues diagnosed as diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Serum levels of HSP47 were significantly higher in AE-IPF than in S-IPF patients, whereas serum levels of KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that HSP47 was superior for discriminating AE-IPF and S-IPF. The cutoff for HSP47 resulting in the highest diagnostic accuracy was 559.4 pg/mL; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 93.9%, and 96.2%, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that pulmonary HSP47 expression was greater in DAD than UIP tissues. Serum HSP47 was significantly higher in AE-IPF than in S-IPF patients, suggesting that underlying fibrogenic mechanisms involving HSP47 differ in the two conditions. PMID:23435730

  12. Serum antibodies to putative proteinase maturation protein A in children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Anni; Fagerlund, Riku; Melén, Krister; Lehtinen, Markus J; Julkunen, Ilkka; Virolainen, Anni

    2006-03-10

    The pneumococcal genes encoding for the surface associated proteins have been proposed to be important for pneumococcal protein vaccine development. We cloned the full-length putative proteinase maturation protein A gene SP098l/ppmA (as published by Tettelin et al. in 2001) and produced the encoded protein in high levels in E. coli. The purified recombinant PpmA was used as an antigen in Western blotting to study systemic antibody responses to PpmA in animals and in children with acute otitis media (AOM). In children, the geometric mean titers of serum IgG antibodies against PpmA increased with age and differed significantly in relation to pneumococcal findings in middle ear fluid and/or nasopharyngeal aspirate. The serum IgG antibody titers against PpmA were low in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae cultured in the middle ear, and the highest in children with pneumococci in the nasopharynx, without them being found in the middle ear fluid. We conclude that PpmA is immunogenic in humans, and therefore an interesting antigen to study further in developing pneumococcal multicomponent protein vaccines. PMID:16288938

  13. Post-transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein genes during serum starvation in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ahamad, Jamaluddin; Ojha, Sandeep; Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2015-06-01

    Ribosome synthesis involves all three RNA polymerases which are co-ordinately regulated to produce equimolar amounts of rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (RPs). Unlike model organisms where transcription of rRNA and RP genes slows down during stress, in E. histolytica rDNA transcription continues but pre-rRNA processing slows down and unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates during serum starvation. To investigate the regulation of RP genes under stress we measured transcription of six selected RP genes from the small- and large-ribosomal subunits (RPS6, RPS3, RPS19, RPL5, RPL26, RPL30) representing the early-, mid-, and late-stages of ribosomal assembly. Transcripts of these genes persisted in growth-stressed cells. Expression of luciferase reporter under the control of two RP genes (RPS19 and RPL30) was studied during serum starvation and upon serum replenishment. Although luciferase transcript levels remained unchanged during starvation, luciferase activity steadily declined to 7.8% and 15% of control cells, respectively. After serum replenishment the activity increased to normal levels, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of these genes. Mutations in the sequence -2 to -9 upstream of AUG in the RPL30 gene resulted in the phenotype expected of post-transcriptional regulation. Transcription of luciferase reporter was unaffected in this mutant, and luciferase activity did not decline during serum starvation, showing that this sequence is required to repress translation of RPL30 mRNA, and mutations in this region relieve repression. Our data show that during serum starvation E. histolytica blocks ribosome biogenesis post-transcriptionally by inhibiting pre-rRNA processing on the one hand, and the translation of RP mRNAs on the other. PMID:26247142

  14. Can ficolin-2 (L-ficolin) insufficiency be established by a single serum protein measurement?

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D C; ?wierzko, A S; Soboci?ski, M; Krajewski, W; Chojnacka, K; Szczapa, J; Cedzy?ski, M

    2015-12-01

    Serum ficolin-2 was measured in multiple (2-27) samples from 68 paediatric sepsis patients. Fourteen individuals (21%) gave values that included a change in status from 'normal' to 'insufficient' or vice versa. Therefore, if possible, ficolin-2 concentration should be determined in samples obtained when a disease is inactive. PMID:26385254

  15. Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. We hypothesized that HSP47 could be a useful marker for fibrotic lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of HSP47 in patients with various idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods Subjects comprised 9 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), 12 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), 16 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 19 healthy adult volunteers. Results Patients with AIP had serum HSP47 levels that were significantly higher than those of COP, NSIP or IPF patients and those of healthy volunteers. In contrast, serum levels of HSP47 among patients with COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between AIP and COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy controls was 859.3 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that, among patients with various IIPs, serum levels of HSP47 were elevated specifically in patients with AIP. PMID:24650086

  16. Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    GUO, TAO; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, JIAN; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; LI, HUI; LIN, WEI-XIONG; YANG, DE-ZHAI

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters. PMID:26004022

  17. Association of genetic variants of casein and milk serum proteins with milk, fat, and protein production by dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ng-Kwai-Hang, K F; Hayes, J F; Moxley, J E; Monardes, H G

    1984-04-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods were used to phenotype caseins for 2045 cows and milk serum proteins for 3870 cows distributed in 63 Quebec dairy herds. Frequencies were: alpha s1-casein A .003, alpha s1-casein B .970, alpha s1-casein C .027; beta-casein A1 .561, beta-casein A2 .421, beta-casein A3 .011, beta-casein B .007; kappa-casein A .744, kappa-casein B .256; beta-lactoglobulin A .387, beta-lactoglobulin B .613; alpha-lactalbumin B 1.00. Overall unadjusted means for 305-day production in first lactation were: 5530 +/- 26.6 kg, 197 +/- 1.0 kg, 172 +/- 1.0 kg, 3.58 +/- .009, 3.12 +/- .009 for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage for 1687 cows for casein systems. Similar data for 2906 cows phenotyped for milk serum proteins were: 5412 +/- 20.6 kg, 193 +/- .8 kg, 170 +/- .7 kg, 3.57 +/- .007, and 3.13 +/- 007. Least squares analysis of variance showed that herd location, month of calving, age of cow at first calving, and protein variants had significant effects on production traits. alpha s1-Casein B and beta-casein A phenotypes were associated with higher milk, fat, and protein yields than other variants in the two casein systems. Milk from kappa-casein BB and beta-lactoglobulin AA phenotypes contained .13 and .05% more protein than the AA and BB phenotypes with the AB phenotype intermediate. PMID:6725728

  18. Identification of serum biomarkers for lung cancer using protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Liu, Weixing; Dong, Baowei; Sheng, Lin; Ren, He; Han, Zhiyu; Lu, Tong; Liang, Ping

    2012-09-01

    Prior to pathological changes becoming apparent in any disease, the component and amount of intracellular proteins may undergo alteration. Thus, monitoring of proteins may be used to screen indicators in order to identify prognostic markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of identification of serum biomarkers for lung cancer using protein mass spectrometry. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) and weak cation exchange 2 (WCX2) protein chip array were employed for protein profiling of the sera of 17 healthy rabbits and 23 cancer?bearing rabbits, of which 15 developed cancer in the lung (cancer group) and 8 developed lung cancer in the follow-up period (pre-cancer group). Data were obtained using a PBSII-C protein chip reader and analyzed using Biomarker Wizard and Proteinchip 3.1 software. Compared with the healthy rabbits, a total of 5 biomarkers were identified to be differentially expressed among 32 proteins screened from the sera in the cancer group and the pre-cancer group (P<0.05): 3 of the 5 biomarkers were upregulated and 2 were downregulated. Protein mass spectro-metry can be used to identify specific molecules closely correlated with the progression of lung cancer and, thus, this method may become an effective tool for the early diagnosis or prediction of lung cancer. PMID:22710637

  19. Localization of serum resistance-associated protein in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transgenic Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Vidal, Isabel; Reed, Jennifer; Perez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Cuevas, Laureano; Field, Mark C; Carrington, Mark; Navarro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    African trypanosomes infect a broad range of mammals, but humans and some higher primates are protected by serum trypanosome lytic factors that contain apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1). In the human-infective subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, a gene product derived from the variant surface glycoprotein gene family member, serum resistance-associated protein (SRA protein), protects against ApoL1-mediated lysis. Protection against trypanosome lytic factor requires the direct interaction between SRA protein and ApoL1 within the endocytic apparatus of the trypanosome, but some uncertainty remains as to the precise mechanism and location of this interaction. In order to provide more insight into the mechanism of SRA-mediated resistance to trypanosome lytic factor, we assessed the localization of SRA in T.?b. rhodesiense?EATRO3 using a novel monoclonal antibody raised against SRA together with a set of well-characterized endosomal markers. By three-dimensional deconvolved immunofluorescence single-cell analysis, combined with double-labelling immunoelectron microscopy, we found that ??50% of SRA protein localized to the lysosome, with the remaining population being distributed through the endocytic pathway, but apparently absent from the flagellar pocket membrane. These data suggest that the SRA/trypanolytic factor interaction is intracellular, with the concentration within the endosomes potentially crucial for ensuring a high efficiency. PMID:25924022

  20. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. )

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  1. Acid gelation in heated and unheated milks: interactions between serum protein complexes and the surfaces of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Donato, Laurence; Alexander, Marcela; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2007-05-16

    The acid-induced interactions between different protein particles in milk (casein micelles and serum protein/kappa-casein complexes) were studied in a series of different mixtures of heated and unheated proteins using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and small deformation rheology. The measurements were made as functions of pH during acidification by addition of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Heat treatment (85 degrees C, 10 min) affected the composition of the serum and the reactivity of casein micellar surface based on the pH at which the casein micelles aggregated during acidification. It was observed that the gel points as defined by DWS and rheology did not always coincide. The experiments showed that all systems containing heated serum proteins gelled at a higher pH than those containing unheated serum proteins. For systems containing heated micelles, an intermediate network can be formed between heat-induced aggregates of serum proteins and kappa-casein formed at the surfaces of the micelles and dispersed as soluble complexes in the serum. This can explain the observation that DWS measurements detected aggregation of casein micelles at an earlier stage than did rheology. For systems containing unheated micelles and soluble complexes from heated milk, the results appear to be explained only by a direct interaction between soluble serum protein complexes and the casein micelles themselves, once the pH has decreased to below about 5.5. Comparison of the different systems studied gives a more complete description of the possible mechanism of interaction of the different protein materials during the acid-induced coagulation of milk-based systems. PMID:17439142

  2. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinghuan; Lee, Yi; Johansson, Henrik J.; Mäger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Nordin, Joel Z.; Wiklander, Oscar P. B.; Lehtiö, Janne; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Andaloussi, Samir EL

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM) conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun) conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors), some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs. PMID:26022510

  3. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

  4. Effect of repeated doses of ATP on serum protein pattern and fat content of the liver in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tahani, H; Samia, M; Rizk, S; Habib, Y A; Tallaat, M

    1977-06-01

    A comparison of serum protein fractions (electrophoretic separation) between control and mild alloxan-diabetic rats examined 10 days after alloxan indicates a decrease in total protein, a decrease in percentage albumin accompanied by a decrease in A/G ratio. In severe diabetic rats examined 48 hours after the administration of alloxan, there were no changes in total protein or in serum-protein fractions. The changes in the serum protein and serum albumin in mild diabetic cases are not the result of the degree of diabetes only. But they are rather explained by the longer time interval of the uncontrolled diabetic state. ATP administered to mild diabetic rats producing the following changes: two injections of 5 mg per rat exhibit a lowering effect on the blood glucose, with a decrease in liver fat. ATP resulted also in a significant increase in serum albumin and a decrease in beta-globulin with a consequent increase in the A/G ratio. Comparison of the different protein fractions of male and female control rats did not show any significant difference. ATP administered to control animals did not alter the normal electrophoretic pattern. PMID:899065

  5. Differential expression profiling of serum proteins and metabolites for biomarker discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sushmita Mimi; Anderle, Markus; Lin, Hua; Becker, Christopher H.

    2004-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomics and metabolomics platform is presented for quantitative differential expression analysis. Proteome profiles obtained from 1.5 [mu]L of human serum show ~5000 de-isotoped and quantifiable molecular ions. Approximately 1500 metabolites are observed from 100 [mu]L of serum. Quantification is based on reproducible sample preparation and linear signal intensity as a function of concentration. The platform is validated using human serum, but is generally applicable to all biological fluids and tissues. The median coefficient of variation (CV) for ~5000 proteomic and ~1500 metabolomic molecular ions is approximately 25%. For the case of C-reactive protein, results agree with quantification by immunoassay. The independent contributions of two sources of variance, namely sample preparation and LC-MS analysis, are respectively quantified as 20.4 and 15.1% for the proteome, and 19.5 and 13.5% for the metabolome, for median CV values. Furthermore, biological diversity for ~20 healthy individuals is estimated by measuring the variance of ~6500 proteomic and metabolomic molecular ions in sera for each sample; the median CV is 22.3% for the proteome and 16.7% for the metabolome. Finally, quantitative differential expression profiling is applied to a clinical study comparing healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

  6. Serum-stable quantum dot--protein hybrid nanocapsules for optical bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Yu; Nam, Dong Heon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Youngsun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jeon, Duk Young; Beum Park, Chan; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-05-01

    We introduce shell cross-linked protein/quantum dot (QD) hybrid nanocapsules as a serum-stable systemic delivery nanocarrier for tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging applications. Highly luminescent, heavy-metal-free Cu0.3InS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core-shell QDs are synthesized and mixed with amine-reactive six-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in dichloromethane. Emulsification in an aqueous solution containing human serum albumin (HSA) results in shell cross-linked nanocapsules incorporating CIS/ZnS QDs, exhibiting high luminescence and excellent dispersion stability in a serum-containing medium. Folic acid is introduced as a tumor-targeting ligand. The feasibility of tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging is demonstrated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of several major organs and tumor tissue after an intravenous tail vein injection of the nanocapsules into nude mice. The cytotoxicity of the QD-loaded HSA-PEG nanocapsules is also examined in several types of cells. Our results show that the cellular uptake of the QDs is critical for cytotoxicity. Moreover, a significantly lower level of cell death is observed in the CIS/ZnS QDs compared to nanocapsules loaded with cadmium-based QDs. This study suggests that the systemic tumor targeting of heavy-metal-free QDs using shell cross-linked HSA-PEG hybrid nanocapsules is a promising route for in vivo tumor diagnosis with reduced non-specific toxicity.

  7. Identification of Endogenous Site-specific Covalent Binding of Catechol Estrogens to Serum Proteins in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chieh-Ming; Ku, Ming-Chun; Chang, Che-Kai; Liang, Huei-Chen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Protein adducts covalently modified by catechol estrogens (CEs), referred to as estrogenized proteins, are potential biomarkers for estrogen homeostasis or exposure to environmental toxicants. However, serum proteins endogenously modified by CEs and the modification sites remain elusive. In this study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based shotgun proteomics is applied to identify site-specific protein estrogenization in human blood via a systematic approach and stringent validation. We showed CEs, namely 2- and 4-hydroxyl estrogens which are regarded as biomarkers for estrogen homeostasis, form covalent bonds with proteins, mainly via side chain Cys, Lys, or His residue. Estrogenization of purified human serum albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) at specific sites was achieved by co-incubation and used as the standards to confirm the identified estrogenization in serum proteins. Based on a database search, estrogenized peptides derived from serum proteins in patient blood were identified; endogenous estrogenization of HSA and IgG-1 at multiple sites were confirmed as compared to the standards. Based on a test using Ellman's reagent, estrogenization produced stable products and irreversibly abolished the reactivity of Cys34-HSA, which is the most important antioxidant and nitric oxide carrier in blood. Given the importance of estrogen metabolism in environmental toxicology, further exploration of estrogenized proteins is warranted for biomarker discovery and/or new mechanisms in disease process. PMID:26342215

  8. Integration of binding peptide selection and multifunctional particles as tool-box for capture of soluble proteins in serum

    PubMed Central

    Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Moglie, Raffaella Della; Falco, Nunzia; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Aliberti, Anna; Vecchione, Raffaele; Battista, Edmondo; Marasco, Daniela; Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Rega, Nadia; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a general approach for the detection of a specific tumoural biomarker directly in serum. Such detection is made possible using a protein-binding peptide selected through an improved phage display technique and then conjugated to engineered microparticles (MPs). Protein biomarkers represent an unlimited source of information for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tests; MP-based assays are becoming largely used in manipulation of soluble biomarkers, but their direct use in serum is hampered by the complex biomolecular environment. Our technique overcomes the current limitations as it produces a selective MP—engineered with an antifouling layer—that ‘captures’ the relevant protein staying impervious to the background. Our system succeeds in fishing-out the human tumour necrosis factor alpha directly in serum with a high selectivity degree. Our method could have great impact in soluble protein manipulation and detection for a wide variety of diagnostic applications. PMID:25100324

  9. Camptothecin-binding site in human serum albumin and protein transformations induced by drug binding.

    PubMed

    Fleury, F; Ianoul, A; Berjot, M; Feofanov, A; Alix, A J; Nabiev, I

    1997-07-14

    Circular dichroism (CD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed in order to locate a camptothecin (CPT)-binding site within human serum albumin (HSA) and to identify protein structural transformations induced by CPT binding. A competitive binding of CPT and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (a ligand occupying IIIA structural sub-domain of the protein) to HSA does not show any competition and demonstrates that the ligands are located in the different binding sites, whereas a HSA-bound CPT may be replaced by warfarin, occupying IIA structural sub-domain of the protein. Raman and CD spectra of HSA and HSA/CPT complexes show that the CPT-binding does not induce changes of the global protein secondary structure. On the other hand, Raman spectra reveal pronounced CPT-induced local structural modifications of the HSA molecule, involving changes in configuration of the two disulfide bonds and transfer of a single Trp-residue to hydrophilic environment. These data suggest that CPT is bound in the region of interdomain connections within the IIA structural domain of HSA and it induces relative movement of the protein structural domains. PMID:9271208

  10. Mesoporous calcium silicate for controlled release of bovine serum albumin protein.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weichang; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize mesoporous calcium silicate (CS or wollastonite, CaSiO(3)) and evaluate its possible application in protein/drug delivery. First, calcium silicate was synthesized by wet chemical method and then mesoporosity was created by acid modification of the synthesized CS particle using hydrochloric acid at pH 7, 4.5, and 0.5. The results showed that a hydrated silica gel with abundant Si-OH functional group formed on the surface of calcium silicate due to acid modification. This surface layer had mesoporous structure, with pore diameter between 4 and 5 nm. BET specific average surface area increased to 221, 333, and 356 m(2) g(-1) due to acid modification at pH 7, 4.5, and 0.5, respectively, whereas the surface area for unmodified CS particles was 65 m(2) g(-1). Protein adsorption studies indicated that mesoporous CS has higher ability to adsorb bovine serum albumin and lysozyme compared to unmodified particles. The release kinetics showed that proteins on mesoporous CS released sequentially over one week, whereas the proteins on unmodified particle followed burst release kinetics within a few hours. Human osteoblast cell-material interaction study showed that these materials were biocompatible and promoted excellent bone cell proliferation. In summary, this work has demonstrated the potential to produce mesoporous CS as a carrier for protein/drug delivery for bone regeneration and other biomedical applications. PMID:19249262

  11. Identification of a novel serum amyloid A protein in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, M C; Beach, C M; Shedlofsky, S I; de Beer, F C

    1991-01-01

    Four serum amyloid A protein (SAA) genes and two SAA gene products, SAA1 and SAA2, were identified in BALB/c mice. Using analytical isoelectric focusing we have identified a quantitatively significant new member of the SAA family and designated it 'SAA5'. This protein has characteristics never before described for any SAA molecule. In the highly conserved region between amino acids 33 and 44, identical in all SAAs from all species examined, SAA5 had four amino acid substitutions. In addition, the induction of SAA5 by lipopolysaccharide had different kinetics from that of the other mouse SAAs. Our data suggest that the mouse SAA gene family is more complex in composition and regulation than previously surmised. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1741755

  12. Short-term space flight on nitrogenous compounds, lipoproteins, and serum proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Lane, H. W.; Krauhs, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Biochemical variables in blood were measured in venous blood samples from 38 to 72 Space Shuttle astronauts before and immediately after flights of 2 to 11 days. Mean pre- and postflight values were compared using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The largest change in serum enzymes was a 21% increase (P = .0014) in gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, which may have been related to stress. The median value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I decreased from 152 to 127 mg/dL (P < .0001), but the change in apo B (77 to 73 mg/dL) was not statistically significant, and the mean apo A-I/apo B ratio remained well above 1.5. A decrease in dietary fat and cholesterol intake during shuttle missions may have been a cause of the change in apo A-I. Twelve of the 16 nonenzyme serum proteins measured were significantly elevated (P < .05), possibly because of hemoconcentration and increased protein catabolism. The 56% increase in haptoglobin may be related to release of suppressed erythropoiesis at landing.

  13. Comparison of composition, sensory, and volatile components of thirty-four percent whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of serum and traditional whey protein manufactured from the same lot of milk. At each replication, SPC and WPC were spray dried (SD) and freeze dried (FD) to determine the effect of the heat used in spray drying on sensory properties. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of rehydrated SD or FD powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Whey protein concentrates had higher fat content, calcium, and glycomacropeptide content than SPC. Color differences (Hunter L, a, b) were not evident between SPC and WPC powders, but when rehydrated, SPC solutions were clear, whereas WPC solutions were cloudy. No consistent differences were documented in sensory profiles of SD and FD SPC and WPC. The SD WPC had low but distinct buttery (diacetyl) and cardboard flavors, whereas the SD SPC did not. Sensory profiles of both rehydrated SD products were bland and lower in overall aroma and cardboard flavor compared with the commercial WPC. Twenty-nine aroma impact compounds were identified in the SPC and WPC. Lipid and protein oxidation products were present in both products. The SPC and WPC manufactured in this study had lower total volatiles and lower concentrations of many lipid oxidation compounds when compared with commercial WPC. Our results suggest that when SPC and WPC are manufactured under controlled conditions in a similar manner from the same milk using the same ultrafiltration equipment, there are few sensory differences but distinct compositional and physical property differences that may influence functionality. Furthermore, flavor (sensory and instrumental) properties of both pilot-scale manufactured protein powders were different from commercial powders suggesting the role of other influencing factors (e.g., milk supply, processing equipment, sanitation). PMID:19762792

  14. Serum concentration and increased temperature alter Mayaro virus RNA and protein synthesis in Aedes albopictus (mosquito)-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Motta, M C; Fournier, M V; Carvalho, M G

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown the inhibition of Mayaro virus multiplication in Aedes albopictus-infected cells maintained at a supraoptimal temperature for growth (37 degrees C) and a stimulation of virus production in response to high serum concentrations in the incubation medium. In the present study, we addressed the question of how the effect of continuous heat stress and high serum concentration soon after infection interfere with virus macromolecule synthesis. Cells maintained at 28 degrees C in the presence of 2% serum synthesized a viral genomic RNA of 12 kb and a subgenomic RNA of 5.2 kb 6 h postinfection. Analysis of the protein profile showed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein of 34 kDa (P34). However, if infected cells were maintained at 37 degrees C, a smear starting immediately below the 5.2-kb RNA was noticed and the viral P34 was not detected by SDS-PAGE. Addition of 10% serum to the growth medium of infected cells maintained at 37 degrees C results in a viral RNA profile and protein synthesis similar to those observed in cultures kept at 28 degrees C, i.e., the smear was not observed and the P34 protein was detected. The results suggest that the inhibition of virus multiplication by temperature may be related to the inhibition of viral nonstructural protein synthesis early during infection. The presence of high serum levels in the incubation medium protects macromolecule synthesis against heat stress. PMID:7581023

  15. Expression of a 118 Kd protein in colon carcinoma cells that is immunologically related to PLC-gamma 1 and is augmented by serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Fry, D W; Ambroso, L A

    1993-09-01

    Immunoprecipitation of cell lysates from serum-starved HCT-8 colon carcinoma cells with monoclonal antibodies raised to PLC-gamma 1 precipitates proteins which can be detected by immunoblotting; the 148 Kd PLC-gamma 1 and a smaller protein of approximately 118 Kd (p118). Expression of p118 is suppressed in cells grown in serum but is present 8 to 12 h after cells are placed in serum-free medium. Conversely, serum-starved cells that express this protein suppress it 6 to 8 h after exposure to 10% fetal calf serum. Pulse chase experiments indicate that the protein is not a degradation product of PLC. This protein has thus far been detected only in human carcinoma cells and not in normal or transformed fibroblasts. Although the protein has not been identified, its expression pattern may suggest a role contributing to the serum-independent nature of human carcinoma cell lines. PMID:8521376

  16. Interaction kinetics of serum proteins with liposomes and their effect on phospholipase-induced liposomal drug release.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Haishima, Yuji; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-11-30

    We used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure the affinity and kinetics of the interaction between serum proteins and both conventional and PEGylated liposomes. The effect of the interactions on secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-induced release of a model drug from liposomes was also assessed. SPR analysis of 12 serum proteins revealed that the mode of interaction between serum proteins and liposomes greatly varies depending on the type of protein. For example, albumin bound to liposomes at slower association/dissociation rates with higher affinity and prevented sPLA2-induced drug release from PEGylated liposomes. Conversely, fibronectin bound at faster association/dissociation rates with lower affinity and demonstrated little impact on the drug release. These results indicate that the effect of serum proteins on sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis varies with the mode of interaction between proteins and liposomes. Understanding how the proteins interact with liposomes and impact sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis should aid the rational design of therapeutic liposomal formulations. PMID:26410758

  17. Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Deng, Qiliang; Tao, Dingyin; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-06-01

    Hierarchical imprinting was developed to prepare the protein imprinted materials, as the artificial antibody, for the selective depletion of HSA from the human serum proteome. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was employed as the dummy template for the fabrication of the recognition sites. To demonstrate the advantages of the hierarchical imprinting, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique (h-MIPs) were compared with those obtained by bulk imprinting (b-MIPs), in terms of the binding capacity, adsorption kinetics, selectivity and synthesis reproducibility. The binding capacity of h-MIPs could reach 12 mg g-1. And saturation binding could be reached in less than 20 min for the h-MIPs. In the protein mixture, h-MIPs exhibit excellent selectivity for PSA, with imprinting factors as about 3.6, much higher than those for non-template proteins. For the proteomic application, the identified protein group number in serum treated by h-MIPs was increased to 422, which is 21% higher than that obtained from the original serum, meanwhile the identified protein group number for the Albumin Removal kit was only 376. The results demonstrate that protein imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique, might become the artificial antibodies for the selective depletion of high abundance proteins in proteome study.

  18. The cell-shape protein MreC interacts with extracytoplasmic proteins including cell wall

    E-print Network

    Koehler, Carla

    organization of cell wall (peptidoglycan) synthesizing complexes of penicillin- binding proteins (PBPs). Here as other proteins that lie outside the cytoplasmic membrane. MreB penicillin binding proteins peptidoglycan precursors by a family of enzymes known collectively as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (1, 2). In general

  19. Development of an ELISA detecting Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 in serum of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Houda; Seillier, Marion; Sandi, Maria José; Peuget, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Dusetti, Nelson J; Iovanna, Juan L; Rocchi, Palma; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1) plays an important role during cell stress response in synergy with the potent "genome-keeper" p53. In human, the gene encoding TP53INP1 is expressed at very high level in some pathological situations, such as inflammation and prostate cancer (PC). TP53INP1 overexpression in PC seems to be a worse prognostic factor, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse, making TP53INP1 a relevant specific target for molecular therapy of Castration Resistant (CR) PC. In that context, detection of TP53INP1 in patient biological fluids is a promising diagnostic avenue. We report here successful development of a new Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detecting TP53INP1, taking advantage of molecular tools (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins) generated in the laboratory during the course of basic functional investigations devoted to TP53INP1. The ELISA principle is based on a sandwich immunoenzymatic system, TP53INP1 protein being trapped by a first specific mAb coated on microplate then recognized by a second specific mAb. This new assay allows specific detection of TP53INP1 in serum of several PC patients. This breakthrough paves the way towards investigation of a large cohort of patients and assessment of clinical applications of TP53INP1 dosage. PMID:24600558

  20. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K

    2013-04-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the assay to detect a ?2 fold rise in IgG level in a panel of serum samples from a longitudinal study was compared to a gold standard virus-capture ELISA. A strong association was observed between the assays (p<0.001; chi-squared test) with assay performances remaining similar when the samples were subdivided as having a fold change increase in VP6 antibody levels (a) within 90 days of RV RNA detection in stool or (b) if no RV RNA was detected within that time period. This study demonstrates the suitability of using recombinant proteins to measure anti-RV immune responses and serves as a "proof of principle" to examine the antibody responses generated to other recombinant RV proteins and thereby possibly identify a correlate of protection. PMID:23183143

  1. Human serum amyloid A protein. Complete amino acid sequence of a new variant.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, C M; De Beer, M C; Sipe, J D; Loose, L D; De Beer, F C

    1992-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant and apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein, is a polymorphic protein with six reported isoforms. These are the products of three genes, i.e., cDNA pA1, cDNA pSAA82 and genomic DNA SAAg9, the last two being allelic variants at a single locus. We have identified an individual with additional novel SAA isoforms on isoelectric-focusing analysis. By using 3-bromo-3-methyl-2-(2'-nitrophenylsulphenyl)-indolenine (BNPS-skatole) cleavage of the protein at tryptophan residues we obtained the complete amino acid sequence of a novel isoform. Additional cleavage by endoproteinase Asp-N allowed verification of the tryptophan residues and complete amino acid sequence of both isoforms. The suitability of this approach to the rapid sequencing of SAA was demonstrated. Sequence analysis and quantification suggest that these isoforms are the result of the first confirmed allelic variation at the SAA1 locus. We designate the protein products of this allele SAA1 beta (pI 6.1) and SAA1 beta des-Arg (pI 5.6). Images Fig. 1. PMID:1546977

  2. Femtosecond studies of protein–ligand hydrophobic binding and dynamics: Human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dongping; Douhal, Abderrazzak; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution, we report studies of the nature of the dynamics and hydrophobic binding in protein–ligand complexes of human serum albumin with 2-(2?-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyloxazole. With femtosecond time resolution, we examined the orientational motion of the ligand, its intrinsic nuclear motions, and the lifetime changes in the hydrophobic phase. For comparisons, with similar but chemical nanocavities, we also studied the same ligand in micelles and cyclodextrins. The hydrophobic interactions in the binding crevice are much stronger than those observed in cyclodextrins and micelles. The confined geometry restrains the nonradiative decay and significantly lengthens the excited-state lifetime. The observed dynamics over the femtosecond-to-nanosecond time scale indicate that the binding structure is rigid and the local motions of the ligand are nearly “frozen” in the protein. Another major finding is the elucidation of the directed dynamics by the protein. Proton transfer and intramolecular twisting of 2-(2?-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyloxazole were observed to evolve along two routes: one involves the direct stretching motion in the molecular plane (?200 fs) and is not sensitive to the environment; the second, less dominant, is related to the twisting motion (?3 ps) of the two heterocyclic rings and drastically slows down in the protein hydrophobic pocket. PMID:11106379

  3. A simple microfluidic aggregation analyzer for the specific, sensitive and multiplexed quantification of proteins in a serum environment.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Nitin K; Rajauria, Sukumar; Ray, Tyler; Pennathur, Sumita; Cleland, Andrew N

    2016-03-15

    Portable and low-cost platforms for protein biomarker detection are highly sought after for point of care applications. We demonstrate a simple microfluidic device for the rapid, electrically-based detection of proteins in serum. Our aggregation analyzer relies on detecting the protein-induced aggregation of sub-micron particles, using a one-step procedure followed by a fast, particle-by-particle measurement with a very high count rate. This enables the rapid and precise quantification of C-Reactive protein levels, within the clinically relevant range, using unprocessed human serum and a disposable microfluidic device; no optics are involved in the implementation. Due to the single particle detection format and the use of microfluidics, only a small volume of serum (~50nL) is needed to complete the analysis. The method can be easily extended to multiplexed biomarker detection by combining an assay using differently sized particles, each targeting a separate protein. We illustrate this by using two sizes of latex beads and demonstrating the simultaneous detection of two different proteins in a serum environment with minimal cross-interference. This confirms that our aggregation analyzer platform provides a simple and straightforward method for multiplexed biomarker detection in a low cost, portable design. PMID:26556184

  4. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Thao; Huth, Teilah; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Immunological dysregulation is present in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), with recent studies also highlighting the importance of examining symptom severity. This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. Participants included healthy controls (n= 22), moderately (n = 22) and severely (n=19) affected CFS/ME patients. The 1994 Fukuda Criteria defined CFS/ME and severity scales confirmed mobile and housebound CFS/ME patients as moderate and severe respectively. IL-1? was significantly reduced in severe compared with moderate CFS/ME patients. IL-6 was significantly decreased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared with healthy controls and severe CFS/ME patients. RANTES was significantly increased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared to severe CFS/ME patients. Serum IL-7 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the severe CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and moderate CFS/ME patients. IFN-? was significantly increased in severe CFS/ME patients compared with moderately affected patients. This was the first study to show cytokine variation in moderate and severe CFS/ME patients, with significant differences shown between CFS/ME symptom severity groups. This research suggests that distinguishing severity subgroups in CFS/ME research settings may allow for a more stringent analysis of the heterogeneous and otherwise inconsistent illness. PMID:26516304

  5. Nitric oxide protects neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation through cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Elisabetta; Guidi, Sandra; Della Valle, Giuliano; Perini, Giovanni; Bartesaghi, Renata; Contestabile, Antonio

    2002-12-20

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mediates survival in many cells, including neurons. Recently, death of cerebellar granule neurons due to nitric oxide (NO) deprivation was shown to be accompanied by down-regulation of CREB activity (). We now provide evidence that overproduction of endogenous NO or supplementation with exogenous NO renders SK-N-BE human neuroblastoma cells more resistant to apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Parental cells underwent apoptosis after 24 h of serum deprivation, an outcome largely absent in clones overexpressing human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This protective effect was reversed by the inhibition of NOS itself or soluble guanylyl cyclase, pointing at cGMP as an intermediate effector of NO-mediated rescue. A slow-releasing NO donor protected parental cells to a significant extent, thus confirming the survival effect of NO. The impaired viability of serum-deprived parental cells was accompanied by a strong decrease of CREB phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, effects significantly attenuated in nNOS-overexpressing clones. To confirm the role of CREB in survival, the ectopic expression of CREB and/or protein kinase A largely counteracted serum deprivation-induced cell death of SK-N-BE cells, whereas transfection with a CREB negative mutant was ineffective. These experiments indicate that CREB activity is an important step for NO-mediated survival in neuronal cells. PMID:12368293

  6. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Lowered Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoru; Goto, Sae; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Okuno, Tatsuya; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Shibata, Akihide; Fujisawa, Yoshiro; Minato, Tomomi; Okamoto, Akira; Ohno, Kinji; Hirayama, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The intestine is one of the first affected organs in Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD subjects show abnormal staining for Escherichia coli and ?-synuclein in the colon. Methods We recruited 52 PD patients and 36 healthy cohabitants. We measured serum markers and quantified the numbers of 19 fecal bacterial groups/genera/species by quantitative RT-PCR of 16S or 23S rRNA. Although the six most predominant bacterial groups/genera/species covered on average 71.3% of total intestinal bacteria, our analysis was not comprehensive compared to metagenome analysis or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results In PD, the number of Lactobacillus was higher, while the sum of analyzed bacteria, Clostridium coccoides group, and Bacteroides fragilis group were lower than controls. Additionally, the sum of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria was lower in PD. A linear regression model to predict disease durations demonstrated that C. coccoides group and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup had the largest negative and positive coefficients, respectively. As a linear regression model to predict stool frequencies showed that these bacteria were not associated with constipation, changes in these bacteria were unlikely to represent worsening of constipation in the course of progression of PD. In PD, the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels were lower than controls, while the levels of serum diamine oxidase, a marker for intestinal mucosal integrity, remained unchanged in PD. Conclusions The permeability to LPS is likely to be increased without compromising the integrity of intestinal mucosa in PD. The increased intestinal permeability in PD may make the patients susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis may lead to the increased intestinal permeability. One or both of the two mechanisms may be operational in development and progression of PD. PMID:26539989

  7. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    PubMed Central

    BRAVO-TOBAR, Iván Darío; NELLO-PÉREZ, Carlota; FERNÁNDEZ, Alí; MOGOLLÓN, Nora; PÉREZ, Mary Carmen; VERDE, Juan; CONCEPCIÓN, Juan Luis; RODRIGUEZ-BONFANTE, Claudina; BONFANTE-CABARCAS, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ? 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  8. The relationship between serum and urine metallothionein, renal function, protein excretion patterns and occupational cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, F.Y. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between renal function, metallothionein (MT), protein excretion patterns, and chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure. Two groups (A and B) of Cd-exposed workers were studied.Group A (n = 33) was exposed to Cd fume from silver brazing and Group B (n = 20) was exposed to Cd fume, Cd oxide dust and Cd sulfate mist refining Cd. MT excretion was significantly higher in abnormal renal function subjects in Groups A and B. Serum MT and serum creatinine levels were also significantly higher in abnormal renal function subjects in Group A. The findings suggest that MT is better predictor of dose than Cd of ..beta../sub 2/-M excretion and that MT is related to Cd nephrotoxicity. MT is a potential biological monitor for Cd-exposed humans which may be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. It is not known if MT is a specific indicator for Cd-induced proximal tubule dysfunction. The renal status of Group A subjects was examined since this group had been exposed to Cd fume at and below the current permissible exposure level (PEL) of 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for at least 21 years. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was 21% (7) after adjustment for confounding factors. The findings suggest that the PEL does not protect against renal dysfunction for a working lifetime.

  9. Serum S100B Protein Levels in Patients with Panic Disorder: Effect of Treatment with Selective Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Karadag, Hasan; Oner, Ozgur; Kart, Aysegul; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered serum S100B protein levels have been shown in several psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to investigate whether plasma S100B is different in patients with panic disorder (PD) when compared with controls. Our second aim was to investigate whether treatment with SSRIs have an effect on S100B levels in patients with PD. Methods The sample included 32 patients diagnosed with PD (21 women, 11 men) per DSM-IV criteria and 21 healthy controls (11 women, 10 men). S100B levels were measured with BioVendor Human S100B ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit. Results 14 patients were not on drug treatment (43.8%) while 18 patients were taking various SSRIs. Median S100B value was 151.7 pg/mL (minimum-maximum: 120.4-164.7 pg/mL) in the control group, 147.4 pg/mL (minimum-maximum: 138.8-154.1 pg/mL) in the drug free group and 153.0 pg/mL (minimum-maximum: 137.9-164.7 pg/mL) in the treatment group. Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant diffrerence among the three groups (z=9.9, df=2, p=0.007). Follow up Mann-Whitney-U tests indicated that while the control and the patients with treatment were not significantly different (z=-0.05, p=0.96), there were significant differences between the control group and untreated patients (z=-2.6, p=0.009) and treated and untreated patients (z=-3.0, p=0.003). Conclusion Our results suggested that, serum S100B protein level might be decreased in untreated PD patients and that patients who were treated with SSRIs had similar S100B level to healthy controls. PMID:25866528

  10. Muscle enzyme and fiber type-specific sarcomere protein increases in serum after inertial concentric-eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G; Guerrero, M; Cussó, R; Padullés, J M; Moras, G; Lloret, M; Bedini, J L; Cadefau, J A

    2015-12-01

    Muscle damage induced by inertial exercise performed on a flywheel device was assessed through the serum evolution of muscle enzymes, interleukin 6, and fiber type-specific sarcomere proteins such as fast myosin (FM) and slow myosin (SM). We hypothesized that a model of muscle damage could be constructed by measuring the evolution of serum concentration of muscle proteins following inertial exercise, according to their molecular weight and the fiber compartment in which they are located. Moreover, by measuring FM and SM, the type of fibers that are affected could be assessed. Serum profiles were registered before and 24, 48, and 144?h after exercise in 10 healthy and recreationally active young men. Creatine kinase (CK) and CK-myocardial band isoenzyme increased in serum early (24?h) and returned to baseline values after 48?h. FM increased in serum late (48?h) and remained elevated 144?h post-exercise. The increase in serum muscle enzymes suggests increased membrane permeability of both fast and slow fibers, and the increase in FM reveals sarcomere disruption as well as increased membrane permeability of fast fibers. Consequently, FM could be adopted as a fiber type-specific biomarker of muscle damage. PMID:25441613

  11. A Comparison of Blood Factor XII Autoactivation in Buffer, Protein Cocktail, Serum, and Plasma Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Pitakjakpipop, Harit; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. The only plausible explanation consistent with current understanding of coagulation-cascade biochemistry is that procoagulant stimulus arising from the activation complex of the intrinsic pathway is dependent on activator surface area. And yet, it is herein shown that activation of the blood zymogen factor XII (Hageman factor, FXII) dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not exhibit activator surface-area dependence. Instead, a highly-variable burst of procoagulant-enzyme yield is measured that exhibits no measurable kinetics, sensitivity to mixing, or solution-temperature dependence. Thus, FXII activation in both buffer and protein-containing solutions does not exhibit characteristics of a biochemical reaction but rather appears to be a “mechanochemical” reaction induced by FXII molecule interactions with hydrophilic activator particles that do not formally adsorb blood proteins from solution. Results of this study strongly suggest that activator surface-area dependence observed in contact activation of plasma coagulation does not solely arise at the FXII activation step of the intrinsic pathway. PMID:23117212

  12. Molecular interactions between serum albumin proteins and Keggin type polyoxometalates studied using luminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Vincent; Stroobants, Karen; Absillis, Gregory; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2013-11-14

    The interaction between the plenary Keggin H3PW12O40, lacunary Keggin K7PW11O39 and the Eu(III)-substituted Keggin K4EuPW11O39 (Eu-Keggin) type polyoxometalates (POMs), and the proteins human and bovine serum albumin (HSA and BSA) was studied using steady state and time-resolved Eu(III) luminescence and tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation spectrum of the Eu-Keggin POM is dominated by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer band at 291 nm. In the absence of proteins, the number of water molecules coordinated in the first coordination sphere of the Eu(III) center of Eu-Keggin was determined to be 4, indicating that Eu(III) occurs as a 1?:?1 isomer in solution. In the presence of HSA or BSA, the number of coordinated water molecules decreased to 0 and 1, respectively, suggesting interaction between the Eu-Keggin POM and the protein surface. As a result of this interaction, a five-fold increase of the hypersensitive (5)D0 ? (7)F2 transition in the luminescence intensity was observed for the Eu-Keggin-HSA complex. The association constants were calculated to be 1.5 × 10(2) M(-1) and 2.0 × 10(3) M(-1) for the Eu-Keggin-HSA and Eu-Keggin-BSA complexes, respectively. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching studies were performed and the quenching constants were calculated using a Stern-Volmer analysis. The obtained values of the quenching constants were 6.1 × 10(4) M(-1) and 2.0 × 10(6) M(-1) for the Eu-Keggin-HSA and Eu-Keggin-BSA complexes, respectively. The surface map of both proteins shows that the cavity containing the tryptophan has a positive surface potential, providing a specific binding site at the surface of albumin proteins for the negatively charged POM. PMID:24064593

  13. Non-covalent nanodiamond–polymer dispersions and electrostatic immobilization of bovine serum albumin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaltsas, T.; Pispas, S.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-11-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) lack efficient dispersion, not only in solvents but also in aqueous media. The latter is of great importance, considering the inherent biocompatibility of NDs and the plethora of suitable strategies for immobilizing functional biomolecules. In this work, a series of polymers was non-covalently interacted with NDs, forming ND–polymer ensembles, and their dispersibility and stability was examined. Dynamic light scattering gave valuable information regarding the size of the ensembles in liquid phase, while their morphology was further examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. In addition, thermal analysis measurements were applied to collect information on the thermal behavior of NDs and their ensembles and to calculate the amount of polymer interacting with the NDs, as well as the dispersibility values of the ND–polymer ensembles. Finally, the bovine serum albumin protein was electrostatically bound to a ND–polymer ensemble in which the polymeric moiety was carrying quaternized pyridine units.

  14. A human serum mannose-binding protein inhibits in vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of CD4+ H9 lymphoblasts is inhibited by a mannose-binding protein (MBP) purified from human serum. In addition, MBP is able to selectively bind to HIV- infected H9 cells and HIV-infected cells from the monocyte cell line U937. These results indicate MBP most likely recognizes high mannose glycans known to be present on gp120 in the domain that is recognized by CD4 and thereby inhibits viral entry to susceptible cells. In support of this contention, recombinant gp120 binds directly to MBP; the binding is saturable, mannan inhibitable, removed by N-glycanase treatment, and dependent on divalent cations. PMID:2909656

  15. Human serum amyloid A protein. Behaviour in aqueous and urea-containing solutions and antibody production.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, A F; Shephard, E G; Bellstedt, D U; Coetzee, G A; van der Westhuyzen, D R; de Beer, F C

    1989-01-01

    Human serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA) can be prepared by gel filtration of delipidated acute-phase high-density lipoprotein in the presence of urea. The resultant apo-SAA is soluble (greater than 90% solubility) in a wide range of buffer solutions, with all of the six major isoforms of apo-SAA being equally soluble. In urea-containing solutions the isoforms behave qualitatively differently in various urea concentrations, probably reflecting subtle primary-structure variations. The higher-pI isoforms are only completely unfolded at greater than 7 M-urea. By immunizing with apo-SAA adsorbed to acid-treated bacteria (Salmonella minnesota R595), high-titre antibodies can easily be elicited in rabbits. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2597108

  16. Human serum antibody response against iron-repressible outer membrane proteins of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Worst, D J; Sparrius, M; Kuipers, E J; Kusters, J G; de Graaff, J

    1996-10-15

    In Helicobacter pylori, in vitro iron limitation induces the expression of several iron repressible outer membrane proteins (IROMPs), which are not expressed under normal growth conditions. To substantiate their proposed role in virulence of H. pylori, we determined whether these IROMPs are also expressed in vivo. Therefore, we tested whether sera of patients with H. pylori infection contained antibodies against IROMPs. All sera from 20 H. pylori positive patients showed a clear immune response against a 77 kDa heme-binding IROMP in an immunoblot assay. Antibody responses against the other IROMPs were also found, but with lower frequencies. Serum samples from 18 patients negative for H. pylori infection did not show any immunoreactivity with IROMPs. These results indicate that the IROMPs of H. pylori are immunogenic and are expressed in vivo. PMID:8870248

  17. Serum amyloid A and protein AA: molecular mechanisms of a transmissible amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Westermark, Gunilla T; Westermark, Per

    2009-08-20

    Systemic AA-amyloidosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases and the fibril protein AA derives from the acute phase reactant serum AA. AA-amyloidosis can be induced in mice by an inflammatory challenge. The lag phase before amyloid develops can be dramatically shortened by administration of a small amount of amyloid fibrils. Systemic AA-amyloidosis is transmissible in mice and may be so in humans. Since transmission can cross species barriers it is possible that AA-amyloidosis can be induced by amyloid in food, e.g. foie gras. In mice, development of AA-amyloidosis can also be accelerated by other components with amyloid-like properties. A new possible risk factor may appear with synthetically made fibrils from short peptides, constructed for tissue repair. PMID:19393650

  18. Identification of three isoform patterns of human serum amyloid A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, A F; de Beer, F C; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Coetzee, G A

    1988-01-01

    Three patterns of human apo-SAA (serum amyloid A protein) isoforms have been identified by electrofocusing. In pattern 1, six major apo-SAA isoforms of pI 6.0, 6.4, 7.0, 7.4, 7.5 and 8.0 were found. In pattern 2, the apo-SAA isoforms of pI 7.4 and 8.0 were not detected, whereas in pattern 3 the pI-7.0 and -7.5 isoforms were lacking. Six patients displayed apo-SAA isoform pattern 1, 11 displayed pattern 2 and one displayed pattern 3. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3355511

  19. Cx43 increases serum induced filopodia formation via activation of p21-activated protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Kameritsch, Petra; Kiemer, Felizitas; Beck, Heike; Pohl, Ulrich; Pogoda, Kristin

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study we could show that connexin 43 (Cx43) expression increased the migration of cells in a channel-independent manner involving the MAPK p38. We analyzed here the mechanism by which Cx43 enhanced p38 activation and migration related changes of the actin cytoskeleton. HeLa cells were used as a model system for the controlled expression of Cx43 and truncated Cx43 proteins. The expression of Cx43 altered the actin cytoskeleton organization in response to serum stimulation. Cx43 expressing HeLa cells had significantly more filopodial protrusions per cell than empty-vector transfected control cells. The expression of the channel incompetent carboxyl tail of Cx43 was sufficient to enhance the filopodia formation whereas the N-terminal, channel-building part, had no such effect. The enhanced filopodia formation was p38 dependent since the p38 blocker SB203580 significantly diminished it. Immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction of the upstream regulator of p38, p21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1), with Cx43 resulting in an enhanced phosphorylation of PAK1. Moreover, p38 activation, filopodia formation and cell migration were significantly reduced by blocking the PAK1 activity with its pharmacological inhibitor, IPA-3. The p38 target Hsp27, which favors the actin polymerization in its phosphorylated form, was significantly more phosphorylated characterizing it as a potential candidate molecule to enhance the serum-induced actin polymerization in Cx43 expressing cells. Our results provide a novel mechanism by which Cx43 can modify actin cytoskeletal dynamics and may thereby enhance cell migration. PMID:26255026

  20. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and C-Reactive Protein in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Kobayashi, Jun; Johnson, C. Anderson; Palmer, Paula H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has frequently been associated with vitamin D deficiency as well as chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in a cohort of HIV-positive people. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people (181 men and 135 women) aged 16 to 60 years residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Serum high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by the latex agglutination nephelometry method and the competitive protein-binding assay, respectively. The relationship between serum CRP concentrations and 25(OH)D serum level was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment of potential cardiovascular and HIV-related factors. The proportions of participants with 25(OH)D serum levels <20?ng/ml, 20–30?ng/ml, and ?30?ng/ml were 83.2%, 15.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. The mean 25(OH)D serum levels in men and women were 15.3?ng/ml and 14.4?ng/ml, respectively. Participants with a 25(OH)D serum level of <20?ng/ml had a 3.2-fold higher odds of high CRP (>3?mg/liter) compared to those with a 25(OH)D serum level of ?20?ng/ml (p=0.005). Men and women with a 25(OH)D serum level of <20?ng/ml had 3.2- and 2.7-fold higher odds of high CRP (>3?mg/liter), respectively, compared to those with a 25(OH)D serum level of ?20?ng/ml. The relationships remained significant only in men (p?=0.02) but not in women (p=0.28). The risk of having a high level of inflammation (CRP>3?mg/liter) may be high among HIV-positive men and women with a 25(OH)D serum level of <20?ng/ml. PMID:23003113

  1. Weak cation magnetic separation technology and MALDI-TOF-MS in screening serum protein markers in primary type I osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26634492

  2. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Studies on intercellular adhesion. II. Promoting effect of serum and proteins on adhesion of neural retina cells to isotypic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Pessac, B; Alliot, F; Cornet, M; Girard, A

    1977-01-01

    The quantitative assay described in the preceding paper (Pessac et al., '77) was used to study the effects of serum and various proteins on isotypic adhesion of chick embryo neural retina cells. Fetal bovine, chicken, horse, rabbit and human sera promoted cell adhesion to the same extent. The same sera also enhanced isotypic adhesion of cells from other organs showing that the cell adhesion promoting activity of sera was not organ specific. Neural retina (NR) cell collection in serum supplemented medium was not modified by protein synthesis or metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent with a maximum at 38 degrees C. The higher temperature does not seem to be required for repair of the cell surface after dissociation, but for the process of adhesion itself. Various serum fractions and egg albumin showed a cell adhesion promoting activity similar to that of sera. PMID:833211

  4. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, Nikola Slepi?ková; Slepi?ka, Petr; Kolská, Zde?ka; Hoda?ová, Petra; Ku?ková, Št?pánka; Švor?ík, Václav

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  5. Mass-Selected Site-Specific Core-Fucosylation of Serum Proteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haidi; Tan, Zhijing; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jianhui; Shedden, Kerby A; Marrero, Jorge; Lubman, David M

    2015-11-01

    A mass spectrometry-based methodology has been developed to screen for changes in site-specific core-fucosylation (CF) of serum proteins in early stage HCC with different etiologies. The methods involve depletion of high-abundance proteins, trypsin digestion of medium-to-low-abundance proteins into peptides, iTRAQ labeling, and Lens culinaris Agglutinin (LCA) enrichment of CF peptides, followed by endoglycosidase F3 digestion before mass spectrometry analysis. 1300 CF peptides from 613 CF proteins were identified from patients sera, where 20 CF peptides were differentially expressed in alcohol (ALC)-related HCC samples compared with ALC-related cirrhosis samples and 26 CF peptides changed in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC samples compared with HCV-related cirrhosis samples. Among these, we found three CF peptides from fibronectin upregulated in ALC-related HCC samples compared with ALC-related cirrhosis samples with an AUC (area under the curve) value of 0.89 at site 1007 with a specificity of 85.7% at a sensitivity of 92.9% (generated with 10-fold cross-validation). When combined with the AFP index, the AUC value reached to 0.92 with a specificity of 92.9% at a sensitivity of 100%, significantly improved compared to that with AFP alone (LR test p < 0.001). In HCV-related samples, the CF level of cadherin-5 at site 61 showed the best AUC value of 0.75 but was not as promising as that of fibronectin site 1007 for ALC-related samples. The CF peptides of fibronectin may serve as potential biomarkers for early stage HCC screening in ALC-related cirrhosis patients. PMID:26403951

  6. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial?,??

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L.; Kenny, Anne M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Abourizk, Robin H.; Bruno, Richard S.; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M.; Kerstetter, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (?5.9%, P = .02; ?7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. JG Teeguarden1 and HA Barton2. 1ENVIRON International, Ruston LA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Pharmacokinetics Branch, RTP, NC.

    One measure of th...

  8. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips.

    PubMed

    Jara, Rocío F; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S; Samuel, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease. PMID:25574804

  9. Cold shock domain protein A represses angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via inhibition of serum response element.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Nakagami, H; Kurooka, M; Takami, Y; Kikuchi, Y; Hayashi, H; Nishikawa, T; Tamai, K; Morishita, R; Azuma, N; Sasajima, T; Kaneda, Y

    2008-03-20

    Dual-targeted therapy for antiangiogenesis and antilymphangiogenesis represents a potentially effective strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to identify genes that encode inhibitors of both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Using a cDNA library obtained from Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2), a candidate gene was identified by the evaluation of growth inhibition in aortic and lymphatic endothelial cells (EC) as that coding for the mouse cold shock domain protein A (mCSDA). Overexpression of mCSDA significantly repressed cell proliferation and c-fos promoter activity in aortic, venous and lymphatic ECs. CSDA is a DNA-binding protein that binds to the hypoxia response element (HRE). Furthermore, of importance, we revealed that CSDA could directly bind to the serum response element (SRE) sequence, resulting in the inhibition of SRE activity, which may lead to growth inhibition in ECs. In an LL/2-inoculated mouse model, tumor growth was significantly repressed in an mCSDA-injected group. Histopathological analysis revealed that expression of blood and lymphatic EC markers was significantly decreased in mCSDA-injected groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that expression of CSDA can repress angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via direct binding to SRE in addition to HRE. PMID:17934523

  10. PREPARATION FROM HUMAN SERUM OF AN ALPHA-ONE PROTEIN WHICH INDUCES THE IMMEDIATE GROWTH OF UNADAPTED CELLS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Richard

    1967-01-01

    An alpha-one protein is separated from human serum on a microbead column. This nondialyzable protein induces the immediate growth of unadapted cells placed in chemically defined Medium A2 + APG. HeLa, conjunctiva and human heart cells, which stop growing if the protein is removed, continue to grow only if the protein is returned or the cells are permitted to adapt to the defined medium. A 90–120 day period is required for adaptation. The spreading and growth of fully adapted cells is also stimulated by the addition of the protein. As little as 0.4 µg per ml of medium is effective. The protein analyzed by paper, starch, and discontinuous acrylamide gel electrophoresis appears to be a single component. The protein is periodate-Schiff positive and readily binds small molecules which are removed, without loss of biological activity, by precipitating the protein in 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. The protein is adsorbed on the microbead column as a complex with the beta lipoprotein fraction of human serum; it cannot be separated from bovine or equinesera by this method; and it is not identical with fetuin. Its biological response is not duplicated by insulin, carbamyl phosphate, putrescine, or linoleic acid. PMID:10976223

  11. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Michael A.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G.; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sayers, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17×10?7), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04×10?12). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPAR's effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.—Portelli, M. A., Siedlinski, M., Stewart, C. E., Postma, D. S., Nieuwenhuis, M. A., Vonk, J. M., Nurnberg, P., Altmuller, J., Moffatt, M. F., Wardlaw, A. J., Parker, S. G., Connolly, M. J., Koppelman, G. H., Sayers, I. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels. PMID:24249636

  12. Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Predicts Tissue Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Break-Down Products and Therapeutic Efficacy after Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Angela M; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Johnson, David; Tortella, Frank C; Dave, Jitendra R; Shear, Deborah A; Schmid, Kara E

    2016-01-01

    Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neurological dysfunction, changes in brain proteins, and increased serum biomarkers. However, the relationship between these brain proteins and serum biomarkers, and the ability of these serum biomarkers to indicate a neuroprotective/therapeutic response, remains elusive. Penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) was used to systematically analyze several key TBI biomarkers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its break-down products (BDPs)-ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), ?-II spectrin, and ?-II spectrin BDPs (SBDPs)-in brain tissues and serum during an extended acute-subacute time-frame. In addition, neurological improvement and serum GFAP theranostic value was evaluated after neuroprotective treatment. In brain tissues, total GFAP increased more than three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI. However, this change was primarily due to GFAP-BDPs which increased to 2.7-4.8 arbitrary units (AU). Alpha-II spectrin was nearly ablated 3 d after PBBI, but somewhat recovered after 7 d. In conjunction with ?-II spectrin loss, SBDP-145/150 increased approximately three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI (vs. sham, p<0.05). UCH-L1 protein levels were slightly decreased 7 d after PBBI but otherwise were unaffected. Serum GFAP was elevated by 3.2- to 8.8-fold at 2 to 4?h (vs. sham; p<0.05) and the 4?h increase was strongly correlated to 3 d GFAP-BDP abundance (r=0.66; p<0.05). Serum GFAP showed such a strong injury effect that it also was evaluated after therapeutic intervention with cyclosporin A (CsA). Administration of 2.5?mg/kg CsA significantly reduced serum GFAP elevation by 22.4-fold 2?h after PBBI (vs. PBBI+vehicle; p<0.05) and improved neurological function 1 d post-injury. Serum biomarkers, particularly GFAP, may be correlative tools of brain protein changes and feasible theranostic markers of TBI progression and recovery. PMID:25789543

  13. Identification of serum sirtuins as novel noninvasive protein markers for frailty.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Mohan, Navinath; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Singh, Amrendra Pratap; Sahu, Vishal; Dwivedi, Sadanand; Dey, Aparajit B; Dey, Sharmistha

    2014-12-01

    Frailty has emerged as a major health issue among older patients. A consensus on definition and diagnosis is yet to be achieved. Various biochemical abnormalities have been reported in frailty. Activation of sirtuins, a conserved family of NAD-dependent proteins, is one of the many mimics of calorie restriction which improves lifespan and health in experimental animals. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the circulating sirtuin levels in 119 (59.5%) nonfrail and 81 (40.5%) frail individuals, diagnosed by Fried's criteria. Serum SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 were estimated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Western blot. Serum sirtuins level in mean+SD; SIRT1 (nonfrail -4.67 ± 0.48 ng/?L; frail - 3.72 ± 0.48 ng/?L; P < 0.0001), SIRT2 (nonfrail - 15.18 ± 2.94 ng/?L; frail - 14.19 ± 2.66 ng/?L; P = 0.016), and SIRT3 (nonfrail-7.72 ± 1.84 ng/?L; frail - 6.12 ± 0.97 ng/?L; P < 0.0001) levels were significantly lower among frail patients compared with the nonfrail. In multivariable regression analysis, lower sirtuins level were significantly associated with frailty after adjusting age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination scores) and number of comorbidities. For detecting the optimum diagnostic cutoff value a ROC analysis was carried out. The area under curve for SIRT1 was 0.9037 (cutoff - 4.29 ng/?L; sensitivity - 81.48%; specificity - 79.83%) and SIRT3 was 0.7988 (cutoff - 6.61 ng/?L; sensitivity - 70.37%; specificity - 70.59%). This study shows that lower circulating SIRT1 and SIRT3 levels can be distinctive marker of frailty. PMID:25100619

  14. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1 involved in serum deprivation-induced human alkaline ceramidase 2 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, ZHAOQUAN; HUANG, GUOJIN; LI, QUANZHONG; JIN, JUNFEI

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that serum deprivation upregulated human alkaline ceramidase 2 (haCER2) activity and mRNA in HeLa cells, but the mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, serum deprivation also upregulated haCER2 activity in HepG2 human hepatoma cell line cells due to an increase in haCER2 mRNA, in which mRNA transcription, not mRNA stability, is involved. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathway is involved in haCER2 mRNA upregulation by serum deprivation, and this mechanism may explain why haCER2 is upregulated in human liver cancer. In conclusion, p38 MAPK, AP-1 or haCER2 may be used as targets in liver cancer therapy. PMID:25798247

  15. Serum Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Chronic HBV Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengju; Liu, Liguan; Pan, Xingnan; Wei, Kaipeng; Wei, Meijuan; Liu, Lifei; Yang, Huanwen; Liu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most commonly used marker of liver injury, but normal ALT levels are seen in a proportion of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with severe liver injury. Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a promising alternative marker of liver injury. This study assessed the relation between GP73 levels and liver disease severity, monitored the kinetic changes in GP73 levels in chronic HBV patients receiving entecavir (ETV) therapy, and investigated the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of serum GP73 as a new liver injury biomarker in chronic HBV infections. This study enrolled 1150 patients with chronic HBV infections, 200 of whom were retrospectively enrolled in this study after receiving 1 year of ETV treatment. GP73 expression in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. GP73 levels in single or serial serum samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GP73 protein expression in the liver increased progressively with pathologic progression from nonexistent or mild hepatitis to severe hepatitis and cirrhosis during chronic HBV infection. Serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with the disease severity of chronic HBV infections (r?=?0.58, P?serum GP73 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with prominent hepatic inflammatory injury and fibrosis than in patients without hepatic inflammatory injury or fibrosis. Serum GP73 concentrations and GP73 protein expression were decreased in the liver tissues of patients whose ALT levels normalized after 1 year of ETV antiviral therapy. Changes in serum GP73 levels were closely associated with changes in liver injury severity, and, therefore, GP73 may be an effective new liver inflammatory injury biomarker, and could be useful for monitoring the prognosis of chronic HBV infectious patients with normal ALT levels. PMID:25816035

  16. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids alter serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein concentrations and reduce bone formation in rats fed (n-6) or (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Seifert, M F; Ney, D M; Grahn, M; Grant, A L; Allen, K G; Watkins, B A

    1999-07-01

    A study was designed to examine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) and the relationship of these factors to bone metabolism. Weanling male rats were fed AIN-93G diet containing 70 g/kg of added fat for 42 days. Treatments included 0 g/kg or 10 g/kg of CLA and soybean oil (SBO) or menhaden oil + safflower oil (MSO) following a 2 x 2 factorial design. Serum IGFBP was influenced by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) type ((n-6) and (n-3)) and CLA (p = 0.01 for 38-43 kDa bands corresponding to IGFBP-3). CLA increased IGFBP level in rats fed SBO (p = 0.05) but reduced it in those fed MSO (p = 0.01). Rats fed MSO had the highest serum IGFBP-3 level. Both (n-3) fatty acids and CLA lowered ex vivo prostaglandin E2 production in bone organ culture. In tibia, rats given CLA had reduced mineral apposition rate (3.69 vs. 2.79 microm/day) and bone formation rate (BFR) (0.96 vs. 0.65 microm3/microm2/day); however, the BFR tended to be higher with MSO. Dietary lipid treatments did not affect serum intact osteocalcin or bone mineral content. These results showed that dietary PUFA type and CLA modulate local factors that regulate bone metabolism. PMID:10404015

  17. Multiplexed Activity-based Protein Profiling of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Reveals Large Functional Changes upon Exposure to Human Serum*

    PubMed Central

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Pederson, LeeAnna M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fortuin, Suereta; Chauvigné-Hines, Lacie M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Ansong, Charles; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adaptability is critical for survival of the fungal human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus in the immunocompromised host lung. We hypothesized that exposure of the fungal pathogen to human serum would lead to significant alterations to the organism's physiology, including metabolic activity and stress response. Shifts in functional pathway and corresponding enzyme reactivity of A. fumigatus upon exposure to the human host may represent much needed prognostic indicators of fungal infection. To address this, we employed a multiplexed activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach coupled to quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to measure broad enzyme reactivity of the fungus cultured with and without human serum. ABPP showed a shift from aerobic respiration to ethanol fermentation and utilization over time in the presence of human serum, which was not observed in serum-free culture. Our approach provides direct insight into this pathogen's ability to survive, adapt, and proliferate. Additionally, our multiplexed ABPP approach captured a broad swath of enzyme reactivity and functional pathways and provides a method for rapid assessment of the A. fumigatus response to external stimuli. PMID:22865858

  18. Comparable Autoantibody Serum Levels against Amyloid- and Inflammation-Associated Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Deuschle, Christian; Dilger, Sarah Selina; Stirnkorb, Johannes Georg; Schulte, Claudia; Schleicher, Erwin; Gasser, Thomas; Berg, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) against a number of potentially disease-associated cellular proteins, including Amyloid-beta1–42 (Abeta1–42), Alpha-synuclein (Asyn), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) have been suggested to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Whereas the (reduced) occurrence of specific NAbs in AD is widely accepted, previous literature examining the relation of these NAb titres between PD patients and controls, as well as comparing these levels with demographic and clinical parameters in PD patients have produced inconsistent findings. We therefore aimed, in a cross-sectional approach, to determine serum titres of the above NAbs in a cohort of 93 PD patients (31 of them demented) and 194 controls. Levels were correlated with demographic and clinical variables, cerebrospinal fluid Abeta1–42, total tau and phospho-tau levels, as well as with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes which either have been reported to influence the immune system, the amyloid cascade or the occurrence of PD (ApoE, GSK3B, HLA-DRA, HSPA5, SNCA, and STK39). The investigated NAb titres were neither significantly associated with the occurrence of PD, nor with demographic and clinical parameters, neurodegenerative markers or genetic variables. These results argue against a major potential of blood-borne parameters of the adaptive immune system to serve as trait or state markers in PD. PMID:24586351

  19. Development of a "membrane cloaking" method for amperometric enzyme immunoassay and surface plasmon resonance analysis of proteins in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Han, Jong Ho; Cheng, Quan

    2007-02-01

    Detection of trace amounts of target proteins in the presence of high concentrations of matrix proteins (e.g., serum samples) without separation steps is of great significance to biomedical research but remains technically challenging. Here we report a "membrane cloaking" method to overcome nonspecific protein adsorption and fouling problems for label-free surface plasmon resonance detection and heterogeneous immunosensing. A thin, hybrid, self-assembled monolayer on gold was formed with 70 mol % mercaptopropanol and 30 mol % cysteamine/propanedithiol to facilitate membrane fusion and covalent attachment of antibodies. After antibody immobilization, the surface was incubated with lipid vesicles, which fused to form a supported membrane. The analyte spiked in serum was introduced for binding, and the membrane and nonspecifically adsorbed proteins on the membrane were subsequently removed using a nonionic surfactant before the final measurement was carried out. Selection of a suitable surfactant can preserve antibody/antigen binding and selectively remove the membrane, allowing accurate measurement of the captured proteins without interference from nonspecifically adsorbed species. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) quantification of IgG spiked in undiluted serum ( approximately 75 mg/mL protein) was achieved with the membrane cloaking method, whereas direct measurement without membrane removal resulted in a significantly large error. The cloaking method was also used to develop an enzyme amplified amperometric assay using HRP-conjugated IgG. Detection of concentrations as low as 5 fM proteins was obtained. Finally, a membrane cloaking assay combining SPR and in situ electrochemical measurement was demonstrated on a gold substrate. Similar sensitivity was observed using a continuous flow injection measurement. The method opens new avenues to develop direct assay methods with ultrahigh sensitivity for protein samples using SPR and enzyme-linked amplification mechanisms. PMID:17263314

  20. Serum HBsAg kinetics and usefulness of interferon-inducible protein 10 serum in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Triantos, C; Hadziyannis, E; Zisimopoulos, K; Georgiou, A; Voulgaris, T; Vlachogiannakos, I; Nikolopoulou, V; Manolakopoulos, S

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of serum HBsAg and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10) levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection treated with tenofovir are unclear. We evaluated the changes of HBsAg levels and the predictability of IP10 for HBsAg decline in 160 HBeAg-negative patients receiving tenofovir for ?12 months. Serum samples taken before and at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months after tenofovir were tested for HBsAg levels. In 104 patients, serum samples before tenofovir were tested for IP10 levels. Compared to before tenofovir, HBsAg levels decreased by a median of 0.08, 0.11, 0.24, 0.33 and 0.38 log10 IU/mL at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, respectively (P < 0.001). HBsAg kinetics did not differ between nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) naive and experienced patients. The 12-, 24-, 36- and 48-month cumulative rates of ?0.5 log10 HBsAg decline were 8%, 16%, 24% and 41% and of HBsAg ?100 IU/mL were 9%, 12%, 14% and 18%, respectively. The only factor associated with HBsAg ?100 IU/mL was lower HBsAg levels before tenofovir (P < 0.001), while HBsAg decline ?0.5 log10 was associated with higher IP10 levels (P = 0.002) and particularly with IP10 > 350 pg/mL (P < 0.001). In conclusion, tenofovir decreases serum HBsAg levels in both nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) naive and experienced patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B infection. After 4 years of therapy, HBsAg ?100 IU/mL can be achieved in approximately 20% of patients, particularly in those with low baseline HBsAg levels. HBsAg decline is slow (?0.5 log10 in 40% of patients after 4 years) and is associated only with higher baseline serum IP10 levels. PMID:26146764

  1. Exposure to wireless phone emissions and serum beta-trace protein.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2010-08-01

    The lipocalin type of prostaglandin D synthase or beta-trace protein is synthesized in the choroid plexus, lepto-meninges and oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system and is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. beta-trace protein is the key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandin D2, an endogenous sleep-promoting neurohormone in the brain. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the radio frequency (RF) range have in some studies been associated with disturbed sleep. We studied the concentration of beta-trace protein in blood in relation to emissions from wireless phones. This study included 62 persons aged 18-30 years. The concentration of beta-trace protein decreased with increasing number of years of use of a wireless phone yielding a negative beta coefficient = -0.32, 95% confidence interval -0.60 to -0.04. Also cumulative use in hours gave a negative beta coefficient, although not statistically significant. Of the 62 persons, 40 participated in an experimental study with 30 min exposure to an 890-MHz GSM signal. No statistically significant change of beta-trace protein was found. In a similar study of the remaining 22 participitants with no exposure, beta-trace protein increased significantly over time, probably due to a relaxed situation. EMF emissions may down-regulate the synthesis of beta-trace protein. This mechanism might be involved in sleep disturbances reported in persons exposed to RF fields. The results must be interpreted with caution since use of mobile and cordless phones were self-reported. Awareness of exposure condition in the experimental study may have influenced beta-trace protein concentrations. PMID:20596612

  2. The elevation of serum napsin A in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, compared with KL-6, surfactant protein-A and surfactant protein-D

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Napsin A, an aspartic protease, is mainly expressed in alveolar type-II cells and renal proximal tubules and is a putative immunohistochemical marker for pulmonary adenocarcinomas. This study sought to determine whether napsin A could be measured in the serum to evaluate its relationship to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and determine whether renal dysfunction might affect serum napsin A levels. Methods Serum levels of napsin A were measured in 20 patients with IPF, 34 patients with lung primary adenocarcinoma, 12 patients with kidney diseases, and 20 healthy volunteers. Surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) levels in serum and pulmonary function tests were also evaluated in IPF patients. Results Circulating levels of napsin A were increased in patients with IPF, as compared with healthy controls, and they correlated with the severity of disease. Moreover, the serum napsin A levels were not elevated in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma or renal dysfunction. The distinguishing point between IPF and the controls was that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of napsin A was larger than that of KL-6, SP-A, or SP-D. Conclusion These findings suggest that serum napsin A may be a candidate biomarker for IPF. PMID:22963039

  3. In vitro and in vivo interactions of selected nanoparticles with rodent serum proteins and their consequences in biokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Fertsch-Gapp, Stefanie; Schäffler, Martin; Johnston, Blair D; Haberl, Nadine; Pfeiffer, Christian; Diendorf, Jörg; Schleh, Carsten; Hirn, Stephanie; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Epple, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2014-01-01

    Summary When particles incorporated within a mammalian organism come into contact with body fluids they will bind to soluble proteins or those within cellular membranes forming what is called a protein corona. This binding process is very complex and highly dynamic due to the plethora of proteins with different affinities and fractions in different body fluids and the large variation of compounds and structures of the particle surface. Interestingly, in the case of nanoparticles (NP) this protein corona is well suited to provide a guiding vehicle of translocation within body fluids and across membranes. This NP translocation may subsequently lead to accumulation in various organs and tissues and their respective cell types that are not expected to accumulate such tiny foreign bodies. Because of this unprecedented NP accumulation, potentially adverse biological responses in tissues and cells cannot be neglected a priori but require thorough investigations. Therefore, we studied the interactions and protein binding kinetics of blood serum proteins with a number of engineered NP as a function of their physicochemical properties. Here we show by in vitro incubation tests that the binding capacity of different engineered NP (polystyrene, elemental carbon) for selected serum proteins depends strongly on the NP size and the properties of engineered surface modifications. In the following attempt, we studied systematically the effect of the size (5, 15, 80 nm) of gold spheres (AuNP), surface-modified with the same ionic ligand; as well as 5 nm AuNP with five different surface modifications on the binding to serum proteins by using proteomics analyses. We found that the binding of numerous serum proteins depended strongly on the physicochemical properties of the AuNP. These in vitro results helped us substantially in the interpretation of our numerous in vivo biokinetics studies performed in rodents using the same NP. These had shown that not only the physicochemical properties determined the AuNP translocation from the organ of intake towards blood circulation and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues but also the the transport across organ membranes depended on the route of AuNP application. Our in vitro protein binding studies support the notion that the observed differences in in vivo biokinetics are mediated by the NP protein corona and its dynamical change during AuNP translocation in fluids and across membranes within the organism. PMID:25383281

  4. Rat tissues express serum amyloid A protein-related mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Meek, R L; Benditt, E P

    1989-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a small (12 kDa) acute-phase apoprotein of high density lipoprotein found in mammals. It is also the precursor to amyloid protein A, the main protein constituent of fibrils found in amyloidosis secondary to chronic or recurrent inflammation--e.g., rheumatoid arthritis. However, rats do not develop amyloidosis and SAA is not an apoprotein of rat high density lipoprotein; thus rats appear to be an exception in regard to expression of SAA genes. We report here that rats do have representatives of the SAA gene family and express two distinct SAA mRNAs. Moreover, the pattern of genes expressed among tissues, and their induction by inflammatory agents, is similar to that of related mouse genes. RNA from various tissues of normal and injured rats was examined by RNA blot hybridization with SAA cDNA and complementary RNA probes for the three murine SAA genes. A SAA mRNA of approximately 400 nucleotides related to mouse SAA1 and SAA2 mRNAs reached a high level in liver 24 hr after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. No extra-hepatic tissues were found to express the SAA1/SAA2-related mRNA. Turpentine induced two hepatic SAA1/SAA2-related mRNAs of approximately 400 and approximately 500 nucleotides in length. Liver SAA1/SAA2-related mRNA hybrid selected and translated in a wheat germ protein-synthesizing system, from lipopolysaccharide- and turpentine-injected rats, produced a single protein with an estimated molecular mass of 8 kDa. This rat liver SAA-related mRNA appears to lack a highly conserved coding region for portions of two amphipathic helical domains and the joining sequence. An mRNA related to mouse SAA3 was found expressed at a high level in lung after lipopolysaccharide but not following turpentine injection. This mRNA was also expressed at high levels in ileum and large intestine of control rats and was not found in the liver of control or challenged rats. These observations show that the SAA gene family is present and expressed in rats and that its expression is found under situations similar to those found in mice. This lends support for the importance of the SAA gene family in the response to injury by vertebrates. Images PMID:2928311

  5. Microfiltration: Effect of channel diameter on limiting flux and serum protein removal.

    PubMed

    Hurt, E E; Adams, M C; Barbano, D M

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the limiting flux and serum protein (SP) removal at 8, 9 and 10% true protein (TP) in the retentate recirculation loop using 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability (GP) microfiltration (MF) membranes with 3mm channel diameters (CD). An additional objective was to compare the limiting flux and SP removal between 0.1-µm ceramic GP membranes with 3mm CD and previous research using 4-mm CD membranes. The MF system was operated at 50°C, using a diluted milk protein concentrate with 85% protein on a total solids basis (MPC85) as the MF feed. The limiting flux for the MF of diluted MPC85 was determined at 8, 9, and 10% TP concentration in the recirculation loop. The experiment using the 3-mm CD membranes was replicated 3 times for a total of 9 runs. On the morning of each run MPC85 was diluted with reverse osmosis water to a MF feed TP concentration of 5.4%. In all runs the starting flux was 55 kg/m2 per hour, the flux was then increased in steps until the limiting flux was reached. For the 3-mm CD membranes, the limiting flux was 128±0.3, 109±4, and 97±0.5 kg/m2 per hour at recirculation loop TP concentrations of 8.1±0.07, 9.2±0.04, and 10.2±0.03%, respectively. For the 3-mm CD membranes, increasing the flux from the starting to the limiting flux decreased the SP removal factor from 0.72±0.02 to 0.67±0.01; however, no difference in SP removal factor among the target recirculation loop TP concentrations was detected. The limiting flux at each recirculation loop target TP concentration was lower for the 3- compared with the 4-mm CD membranes. The differences in limiting fluxes between the 3- and 4-mm CD membranes were explained in part by the difference in cross-flow velocity (5.5±0.03 and 7.0±0.03 m/s for the 3- and 4-mm CD membranes, respectively). The SP removal factor was also lower for the 3- compared with the 4-mm CD membranes, indicating that more membrane fouling may have occurred in the 3- versus 4-mm CD membranes. PMID:25892692

  6. Impact of scaling and root planing on C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-CP) or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDM-CP). Methods Forty-eight human participants were divided into two groups: an experimental (T2DM-CP) group (group I, n=24) comprising chronic periodontitis patients with random blood sugar ?200 mg/dL and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and control (NDM-CP) group (group II, n=24) of those with chronic periodontitis and random blood sugar <200 without T2DM for the study. All subjects underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) including complete SRP and subgingival debridement. Periodontal health parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), GCF volume (GCF vol), GCF-CRP, random blood glucose (RBS), glycated hemoglobin, and systemic inflammatory markers, serum CRP, total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count (Neutr) and lymphocyte count (Lymph), were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after SRP. Results NSPT resulted in statistically significant improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum as well as GCF of both groups I and II. The mean improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum and GCF was greater in group I than group II after NSPT. There was nonsignificant increase in GCF-CRP, TLC, Lymph, and RBS, and a significant increase in Neutr and Serum CRP in group II at 1 month. The Serum CRP level of 20 out of 24 group II patients had also increased at 1 month. Conclusions The CRP levels in both GCF and serum were higher in T2DM-CP patients than in NDM-CP patients. Although there was a significant improvement in both the groups, greater improvement was observed in both GCF and serum samples of T2DM-CP patients. Graphical Abstract PMID:25177517

  7. Serum levels of hypersensitive-C-reactive protein in moderate and severe acne

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, M. R.; Parhizkar, A. R.; Jowkar, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been reported to occur in psoriasis, urticaria, acne, rosacea and many other dermatological and nondermatological conditions. Chronic systemic inflammation has been implicated in the development of neuropsychiatric/degenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and even carcinogenesis. The present study is designed to determine whether the level of inflammation created by acne vulgaris could be high enough to raise the serum levels of high-sensitive CRP. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris were enrolled, along with 44 age and sex matched healthy blood donors as controls. Hypersensitive-CRP (Hs-CRP) was measured in both groups. Results: Hypersensitive-C-reactive protein levels in the case group varied between 0 and 28.1 ?g/ml with an average of 2.24 ± 4.87 ?g/ml (mean ± standard deviation) and a median of 0.6 ?g/ml (interquartile range [IQR] =0.3, 1.4 ?g/ml). Hs-CRP levels of the control group varied between 0 and 14 ?g/ml with an average of 3.12 ± 3.67 ?g/ml and a median of 1.5 ?g/ml (IQR = 0.55, 5.0 ?g/ml). No significant difference of Hs-CRP level between the two groups was seen (t = –0.961, 95% confidence interval: Lower = –2.6942, upper = 0.9377; P = 0.339). Additionally, no significant difference in the level of Hs-CRP was noted between the moderate and severe acne groups (95% confidence interval: Lower = –5.2495, upper = 1.6711; P = 0.165). Conclusion: Acne vulgaris, even in its severe grades (excluding acne fulminans and acne conglobata), does not induce significant inflammation at the systemic level. PMID:26225329

  8. Factors Influencing the Measurement of Plasma/Serum Surfactant Protein D Levels by ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Bratcher, Preston E.; Gaggar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive variations in human surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels in circulation as measured by ELISA exist in the published literature. In order to determine the source of these variations, factors influencing the measurement by ELISA were explored. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood from healthy individuals was collected into various vacutainers during the same blood draw. Recombinant SP-D was diluted into different matrices and used for a standard curve. Samples were analyzed by capture ELISA using one of two distinct detection antibodies. Results The type of matrix had some effects on detection of recombinant SP-D. The type of anticoagulant used and dilution factor had very little effect, except for in plasma collected in EDTA vacutainers. The extent of variation in published values seemed to be due to the ELISA configuration employed, and, in agreement with this, we found that by switching the detection antibody, there was a 50% decrease in the extrapolated SP-D value of serum and plasma samples. Storage of samples resulted in slight changes in measured SP-D levels. Conclusions The ELISA configuration employed to measure circulating levels of SP-D has a significant effect on the extrapolated values. In both configurations tested, the use of EDTA as a coagulant resulted in inconsistent values, and we, therefore, suggest the avoidance of this anticoagulant when assaying for SP-D by ELISA. While the demonstrated effects of several factors on measurement of SP-D may not account for all the disparities amongst the previous studies, they stress that variations in methodologies for measuring the same protein can result in very inconsistent results. PMID:25365324

  9. Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: is There a Repeated Bout Effect?

    PubMed

    Behringer, Michael; Montag, Johannes; Kilian, Yvonne; McCourt, Molly; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Mester, Joachim

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years) performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval) carried out at a 3 week interval. After each intervention, sCOMP and muscle soreness were assessed on 8 and 6 occasions respectively. Muscle soreness was determined via a visual analog scale with a maximum pain score of 10. sComp levels did not show a blunted response after the second bout (Bout 1: 12.2±3.3 U/L(-1); Bout 2: 13.1±4.0 U/L(-1); P>0.05). Remarkably, sCOMP increased from baseline levels by 16% after bout 1 and 15% after bout 2. Muscle soreness was blunted following the second intervention (Bout 1: 5.0±1.8; Bout 2: 1.6±0.8). Unlike the known repeated bout effect for muscle damage markers, sCOMP levels do not show a blunted response after two similar loading interventions. This information on biomarker behavior is essential to clinicians attempting to use this marker as an indicator of cartilage damage associated with the development or progression of osteoarthritis. PMID:25317315

  10. Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: is There a Repeated Bout Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Johannes; Kilian, Yvonne; McCourt, Molly; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Mester, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years) performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval) carried out at a 3 week interval. After each intervention, sCOMP and muscle soreness were assessed on 8 and 6 occasions respectively. Muscle soreness was determined via a visual analog scale with a maximum pain score of 10. sComp levels did not show a blunted response after the second bout (Bout 1: 12.2±3.3 U/L?1; Bout 2: 13.1±4.0 U/L?1; P>0.05). Remarkably, sCOMP increased from baseline levels by 16% after bout 1 and 15% after bout 2. Muscle soreness was blunted following the second intervention (Bout 1: 5.0±1.8; Bout 2: 1.6±0.8). Unlike the known repeated bout effect for muscle damage markers, sCOMP levels do not show a blunted response after two similar loading interventions. This information on biomarker behavior is essential to clinicians attempting to use this marker as an indicator of cartilage damage associated with the development or progression of osteoarthritis. PMID:25317315

  11. Screening and identification of five serum proteins as novel potential biomarkers for cured pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Wei, Li-Liang; Shi, Li-Ying; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Yu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Tian-Yu; Liu, Chang-Ming; Ping, Ze-Peng; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Zhong-Liang; Mao, Lian-Gen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods for the determination of cured tuberculosis (TB) are lacking. A total of 85 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) analysis (fold change >1.50 or <0.60, P?

  12. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. PMID:26153407

  13. Screening and identification of five serum proteins as novel potential biomarkers for cured pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Wei, Li-Liang; Shi, Li-Ying; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Yu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Tian-Yu; Liu, Chang-Ming; Ping, Ze-Peng; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Zhong-Liang; Mao, Lian-Gen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods for the determination of cured tuberculosis (TB) are lacking. A total of 85 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) analysis (fold change >1.50 or <0.60, P?

  14. An updated version of NPIDB includes new classifications of DNA–protein complexes and their families

    PubMed Central

    Zanegina, Olga; Kirsanov, Dmitriy; Baulin, Eugene; Karyagina, Anna; Alexeevski, Andrei; Spirin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The recent upgrade of nucleic acid–protein interaction database (NPIDB, http://npidb.belozersky.msu.ru/) includes a newly elaborated classification of complexes of protein domains with double-stranded DNA and a classification of families of related complexes. Our classifications are based on contacting structural elements of both DNA: the major groove, the minor groove and the backbone; and protein: helices, beta-strands and unstructured segments. We took into account both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. The analyzed material contains 1942 structures of protein domains from 748 PDB entries. We have identified 97 interaction modes of individual protein domain–DNA complexes and 17 DNA–protein interaction classes of protein domain families. We analyzed the sources of diversity of DNA–protein interaction modes in different complexes of one protein domain family. The observed interaction mode is sometimes influenced by artifacts of crystallization or diversity in secondary structure assignment. The interaction classes of domain families are more stable and thus possess more biological sense than a classification of single complexes. Integration of the classification into NPIDB allows the user to browse the database according to the interacting structural elements of DNA and protein molecules. For each family, we present average DNA shape parameters in contact zones with domains of the family. PMID:26656949

  15. A mutation affecting expression of a major outer membrane protein of Moraxella catarrhalis alters serum resistance and survival in vivo.

    PubMed

    Helminen, M E; Maciver, I; Paris, M; Latimer, J L; Lumbley, S L; Cope, L D; McCracken, G H; Hansen, E J

    1993-11-01

    A major outer membrane protein (CopB) of Moraxella catarrhalis is a target for antibodies that enhance clearance of this organism from the lungs of mice. A mini-Tn10kan transposon was inserted into the cloned copB gene from M. catarrhalis O35E, and an isogenic mutant unable to express the CopB protein was constructed by transforming this mutated gene into the wild-type strain. The mutant grew at the same rate as the wild-type parent strain in broth. Unlike the serum-resistant parent strain, this mutant was sensitive to killing by normal human serum, and its ability to survive and grow in the lungs of animals was impaired. Genetic restoration of CopB protein expression resulted in the simultaneous acquisition of wild-type levels of serum resistance and the ability to resist pulmonary clearance in vivo. Thus, the CopB protein of M. catarrhalis may be important in the interaction between this organism and the defense mechanisms of the respiratory tract. PMID:8228353

  16. A closer look at evolution: Variants (SNPs) of genes involved in skin pigmentation, including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, are associated with 25(OH)D serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Saternus, Roman; Pilz, Stefan; Gräber, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; März, Winfried; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Caucasian population and is associated with increased incidence and unfavorable outcome of many diseases, including various types of cancer, infectious, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. Individual factors that predispose for a person's vitamin D status, such as skin type, have been identified, but limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. We have tested the hypothesis that variants of genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) involved in skin pigmentation are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Serum 25(OH)D and SNPs (n = 960) related to genes with relevance for skin pigmentation (tyrosinase [TYR], TYR-related protein 1 [TYRP1], dopachrome tautomerase [DCT], oculocutaneous albinism II [OCA2], two pore segment channel 2 [TPCN2], solute carrier family 24 A4 [SLC24A4], solute carrier family 45 A2 [SLC45A2], agouti signalling peptide [ASIP], cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor [ATF1], microphthalmia-associated transcription factor [MITF], proopiomelanocortin [POMC], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [PRKACB], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma [PRKACG], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR1A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR2A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit [PRKAR2B], tubulin beta-3 chain/melanocortin receptor 1 [TUBB3/MC1R], Cadherin-1 [CDH1], catenin beta 1 [CTNNB1], Endothelin 1 [EDN1], endothelin 3 [EDN3], endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB], fibroblast growth factor 2 [FGF2], KIT, KIT ligand [KITLG], nerve growth factor [NGF], interferon regulatory factor 4 [IRF4], exocyst complex component 2 [EXOC2], and tumor protein 53 [TP53]) were analyzed in a cohort of participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 2970). A total of 46 SNPs were associated (P <.05) with lower or higher serum 25(OH)D levels as compared with the total cohort (median, 15.5 ng/mL). Although 1 SNP in the EXOC2 gene reached the aimed significance level after correction for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate) and was associated with a ?25(OH)D value more than 5.00 ng/mL, 11 SNPs located in the TYR (n = 4), PRKACG (n = 1), EDN1 (n = 3), TYRP1 (n = 1), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (n = 2) genes reached the aimed significance level after false discovery rate correction but were not associated with ?25(OH)D value more than 5.00 ng/mL. We conclude that variants of genes involved in skin pigmentation are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels in the Caucasian population. Our data indicate that out of the variants in 29 different genes analyzed, variants of 11 genes, including EXOC2, TYR, and TYRP1, have the highest impact on vitamin D status. Our results have a fundamental importance to understand the role of sunlight, skin pigmentation, and vitamin D for the human evolution. PMID:25396269

  17. An alternative method for serum protein depletion/enrichment by precipitation at mildly acidic pH values and low ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Henning, Ann-Kristin; Albrecht, Dirk; Riedel, Katharina; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Karger, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Serum proteome analysis is severely hampered by the extreme dynamic range of protein concentrations, but tools for the specific depletion of highly abundant serum proteins lack for most farm and companion animals. A well-established alternative strategy to reduce the dynamic range of plasma protein concentrations, treatment with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL), is generally applicable but requires large amounts of sample. Therefore, additional depletion/enrichment protocols for plasma and serum samples from animals are desirable. In this respect, we have tested a protein precipitate that formed after withdrawal of salt from human, bovine, or porcine serum at pH 4.2. The bovine sample was composed of over 300 proteins making it a potential source for biomarker discovery. Precipitation was highly reproducible and the concentrations of albumin and other highly abundant serum proteins were strongly reduced. In comparison to the CPLL treatment, precipitation did not introduce any selection bias based on hydrophathy or pI. However, the composition of both preparations was partially complementary. Salt withdrawal at pH 4.2 is suggested as additional depletion/enrichment strategy for serum samples. Also, we point out that the removal of precipitates from serum samples under the described conditions bears the risk of losing a valuable protein fraction. PMID:25644273

  18. Chelating Surfaces for Native State Proteins Patterning: The Human Serum Albumin Case.

    PubMed

    Giamblanco, Nicoletta; Tuccitto, Nunzio; Zappalŕ, Gabriella; Sfuncia, Gianfranco; Licciardello, Antonino; Marletta, Giovanni

    2015-10-21

    The paper reports a new "soft" surface functionalization strategy, based on a highly selective ion metal chelation process. The proposed stepwise methodology implies at first the construction of a monolayer of terpyridine-based thiol (Tpy), whose highly packed structuring has been followed in situ by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) measurements, showing that the monolayers consist of about 2.7 × 10(14) Tpy/cm(2). Then, the tridentate sites of the each Tpy moiety are employed to partially chelate divalent metal ions, providing an effective platform to anchoring proteins by completing the metal ion coordination with an available site on the protein of interest. We report the case study of the application of the process to the HSA immobilization onto various surfaces, including Tpy-Fe(II) and Tpy-Cu(II) complexes, as well as hydrophilic bare gold substrates and hydrophobic self-assembled Tpy-based monolayers. It is shown that the chelation interaction between Tpy-Cu(II) complexes and HSA produces the highest and most robust HSA immobilization, with an adsorbed mass at the steady state of ?800 ng/cm(2), with respect to an average adsorption of ?350 ng/cm(2) for the other surfaces. Furthermore, Cu(II)-chelated surfaces seem to promote a sort of protein "soft" landing, preventing the ubiquitous surface-induced major unfolding and transmitting an orientation information to the protein, owing to the highly specific symmetry coordination of the Tpy-Cu(II)-protein complex. Indeed, the interaction with a specific monoclonal antiboby (anti-HSA) indicated the lack of a significant protein denaturation, while a massive reorientation/denaturation process was found for all the remaining surfaces, including the Tpy-Fe(II) complex. Finally, the metal-ion-dependent HSA immobilization selectivity has been exploited to obtain micropatterned surfaces, based on the strikingly different strength of interaction and stability observed for Fe(II) and Cu(II) complexes. PMID:26425809

  19. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (?250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-?-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl. PMID:26057938

  20. A fluorescence-based high throughput assay for the determination of small molecule–human serum albumin protein binding

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Megan M.; Pawlak, Alan J.; Shadrick, William R.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Yasgar, Adam; Maloney, David J.; Arnold, Leggy A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the development of a fluorescence-based high throughput assay to determine the small molecule binding towards human serum albumin (HSA). This innovative competition assay is based on the use of a novel fluorescent small molecule Red Mega 500 with unique spectroscopic and binding properties. The commercially available probe displays a large fluorescence intensity difference between the protein-bound and protein-unbound state. The competition of small molecules for HSA binding in the presence of probe resulted in low fluorescence intensities. The assay was evaluated with the LOPAC small molecule library of 1280 compounds identifying known high protein binders. The small molecule competition of HSA–Red Mega 500 binding was saturable at higher compound concentrations and exhibited IC50 values between 3–24 ?M. The compound affinity towards HSA was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry indicating that the new protein binding assay is a valid high throughput assay to determine plasma protein binding. PMID:24390461

  1. Serum antibodies to the major proteins found in cow's milk of Iranian patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, T R; Djalali, M; Pezeshki, M; Siassi, F; Eshraghian, M R; Rajab, A; Keshavarz, A

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the humoral immune response to cow's milk proteins in Iranian children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Eighty children aged 4-17 yr with T1DM from two centres in Iran (the Iranian Association of Diabetes in Tehran and Center for Diabetes Research in Hamedan), 37 apparently healthy siblings of diabetic patients (related controls), 82 apparently healthy age- and sex- matched controls (unrelated controls), and 32 patients aged 11-15 yr with auto-immune thyroiditis were examined for specific whole antibodies (Igs), IgG, and IgM to the major proteins found in cow's milk or to ovo-albumin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A crude extract was made from 2.5% fat pasteurized cow's milk. This extract, together with individual commercial major proteins of cow's milk, was then used as antigen to evaluate the humoral immune response of the subjects to the individual proteins found in cow's milk or to cow's milk as a whole. A questionnaire on medical history, duration of exclusive and non-exclusive breast-feeding and daily intake of dairy products was completed before blood sampling. Diabetic children had significantly higher serum levels of Igs, IgG and IgM to the proteins found in cow's milk than unrelated healthy controls (p<0.001). Healthy siblings of diabetic patients, compared to unrelated controls, had significantly higher levels of serum Igs and IgG to cow's milk proteins (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Serum levels of Igs and IgG to the cow's milk proteins showed a significantly negative correlation with duration of non-exclusive breast-feeding but positive correlation with daily intake of dairy products. These correlations were stronger when calculated just within the T1DM group. In this group, serum levels of IgM to cow's milk proteins also showed a positive correlation with daily intake of dairy products. Though serum levels of IgG to casein were insignificantly higher in diabetic children than in healthy controls, there was a significant negative correlation between serum levels of IgG to casein and duration of non-exclusive breast-feeding. Again in the T1DM group, this correlation was stronger. There was no significant difference in serum levels of Igs, IgG or IgM to other major proteins of cow's milk or to ovo-albumin between groups. It was concluded that though high levels of Igs or IgG were found to cow's milk proteins, especially casein, it seems unrelated to the early introduction of cow's milk into an infant diet and the onset of T1DM in Iranian subjects. PMID:15244098

  2. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics.

    PubMed

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F; Gait, Michael J; Lochmüller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J A; Roberts, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P?protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients. PMID:26594036

  3. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M. L.; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A.; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F.; Gait, Michael J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Roberts, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P?protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients. PMID:26594036

  4. Some hereditary blood factors of the Bengali Muslim of Bangladesh (red cell enzymes, haemoglobins, and serum proteins).

    PubMed

    Papiha, S S; Roberts, D F; Ali, S G; Islam, M M

    1975-08-25

    In a sample of Bengali Muslems from Dacca, haptoglobin, group-specific component, haemoglobin, adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, acid phosphatase and several other red cell enzyme types were studied. For most serum protein and red cell enzyme systems the gene frequencies are similar to those in other populations to the west of Bangladesh, but others suggest affinity with populations to the east. PMID:51817

  5. Photoactivable analogs for labeling 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum binding protein and for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutner, A.; Link, R. P.; Schnoes, H. K.; DeLuca, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    3-Azidobenzoates and 3-azidonitrobenzoates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as well as 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 3-deoxy-3-azido-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared as photoaffinity labels for vitamin D serum binding protein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein. The compounds prepared were easily activated by short- or long-wavelength uv light, as monitored by uv and ir spectrometry. The efficacy of the compounds to compete with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the binding site of serum binding protein and receptor, respectively, was studied to evaluate the vitamin D label with the highest affinity for the protein. The presence of an azidobenzoate or azidonitrobenzoate substituent at the C-3 position of 25-OH-D3 significantly decreased (10(4)- to 10(6)-fold) the binding activity. However, the labels containing the azido substituent attached directly to the vitamin D skeleton at the C-3 position showed a high affinity, only 20- to 150-fold lower than that of the parent compounds with their respective proteins. Therefore, 3-deoxy-3-azidovitamins present potential ligands for photolabeling of vitamin D proteins and for studying the structures of the protein active sites.

  6. Unique surface adsorption behaviors of serum proteins on chemically uniform and alternating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng

    With increasing interests of studying proteins adsorption on the surfaces with nanoscale features in biomedical field, it is crucial to have fundamental understandings on how the proteins are adsorbed on such a surface and what factors contribute to the driving forces of adsorption. Besides, exploring more available nanoscale templates would greatly offer more possibilities one could design surface bio-detection methods with favorable protein-surface interactions. Thus, to fulfill the purpose, the work in this dissertation has been made into three major sections. First, to probe the intermediate states which possibly exist between stable and unstable phases described in mean-field theory diagram, a solvent vapor annealing method is chosen to slowly induce the copolymer polystyrene-block-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-PVP)'s both blocks undergoing micro-phase separations from initial spherical nanodomains into terminal cylindrical nanodomains. During this process, real time atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been conducted to capture other six intermediate states with different morphologies on the polymeric film surfaces. Secondly, upon recognizing each intermediate state, the solution of immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) proteins has been deposited on the surface and been rinsed off with buffer solution before the protein-bounded surface is imaged by AFM. It has been found IgG showing a strong adsorption preference on PS over P4VP block. Among all the six intermediate states, the proteins are almost exclusively adsorbed on PS nanodomains regardless the concentration and deposition time. Thirdly, a trinodular shape protein fibrinogen (Fg) is selected for investigating how geometry and surface charge of proteins would interplay with cylindrical nanodomains on a surface developed from Polystyrene -block-Poly-(methyl methacrylate) PS-b-PMMA. Also, Fg adsorptions on chemically homogeneous surfaces are included here to have a better contrast of showing how much difference it can make by using it on a nanoscale surface. Interestingly, higher concentration of protein solution promotes the occurrences of single phase packed Fg on the PS domain. The densely packed network has formed where each Fg keeps its main body in PS domain and leaves its two alpha C chains on nearby PMMA domain. We believe this conformation and orientation would maximize both the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between Fg and the underlying surface.

  7. Comparison of Measured GFR, Serum Creatinine, Cystatin C, and Beta-Trace Protein to Predict ESRD in African Americans With Hypertensive CKD

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Nrupen A.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Contreras, Gabriel; Bakris, George; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are at highest risk to progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) is necessary to reduce the burden of kidney failure. The relative utility of traditional markers of kidney function, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine, and emerging markers of kidney function, including cystatin C and beta-trace protein (BTP), to predict ESRD and mortality has yet to be established. Study Design Randomized clinical trial followed by an observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 865 African American individuals with hypertensive CKD enrolled in a clinical trial of two levels of blood pressure control and three different antihypertensive drugs as initial therapy and subsequently followed by an observational cohort study. Predictors Quintile of measured GFR (mGFR) by iothalamate clearance, serum creatinine, serum creatinine-based estimated GFR (eGFRSCr), cystatin C, and BTP. Outcomes and Measurements Incidence of ESRD and mortality. Results A total of 246 participants reached ESRD over a median follow-up of 102 months. The incidence rate of ESRD was higher with higher quintiles of each marker. The association between higher BTP and ESRD was stronger than those for the other markers, including mGFR. All the markers remained significantly associated with ESRD after adjustment for mGFR and relevant covariates (all p<0.05), with BTP retaining the strongest association (HR for highest versus lowest quintile, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.2-14.9). Associations with the combined endpoint of ESRD or mortality (n=390) were weaker, but remained significant for cystatin C (p=0.05) and BTP (p=0.004). Limitations The ability of these markers to predict ESRD and mortality in other racial and ethnic groups and among individuals with CKD due to other causes is unknown. Conclusions Plasma BTP and cystatin C may be useful adjuncts to serum creatinine and mGFR in evaluating risk for progression of kidney disease. PMID:21944667

  8. Integrative proteomics and tissue microarray profiling indicate the association between overexpressed serum proteins and non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansheng; Luo, Xiaoyang; Hu, Haichuan; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yihua; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinically, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by the early detection and risk screening among population. To meet this need, here we describe the application of extensive peptide level fractionation coupled with label free quantitative proteomics for the discovery of potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer, and the usage of Tissue microarray analysis (TMA) and Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assays for the following up validations in the verification phase. Using these state-of-art, currently available clinical proteomic approaches, in the discovery phase we confidently identified 647 serum proteins, and 101 proteins showed a statistically significant association with NSCLC in our 18 discovery samples. This serum proteomic dataset allowed us to discern the differential patterns and abnormal biological processes in the lung cancer blood. Of these proteins, Alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), two plasma glycoproteins with previously unknown function were selected as examples for which TMA and MRM verification were performed in a large sample set consisting about 100 patients. We revealed that A1BG and LRG1 were overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases. PMID:23284758

  9. Stromal cells from human long-term marrow cultures, but not cultured marrow fibroblasts, phagocytose horse serum constituents: studies with a monoclonal antibody that reacts with a species-specific epitope common to multiple horse serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Charbord, P; Tippens, D; Wight, T S; Gown, A M; Singer, J W

    1987-01-01

    This report describes an IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody derived after immunization of mice with washed stromal cells from human, long-term bone marrow cultures. The antigen recognized by the antibody (BMS-1) is a carbohydrate-containing prosthetic group that is common to and specific for multiple horse serum proteins. These proteins are avidly ingested by stromal cells and concentrated in endocytic vesicles. Cultured smooth muscle cells took up the horse proteins in a similar manner to marrow stromal cells while cultured marrow fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and hepatoma cells did not. These data indicate that marrow stromal cells specifically accumulate horse serum proteins which might partially explain the horse serum requirement for long-term marrow culture maintenance. The data also suggest further similarities between marrow stromal and smooth muscle cells and additional differences between marrow fibroblasts and marrow stromal cells. PMID:3780891

  10. The Effect of Simulated Microgravity Environment of RWV Bioreactors on Surface Reactions and Adsorption of Serum Proteins on Bone-bioactive Microcarriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radin, Shula; Ducheyne, P.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    Biomimetically modified bioactive materials with bone-like surface properties are attractive candidates for use as microcarriers for 3-D bone-like tissue engineering under simulated microgravity conditions of NASA designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors. The simulated microgravity environment is attainable under suitable parametric conditions of the RWV bioreactors. Ca-P containing bioactive glass (BG), whose stimulatory effect on bone cell function had been previously demonstrated, was used in the present study. BG surface modification via reactions in solution, resulting formation of bone-like minerals at the surface and adsorption of serum proteins is critical for obtaining the stimulatory effect. In this paper, we report on the major effects of simulated microgravity conditions of the RWV on the BG reactions surface reactions and protein adsorption in physiological solutions. Control tests at normal gravity were conducted at static and dynamic conditions. The study revealed that simulated microgravity remarkably enhanced reactions involved in the BG surface modification, including BG dissolution, formation of bone-like minerals at the surface and adsorption of serum proteins. Simultaneously, numerical models were developed to simulate the mass transport of chemical species to and from the BG surface under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions. The numerical results showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data at both testing conditions.

  11. Zeptomole Detection of C-Reactive Protein in Serum by a Nanoparticle Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Aptasensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Stephen A.; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2014-05-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers (i.e. proteins) are often in low abundance in bodily fluids presenting many challenges for their detection. In order to extend the application of SPRi systems in detecting biomarkers at ultralow levels, we combine the advantage of aptamer technology with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. By implementing a sandwich assay through the introduction of aptamer-modified quantum dots (QDs), it was possible to measure 7 zeptomole (at 5 fg/mL) of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively in spiked human serum. It is expected that the proposed platform will provide new direction in designing ultrasensitive SPRi biosensors with multiplexing capabilities.

  12. High serum concentrations of surfactant protein A in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with non-specific interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, H; Mukae, H; Kadota, J; Kaida, H; Nagata, T; Abe, K; Matsukura, S; Kohno, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: The pathological diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) by surgical lung biopsy is important for clinical decision making. There is a need, however, to use serum markers for differentiating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) from other ILD. Surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, KL-6, sialyl SSEA-1 (SLX), and sialyl Lewisa (CA19-9) are useful markers for the diagnosis and evaluation of activity of ILD. We have investigated the usefulness of these proteins as markers of UIP. Methods: Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of the above five markers were measured in 57 patients with various forms of ILD (19 with UIP, 12 with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), eight with bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP), and 10 with sarcoidosis), eight patients with the control disease (diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB)), and nine healthy volunteers. Results: Serum levels of SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 in patients with UIP and NSIP were significantly higher than in healthy volunteers. In particular, the serum levels of SP-A in patients with UIP were significantly higher than in patients with NSIP (p<0.0001, mean difference –58.3 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval –81.6 to –35.0), and BAL fluid levels of SP-D in patients with UIP were significantly lower than in patients with NSIP (p=0.01, mean difference 322.4 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval 79.3 to 565.5). Conclusion: Serum SP-A levels may be clinically useful as a biomarker to differentiate between UIP and NSIP. PMID:12511721

  13. Serum heat shock protein 27 levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Gabriella; Carucci, Patrizia; Lolli, Valentina; Cosso, Loretta; Dellavalle, Erika; Rolle, Emanuela; Cantamessa, Alessandro; Pinach, Silvia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Campra, Donata; Brunello, Franco; Bruno, Graziella; Rizzetto, Mario; Perin, Paolo Cavallo

    2013-03-01

    Levels of serum heat shock protein 27 (sHsp27) have been studied in numerous cancer types, but their potential relevance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is undetermined. Our aim was to compare sHsp27 levels in patients with HCC and HCC-free controls. Specifically, we recruited 71 patients with HCC (80 % with early tumour), 80 patients with chronic liver disease (59 with liver cirrhosis and 21 with chronic active hepatitis) and 42 healthy subjects. sHsp27 was measured by immunoenzymatic assay. Results showed that sHsp27 levels were significantly (p?

  14. Serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 as a potential biomarker for diagnosis, early recurrence and prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Kitajima, Takahito; Shimura, Tadanobu; Imaoka, Hiroki; Mori, Koichiro; Okigami, Masato; Yasuda, Hiromi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Saigusa, Susumu; Ohi, Masaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Goel, Ajay; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-12-01

    Chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection can initiate gastric carcinogenesis. As angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) mediates inflammation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, we investigated the functional and clinical significance of ANGPTL2 in human gastric cancer (GC). SiRNA knockdown studies were performed for the functional assessment of ANGPTL2 in GC cell lines. ANGPTL2 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 192 tissue specimens from GC patients. In addition, we screened serum ANGPTL2 levels from 32 GC patients and 23 healthy controls; and validated these results in 194 serum samples from GC patients and 45 healthy controls by ELISA. ANGPTL2 knockdown caused anoikis and inhibited proliferation, invasion and migration in GC cells. ANGPTL2 expression was upregulated in GC tissues compared to normal gastric mucosa; and high ANGPTL2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, early recurrence (P = 0.003) and poor prognosis (P = 0.007). Serum ANGPTL2 in GC patients was significantly higher than for healthy controls (P < 0.05), and accurately distinguished GC patients from healthy control (AUC = 0.865). The validation step confirmed significantly higher serum ANGPTL2 levels in GC patients than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curves yielded robust AUC value (0.831) accompanied by high sensitivity (73.0%) and specificity (82.2%) in distinguishing GC patients from healthy controls. High serum ANGPTL2, rather than its expression in matched tissues, was significantly associated with tumor progression, and emerged as an independent marker for recurrence (HR: 5.05, P = 0.0004) and prognosis (HR: 3.6, P = 0.01). Serum ANGPTL2 expression is a potential noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis, early recurrence and prognosis of GC patients. PMID:26420253

  15. Fluctuations of Serum Neuron Specific Enolase and Protein S-100B Concentrations in Relation to the Use of Shunt during Carotid Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dragas, Marko; Koncar, Igor; Opacic, Dragan; Ilic, Nikola; Maksimovic, Zivan; Markovic, Miroslav; Ercegovac, Marko; Simic, Tatjana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Davidovic, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in serum neuron specific enolase and protein S-100B, after carotid endarterectomy performed using the conventional technique with routine shunting and patch closure, or eversion technique without the use of shunt. Materials and Methods Prospective non-randomized study included 43 patients with severe (>80%) carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy in regional anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups: conventional endarterectomy with routine use of shunt and Dacron patch (csCEA group) and eversion endarterectomy without the use of shunt (eCEA group). Protein S-100B and NSE concentrations were measured from peripheral blood before carotid clamping, after declamping and 24 hours after surgery. Results Neurologic examination and brain CT findings on the first postoperative day did not differ from preoperative controls in any patients. In csCEA group, NSE concentrations decreased after declamping (P<0.01), and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.01), while in the eCEA group NSE values slightly increased (P=ns), accounting for a significant difference between groups on the first postoperative day (P=0.006). In both groups S-100B concentrations significantly increased after declamping (P<0.05), returning to near pre-clamp values 24 hours after surgery (P=ns). Sub-group analysis revealed significant decline of serum NSE concentrations in asymptomatic patients shunted during surgery after declamping (P<0.05) and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.01), while no significant changes were noted in non-shunted patients (P=ns). Decrease of NSE serum levels was also found in symptomatic patients operated with the use of shunt on the first postoperative day (P<0.05). Significant increase in NSE serum levels was recorded in non-shunted symptomatic patients 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion Variations of NSE concentrations seemed to be influenced by cerebral perfusion alterations, while protein S-100B values were unaffected by shunting strategy. Routine shunting during surgery for symptomatic carotid stenosis may have the potential to prevent postoperative increase of serum NSE levels, a potential marker of brain injury. PMID:25859683

  16. Foreign and endogenous serum protein extravasation during harmaline tremors or kainic acid seizures in the rat: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ruth, R E; Feinerman, G S

    1988-01-01

    Cerebrovascular permeability to protein (CVP-p) was assessed in rats following the systemic injection of either kainic acid (KA) or harmaline. The extravasation of a foreign (horseradish peroxidase, HRP) or an endogenous (rat immunoglobulin G, IgG) tracer protein was determined using immunohistochemical methods. During KA-induced seizures, an extravasation of both HRP and presumed IgG occurred in similar forebrain loci; a lamina-specific extravasation occurred within the dorsal hippocampus. During harmaline-induced tremors protein extravasation also occurred, but was tracer dependent. HRP reaction product was observed within the inferior olive, the cortex of the cerebellar vermis and the neocortex. However, IgG-like immunoreactivity was only detected within the circumventricular organs of harmaline-treated rats. Because KA, but not harmaline, is neurotoxic, the results are consistent with an influence of endogenous serum protein extravasation on seizure-related hippocampal damage. Possible homeostatic properties of altered CVP-p are also considered. PMID:3140571

  17. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  18. Attenuation of diabetic complications by C-phycoerythrin in rats: antioxidant activity of C-phycoerythrin including copper-induced lipoprotein and serum oxidation.

    PubMed

    Soni, Badrish; Visavadiya, Nishant P; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, the protective role of purified C-phycoerythrin (C-PE) against diabetic complications and Cu-mediated lipoprotein oxidation was evaluated. C-PE (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight per d) was administered to experimental streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats for 28 d. C-PE treatment successfully ameliorated diabetic complications by decreasing food intake, organ weights, serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, TAG, VLDL-cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), with increases in body weight, Hb, total protein, bilirubin and ferric-reducing ability of plasma values. Hepatic and renal tissues demonstrated significant decreases in TBARS, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene contents, with increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin E and vitamin C levels. Furthermore, the 4-week ex vivo and in vitro administration of C-PE (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) indicated a decrease in Cu-mediated serum oxidation. The kinetics of the LDL oxidation profile showed significant prolongation of the lag phase with declines in oxidation rate, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS. Results indicated the involvement of C-PE in the amelioration of diabetic complications by significant reductions in oxidative stress and oxidised LDL-triggered atherogenesis. PMID:19123960

  19. A K+ yptake protein, TrkA, is required for serum, protamine, and polymyxin B resistance in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chung; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chin; Jeang, Chii-Ling; Chang, Ming-Chung

    2004-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a highly virulent marine bacterium, is the causative agent of both serious wound infections and fatal septicemia in many areas of the world. To identify the genes required for resistance to human serum, we constructed a library of transposon mutants of V. vulnificus and screened them for hypersensitivity to human serum. Here we report that one of the isolated serum-susceptible mutants had a mutation in an open reading frame identified as trkA, a gene encoding an amino acid sequence showing high identity to that of TrkA of Vibrio alginolyticus, a protein required for the uptake of potassium. A trkA isogenic mutant was constructed via insertional inactivation, and it was significantly more easily killed by human serum, protamine, or polymyxin B than was the wild type. At K+ concentrations of 1 to 20 mM, this isogenic mutant showed attenuated growth compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, infection experiments demonstrated virulence attenuation when this mutant was administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously to both normal and iron-treated mice, indicating that TrkA may modulate the transport of potassium and resistance to host innate defenses and that it is important for virulence in mice. PMID:14742502

  20. Simple and rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone, using the protein A of Staphylococcus aureus as immunoadsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jungers, J.; Delogne-Desnoeck, J.; Robyn, C.

    1981-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive radioimmunoassay method for serum progesterone is described, which uses a solid-phase technique for separation of antibody-bound from antibody-free progesterone. Rabbit antiprogesterone immunoglobulins are adsorbed on the protein A of formaldehyde- and heat-treated Staphylococcus aureus cells (Pansorbin; Calbiochem-Behring Corp., La Jolla, California). The suspension of antibody-coated Pansorbin retains all its binding activity of 1-2-H(N)-progesterone when kept at + 4/sup 0/ or at -25/sup 0/C for at least 4 months. Dose-response curves obtained with ether-serum extracts and with the progesterone standard do not deviate significantly from parallelism. The progesterone standard gives identical dose-response curves whether diluted in the assay buffer or in a progesterone-free ether-serum extract. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.02 ng/assay tube. The intra-assay variation coefficient is 16%, and the routine interassay variation coefficient is 17%. The mean serum progesterone concentrations were 0.55 ng/ml during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and 12.5 ng/ml during the luteal phase. The average blank value for distilled water was 0.02 ng/assay tube.

  1. Isolation of protein-associated circular DNA from healthy cattle serum.

    PubMed

    Funk, Mathis; Gunst, Karin; Lucansky, Vincent; Müller, Hermann; Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-01-01

    Three replication-competent single-stranded DNA molecules sharing nucleotide similarity to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 2.36 were isolated from healthy bovine serum. PMID:25169856

  2. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the authors research into teratogenesis of blood serum of patients on medication or rats injected with drugs is presented. In addition studies concerning the role of methionine in the developing fetus is given. 68 refs.

  3. Contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis from corn in a patient with serum IgE specific for a salt-soluble corn protein of low molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Cristaudo, Antonio; Simonato, Barbara; Pasini, Gabriella; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Curioni, Andrea; Giannattasio, Matteo

    2004-08-01

    Among the cereals, wheat, rye, barley and oats, have been reported to cause protein contact dermatitis. However, in these cases neither the involvement of an immunological mechanism nor the role of specific protein(s) has been demonstrated. We present a case of protein contact dermatitis from corn. The patient presented with a Type I sensitization to corn, as shown by the presence of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and positivity to prick tests with both a flour suspension and the salt-soluble protein fraction of this cereal. The same corn preparations induced a strong urticarial reaction on scratch testing. This reaction was followed several days later by the appearance of erythema and then eczema at the site of application. When boiled, these preparations became inactive on both prick and scratch testing. Patch tests were negative in all cases. Immunoblotting performed with the patient's serum showed the presence of a unique IgE-binding protein band with a molecular weight of around 14 kDa, belonging to the salt-soluble corn protein fraction. Our results give the first clear evidence that cornflour can induce protein contact dermatitis. The IgE-binding 14-kDa protein has characteristics identical to those of the trypsin/alpha-amylase inhibitors from cereals. PMID:15373849

  4. DECREASED HEART RATE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBAMATE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY SERUM PROTEINS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that chlorpyrifos (CHP), an irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, induces hypertension in rats. Concomitant with hypertension, we found an increase in C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 , monocyte chemotactic protein-5 and interfer...

  5. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  6. Adaptation and cultivation of permanent fish cell line CCO in serum-free medium and influence of protein hydrolysates on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Radoševi?, Kristina; Duki?, Bogdanka; Andlar, Martina; Slivac, Igor; Gaurina Sr?ek, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe the adaptation of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line to commercially available Ultra Culture serum-free medium by gradual reduction of serum concentration from 10 to 0 %. With this approach we obtained CCO cells fully adapted to serum-free conditions in 32 days. Growth, nutritional and morphological characteristics of these cells remained unchanged when compared to the control group kept in the presence of serum. Additionally, three commercially available protein hydrolysates were tested for the effects on growth performance of the newly serum-free adapted CCO cells. Supplementation with wheat gluten hydrolysate resulted in growth similar to serum free medium solely, while yeast and soy hydrolysates showed inhibitory effects on the cell growth. Taken together, the successful adaptation of CCO cells to serum-free conditions indicates their potential to be used in cytotoxicity assays when serum omission is demanded or for developing serum free bioprocesses using CCO cells. However, a more extended study on nutrient supplementation is still required to further boost the cell growth in a serum free culture. PMID:24993608

  7. Serum Level of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) Before and After Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure in Children.

    PubMed

    Zoair, Amr; Mawlana, Wegdan; Abo-Elenin, Amany; Korrat, Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Remodeling of the heart following injury affects the morbidity and mortality in children presented with heart failure (HF). Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel biomarker that could be of help to predict the prognosis and risk stratification in those children. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of H-FABP in children with heart failure before and after treatment. The study was conducted as a prospective cohort study. It included 30 children with HF as a patient group and 20 healthy children matched for age and sex as a control group. Echocardiographic assessment of the heart was done using conventional Doppler echocardiography. Serum levels of (H-FABP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment of HF. All patients were observed during follow-up period of 3 months. There was a significant difference in the serum level of H-FABP in our patients before treatment (5.278 ± 3.253 ng/ml) compared with after treatment (2.089 ± 0.160 ng/ml) with significant difference compared with the control group. There was a significant increase in the serum level of H-FABP with increase in the severity of heart failure according to Ross classification. Significant increase in the H-FABP was associated with adverse outcome. Serum levels of H-FABP strongly correlated with clinical and echocardiographic assessment of LV performance of children with HF, and its levels significantly increased in children with adverse outcome suggesting its value as a useful diagnostic and prognostic predictor (with high sensitivity and specificity). PMID:26123812

  8. Interaction study on bovine serum albumin physically binding to silver nanoparticles: Evolution from discrete conjugates to protein coronas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Zhong, Ruibo; Li, Wanrong; Liu, Yushuang; Bai, Zhijun; Yin, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Gong, Pei; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The nanostructures formed by inorganic nanoparticles together with organic molecules especially biomolecules have attracted increasing attention from both industries and researching fields due to their unique hybrid properties. In this paper, we systemically studied the interactions between amphiphilic polymer coated silver nanoparticles and bovine serum albumins by employing the fluorescence quenching approach in combination with the Stern-Volmer and Hill equations. The binding affinity was determined to 1.30 × 107 M-1 and the interaction was spontaneously driven by mainly the van der Waals force and hydrogen-bond mediated interactions, and negatively cooperative from the point of view of thermodynamics. With the non-uniform coating of amphiphilic polymer, the silver nanoparticles can form protein coronas which can become discrete protein-nanoparticle conjugates when controlling their molar ratios of mixing. The protein's conformational changes upon binding nanoparticles was also studied by using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Gene-Specific DNA Methylation Association with Serum Levels of C-Reactive Protein in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan V.; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A.; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.

    2013-01-01

    A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications. PMID:23977389

  10. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    PubMed

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3?-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250?l serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100pg/ml for DHEA, 50pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30pg/ml for T, 10pg/ml for 3?-diol and DHT, 5pg/ml for E1, and 1pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks. PMID:26254607

  11. Effect of lipids on insect cell growth and expression of recombinant proteins in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R S; Nagano, Y; Yokota, T; Hwan, S F; Fletcher, T; Lydersen, K

    1996-01-01

    The lipid emulsion components of a serum-free insect cell medium were varied and evaluated for effects on cell growth and recombinant protein expression. The growth of High-Five(TM) cells was significantly affected by polyol Pluronic F-68 and Tween-80, but not by lipids. Pluronic was essential for cell growth, while Tween-80 was required to achieve maximum cell densities. A dose response effect was observed for Tween-80 with optimal cell growth at a concentration of 25 mg/l. Cholesterol had a minor effect on cell growth, but was essential for the expression of recombinant proteins. The expression of ?-galactosidase (?-gal) was directly affected by cholesterol with optimal expression at a concentration of 5.4 mg/l. Vitamin E, important as an antioxidant to stabilize lipids, did not directly affect recombinant protein expression. Although lipids were not required for cell growth, the presence of lipids were required during the cell growth phase in order to achieve efficient infection with baculovirus. These studies help to define the important components, and range of concentrations, for lipid emulsions which can effectively replace serum in insect cell culture. PMID:22358931

  12. Electrolyte effect on the phase behavior of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine-serum-albumin proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V K; Kohlbrecher, J

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of an electrolyte on the phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles with two globular proteins-cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa] and anionic bovine serum albumin (MW 66.4 kDa). The results are compared with our earlier published work on similar systems without any electrolyte [I. Yadav, S. Kumar, V. K. Aswal, and J. Kohlbrecher, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032304 (2014)]. Both the nanoparticle-protein systems transform to two phase at lower concentration of protein in the presence of an electrolyte. The autocorrelation function in DLS suggests that the diffusion coefficient (D) of a nanoparticle-protein system decreases in approaching two phase with the increase in protein concentration. This variation in D can be attributed to increase in attractive interaction and/or overall increase in the size. Further, these two contributions (interaction and structure) are determined from the SANS data. The changes in the phase behavior of nanoparticle-protein systems in the presence of an electrolyte are explained in terms of modifications in both the repulsive and attractive components of interaction between nanoparticles. In a two-phase system individual silica nanoparticles coexist along with their fractal aggregates. PMID:26066176

  13. Electrolyte effect on the phase behavior of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine-serum-albumin proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of an electrolyte on the phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles with two globular proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa] and anionic bovine serum albumin (MW 66.4 kDa). The results are compared with our earlier published work on similar systems without any electrolyte [I. Yadav, S. Kumar, V. K. Aswal, and J. Kohlbrecher, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032304 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.032304]. Both the nanoparticle-protein systems transform to two phase at lower concentration of protein in the presence of an electrolyte. The autocorrelation function in DLS suggests that the diffusion coefficient (D) of a nanoparticle-protein system decreases in approaching two phase with the increase in protein concentration. This variation in D can be attributed to increase in attractive interaction and/or overall increase in the size. Further, these two contributions (interaction and structure) are determined from the SANS data. The changes in the phase behavior of nanoparticle-protein systems in the presence of an electrolyte are explained in terms of modifications in both the repulsive and attractive components of interaction between nanoparticles. In a two-phase system individual silica nanoparticles coexist along with their fractal aggregates.

  14. Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for screening clinically healthy dogs for occult disease.

    PubMed

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Knouse, J

    2015-12-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a biomarker that correlates well with diagnosis and prognosis in certain canine cancers. Canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is a widely accepted marker of inflammation correlated with increased risk and severity of various diseases. We evaluated serum TK1 and cCRP concentrations in apparently healthy dogs (n?=?360). All dogs were followed up for a minimum of 6?months by health questionnaire. All dogs with cancer were identified using a proprietary dual-biomarker algorithm [termed Neoplasia Index (NI)]. Specificity of positive NI is 0.91 and high positive is 0.98. All-cause mortality was 20% in dogs with elevated cCRP and 3% in dogs with low cCRP. The performance of serum TK1 and cCRP as tools for screening for occult cancer is improved when evaluated together. Serum TK1 and cCRP (unified in the NI) are useful in the screening of occult canine cancer. cCRP is useful in screening for other serious diseases. PMID:23859156

  15. Regulation of heat shock protein message in Jurkat cells cultured under serum-starved and gravity-altered conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although our understanding of effects of space flight on human physiology has advanced significantly over the past four decades, the potential contribution of stress at the cellular and gene regulation level is not characterized. The objective of this ground-based study was to evaluate stress gene regulation in cells exposed to altered gravity and environmentally suboptimal conditions. We designed primers to detect message for both the constitutive and inducible forms of the heat shock protein, HSP-70. Applying the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we probed for HSP-70 message in human acute T-cell leukemia cells, Jurkat, subjected to three types of environmental stressors: (1) altered gravity achieved by centrifugation (hypergravity) and randomization of the gravity vector in rotating bioreactors, (2) serum starvation by culture in medium containing 0.05% serum, and (3) temperature elevation (42 degrees C). Temperature elevation, as the positive control, significantly increased HSP-70 message, while centrifugation and culture in rotating bioreactors did not upregulate heat shock gene expression. We found a fourfold increase in heat shock message in serum-starved cells. Message for the housekeeping genes, actin and cyclophilin, were constant and comparable to unstressed controls for all treatments. We conclude that gravitational perturbations incurred by centrifugal forces, exceeding those characteristic of a Space Shuttle launch (3g), and culture in rotating bioreactors do not upregulate HSP-70 gene expression. In addition, we found RT-PCR useful for evaluating stress in cultured cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. RELATIVE CONCENTRATIONS OF SERUM NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY TO VP3 AND VP7 PROTEINS IN ADULTS INFECTED WITH A HUMAN ROTAVIRUS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two outer capsid rotavirus proteins, VP3 and VP7, have been found to elicit neutralizing antibody production, but the immunogenicity of these proteins during human rotavirus infection has not been determined. The relative amounts of serum neutralizing antibody against the VP3 and...

  17. Denaturation of human serum albumin under the action of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide according to fluorescence polarization data of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Zhuravleva, V. V.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Denaturation of human serum albumin (HSA) under the action of cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is studied at different pH values by estimating the rotational diffusion of protein via fluorescence polarization. The degree of polarization of HSA tryptophan fluorescence, the rotational relaxation time, the rotational diffusion coefficient and the effective Einstein radius of the HSA molecules in solutions with different CTAB concentrations at different pH values are determined. The obtained rotational diffusion parameters of the HSA molecules show that under the action of CTAB, HSA denaturation has a one-stage character and proceeds more intensely and effectively at pH values higher than the p I value of protein (4.7).

  18. Selective binding of naphthoquinone derivatives to serum albumin proteins and their effects on cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jali, Bigyan R; Kuang, Yuting; Neamati, Nouri; Baruah, Jubaraj B

    2014-05-01

    Naphthoquinone derivatives such as lapachol, plumbagin, dichloroallyl lawsone show anticancer activity and generally cytotoxicity measurements are carried out in presence of bovine serum albumin; so understanding on the ability of serum albumin binding with such derivatives are essential. We have investigated cytotoxicity and serum albumin binding of a series of structurally related naphthoquinone derivatives. Substrate dependency and high selectivity in binding of naphthoquinone tethered carboxylic acids or pyridines with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are observed. For example, the binding constant of BSA with 3-(1,4-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-dioxonaphthalen-3yl-thio)propanoic acid is ?594 times higher than 3-(1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino)benzoic acid; whereas 4-(1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino)benzoic acid shows ?367 times higher binding constant than the latter compound. The BSA weakly bind to pyridine tethered naphthoquinones, whereas HSA does not binds with them. The binding constant of HSA with 2-(1,4-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-dioxonaphthalene-3-ylthio)benzoic acid is 134 times higher than the HSA binding constant with 2,2'-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxo-naphthalen-2,3-diylthio)dipropanoic acid. Among the naphthoquinone carboxylic acids, the 3-(1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino)benzoic acid binds selectively to BSA, but it does not bind to HSA. The 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or 4-mercaptobenzoic acid strongly binds to BSA. The binding of BSA with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid or 2-mercaptobenzoic acid are insignificant. We have not observed clear relationships of structure of naphthoquinone derivatives versus serum albumin binding, but could identify the compound having the best IC50 values of cytotoxicity among the twelve naphthoquinone compounds. The compound 3-(1,2-dihydro-1,2-dioxonaphthalen-4-yl-thio)propanoic acid in four cancer cell lines has IC50 values in the range 2.7-7.6?M. This compound also has optimum binding constant with BSA (35.042×10(3)Lmol(-1)) or HSA (21.427×10(3)Lmol(-1)). The cytotoxicity values of the compounds were influenced by concentration of BSA. PMID:24560625

  19. Population genetic studies of the Philippine Negritos. I. A pilot survey of red cell enzyme and serum protein groups.

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, K; Misawa, S; Harada, S; Sumpaico, J S; Medado, P M; Ogonuki, H

    1978-01-01

    Electrophoretic surveys of red cell enzyme and serum protein systems representing 21 genetic loci were carried out on 129 blood samples of the Negritos of Pampanga, Central Luzon, the Philippines. Nine (out of 16) red cell enzyme loci and four (out of five) serum protein loci showed polymorphic variation. Low frequencies of ACP 1A, GPTs1, ESD2, and Hp1, and a markedly high frequency of PGM12 were contrasted to those in non-Negrito Filipinos. Variant ESD phenotypes with a slowly migrating isozyme occurred in high frequency. The new allele designated as ESD3Negrito (ESD3N) had a frequency of .10 +/- .019. In AK, a variant phenotype indistinguishable from AK 2-1 was observed in 14% of the sample. In the Gc system, a fast migrating variant was discovered in high frequency which was distinct from Gc Ab and Gc J. The variant allele, denoted GcNegrito (GcN), had a frequency of .21 +/- .025. A relatively high degree of allelic diversity in the Negrito sample was also suggested by the average heterozygosity for 21 loci screened (.165), which is compared to that of the Japanese population (.140). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:655166

  20. Population genetic studies of the Philippine Negritos. I. A pilot survey of red cell enzyme and serum protein groups.

    PubMed

    Omoto, K; Misawa, S; Harada, S; Sumpaico, J S; Medado, P M; Ogonuki, H

    1978-03-01

    Electrophoretic surveys of red cell enzyme and serum protein systems representing 21 genetic loci were carried out on 129 blood samples of the Negritos of Pampanga, Central Luzon, the Philippines. Nine (out of 16) red cell enzyme loci and four (out of five) serum protein loci showed polymorphic variation. Low frequencies of ACP 1A, GPTs1, ESD2, and Hp1, and a markedly high frequency of PGM12 were contrasted to those in non-Negrito Filipinos. Variant ESD phenotypes with a slowly migrating isozyme occurred in high frequency. The new allele designated as ESD3Negrito (ESD3N) had a frequency of .10 +/- .019. In AK, a variant phenotype indistinguishable from AK 2-1 was observed in 14% of the sample. In the Gc system, a fast migrating variant was discovered in high frequency which was distinct from Gc Ab and Gc J. The variant allele, denoted GcNegrito (GcN), had a frequency of .21 +/- .025. A relatively high degree of allelic diversity in the Negrito sample was also suggested by the average heterozygosity for 21 loci screened (.165), which is compared to that of the Japanese population (.140). PMID:655166

  1. Association of serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 and epinephrine levels in metabolically healthy but obese individuals: In vitro and in vivo evidence

    PubMed Central

    MENG, QING-XIN; WEN, LONG; CHEN, XIN-YU; ZHONG, HUI-JU

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the association of serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) levels with insulin sensitivity and serum epinephrine levels in metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. We also investigated the effects of epinephrine on ANGPTL2 expression in adipocytes in vitro. We examined the metabolic characteristics and serum ANGPTL2 and epinephrine levels in 100 non-diabetic obese postmenopausal women. Subjects were classified as MHO (n=25) or at-risk (n=25) based on the upper and lower quartiles of insulin sensitivity, respectively. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with increasing doses of epinephrine (10, 30 and 50 nM) in the presence or absence of phentolamine (10 ?M), propranolol (0.3 ?M), LY294002 (50 ?M) or protein kinase A inhibitor fragment 6–22 amide (PKAI, 1 mM) for 24 h. We observed that serum ANGPTL2 levels were negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=?0.23, P=0.021) and serum epinephrine level (r=?0.62, P<0.001) in the study subjects, with the MHO subjects displaying significantly lower serum ANGPTL2 and higher serum epinephrine levels than the at-risk subjects. Epinephrine reduced the ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein levels in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol and PKAI were able to eliminate this reduction in ANGPTL2 levels whereas phentolamine and LY294002 were not. The in vitro findings indicated that epinephrine decreased ANGPTL expression at the mRNA and protein levels via the ?-adrenoceptors and the PKA signaling pathway. This study suggests that ?-receptor activation helps to maintain the metabolic profile of MHO individuals and prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by decreasing serum ANGPTL2 levels. PMID:23837045

  2. Alternative pathway fof bovine complement Immunochemical studies on factor B-like serum protein and its conversion product B gamma 2.

    PubMed Central

    Tabel, H

    1981-01-01

    Rabbits produced antibodies to a factor B-like serum protein (factor Bbov), its conversion product B gamma 2 and some other bovine serum proteins after repeated immunization with zymosan which previously had been incubated with fresh bovine serum. Such antisera were used to monitor purification of B gamma 2 from fresh bovine sera incubated with zxymosan. Subsequently, antisera specific for factor Bbov and B gamma 2 were produced. Antiserum produced against B gamma 2 cross-reacted with factor Bbov. Functional assays for factor Bbov were carried out in a hemolytic system with guinea pig erythrocytes in EGTA buffer. Heat inactivation (56 degrees C/5 min) of bovine serum destroyed the antigenicity of factor Bbov but not that of B gamma 2. Factor Bbov had an apparent molecular weight of 95,000 and B gamma 2 a molecular weight of 40,000 daltons. Conversion of factor Bbov to B gamma 2 was determined qualitatively by immunoelectrophoresis and quantitatively by radial immunodiffusion. Conversion of factor Bbov to B gamma 2 in bovine serum, in the presence of zymosan or cobra venom factor (CoVF) required Mg++ but not Ca++, did not occur in heat inactivated (56 degrees C/5 min) serum and was maximal, but not complete, when fresh bovine serum was incubated with zymosan (20 mg/mL) at 37 for two hours. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2 Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6176300

  3. Complementary mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of the protein corona: a case study on gold nanoparticles and human serum proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Iglesias, Nerea; Bettmer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    Once nanoparticles enter a biological system, it is known that their surface is instantly covered by the biomolecules present with preference to proteins. This protein corona has been a subject of numerous studies in order to reveal its composition. Besides that, growing interest exists in its quantitative determination in order to gain a deeper insight into the nature of these nanoparticle-protein bioconjugates. Only a few analytical methods are available nowadays, so the aim of this study is to provide a reliable and alternative methodology for the quantification of the protein corona. The suggested approach is based on the assumption that the total protein content within the corona can be correlated to its sulfur concentration due to the presence of cysteine and methionine as sulfur-containing amino acids. Once the most abundant proteins had been identified with the use of gel electrophoresis with subsequent peptide analysis by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the isolated nanoparticle-protein conjugates were subjected to total analysis of sulfur and the corresponding metal being present in the nanoparticles by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concept is exemplarily demonstrated on citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) incubated with human serum. Two different purification procedures were tested in order to isolate the sought bioconjugates. 26 most abundant proteins could be identified and an average of approximately 40 S atoms per protein was calculated and used for further studies. ICP-MS analyses of S/Au ratios served for the quantification of the protein corona revealing an absolute number of proteins bound to the incubated GNPs. Two main results could be obtained for this specific system under the chosen experimental conditions: the number of proteins per GNP decreased with their size from 10 nm to 60 nm and the obtained values suggested that the protein corona in this specific case was theoretically formed either as a monolayer (60 nm GNPs) or as a multilayer (5-7 protein layers per 10 nm GNP). Studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein showed similar results.Once nanoparticles enter a biological system, it is known that their surface is instantly covered by the biomolecules present with preference to proteins. This protein corona has been a subject of numerous studies in order to reveal its composition. Besides that, growing interest exists in its quantitative determination in order to gain a deeper insight into the nature of these nanoparticle-protein bioconjugates. Only a few analytical methods are available nowadays, so the aim of this study is to provide a reliable and alternative methodology for the quantification of the protein corona. The suggested approach is based on the assumption that the total protein content within the corona can be correlated to its sulfur concentration due to the presence of cysteine and methionine as sulfur-containing amino acids. Once the most abundant proteins had been identified with the use of gel electrophoresis with subsequent peptide analysis by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the isolated nanoparticle-protein conjugates were subjected to total analysis of sulfur and the corresponding metal being present in the nanoparticles by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concept is exemplarily demonstrated on citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) incubated with human serum. Two different purification procedures were tested in order to isolate the sought bioconjugates. 26 most abundant proteins could be identified and an average of approximately 40 S atoms per protein was calculated and used for further studies. ICP-MS analyses of S/Au ratios served for the quantification of the protein corona revealing an absolute number of proteins bound to the incubated GNPs. Two main results could be obtained for this specific system under the chosen experimental conditions: the number of proteins per GNP decreased with their size from 10 nm to 60 nm and t

  4. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl? treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  5. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  6. Serum-neutralizing antibody to VP4 and VP7 proteins in infants following vaccination with WC3 bovine rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R L; Knowlton, D R; Greenberg, H B; Schiff, G M; Bernstein, D I

    1990-01-01

    Serum specimens from infants 2 to 12 months old vaccinated with the WC3 bovine rotavirus were analyzed to determine the relative concentrations of neutralizing antibody to the VP4 and VP7 proteins of the vaccine virus. To do this, reassortant rotaviruses that contained the WC3 genome segment for only one of these two neutralization proteins were made. The segment for the other neutralization protein in these reassortants was from heterotypic rotaviruses that were serotypically distinct from WC3. Sera were examined from 31 infants who had no evidence of a previous rotavirus infection and the highest postvaccination WC3-neutralizing antibody titers (i.e., 160 to 600) of the 103 subjects administered the vaccine. A reassortant (3/17) that contained both neutralization proteins from the heterotypic rotaviruses, i.e., EDIM (EW strain of mouse rotavirus) VP7 and rhesus rotavirus VP4, was not neutralized by these sera (geometric mean titer [GMT], less than 20). A reassortant (E19) that contained EDIM VP7 and WC3 VP4 was also very poorly neutralized by these antisera (GMT = 20). In contrast, antibody titers to a reassortant (R20) that contained WC3 VP7 and rhesus rotavirus VP4 were higher than those against WC3 (GMTs of 458 and 313, respectively). Thus, VP7 appeared to be the dominant immunogen for production of neutralizing antibody after intestinal infection of previously uninfected infants vaccinated with WC3 bovine rotavirus. Images PMID:2159538

  7. Serum levels of nitric oxide and protein oxidation in goats seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Tonin, A A; Weber, A; Ribeiro, A; Camillo, G; Vogel, F F; Moura, A B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Da Silva, A S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in serum of goats naturally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. Thus, it was measured NOx and AOPP levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for T. gondii and N. caninum [negative control group (A)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositive for N. caninum [group B]; eighteen (n=18) positive for T. gondii [group C]; and thirteen (n=13) seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii [group D]. As results, it was observed that animals seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii (Groups B to D) showed higher serum levels of NOx (P<0.001; F=9.5), when compared with seronegative animals. Additionally, it was observed a positive correlation between NOx levels and antibodies titrations for N. caninum (P<0.01; r=0.68) and T. gondii (P<0.05; r=0.56). AOPP levels were increase in groups C and D (P>0.05). Interestingly, group B did not show increase in AOPP, what led us to hypothesize that the major protein damage is linked to T. gondii infection. Therefore, our results showed an increased in NOx levels, which was probably related to the immune response, since it is an important inflammatory mediator; and AOPP were increased in groups where there was seropositivity for T. gondii, but not for the group composed only by animals seropositive for N. caninum, allowing us to suggest higher protein damage in toxoplasmosis. PMID:26031474

  8. Early pregnancy maternal serum PAPP-A and urinary protein-creatinine ratio as predictive markers of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, B; Fatema, N; Jebunnessa, F; Shamim, S; Chowdhury, S B; Ali, L

    2010-04-01

    Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a major complication of pregnancy and is associated with high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible causal association of PIH with maternal serum PAPP-A and urinary protein-creatinine ratio (UPCr) as well as to evaluate the usefulness of these two variables as predictive markers of PIH. A total 200 women of 8-16 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in this study. All the patients were followed up till delivery for the development of pregnancy induced hypertension. Thirty patients were lost in the follow up, 3(1.76%) developed preeclampsia (PE) and 14(8.23%) gestational hypertension (GH). By a nested case-control design the 17 pregnancy induced hypertension cases were compared with 48 Controls with normal pregnancy outcome. Maternal serum PAPP-A was significantly lower in the pregnancy induced hypertension group compared to Control [mIU/ml, median (range) 1.8(0.70-4.1) vs. 5.45(2.7-10), p<0.001]. UPCr was significantly higher in the pregnancy induced hypertension group compared to Control (mg/mmol, mean+/-SD, 6.86+/-1.56 vs. 4.75+/-0.96, p<0.001). When tested as a predictive marker of pregnancy induced hypertension the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of maternal serum PAPP-A in the lowest 25th percentile were 82%, 95%, 87% and 93%. At 75th percentile the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of UPCr were 52%, 85%, 56% and 83% respectively. PMID:20395925

  9. Exploratory Cohort Study of Associations between Serum C - Reactive Protein and Fatigue after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Simiao; Duncan, Fiona; Anderson, Niall H.; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Macloed, Malcolm R.; Mead, Gillian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Post-stroke fatigue is a common and distressing problem but little is known about its biological mechanisms. This cohort study was to investigate associations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and fatigue after stroke. Methods Patients were assessed at one, six and 12 months after their stroke onset, with the Fatigue Assessment Scale, a case definition of post-stroke fatigue, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and daily step counts. Blood samples were collected at each assessment and the CRP level was determined by a standard CRP immunoassay. Cross-sectional associations between CRP and fatigue at each time point were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient and independent-samples t-test. Whether CRP levels at one month predict fatigue scores at six and 12 months was explored by multiple linear regression, with anxiety, depression, and daily step counts as covariates. Results Sixty-five patients (mean age 67 years, 65% men) were included: 61 at one month, 49 at six months, and 41 at 12 months. CRP levels and fatigue scores were not associated at one month (p = 0.88) or 12 months (p = 0.56), but weakly associated at six months (r = 0.27, p = 0.04); however, this association was no longer significant (p = 0.14) after controlling for the effects of covariates. The CRP level was not associated with the fulfilment of case definition of post-stroke fatigue at any time points (all p > 0.05). The CRP level at one month was not a significant predictor for fatigue levels at either six months (p = 0.93) or 12 months (p = 0.78). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence for the association between CRP and PSF in stroke patients. Future studies with larger sample sizes and controlling for potential confounders are needed to investigate whether this association exists. PMID:26599129

  10. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77±0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the 3 feeds below the LF. As the fluxes approached the LF, SP removal factors decreased due to fouling. Feeding a MF system with MPC instead of skim milk will reduce the required membrane surface area, but the permeate protein composition will be slightly higher in casein content. PMID:26298759

  11. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein based single serum dilution ELISA for the detection of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sunil K; Kamble, Nitin M; Pillai, Aravind S; Gaikwad, Satish S; Khulape, Sagar A; Reddy, M R; Mohan, C Madhan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Dey, Sohini

    2014-12-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis is ubiquitous and highly contagious disease of poultry, with profound effect on commercial poultry production. For effective control of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), quick and specific diagnosis is of utmost importance. In this study, the virus was isolated from clinical samples from India and the full length nucleocapsid (N) gene was amplified, cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. The purified recombinant N protein based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for IBV to measure specific antibody in the sera of chickens. A total of 310 chicken sera samples were tested using the commercial IDEXX kit along with the assay developed. A linear correlation was obtained between predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding serum titres observed as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to construct a standard curve from which an equation was derived which confirmed their correlation. The developed equation was then used to extrapolate predicated ELISA antibody titer from corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution. The assay proved to be specific (95.8%) and sensitive (96.8%) when compared to the commercial IDEXX ELISA test. PMID:25173423

  12. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. PMID:21241377

  13. Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fakanya, Wellington M.; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at ?200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL?1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device. PMID:25587427

  14. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Karen E; Kidd, Stephen P; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naďve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis "infectome." These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the same study. PMID:26322022

  15. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J.; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M.; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naďve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis “infectome.” These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the same study. PMID:26322022

  16. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on CoCrMo surface: effect of temperature and protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Valero Vidal, C; Olmo Juan, A; Igual Muńoz, A

    2010-10-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto CoCrMo surface has been studied as a function of concentration of BSA and temperature by electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to investigate the interfacial behaviour of BSA at open circuit potential (OCP). The charge transfer resistance was very sensitive to the amount of adsorbed protein, indicating that the adsorption process was accompanied by the transfer of charge and influenced the mechanism and kinetics of the corrosion reaction. At all the temperatures studied, adsorption of BSA onto the CoCrMo surface was successfully described with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EIS study was also carried out for determine the surface charge density, resulting from protein adsorption, and it was shown to be directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed protein (surface concentration). Thermodynamic data of adsorption was obtained for analyzing the adsorption of BSA onto CoCrMo surface. Gibbs free energy of adsorption, DeltaG(ADS) values, for BSA in the investigated temperature range (-51kJmol(-1)) showed that the molecules have a strong affinity for the CoCrMo surface. Enthalpy (DeltaH(ADS)) and entropy (DeltaS(ADS)) of adsorption suggested that the adsorption process of BSA onto the CoCrMo surface is an endothermic process and the molecule suffers structural changes when adsorbing on the metallic surface. PMID:20554436

  17. Heterogeneity of human serum amyloid A protein. Five different variants from one individual demonstrated by cDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Steinkasserer, A; Weiss, E H; Schwaeble, W; Linke, R P

    1990-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA), a chemically polymorphic protein, is the most sensitive marker protein of the acute phase and the precursor of reactive amyloidosis, which is characterized by deposits of amyloid A protein (AA). We investigated the variability of the SAA gene family in one individual by sequencing 11 SAA-specific clones from an acute-phase-liver cDNA library. At least five different SAA variants were deduced from six different cDNAs. The 3' untranslated gene segments fall into two groups, based on nucleotide sequence and variability in length. Various nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were found predominantly in the 3' portion. Some of these substitutions are unique and increase the number of SAA variants in one individual to at least five. Moreover, genomic DNA of four individuals was examined by analysis of restriction-fragment length polymorphism. Besides two conserved strongly labelled bands, additional polymorphic bands were observed, indicating isotypic and/or allotypic SAA variations. Finally, three different mRNA species were detected by Northern-blot analysis, a finding that might be of relevance for the stability of SAA transcripts. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1971508

  18. The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    A scaffoldin gene cluster was identified in the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. The previously described scaffoldin gene, cipV, encodes an N-terminal family 9 glycoside hydrolase, a family 3b cellulose-binding domain, seven cohesin domains, and a C-terminal dockerin. The gene immediately downstream of cipV was sequenced and designated scaB. The protein encoded by this gene has 942 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 100,358 and includes an N-terminal signal peptide, four type II cohesions, and a C-terminal dockerin. ScaB cohesins 1 and 2 are very closely linked. Similar, but not identical, 39-residue Thr-rich linker segments separate cohesin 2 from cohesin 3 and cohesin 3 from cohesin 4, and an 84-residue Thr-rich linker connects the fourth cohesin to a C-terminal dockerin. The scaC gene downstream of scaB codes for a 1,237-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. A long, ca. 550-residue linker separates the third cohesin and the SLH module of ScaC and is characterized by an 18-residue Pro-Thr-Ala-Ser-rich segment that is repeated 27 times. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaC polypeptide (excluding the signal peptide) is 124,162. The presence of the cohesins and the conserved SLH module implies that ScaC acts as an anchoring protein. The ScaC cohesins are on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree that is close to, but distinct from, the type I cohesins. Affinity blotting with representative recombinant probes revealed the following specific intermodular interactions: (i) an expressed CipV cohesin binds selectively to an enzyme-borne dockerin, (ii) a representative ScaB cohesin binds to the CipV band of the cell-free supernatant fraction, and (iii) a ScaC cohesin binds to the ScaB dockerin. The experimental evidence thus indicates that CipV acts as a primary (enzyme-recognizing) scaffoldin, and the protein was also designated ScaA. In addition, ScaB is thought to assume the role of an adaptor protein, which connects the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) to the cohesin-containing anchoring scaffoldin (ScaC). The cellulosome system of A. cellulolyticus thus appears to exhibit a special type of organization that reflects the function of the ScaB adaptor protein. The intercalation of three multiple cohesin-containing scaffoldins results in marked amplification of the number of enzyme subunits per cellulosome unit. At least 96 enzymes can apparently be incorporated into an individual A. cellulolyticus cellulosome. The role of such amplified enzyme incorporation and the resultant proximity of the enzymes within the cellulosome complex presumably contribute to the enhanced synergistic action and overall efficient digestion of recalcitrant forms of cellulose. Comparison of the emerging organization of the A. cellulolyticus cellulosome with the organizations in other cellulolytic bacteria revealed the diversity of the supramolecular architecture. PMID:12867464

  19. Serum proteomic signature of human chagasic patients for the identification of novel potential protein biomarkers of disease.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Zago, M Paola; Nuńez, Sonia; Gupta, Shivali; Burgos, Federico Nuńez; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease is initiated upon infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the health consequences is a decline in heart function, and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this manifestation are not well understood. To explore the possible mechanisms, we employed IgY LC10 affinity chromatography in conjunction with ProteomeLab PF2D and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to resolve the proteome signature of high and low abundance serum proteins in chagasic patients. MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis yielded 80 and 14 differentially expressed proteins associated with cardiomyopathy of chagasic and other etiologies, respectively. The extent of oxidative stress-induced carbonyl modifications of the differentially expressed proteins (n = 26) was increased and coupled with a depression of antioxidant proteins. Functional annotation of the top networks developed by ingenuity pathway analysis of proteome database identified dysregulation of inflammation/acute phase response signaling and lipid metabolism relevant to production of prostaglandins and arachidonic acid in chagasic patients. Overlay of the major networks identified prothrombin and plasminogen at a nodal position with connectivity to proteome signature indicative of heart disease (i.e., thrombosis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation of blood vessels or the aorta, and increased permeability of blood vessel and endothelial tubes), and inflammatory responses (e.g., platelet aggregation, complement activation, and phagocyte activation and migration). The detection of cardiac proteins (myosin light chain 2 and myosin heavy chain 11) and increased levels of vinculin and plasminogen provided a comprehensive set of biomarkers of cardiac muscle injury and development of clinical Chagas disease in human patients. These results provide an impetus for biomarker validation in large cohorts of clinically characterized chagasic patients. PMID:22543060

  20. Homotypic serum antibody responses to rotavirus proteins following primary infection of young children with serotype 1 rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, S C; Bishop, R F

    1990-01-01

    The class-specific antibody responses to serotype 1 rotavirus structural proteins were examined by immunoblotting with sera obtained from young children hospitalized with acute rotavirus diarrhea caused by serotype 1. All were believed to be primary infections. Three consecutive samples were obtained from 16 patients during the acute and convalescent phases of the disease and then approximately 4 months later. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-class antibody responses to two inner capsid proteins (VP2 and VP6) and to the major homologous outer capsid protein (VP7) were detected in all patients. Antibody responses to VP6 were rapid, increased in intensity during 20 to 40 days after the onset of symptoms, and persisted for more than 4 months. Responses to VP2 and VP7 were more delayed, were maximal in convalescent-phase sera, and decreased markedly in intensity 4 months after the onset of symptoms in the majority of children. Two patients with evidence of mixed infection showed persisting high levels of antibody to VP7. Responses to the outer capsid protein VP4 were detected in 67% of patients, peaked at 20 to 40 days after the onset of symptoms, and were no longer detected at 4 months in the majority of patients. It is likely that the immunoblotting technique underestimated responses to VP4. Acute- and convalescent-phase sera (known to contain antirotavirus IgM or IgA measured by enzyme immunoassay) were also examined by immunoblotting. IgM- and IgA-class antibody responses to viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP7 appeared to be qualitatively identical to those observed for IgG in the same serum samples. Images PMID:2172292

  1. Detection of folic acid protein in human serum using reduced graphene oxide electrodes modified by folic-acid.

    PubMed

    He, Lijie; Wang, Qian; Mandler, Daniel; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-01-15

    The detection of disease markers is considered an important step for early diagnosis of cancer. We design in this work a novel electrochemical sensing platform for the sensitive and selective detection of folic acid protein (FP). The platform is fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) onto a gold electrode and post-functionalization of rGO with folic acid. Upon FP binding, a significant current decrease can be measured using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Using this scheme, a detection limit of 1pM is achieved. Importantly, the method also allows the detection of FP in serum being thus an appealing approach for the sensitive detection of biomarkers in clinical samples. PMID:26342582

  2. Differential Expression of Serum Glycodelin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Melvin H.; Nurudeen, Sahadat K.; Bucur, Maria; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Sauer, Mark V.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated whether serum glycodelin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) predict the likelihood of embryo implantation in recipients undergoing donor egg in vitro fertilization. We measured glycodelin and IGFBP-1 at 6 points from lining check to lutenizing hormone (LH) + 31. ?-Human chorionic gonadotropin levels were first measured at LH + 17. The recipients were divided into those without embryo implantation (group 1, n = 6) and those with successful implantation (group 2, n = 30). Although this is a negative study in that neither glycodelin nor IGFBP-1 alone reflected endometrial (EM) receptivity, the glycodelin/IGFBP-1 ratio on the day of blastocyst transfer was higher in recipients who achieved pregnancy (P = .05). At LH + 17, glycodelin was higher (P = .04), and IGFBP-1 was lower (P = .004) in recipients who achieved pregnancy when compared to those who did not. These observations are likely due to EM changes induced by successful embryo implantation. PMID:23585335

  3. A 28,000-dalton protein of normal mouse serum binds specifically to the inner core region of bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Brade, L; Brade, H

    1985-01-01

    Normal mouse serum was found to contain a protein, referred to here as factor, which binds to the inner core region of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of various bacterial families. Since factor-LPS interactions resulted in activation of guinea pig complement, factor activity could be assayed by a passive hemolysis test with sheep erythrocytes coated with LPS or lipid A from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (which was found earlier to bind particularly well to factor). Factor was purified by G-50 and hydroxyapatite chromatography whereby the specific hemolytic activity was enriched 1,675-fold. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions revealed the presence of a 28,000-dalton protein as the main band. The identity of this band was determined by absorption experiments with LPS-coated sheep erythrocytes or latex beads, whereby the 28,000-dalton band disappeared after specific absorption and could be recovered from the absorbent. The binding specificity of factor was determined in a passive hemolysis inhibition assay with defined oligosaccharides representative for the inner core region of LPS. Thus, the di- and trisaccharides alpha-D-mannoheptopyranosyl-(1----5)-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-mannoocto nic acid and alpha-D-mannoheptopyranosyl-(1----3)-alpha-D-mannoheptopyranosy l-(1----5)-2- keto-3-deoxy-D-mannooctonic acid, respectively, were able to inhibit binding of factor to LPS. The results are in accordance with our earlier observation that the heptose-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-mannooctonic acid region represents a common antigen of bacterial LPS. Rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against this common antigen and purified factor was found to exhibit the same specificity for LPS. Factor activity was followed in mice in vivo after injection of LPS; it disappeared completely 15 min after the injection of LPS and reappeared within 1 h. Images PMID:4066028

  4. Affinity of rosmarinic acid to human serum albumin and its effect on protein conformation stability.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xin; Wang, Xiangchao; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-02-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenol contained in many aromatic plants with promising biological activities. The interaction between RA and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by multi-spectroscopic, electrochemistry, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence emission of HSA was quenched by RA through a combined static and dynamic quenching mechanism, but the static quenching was the major constituent. Fluorescence experiments suggested that RA was bound to HSA with moderately strong binding affinity through hydrophobic interaction. The probable binding location of RA was located near site I of HSA. Additionally, as shown by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, RA can result in conformational and structural alterations of HSA. Furthermore, the molecular dynamics studies were used to investigate the stability of the HSA and HSA-RA system. Altogether, the results can provide an important insight for the applications of RA in the food industry. PMID:26304336

  5. Common variants in the CRP gene are associated with serum C-reactive protein levels and body mass index in healthy individuals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alfaro, E; Fernández-Tilapa, G; Salazar-Martínez, E; Cruz, M; Illades-Aguiar, B; Parra-Rojas, I

    2012-01-01

    Variants in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene have been found to be associated with various phenotypic traits. We evaluated the effect of four SNPs in the CRP gene on serum levels of protein and body mass index (BMI) in 150 unrelated Mexican subjects from 18 to 25 years old, without hypertension, non-overweight, and without inflammatory diseases, non-smoking and non-consumers of alcohol. Subjects were measured for BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and serum glucose and triglycerides. The identification of SNPs was performed by PCR-RFLP. Three of the four SNPs were associated with variation in serum levels of CRP, increased in TT (rs1130864) and GG (rs2794521) genotypes, and decreased in the AA genotype of rs1205. The TT genotype was associated with a significant increase in BMI (? = 1.1 kg/m˛, P = 0.04). Two haplotypes were significantly associated with increased serum levels of CRP, but not with BMI. We conclude that variation in the CRP gene affects serum protein levels. PMID:22614460

  6. Serum levels of sclerostin, Dickkopf-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein-4 are not changed in individuals with high bone mass causing mutations in LRP5

    PubMed Central

    Foer, D.; Lee, G. S.; Bihuniak, J.; Sun, B.; Sullivan, R.; Belsky, J.; Insogna, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We compared circulating levels of Wnt inhibitors among patients with high bone mass mutations in LRP5, unaffected kindred, and unrelated normal controls. Inhibitors were unchanged in affected and unaffected kindred. We saw no meaningful differences between controls and affected individuals. LRP5 signaling may not influence circulating levels of these inhibitors. Introduction It is thought that gain-of-function mutations in LRP5 result in high bone mass syndromes because these allelic variants confer resistance to the actions of endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling. We therefore attempted to determine if circulating levels of Wnt inhibitors are altered in patients with gain-of-function mutations in LRP5. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in a university research center. Serum was collected from consented volunteers known to have either the G171V or N198S gain-of-function mutations in LRP5, kindred members affected with either mutation, unrelated kindred, and unrelated normal age-matched controls. BMD was provided or measured on site. Results There were no significant differences found in the serum levels of sclerostin (SOST), Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), or secreted frizzled-related protein-4 (SFRP-4) in affected vs. unaffected individuals from different kindreds or when compared to age-matched unrelated normal individuals. Mean serum SOST values in affected and unaffected kindred members and unrelated normal controls were 52.7±6.1, 36.5±9.6, and 54.8±5.4, respectively. For Dkk-1, the values were 25.9±3.4, 25.7±3.0, and 17.3±2.3 and for SFRP-4, 38.1±2.3, 39.8±3.6, and 28.5± 1.7. Serum levels of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were not different in the three groups. Conclusions Circulating levels of endogenous Wnt inhibitors do not change in patients with gain-of-function mutations in LRP5 including Dkk1, which is suppressed by Wnt signaling. It may be that circulating levels of Wnt inhibitors do not reflect changes in target tissues. It is also possible that other mechanisms besides or in addition to resistance in Wnt inhibitors explains the skeletal effects of these mutations. PMID:24927689

  7. Centromere protein F includes two sites that couple efficiently to depolymerizing microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Grissom, Paula M.; Arzhanik, Vladimir K.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Firm attachments between kinetochores and dynamic spindle microtubules (MTs) are important for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere protein F (CENP-F) has been shown to include two MT-binding domains, so it may participate in this key mitotic process. Here, we show that the N-terminal MT-binding domain of CENP-F prefers curled oligomers of tubulin relative to MT walls by approximately fivefold, suggesting that it may contribute to the firm bonds between kinetochores and the flared plus ends of dynamic MTs. A polypeptide from CENP-F’s C terminus also bound MTs, and either protein fragment diffused on a stable MT wall. They also followed the ends of dynamic MTs as they shortened. When either fragment was coupled to a microbead, the force it could transduce from a shortening MT averaged 3–5 pN but could exceed 10 pN, identifying CENP-F as a highly effective coupler to shortening MTs. PMID:26101217

  8. Multiplexed Activity-based Protein Profiling of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Reveals Large Functional Changes upon Exposure to Human Serum

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fortuin, Suereta; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Ansong, Charles; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-08-03

    Environmental and metabolic adaptability is critical for survival of the fungal human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus in the immunocompromised lung. We employed an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach utilizing a new aryl vinyl sulfonate probe and a serine hydrolase probe combined with quantitative LC-MS based accurate mass and time (AMT) tag proteomics for the identification of functional pathway adaptation of A. fumigatus to environmental variability relevant to pulmonary Invasive Aspergillosis. When the fungal pathogen was grown with human serum, metabolism and energy processes were markedly decreased compared to no serum culture. Additionally, functional pathways associated with amino acid and protein biosynthesis were limited as the fungus scavenged from the serum to obtain essential nutrients. Our approach revealed significant metabolic adaptation by A. fumigatus, and provides direct insight into this pathogen’s ability to survive and proliferate.

  9. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in canine serum.

    PubMed

    Wagner, B; Freer, H; Rollins, A; Erb, H N

    2011-04-15

    Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease affecting humans, dogs, horses and other species. It is caused by infection with spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group which are transmitted to the mammalian host by infected ticks (Ixodes). Exposure to B. burgdorferi is commonly diagnosed by serological testing. The gold standard for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi is a two-step procedure of an ELISA followed by confirmatory Western blotting (WB). Here, we developed and validated a new bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in canine serum which combined the testing by ELISA and WB in a single quantitative test. B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC and OspF were expressed in E. coli. The recombinant proteins were coupled to fluorescent beads providing the matrix of the assay. Two sets of canine sera were used for validation of the multiplex assay. First, sera from 79 dogs with known ELISA and WB results were used to establish the conditions of the assay. These samples were selected to provide similar numbers of pre-tested sera ranging from negative to high positive results and included sera from vaccinated and/or naturally infected dogs. A high correlation was observed for detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in the single and multiplex assays (n=79). Spearman's rank correlations were 0.93, 0.88 and 0.96 for OspA, OspC and OspF, respectively. Second, a total of 188 canine serum samples that were not tested previously were used for further multiplex assay validation. All samples were also blindly analyzed for antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens by WB. The WB results provided a 'relative gold standard' for each antigen and were used to perform a receiver operating curve analysis. The areas under the curves were 0.93 for OspA, 0.82 for OspC, and 0.89 for OspF. Multiplex assay interpretation ranges for antibodies to all three B. burgdorferi antigens in canine serum were established by likelihood analysis. The diagnostic sensitivities of the individual OspA, OspC and OspF bead-based assays were 83%, 62% and 82%, respectively, and the diagnostic specificities were 90%, 89% and 86%, respectively. The new multiplex assay provides a sensitive and fully quantitative platform for the simultaneous evaluation of antibodies to B. burgdorferi OspA, OspC and OspF antigens and distinguishes between antibodies that originated from vaccination or natural exposure to B. burgdorferi. PMID:21208663

  10. Effect of Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum C-reactive Protein Levels Using ELISA in Both Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bharat; Patil, Neha; Yadav, Manoj; Tripathi, Shashank; Sinha, Saurabh; Sharma, Saurabh; Gupta, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can be defined as a local inflammatory process which mediates destruction of periodontal tissues & is triggered by bacterial insult. In periodontal infections, the levels of C reactive proteins are elevated as compared to the levels in a periodontally healthy individual. The study was done to determine the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive, chronic and periodontally healthy subjects and to evaluate the effect of surgical periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein levels. Materials and Methods Serum samples were collected from 150 participants (50 healthy control patients (non-periodontitis), 50 patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. Serum C- reactive protein levels were assessed by means of immunoturbidimetric assay at baseline for subjects in all the 3 groups and 3 months after completion of surgical therapy. Results The mean baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the Groups I, II and III were 1.65±0.57 mg/L, 3.03±2.14 mg/L and 3.09±2.27 mg/L respectively. After treatment, the mean C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Groups II and III reduced from 3.03±1.67 mg/L to 1.46±1.67 mg/L and from 3.09±1.21 to 1.43±1.21 mg/L respectively. Similar results were found for probing depth and all indexes in Group II and III after treatment. Also, the mean attachment loss in Groups II and III reduced, so the results were highly significant. Conclusion Successful periodontal treatment results in significant decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:26557605

  11. Introducing Proteomics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Simple 2D Gel Electrophoresis Exercise with Serum Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Thomas D.; Craig, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) remains an important tool in the study of biological systems by proteomics. While the use of 2DGE is commonplace in research publications, there are few instructional laboratories that address the use of 2DGE for analyzing complex protein samples. One reason for this lack is the fact that the preparation…

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK IN MEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer. C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation, has been investigated with regard to colorectal cancer in only three previous studies and results from these investigations are inconsistent. We examined ser...

  13. Vitamin B12 and its binding proteins in the serum of some wild game species.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Keep, M E; Colman, N; Metz, J

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of vitamin B12 and its binding proteins was measured in the impala, nyala, wildebeest, zebra, bushpig, warthog, and rhino, all existing in their natural state. Marked differences were found between some species. The variations observed are probably true species differences, unrelated to environmental factors. PMID:1162511

  14. Antibody-free, targeted mass-spectrometric approach for quantification of proteins at low picogram per milliliter levels in human plasma/serum

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sun, Xuefei; Zhao, Rui; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Hossain, Mahmud; Xie, Fang; Wu, Si; Kim, Jong Seo; Jones, Nathaniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-09-18

    The detection and quantification of proteins at sub-ng/mL concentrations in plasma/serum is of critical importance for candidate biomarker verification. Sensitive detection of serum proteins has typically been achieved by immunoassays; however, de novo development of antibodies is associated with high cost and long lead time. To address this challenge, we developed an antibody-free strategy, termed high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM), for achieving accurate detection of proteins at ~50 pg/mL level in plasma/serum using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). This strategy is based on high resolution reversed phase liquid chromatographic separations for analyte enrichment along with intelligent selection of target fractions via on-line SRM monitoring of internal standards and fraction multiplexing prior to SRM quantification. Our work represents a major technological advance for achieving pg/mL level of serum protein quantification without specific affinity reagents and holds great promise for broad applications in biomarker verification and systems biology studies.

  15. Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Li, H; Luo, R; Zhou, Y; Li, C; Liao, M; Huang, H; Lv, X; Xie, Z; He, M

    2013-09-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma?(HCC) is serious?condition associated with a?high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B?virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a?possible association with HCC progression. Keywords: HCC, AFP Negative, iTRAQ, GSN. PMID:24050542

  16. Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Li, H; Luo, R; Zhou, Y; Liao, C Li M; Huang, H; Lv, X; Xie, Z; He, M

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is serious condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a possible association with HCC progression. PMID:24195504

  17. Dietary supplementation with dried chicory root triggers changes in the blood serum proteins engaged in the clotting process and the innate immune response in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lepczynski, A; Herosimczyk, A; Ozgo, M; Skomial, J; Taciak, M; Barszcz, M; Berezecka, N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the systemic immune and metabolic alterations in the blood serum of growing pigs in response to a dietary supplementation with 4% of dried chicory roots. This was achieved by examining the influence of the experimental diet on serum protein changes especially these related with immunology and lipid metabolism. Serum proteins with the isoelectric point ranging from pH 3.0 to 10.0 were separated using high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. As a result, we found that experimental diet triggered significant changes in 37 protein spots. Of these, 14 were up-regulated, whereas 23 showed down-regulation. Of 37 significantly altered protein spots, 24 were successfully identified, representing 14 distinct gene products. Implementation of the dried chicory roots into the diet of growing pigs caused a significant down-regulation of apolipoprotein C-II complement component C6, C-reactive protein, CD14 antigen, C4b binding protein ? and ? chains, and fibrinogen. Piglets fed experimental diet had similar IgA, IgG and IgM concentrations, although the level of IgM tended to be lower compared to the control group. It is concluded that diet supplemented with 4% of dried chicory root may exert anti-inflammatory properties and affect lipid metabolism in growing pigs. PMID:25716964

  18. Elevation of C-reactive protein in serum of Channa punctatus as an indicator of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Bhattacharya, S

    1992-08-01

    Effect of some pollutants like heavy metals, non-metals and pesticides on the circulating level of C-reactive protein (CRP) which is an acute phase plasma protein was studied in a freshwater murrel C. punctatus. Fish was exposed to nonlethal doses of these xenobiotics which were apparently safe. But the level of CRP detected by sensitive single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) technique showed that within 12 hr of exposure the nonlethal doses of xenobiotics could initiate the acute phase response in terms of elevated CRP titre. Heavy metals caused the acute phase within 24 hr, nonmetals and Metacid-50 within 48 hr exposure. The carbamate compound, carbaryl demonstrated a biphasic response to CRP level which may be correlated with the reversible type of anticholinesterase property of this compound while Metacid-50 is an irreversible type of anticholinesterase agent. The assessment of the CRP level in the serum of fish may be utilized as a primary bioindicator of a contaminated environment toxic enough to mount an acute phase response. PMID:1459653

  19. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid intake on the relationship between lnterleukin-6 and acute phase proteins in serum in youths.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, N; Wakabayashi, I; Yoshimoto, S; Masui, H; Sakamoto, K

    1997-07-01

    Twenty male volunteers 20-25 years old were examined to determine their serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), acute phase proteins and lipids before, immediately after and one hour after a load of 90 watts for 20 minutes using a Monark ergometer, and the same parameters were reexamined after eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake of 1.125 g/day for 2 weeks. By EPA intake, EPA level of the membranes of red blood cells increased significantly by 75.6% and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) by 53.8%. The IL-6 level increased significantly by 17% and C-reactive protein (CRP) by 11.7%, but fibrinogen (Fbg) decreased by 9.6%. After EPA intake, at one hour after the load, the change rate of IL-6 decreased to that of before EPA. The change rate of ?(1)-acid glycoprotein ( ?(1)-AGP) increased in the group in which IL-6 was unchanged and did so significantly in the group in which it increased, but tended to increase in the group in which it decreased. Thus the change rate of sialic acids (SA) increased significantly in both the IL-6 unchanged and increased groups. It is suggested that EPA activated IL-6, which was related to the increase of ?(1)-AGP as an activator of immunity. The change rate of sialic acid (SA) as an index of acute phase protiens was correlated significantly and positively with that of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. PMID:21432455

  20. Diagnostic Values For Club Cell Secretory Protein (CC16) in Serum of Patients of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kokuho, Nariaki; Ishii, Takeo; Kamio, Koichiro; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kurahara, Misuzu; Hattori, Kumiko; Motegi, Takashi; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko; Kida, Kozui

    2015-08-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is an under-recognized syndrome for which the diagnostic use of serum biomarkers is an attractive possibility. We hypothesized that CC16 and/or TGF-?1 or combinations with other biomarkers are useful for diagnosing CPFE. Patients with respiratory symptoms and a smoking history, with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were divided into the following three groups according to findings of high-resolution computed tomography of the chest: controls without either emphysema or fibrosis, patients with emphysema alone, and patients compatible with the diagnosis of CPFE. Serum concentrations of CC16, TGF-?1, SP-D, and KL-6 were measured in patients whose condition was stable for at least 3 months. To investigate changes in biomarkers of lung fibrosis in patients with a life-long smoking history, additional measurements were performed on the patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) of smoking history. The mean age of the first three groups was 68.0 years, whereas that of the IPF group was 71.8 years, and the groups contained 36, 115, 27, and 10 individuals, respectively. The serum concentration of CC16 in the four groups was 5.67 ± 0.42, 5.66 ± 0.35, 9.38 ± 1.04 and 22.15 ± 4.64 ng/ml, respectively, indicating that those patients with lung fibrosis had a significantly higher concentration. The combined use of CC16, SP-D, and KL-6 provided supportive diagnosis in conjunction with radiological imaging in diagnosis of CPFE. We conclude that a combination of biomarkers including CC16 could provide useful information to screen and predict the possible diagnosis of CPFE. PMID:25244495

  1. Human Serum Amyloid A3 (SAA3) Protein, Expressed as a Fusion Protein with SAA2, Binds the Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Takeshi; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Maru, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) possesses characteristics distinct from the other serum amyloid A isoforms, SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4. High density lipoprotein contains the latter three isoforms, but not SAA3. The expression of mouse SAA3 (mSAA3) is known to be up-regulated extrahepatically in inflammatory responses, and acts as an endogenous ligand for the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. We previously reported that mSAA3 plays an important role in facilitating tumor metastasis by attracting circulating tumor cells and enhancing hyperpermeability in the lungs. On the other hand, human SAA3 (hSAA3) has long been regarded as a pseudogene, which is in contrast to the abundant expression levels of the other isoforms. Although the nucleotide sequence of hSAA3 is very similar to that of the other SAAs, a single oligonucleotide insertion in exon 2 causes a frame-shift to generate a unique amino acid sequence. In the present study, we identified that hSAA3 was transcribed in the hSAA2-SAA3 fusion transcripts of several human cell lines. In the fusion transcript, hSAA2 exon 3 was connected to hSAA3 exon 1 or hSAA3 exon 2, located approximately 130kb downstream from hSAA2 exon 3 in the genome, which suggested that it is produced by alternative splicing. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting and isolating hSAA3 protein for the first time by an immunoprecipitation-enzyme linked immune assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize the hSAA3 unique amino acid sequence. We also demonstrated that hSAA3 bound oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor (oxLDL receptor, LOX-1) and elevated the phosphorylation of ERK, the intracellular MAP-kinase signaling protein. PMID:25738827

  2. A probiotic mixture including galactooligosaccharides decreases fecal ?-glucosidase activity but does not affect serum enterolactone concentration in men during a two-week intervention.

    PubMed

    Kekkonen, Riina A; Holma, Reetta; Hatakka, Katja; Suomalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2011-05-01

    A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 × 10(10) CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8-26.4)] by probiotics alone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P = 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal ?-glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased ?-glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and with probiotics alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal ?-glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal ?-glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone. PMID:21411613

  3. Association between serum concentrations of hypoxia inducible factor responsive proteins and excessive erythrocytosis in high altitude peru.

    PubMed

    Painschab, Matthew S; Malpartida, Gary E; Dávila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Kolb, Todd M; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-03-01

    Painschab, Matthew S., Gary E. Malpartida, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Robert H. Gilman, Todd M. Kolb, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, J. Jaime Miranda, and William Checkley. Association between serum concentrations of hypoxia inducible factor responsive proteins and excessive erythrocytosis in high altitude Peru. High Alt Med Biol 16:26-33, 2015.-Long-term residence at high altitude is associated with the development of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), which is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE). EE occurs under chronic hypoxia, and a strongly selected mutation in hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2A) has been found in native Tibetans that correlates with having a normal hemoglobin at high altitude. We sought to evaluate differences in plasma levels of four HIF-responsive proteins in 20 participants with EE (hemoglobin >21?g/dL in men and >19 in women) and in 20 healthy, age- and sex-matched participants without EE living at high altitude in Puno, Peru. We performed ELISA to measure plasma levels of the four HIF-responsive proteins: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGF-R1), endothelin-1, and erythropoietin. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the association between HIF-responsive proteins and echocardiography-estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in a subset of 26 participants. sVEGF-R1 was higher in participants with vs. without EE (mean 107?pg/mL vs. 90?pg/mL; p=0.007). Although plasma concentrations of endothelin-1, VEGF, and erythropoietin were higher in participants with vs. without EE, they did not achieve statistical significance (all p>0.25). Both sVEGF-R1 (p=0.04) and erythropoietin (p=0.04) were positively associated with PASP after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. HIF-responsive proteins may play a pathophysiological role in altitude-related, chronic diseases but our results did not show consistent changes in all measured HIF-responsive proteins. Larger studies are needed to evaluate for additional genetic and environmental risk factors. PMID:25760230

  4. Differentiating the Influences of Aging and Adiposity on Brain Weights, Levels of Serum and Brain Cytokines, Gastrointestinal Hormones, and Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Abrass, Christine K; Hansen, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Aging and obesity exert important effects on disease. Differentiating these effects is difficult, however, because weight gain often accompanies aging. Here, we used a nested design of aged, calorically restricted, and refed rats to measure changes in brain and blood levels of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, brain amyloid precursor protein levels, and brain and body weights. By comparing groups and using path analysis, we found divergent influences of chronological aging versus body weight, our main findings being (i) changes in whole brain weight and serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels correlated better with body weight than with chronological aging, (ii) a decrease in brain cytokines and brain plasminogen activator inhibitor levels correlated better with chronological aging than with body weight, (iii) serum erythropoietin levels were influenced by both body weight and aging, (iv) serum plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum cytokines, and brain tumor necrosis factor were not influenced by aging or body weight, and (v) brain amyloid precursor protein more closely related to body weight and serum levels of gastrointestinal hormones than to brain weight, chronological aging, or cytokines. These findings show that although aging and body weight interact, their influences are distinct not only among various cytokines and hormones but also between the central nervous system and the peripheral tissue compartments. PMID:25128822

  5. Protein binding-dependent decreases in hERG channel blocker potency assessed by whole-cell voltage clamp in serum.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Michael; Sorota, Steve; Chu, Inhou; Soares, Anthony; Priestley, Tony; Nomeir, Amin A

    2010-04-01

    In vitro hERG blocking potency is measured in drug discovery as part of an integrated cardiovascular risk assessment. Typically, the concentrations producing 50% inhibition are measured in protein-free saline solutions and compared with calculated free therapeutic in vivo Cmax values to estimate a hERG safety multiple. The free/unbound fraction is believed responsible for activity. We tested the validity of this approach with 12 compounds by determining potencies in voltage clamp studies conducted in the absence and presence of 100% dialyzed fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bath drug concentrations in saline solutions were measured to account for loss of compounds due to solubility, stability, and/or adsorption. Protein binding in dialyzed FBS was measured to enable predictions of serum IC50s based on the unbound fraction and the saline IC50. For 11 of 12 compounds, the measured potency in the presence of dialyzed FBS was within 2-fold of the predicted potency. The predicted IC50 in dialyzed FBS for one highly bound compound, amiodarone, was 9-fold higher than the measured serum IC50. These data suggest that for highly bound compounds, direct measurement of IC50s in the presence of 100% serum may provide a more accurate estimate of in vivo potencies than the approach based on calculated serum shifts. PMID:20125032

  6. Effects of Whole Grain, Fish and Bilberries on Serum Metabolic Profile and Lipid Transfer Protein Activities: A Randomized Trial (Sysdimet)

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Maria; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Joukamo, Laura; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Gylling, Helena; Oreši?, Matej; Jauhiainen, Matti; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Objective We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods Altogether 131 subjects (40–70 y, BMI 26–39 kg/m2) with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet), b) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED), or c) refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control). Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites. Results There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable. Conclusions The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly explain the known protective effects of fish consumption against atherosclerosis. Trial Registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781. PMID:24587337

  7. Correlation of immunity in experimental syphilis with serum-mediated aggregation of Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, M A; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A; Blanco, D R

    1999-07-01

    We have previously shown by freeze-fracture electron microscopy that serum from infection-immune syphilitic rabbits aggregates the low-density membrane-spanning Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins (TROMPs). The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship could be demonstrated between acquired immunity in experimental rabbit syphilis, serum complement-dependent treponemicidal antibody, and antibody directed against TROMPs as measured by the aggregation of TROMP particles. Three groups of T. pallidum-infected rabbits were treated curatively with penicillin at 9 days, 30 days, and 6 months postinfection to generate various degrees of immunity to challenge reinfection. Sera from rabbits completely susceptible to localized and disseminated reinfection possessed a low titer of treponemicidal antibody (/=50% of a treponemal suspension) and showed a correspondingly low level of TROMP aggregation (16.5% of the total number of outer membrane particles counted) similar to normal serum controls (13. 4%); the number of particles within these aggregates never exceeded three. Sera from partially immune rabbits, which were susceptible to local reinfection but had no evidence of dissemination, showed an increase in the titer of treponemicidal antibody (1:16) compared to the completely susceptible group (

  8. Microfiltration: Effect of retentate protein concentration on limiting flux and serum protein removal with 4-mm-channel ceramic microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Hurt, E E; Adams, M C; Barbano, D M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to determine if the limiting flux and serum protein (SP) removal were different at 8, 9, or 10% true protein (TP) in the microfiltration (MF) retentate recirculation loop using 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes with 4-mm-channel diameters operated at 50 °C using a diluted milk protein concentrate with 85% protein on a total solids basis (MPC85) as the MF feed. The limiting flux for the MF of diluted MPC85 was determined at 3 TP concentrations in the recirculation loop (8, 9, and 10%). The experiment was replicated 3 times for a total of 9 runs. On the morning of each run, MPC85 was diluted with reverse osmosis water to an MF feed TP concentration of 5.4%. In all runs, the starting flux was 55 kg/m(2) per hour, the flux was increased in steps until the limiting flux was reached. The minimum flux increase was 10 kg/m(2) per hour. The limiting flux decreased as TP concentration in the recirculation loop increased. The limiting flux was 154 ± 0.3, 133 ± 0.7, and 117 ± 3.3 kg/m(2) per hour at recirculation loop TP concentrations of 8.2 ± 0.07, 9.2 ± 0.04, and 10.2 ± 0.09%, respectively. No effect of recirculation loop TP concentration on the SP removal factor was detected. However, the SP removal factor decreased from 0.80 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.02 as flux was increased from the starting flux of 55 kg/m(2) per hour to the limiting flux, with a similar decrease seen at all recirculation loop TP concentrations. PMID:25682139

  9. Proteins immunoreactive with antibody against a human leptin fragment are found in serum and tissues of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubian, S; Filosa, M F; Youson, J H

    2001-07-01

    An affinity-purified, polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide corresponding to amino acids 137-156 at the carboxy terminus of human leptin (16 kD) was used to search for immunoreactive protein(s) in the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Immunoblots of serum from different phases of the life cycle showed the presence of a 65-kD immunoreactive protein in the larvae and all stages of metamorphosis but not in feeding juvenile and upstream migrant adults. Extracts of tissues known to store fat were also examined using the same antibody. Muscle and fat column from all phases tested (larvae, stage 2 and 4 metamorphosing animals, feeding juveniles and upstream migrants) showed 100- and 50-kD immunoreactive proteins. Extracts of nephric fold, the primary site of fat storage during metamorphosis, lacked the 100-kD protein but had the 50 kD; they also had a 16 kD immunoreactive protein not found in the other tissues. The immunoreactivity of the proteins of both serum and tissue extracts was blocked by pretreatment of the antibody with the leptin-derived antigen. The results indicate that P. marinus has proteins that share at least one epitope with mammalian leptin. PMID:11435132

  10. Comparative serum proteomic analysis identified afamin as a downregulated protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with non-131I-avid lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Song*, Hong-Jun; Xue*, Yan-Li; Qiu, Zhong-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background The loss of 131I uptake ability in metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is becoming a major obstacle in radioiodine treatment. However, there is no effective way to screen for 131I uptake ability in metastases. The identification of differentially expressed proteins by serum proteomics may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation of DTC. Materials and methods Serum samples were obtained from papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with non-131I-avid lung metastases and 131I-avid lung metastases. Differential protein analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Candidate protein spots showing differences in expression between the two groups were identified by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and were validated by western blotting. Results We found that afamin is downregulated in the serum of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with non-131I-avid lung metastases. Conclusion Afamin may be a potential serum biomarker for early screening of 131I uptake ability in DTC metastases and could therefore be of value in guiding radioiodine treatment decisions. PMID:24089082

  11. Serum- and Glucocorticoid-induced Protein Kinase 1 (SGK1) Increases the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Airway Epithelial Cells by Phosphorylating Shank2E Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Koeppen, Katja; Coutermarsh, Bonita A.; Madden, Dean R.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    The glucocorticoid dexamethasone increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) abundance in human airway epithelial cells by a mechanism that requires serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) activity. The goal of this study was to determine whether SGK1 increases CFTR abundance by phosphorylating Shank2E, a PDZ domain protein that contains two SGK1 phosphorylation consensus sites. We found that SGK1 phosphorylates Shank2E as well as a peptide containing the first SGK1 consensus motif of Shank2E. The dexamethasone-induced increase in CFTR abundance was diminished by overexpression of a dominant-negative Shank2E in which the SGK1 phosphorylation sites had been mutated. siRNA-mediated reduction of Shank2E also reduced the dexamethasone-induced increase in CFTR abundance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the glucocorticoid-induced increase in CFTR abundance requires phosphorylation of Shank2E at an SGK1 consensus site. PMID:24811177

  12. Gla-Rich Protein Is a Novel Vitamin K-Dependent Protein Present in Serum That Accumulates at Sites of Pathological Calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Carla S.B.; Cavaco, Sofia; Neves, Pedro L.; Ferreira, Ana; Joăo, Alexandre; Williamson, Matthew K.; Price, Paul A.; Cancela, M. Leonor; Simes, Dina C.

    2009-01-01

    Mineralization of soft tissues is an abnormal process that occurs in any body tissue and can greatly increase morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins play a crucial role in these processes; matrix Gla protein is considered one of the most relevant physiological inhibitors of soft tissue calcification know to date. Several studies have suggested that other, still unknown, VKD proteins might also be involved in soft tissue calcification pathologies. We have recently identified in sturgeon a new VKD protein, Gla-rich protein (GRP), which contains the highest ratio between number of Gla residues and size of the mature protein so far identified. Although mainly expressed in cartilaginous tissues of sturgeon, in rat GRP is present in both cartilage and bone. We now show that GRP is a circulating protein that is also expressed and accumulated in soft tissues of rats and humans, including the skin and vascular system in which, when affected by pathological calcifications, GRP accumulates at high levels at sites of mineral deposition, indicating an association with calcification processes. The high number of Gla residues and consequent mineral binding affinity properties strongly suggest that GRP may directly influence mineral formation, thereby playing a role in processes involving connective tissue mineralization. PMID:19893032

  13. Synthesis of nano-bioactive glass-ceramic powders and its in vitro bioactivity study in bovine serum albumin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabian, Nima; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glasses and ceramics have proved to be able to chemically bond to living bone due to the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface. The aim of this work was preparation and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic by sol-gel method. Nano-bioglass-ceramic material was crushed into powder and its bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of hydroxyapatite layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. The obtained nano-bioactive glass-ceramic was analyzed before and after contact with BSA solution. This study used scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to examine its morphology, crystallinity and composition. The TEM images showed that the NBG particles size were 10-40 nm. Bioactivity of nanopowder was confirmed by SEM and XRD due to the presence of a rich bone-like apatite layer. Therefore, this nano-BSA-bioglass-ceramic composite material is promising for medical applications such as bone substitutes and drug carriers.

  14. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promotes macrophage-mediated tubular injury, but not glomerular injury, in nephrotoxic serum nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Gregory H.; Schwarting, Andreas; Kinoshita, Koji; Lan, Hui Y.; Rollins, Barrett J.; Kelley, Vicki Rubin

    1999-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is upregulated in renal parenchymal cells during kidney disease. To investigate whether MCP-1 promotes tubular and/or glomerular injury, we induced nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) in MCP-1 genetically deficient mice. Mice were analyzed when tubules and glomeruli were severely damaged in the MCP-1–intact strain (day 7). MCP-1 transcripts increased fivefold in MCP-1–intact mice. MCP-1 was predominantly localized within cortical tubules (90%), and most cortical tubules were damaged, whereas few glomerular cells expressed MCP-1 (10%). By comparison, there was a marked reduction (>40%) in tubular injury in MCP-1–deficient mice (histopathology, apoptosis). MCP-1–deficient mice were not protected from glomerular injury (histopathology, proteinuria, macrophage influx). Macrophage accumulation increased adjacent to tubules in MCP-1–intact mice compared with MCP-1–deficient mice (70%, P < 0.005), indicating that macrophages recruited by MCP-1 induce tubular epithelial cell (TEC) damage. Lipopolysaccharide-activated bone marrow macrophages released molecules that induced TEC death that was not dependent on MCP-1 expression by macrophages or TEC. In conclusion, MCP-1 is predominantly expressed by TEC and not glomeruli, promotes TEC and not glomerular damage, and increases activated macrophages adjacent to TEC that damage TEC during NSN. Therefore, we suggest that blockage of TEC MCP-1 expression is a therapeutic strategy for some forms of kidney disease. PMID:9884336

  15. Preparation and characterization of bovine serum albumin surface-imprinted thermosensitive magnetic polymer microsphere and its application for protein recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangjie; Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Wei; Lei, Xingfeng; Fan, Xinlong; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Hepeng; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-01-15

    A novel bovine serum albumin surface-imprinted thermosensitive magnetic composite microsphere was successfully prepared by the surface grafting copolymerization method in the presence of temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), functional monomer methacrylic acid (MAA) and cross-linking agent N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The structure and component of the thermosensitive magnetic molecularly imprinted microsphere were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of thermosensitivity, adsorption capacity, selectivity and reusability showed the formation of a thermosensitivity grafting polymer layer P(NIPAM-MAA-MBA) on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 and the good adsorption capacity and specific recognition for template protein. When the adsorption temperature was higher than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), shape memory effect of imprinted cavities would be more effective. In other words, it was more conducive to capture template molecules under this condition and the imprinting factor would be higher. On the other hand, when the desorption temperature was lower than LCST of PNIPAM, the decrease of shape memory effect between imprinted cavities and template molecules would facilitate the release of template molecules from the imprinted cavities. Based on this property, the adsorption and desorption of template molecules could be regulated by system temperature indirectly which benefited from the existence of thermosensitivity imprinting layer. PMID:23973936

  16. Hospitalized dogs recovery from naturally occurring heatstroke; does serum heat shock protein 72 can provide prognostic biomarker?

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Yaron; Segev, Gilad; Kelmer, Efrat; Codner, Carolina; Marisat, Ahmad; Horowitz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Heatstroke is a serious illness in dogs characterized by core temperatures above 41 °C with central nervous system dysfunction. Experimental heatstroke models have tried to correlate biomarker levels with the severity of the syndrome. Serum heat shock protein (eHSP70) levels were recently evaluated as a biomarker of heat tolerance and acclimation, their role as a marker of heatstroke is inconclusive. Here, we monitored eHSP70 levels in correlation with systemic biomarkers in 30 naturally occurring canine heatstroke cases. Thirty dogs diagnosed with environmental (33 %) or exertional (66 %) heatstroke admitted to hospital (0-14 h post-injury) were tested for biomarkers of organ damage and coagulation parameters. eHSP70 levels were measured upon admission and 4, 12, and 24 h later (T1, T2, and T3, respectively). No differences were found between exertional and environmental heatstroke cases. The eHSP profile demonstrated an inverted bell shape, with the lowest levels at the 12 h time point. A positive correlation between eHSP70, lactate, and aPPT was also noted at T2 in all the dogs in the study. Twenty-four h after presentation, eHSP70 levels returned to those measured upon admission, this change was only significant in the survivors. The obtained results suggest that eHSP72 level profile may be predictive of survival. PMID:26441274

  17. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:23653592

  18. Relationship Between Spontaneous Passage Rates of Ureteral Stones Less Than 8 mm and Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels and Neutrophil Percentages

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang Hyun; Ha, Ji Yong; Park, Choal Hee; Kim, Chun Il; Kim, Kwang Se

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A ureter obstruction caused by a ureteral stone results in inflammatory changes in the proximal submucosal layer and prevents the spontaneous passage of the ureteral stone. Accordingly, we analyzed the relationship between the spontaneous passage rates of ureteral stones less than 8 mm in size and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and neutrophil percentages. Materials and Methods A total of 187 patients who were diagnosed with ureteral stones less than 8 mm in size and were managed consecutively at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from January 2001 to January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Ureteral stone removal was defined as no ureteral stone shown in an imaging test without any treatment for 8 weeks after diagnosis. The patients were divided into three groups according to the levels of serum CRP and into two groups according to neutrophil percentage. The associations between these factors and ureteral stone passage rates were then examined. Results The ureteral stone passage rates of the low serum CRP level group, the medium serum CRP level group, and the high serum CRP level group were 94.1% (159/169), 70% (7/10), and 50.0% (4/8), respectively. The passage rates of ureteral stones in the group with a normal neutrophil percentage and in the group with a higher neutrophil percentage were 94.5% (121/128) and 83.1% (49/59), respectively (p=0.011). Conclusions Measuring serum CRP levels and neutrophil percentages in patients with small ureteral stones of less than 8 mm is useful in predicting whether the stone will be spontaneously passed. When the serum CRP level and neutrophil percentage of a patient are high, aggressive treatment such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy should be considered. PMID:24044096

  19. Diagnosis of multiple myeloma by demonstration of M protein in bone marrow aspirate by agar gel electrophoresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mehta, K D; Khambu, B; Lakhey, M; Lakhey, S; Baral, N; Majhi, S

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory tests are used to confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, including M protein in the serum. Since M protein in the serum originate from tumour cells in the bone marrow before circulating in the serum, demonstration of M protein in bone marrow aspirate can be added to the batteries of diagnostic parameters. PMID:18603966

  20. Spectrum of activity, mutation rates, synergistic interactions, and the effects of pH and serum proteins for fusidic acid (CEM-102).

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-03-01

    Fusidic acid (CEM-102) is a steroidal antimicrobial agent with focused Gram-positive activity that acts by preventing bacterial protein synthesis via interacting with elongation factor G. A collection of 114 wild-type isolates (> 80 species) was used to define the contemporary limits of fusidic acid spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. Reference broth microdilution and anaerobic agar dilution methods were performed. Modifications of standardized test methods included adding 10% human serum and adjusting the medium pH to 5, 6, and 8. Synergy was assessed by the checkerboard method and time-kill studies. Mutational rates to resistance were determined at 4 x, 8 x, and 16 x MIC. Against Gram-positive pathogens, fusidic acid MIC values ranged from 0.06 to 32 microg/mL with the greatest potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium spp., and Micrococcus luteus (MIC results, 0.25, < or = 0.12, and < or = 0.5 microg/mL, respectively). Enterococci and streptococci were less susceptible (MIC ranges, 2-8 and 16-32 microg/mL, respectively). Fusidic acid activity against Gram-negative species was more limited (all MIC values, > or = 2 microg/mL) except for Empedobacter brevis, Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria meningitidis. A 4-fold increase in fusidic acid MIC results was observed when 10% serum was added to the broth. Decreasing medium pH to 5.0 to 6.0 negated the protein binding effects. Among the 8 antimicrobial combinations tested, gentamicin and rifampin enhanced the activity when combined with fusidic acid (no antagonism). Fusidic acid in vitro activity was most improved when combined with rifampin. Single-step mutational rates ranged from 1.2 x 10(-6) for 4x MIC to 9.8 x 10(-8) for 16 x MIC. In conclusion, these in vitro results for fusidic acid tested against contemporary strains confirm a persisting antimicrobial spectrum, especially against staphylococci and some other Gram-positive species. PMID:20159376

  1. Modification of fos proteins: phosphorylation of c-fos, but not v-fos, is stimulated by 12-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and serum.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, J R; Verma, I M

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the covalent modification of the proteins encoded by the murine fos proto-oncogene (c-fos) and that of the corresponding gene product of FBJ murine osteosarcoma virus (v-fos). Both proteins are posttranslationally processed in the cell, resulting in forms with lower electrophoretic mobilities than that of the initial translation product on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase indicates that most, if not all, of this electrophoretic shift is due to phosphoesterification of both proteins. These phosphoryl groups stoichiometrically modify the v-fos and c-fos proteins on serine residues and turn over rapidly in vivo in the presence of protein kinase inhibitors (half-life, less than 15 min). Direct quantitative comparison of steady-state labeling studies with L-[35S]methionine and [32P]phosphate reveals that the c-fos protein is four- to fivefold more highly phosphorylated than the v-fos protein is. Comparison of tryptic fragments from [32P]phosphate-labeled proteins indicates that although the two proteins have several tryptic phosphopeptides in common, the c-fos protein contains unique major tryptic phosphopeptides that the v-fos protein lacks. These unique sites of c-fos phosphorylation have been tentatively localized to the carboxy-terminal 20 amino acid residues of the protein. Phosphorylation of the c-fos protein, but not the v-fos protein, can be stimulated at least fivefold in vivo by the addition of either 12-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate or serum. This increase in the steady-state degree of phosphorylation of c-fos appears to be independent of protein kinase C since phosphorylation is Ca2+ and diacylglycerol independent. The possible role of phosphorylation of these proteins in cellular transformation is discussed. Images PMID:3110603

  2. Expression of blood serum proteins and lymphocyte differentiation clusters after chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Rybkina, Valentina L; Azizova, Tamara V; Scherthan, Harry; Meineke, Viktor; Doerr, Harald; Adamova, Galina V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Osovets, Sergey V; Bannikova, Maria V; Zurochka, Alexander V

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess effects of chronic occupational exposure on immune status in Mayak workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The study cohort consists of 77 workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays at total dose from 0.5 to 3.0 Gy (14 individuals) and workers with combined exposure (external gamma-rays at total dose range 0.7-5.1 Gy and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated plutonium with a body burden of 0.3-16.4 kBq). The control group consists of 43 age- and sex-matched individuals who never were exposed to IR, never involved in any cleanup operations following radiation accidents and never resided at contaminated areas. Enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry were used to determine the relative concentration of lymphocytes and proteins. The concentrations of T-lymphocytes, interleukin-8 and immunoglobulins G were decreased in external gamma-exposed workers relative to control. Relative concentrations of NKT-lymphocytes, concentrations of transforming growth factor-?, interferon gamma, immunoglobulins A, immunoglobulins M and matrix proteinase-9 were higher in this group as compared with control. Relative concentrations of T-lymphocytes and concentration of interleukin-8 were decreased, while both the relative and absolute concentration of natural killers, concentration of immunoglobulins A and M and matrix proteinase-9 were increased in workers with combined exposure as compared to control. An inverse linear relation was revealed between absolute concentration of T-lymphocytes, relative and absolute concentration of T-helpers cells, concentration of interferon gamma and total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays in exposed workers. For workers with incorporated plutonium, there was an inverse linear relation of absolute concentration of T-helpers as well as direct linear relation of relative concentration of NKT-lymphocytes to total absorbed red bone marrow dose from internal alpha-radiation. In all, chronic occupational IR exposure of workers induced a depletion of immune cells in peripheral blood of the individuals involved. PMID:25073961

  3. Low-Dose 17-?-Estradiol Cream for Vaginal Atrophy in a Cohort without Prolapse: Serum Levels and Vaginal Response Including Tissue Biomarkers Associated with Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Illston, Jana D.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Parker, C. Richard; Conner, Michael G.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Richter, Holly E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Describe the effect of 50mcg vaginal 17-?-estradiol (E2) cream on vaginal maturation, serum estrogen levels, atrophic symptoms, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue remodeling in postmenopausal women without prolapse. Methods Seventeen women, 65 years or older, applied intravaginal E2 cream nightly for eight weeks, then twice weekly for eight weeks. Vaginal biopsies, serial blood draws, and atrophic symptoms were obtained at baseline, eight, and sixteen weeks. Changes in atrophic symptoms, vaginal maturation indices (VMI), and serum E2 were measured. Immunohistochemical staining characterized levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and thrombospondin (TSP). Results Serum E2 levels (pg/mL) were unchanged from baseline (mean (SD)) 7.7 (3.3) to eight 9.7 (5.7) and sixteen 8.7 (5.8) (p=0.24) weeks. VMI (mean (SD)) improved from baseline 34.2 (18.3) to eight 56.7 (13.1) and sixteen 54.5 (11.3) (p<0.001) weeks with no difference between eight and sixteen weeks. Vaginal dryness (p=0.03) and itching (p=0.02) improved. Tissue biomarker levels did not change (TGF-? p=0.35, NFKB p=0.74, eNOS p=0.80, iNOS p=0.24, TSP p=0.80). Discussion Vaginal E2 improved atrophic symptoms and VMI without elevating serum E2. Tissue remodeling biomarkers did not change. PMID:26115591

  4. Neutrophil attractant protein-1-immunoglobulin G immune complexes and free anti-NAP-1 antibody in normal human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, I; Yoshimura, T; Sticherling, M; Schröder, J M; Ceska, M; Peichl, P; Leonard, E J

    1992-01-01

    After obtaining data indicating the presence of a neutrophil attractant protein-1 (NAP-1)-IgG complex in normal human serum, we developed sandwich ELISAs that could quantify NAP-1 and NAP-1-IgG in mixtures of the two moieties. The ELISA for free NAP-1 used a monoclonal capture antibody that did not bind NAP-1-IgG. The ELISA for NAP-1-IgG was based on omission of the anti-NAP-1 detection antibody (required for the free NAP-1 ELISA) and on interaction of phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG with the human NAP-1-IgG complex. Gel filtration of immunoaffinity-purified NAP-1-IgG showed that the bulk of the complex comprised a single IgG. Binding between NAP-1 and antibody is strong, since 8 M urea at neutral or alkaline pH did not release NAP-1. However, at pH 2.0 in 9 M urea approximately 15% of the total NAP-1 could be dissociated from the complex. NAP-1-IgG was detected in 18 of 26 sera from normal humans. The mean serum concentration was 58 ng of IgG-bound NAP-1/ml, with an SEM of 16 and a range from undetectable to 247 ng/ml. NAP-1-IgG concentrations in paired sera drawn at a 1-mo interval were remarkably constant. Using an ELISA for free NAP-1 with a detection limit of 200 pg/ml, we found no free NAP-1 in the 26 sera. Free anti-NAP-1-IgG autoantibody was found in 9 of 26 sera by direct ELISA. IgG anti-NAP-1 of all nine sera was polyclonal, comprising both kappa and lambda isotypes; predominant subclasses were IgG2 and IgG3. NAP-1-IgG did not compete with 125I-NAP-1 for binding to neutrophils, which suggests that IgG anti-NAP-1 is a molecular trap that prevents binding of NAP-1 to neutrophils after it diffuses from production sites into the circulation. Images PMID:1644918

  5. Serum Reactivity Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 UL48 Protein in Behçet's Disease Patients and a Behçet's Disease-like Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhenlong; Sohn, Seonghyang; Ahn, Keun Jae; Bang, Dongsik; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a possible pathogenic factor in Behçet's disease (BD). Using proteomics analysis, this study detected a target HSV protein. Serum IgA and IgG reactivities against the identified protein were evaluated in patients with BD and in BD-like mice. A total of 4 protein bands generated by immunoprecipitation were analysed by proteomics, and HSV UL48 was commonly found in both IgA- and IgG-reactive protein bands. Compared with controls, patients with BD and BD-like mice exhibited higher titres of IgA reacting with recombinant HSV UL48 protein. Further proteomics analysis revealed that human heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (Hsc71) is a cross-reacting target antigen against anti-HSV UL48 antibody. In addition, our data demonstrated a very strong association between serum IgG reactivity against recombinant human Hsc71 and recombinant HSV UL48 in patients with BD. We suggest that HSV infection and impaired human Hsc71 activity may be associated with the activation of autoreactive lymphocytes. PMID:25916670

  6. Haptoglobin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers in the serum, saliva and meat juice of pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Gutiérrez, Ana; Pallarés, Francisco J; Salguero, Francisco J; Cerón, José J; Carrasco, Librado

    2010-07-01

    Concentrations of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in the serum, saliva and meat juice of pigs experimentally infected with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) field isolate. Sixteen PRRSv-free pigs were inoculated IM, killed in groups of four at 7, 14, 21 and 24 days post-inoculation (dpi), and samples of blood, saliva and diaphragmatic muscle were collected. Four non-infected controls were killed at 24 dpi. Significant differences in lung lesions were found between PRRSv-inoculated animals and controls. Changes in the concentrations of Hp and CRP in serum, saliva and meat juice samples were similar, peaking at 21 dpi. The correlations found suggest that the measurement of Hp and CRP in saliva and meat juice could serve as complementary, or possibly alternative, biomarkers of pig herd-health. PMID:20554227

  7. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500?mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P?serum SDMA concentration is more highly correlated with GFR than sCr concentration, and, unlike sCr, which declines with age because of muscle wasting, SDMA increases as GFR declines with age. PMID:25458884

  8. Isolevuglandin-modified proteins, including elevated levels of inactive calpain-1, accumulate in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Bharathi; Laird, James; Salomon, Robert G.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2008-01-01

    We report that protein adducts of iso[4]levuglandin E2 (iso[4]LGE2), a highly reactive product of free radical-induced lipid oxidation, accumulate in human glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) but not in controls. Reactive oxygen species play a pathogenic role in primary open angle glaucoma by fostering changes that reduce permeability of the TM tissue and consequently impede aqueous humor outflow resulting in elevated intraocular pressure. IsoLGs covalently modify proteins and are especially effective in causing protein-protein crosslinking. We found elevated levels of calpain-1 in glaucomatous TM. However, calpain activity in glaucomatous TM is only about 50% to that in controls. This paradox is explicable by the fact that modification by isoLGs renders calpain-1 inactive. Thus, treatment of calpain-1 with iso[4]LGE2 in vitro results in covalent modification, inactivation, the formation of high molecular weight aggregates (as determined by Western and dynamic light scattering analyses), and resistance to proteasomal digestion. Iso[4]LGE2-modified calpain-1 undergoes ubiquitination and its loading impairs the cellular proteasome activity consistent with competitive inhibition and formation of suicidal high molecular weight aggregates. These data suggests that interference with proteasomal activity, owing to protein modification by isoLGs could contribute to glaucoma pathophysiology by decreasing the ability of the TM to modulate outflow resistance. PMID:18085799

  9. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  10. Single Particle Dynamic Imaging and Fe(3+) Sensing with Bright Carbon Dots Derived from Bovine Serum Albumin Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiu; Wei, Lin; Zheng, Xuanfang; Xiao, Lehui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent and water-soluble carbon dots (Cdots) by carbonizing carbon precursors, i.e., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles, in water solution. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized Cdots exhibit fluorescence quantum yield (Q.Y.) as high as 34.8% and display superior colloidal stability not only in concentrated salt solutions (e.g. 2 M KCl) but also in a wide range of pH solutions. According to the FT-IR measurements, the Cdots contain many carboxyl groups, providing a versatile route for further chemical and biological functionalization. Through conjugation of Cdots with the transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide (a kind of cell penetration peptide (CPP)) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to directly monitor the dynamic interactions of CPP with living cell membrane at single particle level. Furthermore, these Cdots also exhibit a dosage-dependent selectivity toward Fe(3+) among other metal ions, including K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Al(3+). We believed that the Cdots prepared by this strategy would display promising applications in various areas, including analytical chemistry, nanomedicine, biochemistry and so on. PMID:26634992

  11. Single Particle Dynamic Imaging and Fe3+ Sensing with Bright Carbon Dots Derived from Bovine Serum Albumin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxiu; Wei, Lin; Zheng, Xuanfang; Xiao, Lehui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent and water-soluble carbon dots (Cdots) by carbonizing carbon precursors, i.e., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles, in water solution. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized Cdots exhibit fluorescence quantum yield (Q.Y.) as high as 34.8% and display superior colloidal stability not only in concentrated salt solutions (e.g. 2 M KCl) but also in a wide range of pH solutions. According to the FT-IR measurements, the Cdots contain many carboxyl groups, providing a versatile route for further chemical and biological functionalization. Through conjugation of Cdots with the transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide (a kind of cell penetration peptide (CPP)) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to directly monitor the dynamic interactions of CPP with living cell membrane at single particle level. Furthermore, these Cdots also exhibit a dosage-dependent selectivity toward Fe3+ among other metal ions, including K+, Na+, Mg2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Al3+. We believed that the Cdots prepared by this strategy would display promising applications in various areas, including analytical chemistry, nanomedicine, biochemistry and so on. PMID:26634992

  12. An Eco-Friendly Direct Injection HPLC Method for Methyldopa Determination in Serum by Mixed-Mode Chromatography Using a Single Protein-Coated Column.

    PubMed

    Emara, Samy; Masujima, Tsutomu; Zarad, Walaa; Kamal, Maha; Fouad, Marwa; El-Bagary, Ramzia

    2015-09-01

    A simple, rapid and environment-friendly direct injection HPLC method for the determination of methyldopa (MTD) in human serum has been developed and validated. The method was based on cleanup and separation of MTD from serum by mixed-mode liquid chromatography using a single protein-coated TSK gel ODS-80 TM analytical column (50 × 4.0 mm i.d., 5 µm). The protein-coated column exhibited excellent resolution, selectivity and functioned in two chromatographic modes: size-exclusion chromatography [i.e., solid-phase extraction (SPE) for serum proteins] and reversed-phase chromatography for the final separation of MTD. SPE and HPLC separation were carried out simultaneously with a green mobile phase consisting of acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 2.4) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and at room temperature (23 ± 1°C). The eluent was monitored at emission and excitation wavelengths of 320 and 270 nm, respectively. A calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-30 µg/mL with a detection limit of 0.027 µg/mL. This online SPE method was successfully applied to real samples obtained from patients receiving MTD therapy. PMID:25834172

  13. Evaluation of high-performance liquid chromatography laser-induced fluorescence for serum protein profiling for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Prabhu, Vijendra; Choudhari, K. S.; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; George, Sajan D.; Ongole, Ravikiran; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Shetty, Jayarama K.; Bhat, Sujatha; Kartha, Vasudevan Bhaskaran; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2010-11-01

    The present work deals with the evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatography laser-induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) technique developed in our laboratory for early detection of oral cancer from protein profiles of body fluids. The results show that protein profiles of serum samples from a given class of samples, say, normal, premalignant, or malignant, are statistically very close to each other, while profiles of members of any class are significantly different from other classes. The performance of the technique is evaluated by the use of sensitivity and specificity pairs, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and Youden's Index. The technique uses protein profile differences in serum samples, registered by the HPLC-LIF technique. The study is carried out using serum samples from volunteers diagnosed as normal or premalignant clinically, and as malignant by histopathology. The specificities and sensitivities of the HPLC-LIF method at an ideal threshold (M-distance = 2) for normal, malignant, and premalignant classes are 100, 69.5, and 61.5%, and 86.5, 87.5, and 87.5% respectively.

  14. Bovine serum albumin surface imprinted polymer fabricated by surface grafting copolymerization on zinc oxide rods and its application for protein recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangjie; Zhou, Jingjing; Tian, Lei; Li, Wei; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Hepeng; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2015-10-01

    A novel bovine serum albumin (BSA) surface imprinted polymer based on ZnO rods was synthesized by surface grafting copolymerization. It exhibited an excellent recognition performance to bovine serum albumin. The adsorption capacity and imprinting factor of bovine serum albumin could reach 89.27 mg/g and 2.35, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescence property of ZnO was used for tracing the process of protein imprinting and it implied the excellent optical sensing property of this material. More importantly, the hypothesis that the surface charge of carrier could affect the imprinting process was confirmed. That is, ZnO with positive surface charge could not only improve the recognition specificity of binding sites to template proteins (pI < 7), but also deteriorate the bindings between sites and non-template proteins (pI > 7). It was also important that the reusability of ZnO@BSA molecularly imprinted polymers was satisfactory. This implied that the poor mechanical/chemical stability of traditional zinc oxide sensors could be solved by the introduction of surface grafting copolymerization. These results revealed that the ZnO@BSA molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising optical/electrochemical sensor element. PMID:26226935

  15. Air filter devices including nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

  16. Viability and proliferation of L929, tumour and hybridoma cells in the culture media containing sericin protein as a supplement or serum substitute.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Cell cultures often require the addition of animal serum and other supplements. In this study, silk sericin, a bioactive protein, recovered from the waste of silk floss production was hydrolysed into three pepsin-degraded sericin peptides with different ranges of molecular mass. Normal animal cells, tumour cells and hybridoma cells were cultured systematically in FBS culture media containing sericin as a supplement or serum substitute. The culture test and microscopic observation of L929 cells showed that the smaller molecular weight of the degraded sericin is most suitable for cell culture. The cell culture results showed that with the degradation of sericin, for normal mouse fibroblast L929 cells, addition of 0.75 % sericin into FBS culture medium yields cell viability that is superior to FBS culture medium alone. When all serum was replaced by sericin, cell viability in the sericin medium could reach about one half of that in FBS medium. When in a medium containing a mixture of FBS: sericin (6:4, v/v), the cell culture effect is about 80 %. For the cultures of four tumour and one hybridoma cells, regardless of the molecular weight range, these degraded sericin peptides could substitute all serum in FBS media. The cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells are equivalent or superior to that in FBS medium. In other words, cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells in sericin media are more preferable to serum media. The mechanism of the sericin protein to promote cell growth and proliferation will be further investigated later. PMID:25895088

  17. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease: Interrelationship with High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Gregson, John; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, important aspects of the association, such as shape and independence from established risk factors, have yet to be characterized in detail. We assessed the association of ALP with CVD risk and determined its utility for CVD risk prediction. Methods Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured at baseline in the PREVEND prospective cohort involving 6,974 participants aged 28-75 years without pre-existing CVD. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification were assessed. Results During a median follow-up of 10.5 years, 737 participants developed CVD. Serum ALP was correlated with several risk markers for CVD, with strongest correlations for age (r = 0.30; P < 0.001), gamma-glutamyltransferase (r = 0.26; P < 0.001), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.25; P < 0.001). There was a non-linear “J-shaped” relationship between ALP and CVD risk. In analyses adjusted for conventional risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVD in a comparison of the top quintile versus bottom quintiles 1-4 of ALP values was 1.34 (1.14 to 1.56; P<0.001), which persisted after additional adjustment for potential confounders 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55; P<0.001). However, the association was somewhat attenuated after adjustment for CRP 1.24 (1.05 to 1.45; P=0.009). Addition of information on ALP to a CVD risk prediction model containing established risk factors did not improve the C-index or net reclassification. Conclusions Available evidence suggests a non-linear association between ALP activity and CVD risk, which is partly dependent on CRP. Taking account of conventional risk factors, additional information on ALP does not improve CVD risk assessment. PMID:26167920

  18. A method for including protein flexibility in protein-ligand docking: improving tools for database mining and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Broughton, H B

    2000-06-01

    Second-generation methods for docking ligands into their biological receptors, such as FLOG, provide for flexibility of the ligand but not of the receptor. Molecular dynamics based methods, such as free energy perturbation, account for flexibility, solvent effects, etc., but are very time consuming. We combined the use of statistical analysis of conformational samples from short-run protein molecular dynamics with grid-based docking protocols and demonstrated improved performance in two test cases. Our statistical analysis explores the importance of the average strength of a potential interaction with the biological target and optionally applies a weighting depending on the variability in the strength of the interaction seen during dynamics simulation. Using these methods, we improved the num-top-ranked 10% of a database of drug-like molecules, in searches based on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. These methods are able to match the ability of manual docking to assess likely inactivity on steric grounds and indeed to rank order ligands from a homologous series of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors with good correlation to their true activity. Furthermore, these methods reduce the need for human intervention in setting up molecular docking experiments. PMID:11021541

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering study of differences in phase behavior of silica nanoparticles in the presence of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Indresh; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-03-01

    The differences in phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Ĺ) in the presence of two globular proteins [cationic lysozyme (molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kD) and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kD)] have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The measurements were carried out on a fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentrations of proteins (0-5 wt %) at pH = 7. It is found that, despite having different natures (opposite charges), both proteins can render to the same kind of aggregation of silica nanoparticles. However, the concentration regions over which the aggregation is observed are widely different for the two proteins. Lysozyme with very small amounts (e.g., 0.01 wt %) leads to the aggregation of silica nanoparticles. On the other hand, silica nanoparticles coexist with BSA as independent entities at low protein concentrations and turn to aggregates at high protein concentrations (>1 wt %). In the case of lysozyme, the charge neutralization by the protein on the nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-mediated aggregation of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle aggregates coexist with unaggregated nanoparticles at low protein concentrations, whereas, they coexist with a free protein at higher protein concentrations. For BSA, the nonadsorbing nature of the protein produces the depletion force that causes the aggregation of the nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations. The evolution of the interaction is modeled by the two Yukawa potential, taking account of both attractive and repulsive terms of the interaction in these systems. The nanoparticle aggregation is found to be governed by the short-range attraction for lysozyme and the long-range attraction for BSA. The aggregates are characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering study of differences in phase behavior of silica nanoparticles in the presence of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Indresh; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V K; Kohlbrecher, J

    2014-03-01

    The differences in phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles (88 Ĺ) in the presence of two globular proteins [cationic lysozyme (molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kD) and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kD)] have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The measurements were carried out on a fixed concentration (1 wt %) of Ludox silica nanoparticles with varying concentrations of proteins (0-5 wt %) at pH = 7. It is found that, despite having different natures (opposite charges), both proteins can render to the same kind of aggregation of silica nanoparticles. However, the concentration regions over which the aggregation is observed are widely different for the two proteins. Lysozyme with very small amounts (e.g., 0.01 wt %) leads to the aggregation of silica nanoparticles. On the other hand, silica nanoparticles coexist with BSA as independent entities at low protein concentrations and turn to aggregates at high protein concentrations (>1 wt %). In the case of lysozyme, the charge neutralization by the protein on the nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-mediated aggregation of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle aggregates coexist with unaggregated nanoparticles at low protein concentrations, whereas, they coexist with a free protein at higher protein concentrations. For BSA, the nonadsorbing nature of the protein produces the depletion force that causes the aggregation of the nanoparticles at higher protein concentrations. The evolution of the interaction is modeled by the two Yukawa potential, taking account of both attractive and repulsive terms of the interaction in these systems. The nanoparticle aggregation is found to be governed by the short-range attraction for lysozyme and the long-range attraction for BSA. The aggregates are characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology. PMID:24730839

  1. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in growing preterm infants on enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Colonna, F; Pahor, T; de Vonderweid, U; Tonini, G; Radillo, L

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the range of serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and their inter-relationships with age and some parameters of nutritional and hormonal status in 46 growing preterm infants on enteral nutrition. 72 nutritional balances were performed, with a cross-sectional study design, at a mean age of 35.3 +/- 17.2 days, equivalent to a mean corrected age (gestational + postnatal age) of 36 +/- 2.3 weeks. Serum concentrations of IGF-I (mean 64 +/- 36 ng/ml) and IGFBP-3 (mean 1.15 +/- 0.53 mg/l) correlated significantly with each other (r = 0.46) and both correlated with body weight (r = 0.43 and 0.34), body length (r = 0.44 and 0.36) and serum concentrations of prealbumin, apolipoprotein A and cholesterol. IGF-I also correlated with urinary excretion of C-peptide (r = 0.32). There was a weak correlation between IGFBP-3 and postnatal age (r = 0.36) but no correlation between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and correlated age or urinary excretion of growth hormone. In growing preterm infants, at least until 40 weeks of corrected age, serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 seem to be related principally to body weight, body length and nutritional factors, but not to growth hormone. PMID:8910818

  2. Serum liver-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts recovery of graft function after kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Akihiro; Kusaka, Mamoru; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ishii, Junichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Maruyama, Takahiro; Sasaki, Hitomi; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka

    2014-06-01

    Kidneys procured by donation after cardiac death (DCD) may increase the donor pool but are associated with high incidence of delayed graft function (DGF). Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level is an early biomarker of renal injury after kidney transplantation (KTx); however, its utility is limited in DGF cases owing to urine sample unavailability. We examined whether serum L-FABP level predicts functional recovery of transplanted DCD kidneys. Consecutive patients undergoing KTx from living related donors (LD), brain-dead donors (BD), or DCD were retrospectively enrolled. Serum L-FABP levels were measured from samples collected before and after KTx. Serum L-FABP decreased rapidly in patients with immediate function, slowly in DGF patients, and somewhat increased in DGF patients requiring hemodialysis (HD) for >1 wk. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that DGF was predicted with 84% sensitivity (SE) and 86% specificity (SP) at cutoff of 9.0 ng/mL on post-operative day (POD) 1 and 68% SE and 90% SP at 6.0 on POD 2. DGF >7 d was predicted with 83% SE and 78% SP at 11.0 on POD 1 and 67% SE and 78% SP at 6.5 on POD 2. Serum L-FABP levels may predict graft recovery and need for HD after DCD KTx. PMID:24750195

  3. UMBILICAL CORD SERUM INTERLEUKIN-6, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, AND MYELOPEROXIDASE CONCENTRATIONS AT BIRTH AND ASSOCIATION WITH NEONATAL MORBIDITIES AND LONG TERM NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Yoram; Romero, Roberto; Mele, Lisa; Iams, Jay D.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Harper, Margaret; Caritis, Steve N.; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sibai, Baha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if umbilical cord serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), in pregnancies at risk for preterm birth (PTB), are associated with neonatal morbidities and/or altered neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. STUDY DESIGN Umbilical cord serum samples were collected at birth from 400 newborns delivered within a multicenter randomized controlled trial of repeated versus single course of antenatal corticosteroids (ACs), in women at increased risk for PTB. Newborns were followed through discharge and were evaluated between 36 and 42 months corrected age with neurological examination and Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MPO were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Multivariate logistic regression analyses explored the relationship between umbilical cord serum IL-6, CRP and MPO levels, adverse newborn outcomes and PTB < 32 weeks of gestational age (GA). RESULTS Univariate analysis revealed that umbilical cord IL-6 above the 75th percentile was associated with increased respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and chronic lung disease (CLD), but not with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), or neonatal sepsis; however, this association was not significant after adjusting for gestational age at delivery and treatment group. No significant associations between CRP or MPO, and RDS, CLD, NEC, sepsis or IVH were evident. Regression analysis revealed that CRP above the 75th percentile was associated with a decreased risk of CLD (O.R. 0.10, 95% C.I. 0.02–0.41). No associations between umbilical cord IL-6, CRP or MPO, and MDI < 70 or PDI < 70 were evident. Umbilical cord serum IL-6, CRP, and MPO, above the 75th percentile, were associated with more frequent PTB < 32 weeks GA. CONCLUSION Elevated umbilical cord serum concentration of CRP is associated with reduced risk for CLD even after adjusting for gestational age at delivery. Occurrence of levels > 75th percentile of IL-6, CRP, and MPO in umbilical cord serum were associated with PTB < 32 weeks GA. Elevated umbilical cord serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MPO at birth were not associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24338120

  4. Immunoproteomic Analysis of Potential Serum Biomarker Candidates in Human Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Gülgün; Thornton, Ivey L.; Tong, Melissa G.; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Xiangjun; Cai, Jian; Powell, David W.; Soltau, Joern B.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Evidence supporting the immune system involvement in glaucoma includes increased titers of serum antibodies to retina and optic nerve proteins, although their pathogenic importance remains unclear. This study using an antibody-based proteomics approach aimed to identify disease-related antigens as candidate biomarkers of glaucoma. Methods. Serum samples were collected from 111 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and an age-matched control group of 49 healthy subjects without glaucoma. For high-throughput characterization of antigens, serum IgG was eluted from five randomly selected glaucomatous samples and analyzed by linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum titers of selected biomarker candidates were then measured by specific ELISAs in the whole sample pool (including an additional control group of diabetic retinopathy). Results. LC-MS/MS analysis of IgG elutes revealed a complex panel of proteins, including those detectable only in glaucomatous samples. Interestingly, many of these antigens corresponded to upregulated retinal proteins previously identified in glaucomatous donors (or that exhibited increased methionine oxidation). Moreover, additional analysis detected a greater immunoreactivity of the patient sera to glaucomatous retinal proteins (or to oxidatively stressed cell culture proteins), thereby suggesting the importance of disease-related protein modifications in autoantibody production/reactivity. As a narrowing-down strategy for selection of initial biomarker candidates, we determined the serum proteins overlapping with the retinal proteins known to be up-regulated in glaucoma. Four of the selected 10 candidates (AIF, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, ephrin type-A receptor, and huntingtin) exhibited higher ELISA titers in the glaucomatous sera. Conclusions. A number of serum proteins identified by this immunoproteomic study of human glaucoma may represent diseased tissue-related antigens and serve as candidate biomarkers of glaucoma. PMID:23150628

  5. Effect of annatto addition and bleaching treatments on ultrafiltration flux during production of 80% whey protein concentrate and 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2013-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if adding annatto color to milk or applying a bleaching process to whey or microfiltration (MF) permeate influenced ultrafiltration (UF) flux, diafiltration (DF) flux, or membrane fouling during production of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) or 80% serum protein concentrate (SPC80). Separated Cheddar cheese whey (18 vats using 900 kg of whole milk each) and MF permeate of skim milk (18 processing runs using 800 kg of skim milk each) were produced to make WPC80 and SPC80, respectively. The 6 treatments, replicated 3 times each, that constituted the 18 processing runs within either whey or MF permeate UF were as follows: (1) no annatto; (2) no annatto+benzoyl peroxide (BPO); (3) no annatto+hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (4) annatto; (5) annatto+BPO; and (6) annatto+H2O2. Approximately 700 kg of whey or 530 kg of MF permeate from each treatment were heated to 50°C and processed in 2 stages (UF and DF) with the UF system in batch recirculation mode using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound UF membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 Da. Addition of annatto color had no effect on UF or DF flux. The processes of bleaching whey or MF permeate with or without added color improved flux during processing. Bleaching with H2O2 usually produced higher flux than bleaching with BPO. Bleaching with BPO increased WPC80 flux to a greater extent than it did SPC80 flux. Though no differences in mean flux were observed for a common bleaching treatment between the WPC80 and SPC80 production processes during the UF stage, mean flux during WPC80 DF was higher than mean flux during SPC80 DF for each bleaching treatment. Water flux values before and after processing were used to calculate a fouling coefficient that demonstrated differences in fouling which were consistent with flux differences among treatments. In both processes, bleaching with H2O2 led to the largest reduction in fouling. No effect of annatto on fouling was observed. The reasons for flux enhancement associated with bleaching treatments are unclear. PMID:23415538

  6. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:25880113

  7. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-?m-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-?m polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at low CF than at high CF due to a slower rate of gel layer formation at low CF. It is possible that percentage removal of SP from skim milk at 50 °C could be improved by optimization of the membrane pore size, feed solution composition and concentration, and controlling the rate of formation of the concentration polarization-derived gel layer at the surface of the membrane during the first few minutes of processing. PMID:23891300

  8. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Chandrakanth; Aswath, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA]) and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP), Hemoglobin (Hb) play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II). Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb) were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05). TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01) decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF. PMID:26604567

  9. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) C-344T polymorphism affects the association of age-related changes of the serum C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Satoh, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2010-04-01

    Aldosterone participates in vascular and myocardial inflammation either directly or indirectly through blood pressure (BP). Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) C-344T polymorphism may influence the severity of systemic inflammation. A total of 398 Japanese Americans (152 men and 246 women, age 19-92 years) from the Hawaii-Los Angeles-Hiroshima study were enrolled. BP and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured, and the CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism, rs1799998, was determined. No influence of the polymorphism on baseline characteristics such as systolic, diastolic and mean BP, pulse pressure or serum CRP levels was observed. In all genotypes, systolic BP showed a significantly positive correlation with age (TT (n=178): r=0.283, P<0.001; TC (n=164): r=0.213, P=0.006; and CC (n=56): r=0.289, P=0.031). However, the regression coefficients of systolic BP with age were not different across genotypes. According to the results of univariate and multivariate analyses with adjustment for BP, the serum CRP level increased with age only in subjects with the CC genotype (P=0.027 and P=0.004, respectively), and elevation of serum CRP was mainly observed in the elderly population (aged >or=60 years). Moreover, the regression coefficient of CRP levels with age was significantly steeper in subjects with the CC genotype than in those with the TC or TT genotype (P=0.028). The CC genotype of the CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism was associated with an age-dependent increase in the serum CRP level independent of BP, and may contribute to a cardiovascular phenotype by promoting vascular inflammation. PMID:20094057

  10. Syncytin proteins incorporated in placenta exosomes are important for cell uptake and show variation in abundance in serum exosomes from patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Amandine; Zhou, Shufeng; Éthier-Chiasson, Maude; Flipo, Denis; Lafond, Julie; Gilbert, Caroline; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that mediate intercellular communication and are involved in several biological processes. The objective of our study was to determine whether endogenous retrovirus group WE, member l (ERVWE1)/syncytin-1 and endogenous retrovirus group FRD, member 1 (ERVFRDE1)/syncytin-2, encoded by human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope (env) genes, are present at the surface of exosomes produced by placenta-derived villous cytotrophoblasts and whether they play a role in cellular uptake of exosomes. In addition, we sought to determine whether these proteins are present in various abundances in serum-derived exosomes from normal pregnant women vs. women with preeclampsia (PE). Isolated exosomes were analyzed for their content by Western blot, a bead-associated flow cytometry approach, and a syncytin-2 ELISA. Binding and uptake were tested through confocal and electron microscopy using the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line. Quality control of exosome preparations consisted of detection of exosomal and nonexosomal markers. Exosome-cell interactions were compared between cells incubated in the presence of control exosomes, syncytin-1 or syncytin-2-deprived exosomes, or exosomes solely bearing the uncleaved forms of these HERV env proteins. From our data, we conclude that villous cytotrophoblast exosomes are positive for both env proteins and are rapidly taken up by BeWo cells in a syncytin-1- and syncytin-2-dependent manner and that syncytin-2 is reduced in serum-derived exosomes from women with PE when compared to exosomes from normal pregnant women. PMID:24812088

  11. Analysis of Hormone-Protein Binding in Solution by Ultrafast Affinity Extraction: Interactions of Testosterone with Human Serum Albumin and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiwei; Bi, Cong; Brooks, Marissa; Hage, David S

    2015-11-17

    Ultrafast affinity extraction was used to study hormone-protein interactions in solution, using testosterone and its transport proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as models. Both single column and two-dimensional systems based on HSA microcolumns were utilized to measure the free fraction of testosterone in hormone/protein mixtures at equilibrium or that were allowed to dissociate for various lengths of time. These data were used to determine the association equilibrium constants (Ka) or global affinities (nKa') and dissociation rate constants (kd) for testosterone with soluble HSA and SHBG. This method was also used to measure simultaneously the free fraction of testosterone and its equilibrium constants with both these proteins in physiological mixtures of these agents. The kd and Ka values obtained for HSA were 2.1-2.2 s(-1) and 3.2-3.5 × 10(4) M(-1) at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. The corresponding constants for SHBG were 0.053-0.058 s(-1) and 0.7-1.2 × 10(9) M(-1). All of these results gave good agreement with literature values, indicating that this approach could provide information on a wide range of rate constants and binding strengths for hormone-protein interactions in solution and at clinically relevant concentrations. The same method could be extended to alternative hormone-protein systems or other solutes and binding agents. PMID:26484387

  12. Pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol in 14 women during three months of treatment with a tri-step combination oral contraceptive: serum protein binding of levonorgestrel and influence of treatment on free and total testosterone levels in the serum.

    PubMed

    Kuhnz, W; Staks, T; Jütting, G

    1994-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in 14 healthy women (age 18 to 27 years) during a treatment period of three months with a tri-step combination oral contraceptive (Triquilar). Prior to this treatment period, the same women received a single administration of a coated tablet containing 0.125 mg LNG together with 0.03 mg EE2. There was a washout phase of one week between both treatments. Following single dose administration, a mean terminal half-life of 22 h was observed for LNG. The total clearance was 1.0 ml x min-1 x kg-1 and the volume of distribution was 128 l. During a treatment cycle, LNG levels in the serum accumulated by a factor of about four as compared to single dose administration. Steady-state drug levels were reached during the second half of each cycle. As compared to single dose administration, the following changes were observed for LNG at the end of treatment cycles one and three: reduced total (0.5 ml x min-1 x kg-1) and free clearance (50 ml x min-1 x kg-1) and a reduced volume of distribution (52 l). A concomitant increase in the SHBG concentrations by a factor of two as compared to pretreatment values was observed during treatment and appeared to be mainly responsible for the changes in the pharmacokinetics of LNG. Marked changes were also seen for the serum protein binding of LNG. After single dose administration, the free fraction of LNG was 1.4% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 55.0% and 43.6%, respectively. At the end of cycle one, the free fraction was only 1.0% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 69.4% and 30.0%, respectively. There was no difference in corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters and in the serum protein binding of LNG at the end of cycles one and three. On the last day of treatment cycles one and three, the AUC(0-4h) values of EE2 were 331.2 and 369.6 pg x ml-1 x h, respectively, which corresponds to an about 11-24% increase as compared to single dose administration, where an AUC(0-4h) value of 298.3 pg x ml-1 x h was found. Total and free testosterone concentrations decreased during treatment cycles one and three by about 41% and 55%, respectively, compared with the corresponding values measured prior to treatment. PMID:7705098

  13. Once Phosphorylated, Tyrosines in Carboxyl Terminus of Protein-tyrosine Kinase Syk Interact with Signaling Proteins, Including TULA-2, a Negative Regulator of Mast Cell Degranulation*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Rodrigo Orlandini; Zhang, Juan; Groves, Jacqueline R.; Barbu, Emilia Alina; Siraganian, Reuben P.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the high affinity IgE-binding receptor (Fc?RI) results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of two conserved tyrosines located close to the COOH terminus of the protein-tyrosine kinase Syk. Synthetic peptides representing the last 10 amino acids of the tail of Syk with these two tyrosines either nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated were used to precipitate proteins from mast cell lysates. Proteins specifically precipitated by the phosphorylated peptide were identified by mass spectrometry. These included the adaptor proteins SLP-76, Nck-1, Grb2, and Grb2-related adaptor downstream of Shc (GADS) and the protein phosphatases SHIP-1 and TULA-2 (also known as UBASH3B or STS-1). The presence of these in the precipitates was further confirmed by immunoblotting. Using the peptides as probes in far Western blots showed direct binding of the phosphorylated peptide to Nck-1 and SHIP-1. Immunoprecipitations suggested that there were complexes of these proteins associated with Syk especially after receptor activation; in these complexes are Nck, SHIP-1, SLP-76, Grb2, and TULA-2 (UBASH3B or STS-1). The decreased expression of TULA-2 by treatment of mast cells with siRNA increased the Fc?RI-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines of Syk and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C-?2. There was parallel enhancement of the receptor-induced degranulation and activation of nuclear factor for T cells or nuclear factor ?B, indicating that TULA-2, like SHIP-1, functions as a negative regulator of Fc?RI signaling in mast cells. Therefore, once phosphorylated, the terminal tyrosines of Syk bind complexes of proteins that are positive and negative regulators of signaling in mast cells. PMID:22267732

  14. Radioimmunoassay for serum thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, T; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, K; Yamamoto, M; Saito, S

    1976-10-01

    A new procedure for radioimmunoassay (RIA) was applied to determine the serum concentration of thyroxine (T4). Mixtures of T4-methylester hydrochloride-bovine serum albumin complex and complete Freund's adjuvant were injected to rabbits to get them immunized. Specific anti-T4 rabbit serum, high in titer, could be obtained 18 months after the start of immunization. RIA for T4 extracted by ethanol from serum was performed by an application of dextran-coated charcoal to separate bound and free 125-i-t4. on the other hand, RIA for T4 performed directly in the serum containing 100 mg/100 ml of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) gave a similar standard curve for T4 obtained by the ethanol-extraction method. Serum T4 values obtained by the methanol-extraction method were 9.7 +/- 3.3 mug/100 ml for patients with hyperthyroidism and 0.6 +/- 0.3 mug/100 ml for those with hypothyroidism. The corresponding figures obtained by RIA in the serum containing ANS were 11.1 +/- 2.1, 19.1 +/- 3.3 and 0.7 +/- 0.7 mug/100 ml, respectively. The figures positively correlated respectively to the serum T4 values obtained by the competitive protein-binding analysis method (Tetrasrob-125). PMID:982432

  15. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and C-reactive protein concentrations before and after ovariohysterectomy in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    D?browski, Roman; Szczubia?, Marek; Kostro, Krzysztof; Wawron, W?adys?aw; Ceron, Jose J; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2015-03-01

    Pyometra is one of the most common diseases of the reproductive system in bitches. The inflammatory processes occurring in the uterus result in changes in concentrations of numerous serum biomarkers, which are used for monitoring the postoperative period. The aim of the present report was to study the evolution of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in bitches suffered from pyometra and after ovariohysterectomy in comparison with the control group of healthy dogs submitted to the surgery. Our results indicate that the serum level of IGF-1 is decreased (101.6 ng/mL [73.8-177.8 ng/mL]), whereas CRP is increased (114.6 ?g/mL [95.3-131.6 ?g/mL]) during severe inflammation. When inflammation caused by pyometra and surgery is resolved, the level of IGF-1 is increased (186.0 ng/mL [94.6-344.3 ng/mL], P < 0.05) and CRP decreased (23.3 ?g/mL [9.9-77.0 ?g/mL], P < 0.01), suggesting that these markers could be useful for assessment of the postoperative period in bitches. PMID:25476824

  16. C-reactive protein gene variants associated with recurrent pregnancy loss independent of CRP serum levels: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salma K; Mahmood, Naeema; Malalla, Zainab H; Alsobyani, Fanar M; Al-Kiyumi, Israa S; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) with altered C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels, and genetic variation in CRP gene. This was a retrospective case-control study, involving 275 women with three or more consecutive pregnancy losses, and 290 age-matched control women, who were recruited from outpatient obstetrics/gynecology clinics. CRP serum levels (hs-CRP) were determined by latex-enhanced nephelometry, and CRP genotyping was done by allelic discrimination. Mean serum CRP levels were higher in RPL cases than in control women, and carriage of the (minor) T allele of rs2794520 was associated with significant increase in CRP levels (P=0.017). Minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs7553007 was significantly different between RPL cases and control women, and was associated with reduced risk of RPL after adjusting for BMI and menarche. There was a significant enrichment of minor allele-carrying genotypes of rs1130864 and rs1417938 SNPs, and reduced frequency of minor allele-carrying genotypes of rs876537, rs2794520, and rs7553007 in RPL cases, thus assigning RPL-susceptible and -protective nature to these genotypes, respectively. Carriage of (minor) T allele of only rs2794520 was associated with significant increase in CRP levels. CRP variants that influenced circulating CRP levels in chronic inflammatory conditions are also associated with RPL, pointing to CRP as RPL candidate gene. PMID:26013044

  17. Gender-specific association between the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    WU, JIAN; YIN, RUI-XING; GUO, TAO; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; WU, JIN-ZHEN; YANG, DE-ZHAI; LIN, WEI-XIONG

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 (PABPC4) is an RNA-processing protein which has an important role in regulating gene expression. The association of the PABPC4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been studied in the Chinese population. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 individuals of Mulao nationality and 729 individuals of Han nationality were randomly selected from stratified randomized samples from a previous study by our group. Genotypes of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and subsequently confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in the Mulao group than those in the Han group (P<0.01 for each). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were significantly different between males and females in the Mulao population (P<0.05 for each), while no significant difference was detected between those of males and females amongst the Han population. The frequency of the G allele was higher in Mulao males than in Mulao females (22.12 vs. 13.44%). The G allele carriers were found to have higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han females but not in Han males, and lower TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao females but not in Mulao males than those of the G allele non-carriers (P<0.05 for all). These associations were confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis (P<0.05–0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with multiple environmental factors (P<0.05–0.001). The PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP was associated with serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in these study populations; however, the association varied between the Mulao and Han populations. A gender-specific association was identified in the populations of the two ethnic groups. PMID:26005159

  18. An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304

  19. Value of detection of serum human epididymis secretory protein 4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 in diagnosis of early endometrial cancer of different pathological subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingui; Zhao, Fengting; Hu, Linli; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the value of detection of human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) from serum in diagnosis of early endometrial cancer of different pathological subtypes and discussed the mechanism of HE4 and CA125 in diagnosis. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescent immunoassay were used to detect HE4 and CA125 from serum in endometrial cancer and control groups. Besides, the concentration of HE4 and CA125 was compared in these two groups, and the expression of CA125 and HE4 and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with endometrial cancer were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the expression of HE4 was much higher in serum of patients with endometrial cancer, while there was no obvious change in the expression of CA125. The threshold detection value was acquired by receiver operating characteristic analysis method, that is, 141.5 pmol/L and 54.5 U/L, respectively. When comparing the concentration of HE4 in patients with endometrial cancer at the early stage (stage I) with healthy people, the difference therein had statistical significance, but there was no obvious difference in CA125. HE4 and CA125 in diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the stages I and II were found with no statistically significant difference. The difference of HE4 in the stages II and III had statistical significance while the difference of CA125 had no statistical significance. The specificity of both HE4 and CA125 was 95%, and the sensitivity of HE4 to uterine papillary serous carcinomas was higher than that to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Thus, the serum HE4 is much better than CA125 in detecting the endometrial cancer at an early stage. PMID:26060409

  20. Utility of the combination of serum highly-sensitive C-reactive protein level at discharge and a risk index in predicting readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD*,**

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun; Zhu, Hong; Shen, Ning; Han, Xiang; Chen, Yahong; He, Bei

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Frequent readmissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are an independent risk factor for increased mortality and use of health-care resources. Disease severity and C-reactive protein (CRP) level are validated predictors of long-term prognosis in such patients. This study investigated the utility of combining serum CRP level with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) exacerbation risk classification for predicting readmission for AECOPD. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients hospitalized for AECOPD at Peking University Third Hospital, in Beijing, China. We assessed patient age; gender; smoking status and history (pack-years); lung function; AECOPD frequency during the last year; quality of life; GOLD risk category (A-D; D indicating the greatest risk); and serum level of high-sensitivity CRP at discharge (hsCRP-D). RESULTS: The final sample comprised 135 patients. Of those, 71 (52.6%) were readmitted at least once during the 12-month follow-up period. The median (interquartile) time to readmission was 78 days (42-178 days). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum hsCRP-D ? 3 mg/L and GOLD category D were independent predictors of readmission (hazard ratio = 3.486; 95% CI: 1.968-6.175; p < 0.001 and hazard ratio = 2.201; 95% CI: 1.342-3.610; p = 0.002, respectively). The ordering of the factor combinations by cumulative readmission risk, from highest to lowest, was as follows: hsCRP-D ? 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D ? 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C. CONCLUSIONS: Serum hsCRP-D and GOLD classification are independent predictors of readmission for AECOPD, and their predictive value increases when they are used in combination. PMID:25410837

  1. Elevated Pretreatment Serum Levels of Interferon-inducible Protein-10 (CXCL10) Predict Disease Relapse and Prognosis in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Stephen M.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Ziesmer, Steven C.; Slager, Susan L.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Macon, William R.; Dogan, Ahmet; Cerhan, James R.; Novak, Anne J.

    2012-01-01

    While standard clinical prognostic factors predict outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), predicting the outcome of patients might be further refined using biological factors. We tested whether serum cytokines could provide prognostic information in DLBCL patients. Thirty cytokines were measured in pre-treatment samples from newly diagnosed DLBCL patients using a multiplex ELISA. Sixty-nine patients treated with R-CHOP plus epratuzumab were used in an initial cohort and 185 patients treated with standard R-CHOP served as a subsequent validation cohort. In the initial cohort, elevated serum IL-10 (interleukin-10; HR=6.6, p=0.022), GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HR=10.8, p=0.027) and IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein-10, CXCL10; HR=3.32, p=0.015) were associated with event-free survival (EFS). An identical analysis of the subsequent validation cohort confirmed that elevated serum levels of IP-10 were strongly associated with a poor EFS (HR=2.42, p= 0.0007); and also identified IL-8 (interleukin-8; HR=3.40, p= 0.00002) and IL-2R (interleukin-2 receptor, CD25; HR=2.59, p= 0.0012) as significantly associated with prognosis. The prognostic significance of elevated IP-10 remained significant after adjustment for the International Prognostic Index (IPI; EFS – HR 1.99, p=0.009, overall survival- HR 1.93, p=0.021). Elevated pretreatment serum IP-10 levels are therefore associated with an increased likelihood of disease relapse and an inferior survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:22674570

  2. Prognostic Role of Serum Antibody Immunity to p53 Oncogenic Protein in Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garziera, Marica; Montico, Marcella; Bidoli, Ettore; Scalone, Simona; Sorio, Roberto; Giorda, Giorgio; Lucia, Emilio; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum p53 autoantibodies (p53-AAbs) are the product of an endogenous immune response against p53 overexpression driven by the ovarian tumour. The p53-AAbs are detectable only in a subset of patients. To date, the evidence of an association between the presence of p53-AAbs and ovarian cancer outcomes has been poorly investigated. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify eligible studies investigating the association of serum p53-AAbs and overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). Associations between presence of serum p53-AAbs and baseline tumour characteristics were also evaluated. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to estimate the prognostic impact of serum p53-AAbs. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed. Results A total of 583 patients (7 studies) for OS and 356 patients (4 studies) for DFS were included in the meta-analysis. Presence of p53-AAbs was not associated to OS (pooled uni- multivariate HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.55–2.16), and a large heterogeneity was found. When only multivariate HRs were pooled together (4 studies), presence of p53-AAbs was significantly associated to a better OS (pooled HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.40–0.81), and no significant heterogeneity was observed. A reduced DFS was associated to p53-AAbs (pooled uni- multivariate HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.83–2.25), though not significantly and with a moderate heterogeneity. Conclusions The prognostic significance of serum p53-AAbs in ovarian cancer was diverging according to uni or multivariate models used. Since the results of this work were based on only few investigations, large prospective studies are needed to better define the role of antibody immunity against p53. PMID:26451959

  3. Serum-free hybridoma culture: ethical, scientific and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Even, Megha S; Sandusky, Chad B; Barnard, Neal D

    2006-03-01

    Despite considerable progress in the development of cell culture techniques, including the development of the serum- and protein-free media that now routinely support hybridoma and mammalian cell growth, fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented media are still commonly used: a practice that raises ethical, scientific and safety concerns. The use of FBS in hybridoma culture media is examined here, with regards to the development and production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and it is our recommendation that researchers adopt serum-free cell culture methods to reduce animal use in this area. PMID:16427150

  4. Serum deprivation elevates the levels of microvesicles with different size distributions and selectively enriched proteins in human myeloma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wang, Hong-xiang; Zhu, Xiao-jian; Wu, Pin-hui; Chen, Wei-qun; Zou, Ping; Li, Qiu-bai; Chen, Zhi-chao

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of serum deprivation (SD) on microvesicles (MVs) secreted from human myeloma cells and the implications for disease progression. Methods: RPMI 8226, U266, and KM3 human myeloma cells were incubated in medium containing 10% (non-SD) or 1% fetal bovine serum (SD) and MVs were isolated. The levels and size distribution of MVs were analyzed with flow cytometry. The protein profiles of MVs were studied using 2D SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-MS, and Western blotting. NF-?B activation was analyzed using EMSA. Angiogenesis was examined in Eahy926 endothelial cells. Results: Exposure of RPMI 8226 cells to SD for 24 h did not alter the number of apoptotic cells. However, SD increased the number of MVs from RPMI 8226, U266, and KM3 cells to 2.5-, 4.3-, and 3.8-fold, respectively. The size distribution of SD MVs was also significantly different from that of non-SD MVs. Three proteins ZNF224, SARM, and COBL in SD MVs were found to be up-regulated, which were involved in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and metabolism, respectively. Co-culture of SD MVs and RPMI 8226 cells increased NF-?B activation in the target RPMI 8226 cells. Furthermore, SD MVs from RPMI 8226 cells significantly increased the microtubule formation capacity of Eahy926 endothelial cells compared with non-SD MVs. Conclusion: SD elevates the levels of microvesicles with different size distribution and selectively enriched proteins in human myeloma cells in vitro. The selectively enriched proteins, especially ZNF224, may play key roles in regulation of myeloma cells, allowing better adaptation to SD. PMID:24374813

  5. Deleterious effect of serum proteins on the amphotericin B-induced potentiation of cisplatin in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Assem, M.; Bonvalot, S.; Beltramo, J. L.; Garrido, C.; Dimanche-Boitrel, M. T.; Genne, P.; Rebibou, J. M.; Caillot, D.; Chauffert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Inherent resistance of colon cancer cells to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is partly attributed to reduced drug penetration through plasma membrane. Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antifungal antibiotic, has been shown to increase CDDP penetration and cytotoxicity on several non-digestive cancer cell lines. We demonstrated here that AmB dramatically increases the penetration of CDDP, and to a lesser extent that of carboplatin (Carbo-P) and oxaloplatin (L-OHP), in the primary resistant HT 29 human colon cancer cells when drug incubation is performed in serum-free medium. The cytotoxicity of CDDP but not that of Carbo-P and L-OHP was increased by AmB. However, AmB-induced potentiation of CDDP penetration and toxicity was almost completely abolished when cell incubation was performed in presence of human serum. We investigated whether the dilution of human serum by a high osmotic power gelatine solution (Lomol) could restore the positive effect of AmB on CDDP accumulation in HT 29 cells. Incubation of cells with CDDP and AmB in pure Lomol resulted in a 6-fold increase in platinum cellular content. However, addition of serum (25%) in Lomol solution reduced to only 2-fold the increase in platinum cellular content provoked by AmB. These disappointing results show that AmB is probably uninteresting as a modulator of CDDP resistance in clinical practice. The use of haemodilution to restore the positive AmB effect on platinum cellular accumulation cannot be warranted. PMID:7917908

  6. Deleterious effect of serum proteins on the amphotericin B-induced potentiation of cisplatin in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Assem, M; Bonvalot, S; Beltramo, J L; Garrido, C; Dimanche-Boitrel, M T; Genne, P; Rebibou, J M; Caillot, D; Chauffert, B

    1994-10-01

    Inherent resistance of colon cancer cells to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is partly attributed to reduced drug penetration through plasma membrane. Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antifungal antibiotic, has been shown to increase CDDP penetration and cytotoxicity on several non-digestive cancer cell lines. We demonstrated here that AmB dramatically increases the penetration of CDDP, and to a lesser extent that of carboplatin (Carbo-P) and oxaloplatin (L-OHP), in the primary resistant HT 29 human colon cancer cells when drug incubation is performed in serum-free medium. The cytotoxicity of CDDP but not that of Carbo-P and L-OHP was increased by AmB. However, AmB-induced potentiation of CDDP penetration and toxicity was almost completely abolished when cell incubation was performed in presence of human serum. We investigated whether the dilution of human serum by a high osmotic power gelatine solution (Lomol) could restore the positive effect of AmB on CDDP accumulation in HT 29 cells. Incubation of cells with CDDP and AmB in pure Lomol resulted in a 6-fold increase in platinum cellular content. However, addition of serum (25%) in Lomol solution reduced to only 2-fold the increase in platinum cellular content provoked by AmB. These disappointing results show that AmB is probably uninteresting as a modulator of CDDP resistance in clinical practice. The use of haemodilution to restore the positive AmB effect on platinum cellular accumulation cannot be warranted. PMID:7917908

  7. Monolith immuno-affinity enrichment liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative protein analysis of recombinant bovine somatotropin in serum.

    PubMed

    Smits, Nathalie G E; Blokland, Marco H; Wubs, Klaas L; Nessen, Merel A; van Ginkel, Leen A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-08-01

    The use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to enhance milk production is approved in several countries, but it is prohibited in the European Union. According to EU legislation, it is necessary to confirm positive screening results prior to enforcement. Although adequate screening assays are available nowadays, development of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmatory methods to detect low levels of rbST is still a challenge. Here, we present a novel approach using immuno-affinity enrichment on monolithic micro-columns in combination with state-of-the-art ultra-high pressure LC-MS/MS (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection. The developed approach enables detection and confirmation of rbST in serum at a decision limit (CC?) concentration of 0.8 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the method is easy to handle, robust and reproducible. We successfully applied the confirmatory method to serum samples from rbST treated cows that were found suspect after immunoassay-based screening. The use of rbST could be confirmed over 1 week after treatment, and the developed method demonstrated the sensitivity needed for effective control. Graphical Abstract Graphical summary of the workflow, for serum preparation, enrichment with monolith microcolumns and LC-MS/MS measurement of rbST. PMID:26077745

  8. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae. PMID:25831589

  9. Distinct serum proteome profiles associated with collagen-induced arthritis and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation in CD38(-/-) mice: The discriminative power of protein species or proteoforms.

    PubMed

    Rosal-Vela, Antonio; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Postigo, Jorge; Iglesias, Marcos; Longobardo, Victoria; Lario, Antonio; Merino, Jesús; Merino, Ramón; Zubiaur, Mercedes; Sancho, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    Collagen-type-II-induced arthritis (CIA) is an autoimmune disease, which involves a complex host systemic response including inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. CIA is milder in CD38(-/-) than in wild-type (WT) mice. ProteoMiner-equalized serum samples were subjected to 2D-DiGE and MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses to identify proteins that changed in their relative abundances in CD38(-/-) versus WT mice either with arthritis (CIA(+) ), with no arthritis (CIA(-) ), or with inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-treated mice). Multivariate analyses revealed that a multiprotein signature (n = 28) was able to discriminate CIA(+) from CIA(-) mice, and WT from CD38(-/-) mice within each condition. Likewise, a distinct multiprotein signature (n = 16) was identified which differentiated CIA(+) CD38(-/-) mice from CIA(+) WT mice, and lastly, a third multiprotein signature (n = 18) indicated that CD38(-/-) and WT mice could be segregated in response to CFA treatment. Further analyses showed that the discriminative power to distinguish these groups was reached at protein species level and not at the protein level. Hence, the need to identify and quantify proteins at protein species level to better correlate proteome changes with disease processes. It is crucial for plasma proteomics at the low-abundance protein species level to apply the ProteoMiner enrichment. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001788, PXD001799 and PXD002071 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001788, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001799 and http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002071). PMID:26175002

  10. A Genetic Association Study of Serum Acute-Phase C-Reactive Protein Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Implications for Clinical Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Benjamin; Merriman, Marilyn E.; Harrison, Andrew; Nissen, Michael J.; Smith, Malcolm; Stamp, Lisa; Steer, Sophia; Merriman, Tony R.; Vyse, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acute-phase increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is used to diagnose and monitor infectious and inflammatory diseases. Little is known about the influence of genetics on acute-phase CRP, particularly in patients with chronic inflammation. Methods and Findings We studied two independent sets of patients with chronic inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis (total 695 patients). A tagSNP approach captured common variation at the CRP locus and the relationship between genotype and serum CRP was explored by linear modelling. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was incorporated as an independent marker of inflammation to adjust for the varying levels of inflammatory disease activity between patients. Common genetic variants at the CRP locus were associated with acute-phase serum CRP (for the most associated haplotype: p?=?0.002, p<0.0005, p<0.0005 in patient sets 1, 2, and the combined sets, respectively), translating into an approximately 3.5-fold change in expected serum CRP concentrations between carriers of two common CRP haplotypes. For example, when ESR?=?50 mm/h the expected geometric mean CRP (95% confidence interval) concentration was 43.1 mg/l (32.1–50.0) for haplotype 1 and 14.2 mg/l (9.5–23.2) for haplotype 4. Conclusions Our findings raise questions about the interpretation of acute-phase serum CRP. In particular, failure to take into account the potential for genetic effects may result in the inappropriate reassurance or suboptimal treatment of patients simply because they carry low-CRP–associated genetic variants. CRP is increasingly being incorporated into clinical algorithms to compare disease activity between patients and to predict future clinical events: our findings impact on the use of these algorithms. For example, where access to effective, but expensive, biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis is rationed on the basis of a DAS28-CRP clinical activity score, then two patients with identical underlying disease severity could be given, or denied, treatment on the basis of CRP genotype alone. The accuracy and utility of these algorithms might be improved by using a genetically adjusted CRP measurement. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20877716

  11. Rheology of globular proteins: apparent yield stress, high shear rate viscosity and interfacial viscoelasticity of bovine serum albumin solutions

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vivek

    a simple, but quantitative, additive model useful for extracting the interfacial viscosity contribution albumin and other proteins in the context of applications ranging from electrospinning10 to synovial

  12. Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) induction by the EWS/NOR1(NR4A3) fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Hugo; Filion, Christine; Ladanyi, Marc; Labelle, Yves . E-mail: yves.labelle@bcx.ulaval.ca

    2006-07-21

    The NR4A3 nuclear receptor (also known as NOR1) is involved in tumorigenesis by the t(9;22) chromosome translocation encoding the EWS/NOR1 fusion protein found in approximately 75% of all cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC). Several observations suggest that one role of EWS/NOR1 in tumorigenesis may be to deregulate the expression of specific target genes. We have shown previously that constitutive expression of EWS/NOR1 in CFK2 fetal rat chondrogenic cells induces their transformation as measured by growth beyond confluency and growth in soft agar. To identify genes regulated by the fusion protein in this model, we have generated a CFK2 cell line in which the expression of EWS/NOR1 is controlled by tetracycline. Using the differential display technique, we have identified the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) mRNA as being up-regulated in the presence of EWS/NOR1. Co-immunocytochemistry confirmed over-expression of the SGK1 protein in cells expressing EWS/NOR1. Significantly, immunohistochemistry of 10 EMC tumors positive for EWS/NOR1 showed that all of them over-express the SGK1 protein in contrast to non-neoplastic cells in the same biopsies and various other sarcoma types. These results strongly suggest that SGK1 may be a genuine in vivo target of EWS/NOR1 in EMC.

  13. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows*

    PubMed Central

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (P<0.05). Adiponectin is strongly associated with AMPK. The increases of adiponectin and AMPK may be one of the mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in heat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future. PMID:26055916

  14. Association of Sarcopenic Obesity with Higher Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in Chinese Older Males - A Community-Based Study (Taichung Community Health Study-Elderly, TCHS-E)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Chia-Ing; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and sarcopenia is high among the elderly. The simultaneous occurrence of these two disorders results in sarcopenic obesity. Research suggests that inflammation has an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and sarcopenia. This study explores the impact of sarcopenic obesity on inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). This study is a community-based cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 844 community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older (448 men and 396 women). Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass (skeletal muscle index < 6.87 and 5.46 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively), and obesity was characterized by excess body fat (body fat percentage greater than the 60th percentile of the study sample by sex [27.82% in men and 37.61% in women]). Older individuals identified with sarcopenic obesity were those who had both sarcopenia and obesity. Inflammatory markers such as IL-6, hs-CRP, and TNF-? were measured. The prevalence rates of obesity only, sarcopenia only, and sarcopenic obesity were 32.94%, 11.85%, and 7.23%, respectively. No difference was observed in the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? among the four groups of combined sarcopenia and obesity status. After multivariate adjustment, the serum hs-CRP levels in the obesity only and in the sarcopenic obesity groups were 0.14 and 0.16 mg/dL among males, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the normal group (P=0.012 and 0.036). Our results provide evidence that obesity and sarcopenic obesity are associated with increased levels of serum hs-CRP among males. PMID:26177029

  15. Creation of a federated database of blood proteins: a powerful new tool for finding and characterizing biomarkers in serum.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John; Bowden, Peter; Schmit, Jean Claude; Betsou, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Protein biomarkers offer major benefits for diagnosis and monitoring of disease processes. Recent advances in protein mass spectrometry make it feasible to use this very sensitive technology to detect and quantify proteins in blood. To explore the potential of blood biomarkers, we conducted a thorough review to evaluate the reliability of data in the literature and to determine the spectrum of proteins reported to exist in blood with a goal of creating a Federated Database of Blood Proteins (FDBP). A unique feature of our approach is the use of a SQL database for all of the peptide data; the power of the SQL database combined with standard informatic algorithms such as BLAST and the statistical analysis system (SAS) allowed the rapid annotation and analysis of the database without the need to create special programs to manage the data. Our mathematical analysis and review shows that in addition to the usual secreted proteins found in blood, there are many reports of intracellular proteins and good agreement on transcription factors, DNA remodelling factors in addition to cellular receptors and their signal transduction enzymes. Overall, we have catalogued about 12,130 proteins identified by at least one unique peptide, and of these 3858 have 3 or more peptide correlations. The FDBP with annotations should facilitate testing blood for specific disease biomarkers. PMID:24476026

  16. Characterization of heat-induced aggregates of beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin in a whey protein concentrate environment.

    PubMed

    Havea, P; Singh, H; Creamer, L K

    2001-08-01

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg), alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), dispersed in ultrafiltration permeate, that had been prepared from whey protein concentrate solution (100 g/kg, pH 6.8), were heated at 75 degrees C. The sequent protein aggregation was studied by one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). When 100 g beta-lg/kg permeate solution was heated at 75 degrees C, cooled and examined, large aggregates were observed. These aggregates were partially dissociated in SDS solution to give monomers, disullphide-bonded dimers, trimers and larger aggregates. When mixtures of beta-lg and alpha-la or BSA were heated, homopolymers of each protein as well as heteropolymers of these proteins were observed. These polymer species were also served in a heated mixture of the three proteins. Two-dimensional PAGE of mixtures demonstrated that these polymers species contained disulphide-bonded dimers of beta-lg. alpha-la and BSA, and 1:1 disulphide-bonded adducts of alpha-la and beta-lg, or BSA. These results are consistent with a mechanism in which the free thiols of heat-treated beta-lg or BSA catalyse the formation of a range of monomers, dimers and higher polymers of alpha-la. It is likely that when whey protein concentrate is heated under the present eonditions. BSA forms disulphide-bonded strands ahead of beta-lg and that alpha-la aggregation with beta-lg and with itself is catalysed by the heat-induced unfolded BSA and beta-lg. PMID:11694050

  17. Relationship of serum IL-6, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and knee skin temperature after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Honsawek, Sittisak; Deepaisarnsakul, Benjamad; Tanavalee, Aree; Sakdinakiattikoon, Manoon; Ngarmukos, Srihatach; Preativatanyou, Kanok; Bumrungpanichthaworn, Piyanuch

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of severe pain and functional limitation. Total knee arthroplasty is an effective procedure to relieve pain, restore knee function, and improve quality of life for patients with end stage knee arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory process in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis before surgery and in subsequent periods following total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study of 49 patients undergoing primary total knee replacements was conducted. The patients were evaluated by monitoring serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), knee skin temperature, and clinical status. Measurements were carried out preoperatively and postoperatively on day one and at two, six, 14, and 26 weeks during follow-up review in the knee clinic. The serum IL-6 and CRP were elevated on the first postoperative day but fell to preoperative values at two weeks postoperatively. Both returned to within the normal range by six weeks postoperatively. In addition, the postoperative ESR showed a slow rise with a peak two weeks after surgery and returned to the preoperative level at 26 weeks postoperatively. The difference in skin temperature between operated and contralateral knees had a mean value of +4.5°C at two weeks. The mean value decreased to +3.5°C at six weeks, +2.5°C at 14 weeks, and +1.0°C at 26 weeks. The difference in skin temperature decreased gradually and eventually there was no statistically significant difference at 26 weeks after surgery. A sustained elevation in serum IL-6, CRP, ESR, and skin temperature must raise the concern of early complication and may suggest the development of postoperative complication such as haematoma and/or infection. PMID:21203883

  18. Phosphorylcholine on the Lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae Contributes to Persistence in the Respiratory Tract and Sensitivity to Serum Killing Mediated by C-reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Jeffrey N.; Pan, Nina; McGowan, Karin L.; Musher, Daniel; Martin, Adčle; Richards, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae undergoes phase variation in expression of the phosphorylcholine (ChoP) epitope, a structure present on several invasive pathogens residing in the human respiratory tract. In this study, structural analysis comparing organisms with and without this epitope confirmed that variants differ in the presence of ChoP on the cell surface–exposed outer core of the lipopolysaccharide. During nasopharyngeal carriage in infant rats, there was a gradual selection for H. influenzae variants that express ChoP. In addition, genotypic analysis of the molecular switch that controls phase variation predicted that the ChoP+ phenotype was predominant in H. influenzae in human respiratory tract secretions. However, ChoP+ variants of nontypable H. influenzae were more sensitive to the bactericidal activity of human serum unrelated to the presence of naturally acquired antibody to ChoP. Serum bactericidal activity required the binding of C-reactive protein (CRP) with subsequent activation of complement through the classical pathway. Results of this study suggested that the ability of H. influenzae to vary expression of this unusual bacterial structure may correlate with its ability both to persist on the mucosal surface (ChoP+ phenotype) and to cause invasive infection by evading innate immunity mediated by CRP (ChoP? phenotype). PMID:9463413

  19. Supplement of bamboo extract lowers serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentration in mice fed a diet containing high level of saturated fat

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jason K.; Liu, Wanyu; Berry, Marla J.; Panee, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine upregulated in obese subjects contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of an ethanol/water extract from bamboo Phyllostachys edulis (BEX) on blood concentration of MCP-1. C57BL/6J mice were fed standard or high fat diet with or without BEX supplement (11 g dry mass per 17,000 kJ) for 6 months. Ten mice were used in each group. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly. After euthanization, the weight of visceral fat and circulating MCP-1 concentration were measured. In comparison to the standard control group, the high fat control group increased body weight, abdominal fat storage, and serum MCP-1 concentration by 60% (P<0.001), 266% (P<0.001), and 180% (P<0.01), respectively. While the high fat BEX group showed a 3% decrease in body weight (P<0.01), 24% decrease in mesenteric fat depot (P<0.01), and 49% decrease in serum MCP-1 (P<0.05) in comparison to the high fat control group. This study suggests BEX supplement in the high fat diet ameliorates elevated MCP-1 concentrations in the blood, whether this is related to modulated endocrine properties of the visceral fat is to be studied. PMID:21736779

  20. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible silicon nanowires-on-a-chip: fabrication and preclinical validation for the detection of a cancer prognostic protein marker in serum.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy P; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Pai, Jing-Hong; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    An integrated translational biosensing technology based on arrays of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs) is described and has been preclinically validated for the ultrasensitive detection of the cancer biomarker ALCAM in serum. High-quality SiNW arrays have been rationally designed toward their implementation as molecular biosensors. The FET sensing platform has been fabricated using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible process. Reliable and reproducible electrical performance has been demonstrated via electrical characterization using a custom-designed portable readout device. Using this platform, the cancer prognostic marker ALCAM could be detected in serum with a detection limit of 15.5 pg/mL. Importantly, the detection could be completed in less than 30 min and span a wide dynamic detection range (?10(5)). The SiNW-on-a-chip biosensing technology paves the way to the translational clinical application of FET in the detection of cancer protein markers. PMID:25531273

  1. A filtered database search algorithm for endogenous serum protein carbonyl modifications in a mouse model of inflammation

    E-print Network

    Slade, Peter G.

    During inflammation, the resulting oxidative stress can damage surrounding host tissue, forming protein-carbonyls. The SJL mouse is an experimental animal model used to assess in vivo toxicological responses to reactive ...

  2. The Levels of Serum C-Reactive Protein, Beta 2 Microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Some Specific Proteins in Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Before and After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Rahsan; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Erdem, Fuat; Kiki, lhami; Bilici, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure serum C reactive protein, ?2 microglobulin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, complement 3, complement 4, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and transferrin levels in patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma before and after treatment, and to determine whether any differences occur with treatment, investigate relationship between these parameters and systemic symptoms, and to determine whether they could be used as tumor markers. Materials and Methods: The parameters listed above were studied before and after treatment in sera of 27 patients with the diagnosis of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma who admitted to our department. Of the patients, 10 (37%) were females and 17 (63%) were males. Mean age was 57.7 ± 16.5 (19–82) years. The subjects were newly diagnosed and treatment. Results: Post-treatment serum ferritin and CRP levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with NHL compared to pre-treatment levels (p=0.009 and p=0.015, respectively). In addition, ferritin levels measured before treatment were significantly lower in subjects with B symptoms than those without B symptoms (p=0.02). IgA levels of patients with B symptom were significantly increased compared to those without B symptoms following treatment (p=0.03). Conclusions: We are in the opinion that serum ferritin and CRP parameters may be used as tumor markers and may be indicators in the efficacy evaluation of treatment in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. PMID:25610096

  3. Choline and acetylcholine detection based on peroxidase-like activity and protein antifouling property of platinum nanoparticles in bovine serum albumin scaffold.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Bin; Wu, Gang-Wei; Deng, Hao-Hua; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xin-Hua; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Wei

    2014-12-15

    Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in the scaffold of bovine serum albumin (BSA) through biomineralization are found to possess excellent peroxidase-like activity that can catalyze N-ethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-3-methylaniline sodium salt (TOPS) coupled with 4-amino-antipyrine (4-AAP) by the action of hydrogen peroxide to give an obvious purple product. Based on this phenomenon, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChOx) are used to catalyze ACh and choline to form the active product H2O2 and the as-produced H2O2 is detected optically. Owning to the protection effect of the protein shell, BSA-PtNPs turn out to be very stable and preserve the catalytic activity in the presence of protein and even in the real plasma samples. This protein antifouling property makes the BSA-PtNPs suitable for a wide range of applications in sensors for biological samples. Choline in infant formula and ACh in plasma have been successfully detected. PMID:25038538

  4. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  5. Changes in serum pregnancy-associated glycoprotein, pregnancy-specific protein B, and progesterone concentrations before and after induction of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giordano, J O; Guenther, J N; Lopes, G; Fricke, P M

    2012-02-01

    Lactating crossbred dairy cows were synchronized to receive a timed artificial insemination (TAI), and blood samples were collected from all cows from TAI until pregnancy diagnosis 39 d after TAI (period 1), and from pregnant cows from onset of treatment until the end of the experiment (period 2). Cows diagnosed pregnant 39 d after TAI were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments to receive (1) an i.m. injection of saline (CON, n=10); (2) an i.m. injection of PGF(2?) (PGF, n=10); or (3) an intrauterine infusion of 120 mL of hypertonic saline (INF, n=9). During period 1, serum pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations began to increase in pregnant cows by 25 d after TAI and differed from those in nonpregnant cows by 27 d after TAI, whereas serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations in pregnant cows differed from those in nonpregnant cows by 22 d after TAI. During period 2, time from treatment to cessation of the embryonic heartbeat was greater for PGF than for INF cows (36.0±5.7 vs. 0.2±0.1 h, respectively), and time from treatment to conceptus disappearance was greater for INF than for PGF cows (7.1±3.3 vs. 1.9±0.3 d, respectively). Overall, progesterone concentration was greater for CON and INF than for PGF cows (8.7±2.8, 8.2±3.1, and 1.0±2.3 ng/mL, respectively) due to luteal regression for PGF cows and corpus luteum maintenance for CON and INF cows. Serum PAG and PSPB concentrations differed among CON cows and PGF and INF cows beginning 1 and 2.5 d after treatment for PAG and PSPB, respectively. By 9.5 d after treatment, PAG and PSPB concentrations were similar to those of nonpregnant cows. We conclude that although timing of conceptus expulsion occurred 5.2 d later for INF than for PGF cows, serum PAG and PSPB concentrations decreased at a similar rate from the onset of treatment for both models of pregnancy loss evaluated. PMID:22281333

  6. Serum angiopoietin-like 4 protein levels and expression in adipose tissue are inversely correlated with obesity in monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Robciuc, Marius R.; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Tyynismaa, Henna; Raivio, Taneli; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ehnholm, Christian; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies have suggested that angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) regulates adiposity through central and peripheral mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of Angptl4 are associated with obesity-related parameters in humans. Altogether, 75 dizygotic (DZ) and 46 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were studied, from the FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16 cohorts. Among the MZ pairs, 21 were discordant for body mass index (BMI) (intra-pair BMI-difference >2.5 kg/m2, age 23–33 years). Serum Angptl4 (s-Angptl4) levels were measured by ELISA, and adipose tissue gene expression was analyzed by genome-wide transcript profiling. In MZ twin pairs discordant for BMI, s-Angptl4 and adipose tissue ANGPTL4 mRNA (at-ANGPTL4) levels were significantly decreased (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively) in obese twins as compared with their nonobese cotwins. In all twins, intra-pair differences in s-Angptl4 levels were inversely correlated with intra-pair differences in BMI (r = ?0.27, P = 0.003). In individual MZ twins, at-ANGPTL4 expression was inversely correlated with BMI (r = ?0.44, P = 0.001) and positively correlated with at-LIPE (r = 0.24, P = 0.01) and at-ABHD5 (r = 0.41, P = 0.005) expression. Our results demonstrated that variation in Angptl4 concentration was only modestly accounted for by genetic factors and suggest a role for Angptl4 in acquired obesity in humans PMID:21596930

  7. Recent advances in the study of protein translocation across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum include insights

    E-print Network

    Nicchitta, Chris

    and compartmentalized protein synthesis has been suggested. Addresses Department of Cell Biology, Duke University-bound ribosomes may also participate in the synthesis of cytosolic proteins. In this review, I will cover and a platform for compartmentalized protein synthesis. The shape of things to come Insights into the mechanism

  8. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  9. Altered expression of serum protein in ginsenoside Re-treated diabetic rats detected by SELDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Cho, William C S; Yip, Tai-Tung; Chung, Wai-Shing; Lee, Sally K W; Leung, Albert W N; Cheng, Christopher H K; Yue, Kevin K M

    2006-11-24

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is now a global health problem, however, its pathogenesis has not yet been fully deciphered. Even though modern medicine has great contribution to the control and treatment of DM, it is still far from success to completely cure the disease. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng) is a well-recognized traditional Chinese medicine for treating DM in Asia. In this study, high throughput proteomic approach has been adopted to investigate the antidiabetic action of 2 weeks' ginsenoside Re (Re, a major component of ginseng) administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Employing surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and bioinformatics, 432 cluster peaks were detected in the samples, among them 293 potential biomarkers were found to have significant differentiations between the DM and control normal rats. When the Re-treated diabetic rats were compared to the untreated ones, a protein peak was detected to have significant alteration corresponding to Re treatment. This specific protein was found to match with C-reactive protein (CRP) in the protein database, and was subsequently validated by ELISA. This is the first study demonstrated that CRP could be altered by Re treatment, indicating that Re may improve diabetes and its complications by alleviation of inflammation. PMID:16797897

  10. THE CORRELATION OF SERUM BICARBONATE AND METABOLIC ACIDOSIS TO ALBUMIN IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    E-print Network

    Vyduna, Jennifer Lynn

    2012-12-31

    of bicarbonate from the lower intestine, breakdown of proteins from diet, and oxidation of carbohydrates and fats in muscle cells (13, 15). The kidney assists in regenerating bicarbonate used for buffering acids and is vital in acid-base balance. Hydrogen ion... including renal osteodystrophy, protein catabolism, decreased normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), decreased serum albumin synthesis, and protein energy wasting are observed with metabolic acidosis during maintenance hemodialysis (3, 4). Maintenance...

  11. Quantification of a biomarker of acetaminophen protein adducts in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: clinical and animal model applications.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah F; King, Amber D; Chang, Yan; Murray, Gordon J; Norris, Hye-Ryun K; Dart, Richard C; Green, Jody L; Curry, Steven C; Rollins, Douglas E; Wilkins, Diana G

    2015-03-15

    The aims of this study were to develop, validate, and apply a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantification of protein-derived 3-(cystein-S-yl)-acetaminophen (APAP-Cys) in human serum. Formation of acetaminophen (APAP) protein adducts is thought to be a critical, early event in the development of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and quantification of these protein adducts in human serum represents a valuable tool for assessment of APAP exposure, metabolism, and toxicity. In the reported procedure, serum samples were first dialyzed or passed through gel filtration columns to remove APAP-Cys not covalently bound to proteins. Serum eluates were then subjected to enzymatic protease digestion to liberate protein-bound APAP-Cys. Norbuprenorphine-D3 was utilized as an internal standard (IS). APAP-Cys and IS were recovered from digested serum by protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and sample extracts were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The method was validated by assessment of intra- and inter-assay accuracy and imprecision on two different analytical instrument platforms. APAP-Cys could be accurately quantified from 0.010 to 10?M, and intra- and inter-assay imprecision were <15% on both analytical instruments. APAP-Cys was stable in human serum for three freeze-thaw cycles and for 24h at ambient temperature. Extracted samples were stable when stored in refrigerated autosamplers for the typical duration of analysis or when stored at -20°C for six days. Results from process efficiency and matrix effect experiments indicated adequate recovery from human serum and insignificant ion suppression or enhancement. The utility and sensitivity of the reported procedure were illustrated by analysis of clinical samples collected from subjects taking chronic, therapeutic doses of APAP. Applicability to other biological matrices was also demonstrated by measurement of protein-derived APAP-Cys in plasma collected from APAP-treated mice, a common animal model of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25681644

  12. Facile synthesis of nano-sized agarose based amino acid-Its pH-dependent protein-like behavior and interactions with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Nishith A; Siddhanta, A K

    2015-11-19

    In a facile synthesis agarose was amphoterically functionalized to afford nano-sized agarose amino acids, aminoagarose succinate half-esters (AAE) containing one pendant carboxyl group. Nano-sized AAEs (<10?nm; DLS) were characterized and they had three various degrees of substitution [overall DSs 0.88, 0.89 and 0.96], both the amino and half-ester groups were placed on C-6 positions of the 1,3 beta-d-galactopyranose moieties of agarose backbone ((13)C NMR). AAEs performed like large protein molecules exhibiting pH-responsive structural variations (optical rotatory dispersion), presenting a mixed solubility pattern like random coil (soluble) and aggregate (precipitation) formations. Circular dichroism studies showed their pH-dependent associative interactions with bovine serum albumin, which indicated complexation at acidic and basic pHs, and decomplexation at pH?6.8 with AAE (DS 0.96). Thus, these nano-sized AAE based systems may be of potential utility in the domains demanding the merits of preferential protein bindings e.g. pH-responsive cationic/anionic drug carrier, separations or chiral sensing applications. PMID:26413976

  13. Phosphorylation of FE65 Ser610 by serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 modulates Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein processing

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wan Ning Vanessa; Ngo, Jacky Chi Ki; Li, Wen; Chen, Yu Wai; Tam, Ka Ming Vincent; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Miller, Christopher C.J.; Lau, Kwok-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting 36 million people worldwide. Genetic and biochemical research indicate that the excessive generation of amyloid-? peptide (A?) from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a major part of AD pathogenesis. FE65 is a brain-enriched adaptor protein that binds to APP. However, the role of FE65 in APP processing and the mechanisms that regulate binding of FE65 to APP are not fully understood. In the present study, we show that serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) phosphorylates FE65 on Ser610 and that this phosphorylation attenuates FE65 binding to APP. We also show that FE65 promotes amyloidogenic processing of APP and that FE65 Ser610 phosphorylation inhibits this effect. Furthermore, we found that the effect of FE65 Ser610 phosphorylation on APP processing is linked to a role of FE65 in metabolic turnover of APP via the proteasome. Thus FE65 influences APP degradation via the proteasome and phosphorylation of FE65 Ser610 by SGK1 regulates binding of FE65 to APP, APP turnover and processing. PMID:26188042

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AFFINITY MICROCOLUMNS FOR DRUG-PROTEIN BINDING STUDIES IN PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: INTERACTIONS OF SULFONYLUREA DRUGS WITH IN VIVO GLYCATED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Joseph, K.S.; Barnaby, Omar S.; Matsuda, Ryan; Alvarado, Guadalupe; Clarke, William; Cerny, Ronald L.; Hage, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This report used high-performance affinity microcolumns to examine the changes in binding by sulfonylurea drugs to in vivo glycated HSA that had been isolated from individual patients with diabetes. An immunoextraction approach was developed to isolate HSA and glycated HSA from clinical samples, using only 20 ?L of plasma or serum and 6–12 nmol of protein to prepare each affinity microcolumn. It was found that the affinity microcolumns could be used in either frontal analysis or zonal elution studies, which typically required only 4–8 min per run. The microcolumns had good stability and allowed data to be obtained for multiple drugs and experimental conditions over hundreds of sample application cycles. Both the overall binding, as measured by frontal analysis, and site-specific interactions, as examined by zonal elution, showed good agreement with previous data that had been obtained for in vitro glycated HSA with similar levels of modification. It was also possible to directly compare the changes in site-specific binding that occurred between sulfonylurea drugs or as the level of HSA glycation was varied. This method is not limited to clinical samples of glycated HSA but could be adapted for work with other modified proteins of interest in personalized medicine. PMID:23544441

  15. Serum and synovial fluid C-reactive protein level variations in dogs with degenerative joint disease and their relationships with physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Boal, S; Miguel Carreira, L

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a progressive, chronic joint disease with an inflammatory component promoting an acute phase protein (APP) response. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important APPs, used as an inflammation marker in human, but not veterinary medicine. The study was developed in a sample of 48 dogs (n = 48) with DJD and aimed to: 1) identify and quantify the synovial fluid CRP (SFCRP) in these specimens using a validated ELISA test for serum CRP (SCRP) detection and quantification; and 2) to study the possible relationship between SCRP and SFCRP levels variations in DJD patients evaluating the influence of some physical parameters such as gender, body weight, pain level, DJD grade, and the physical activity (PA) of the patients. Statistical analysis considered the results significant for p values <0.05. Our study showed that it is possible to detect and quantify SFCRP levels in DJD patients using a previously validated canine SCRP ELISA test, allowing us to point out a preliminary reference value for SFCRP in patients with DJD. Although, individuals with DJD presents SCRP values within the normal reference range and the SFCRP levels were always lower. Obesity, pain, and the DJD grade presented by the patients are conditions which seem to influence the SCRP levels but not the SFCRP. PMID:26178643

  16. Wnt3a Protein Reduces Growth Factor-Driven Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Serum-Free Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Duinhouwer, Lucia E.; Tüysüz, Nesrin; Rombouts, Elwin W. J. C.; ter Borg, Mariette N. D.; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Spanholtz, Jan; Cornelissen, Jan J.; ten Berge, Derk; Braakman, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) is a promising approach to improve insufficient engraftment after umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCB-SCT). Although culturing HSPC with hematopoietic cytokines results in robust proliferation, it is accompanied with extensive differentiation and loss of self-renewal capacity. Wnt signaling has been implicated in regulating HSPC fate decisions in vivo and in promoting HSPC self-renewal by inhibition of differentiation, but the effects of Wnt on the ex vivo expansion of HSPC are controversial. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous Wnt3a protein suppresses rather than promotes the expansion of UCB-derived CD34+ cells in serum free expansion cultures. The reduced expansion was also observed in cultures initiated with Lin-CD34+CD38lowCD45RA-CD90+ cells which are highly enriched in HSC and was also observed in response to activation of beta-catenin signaling by GSK3 inhibition. The presence of Wnt3a protein during the culture reduced the frequency of multilineage CFU-GEMM and the long-term repopulation ability of the expanded HSPC. These data suggest that Wnt signaling reduces expansion of human HSPC in growth factor-driven expansion cultures by promoting differentiation of HSPC. PMID:25807521

  17. Studies of the Interaction between Isoimperatorin and Human Serum Albumin by Multispectroscopic Method: Identification of Possible Binding Site of the Compound Using Esterase Activity of the Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Samira; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Ghobadi, Sirous; Gholamzadeh, Saeed; Moradi, Nastaran; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Aghaei, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Isoimperatorin is one of the main components of Prangos ferulacea as a linear furanocoumarin and used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, and anticancer drug. Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Since the carrying of drug by HSA may affect on its structure and action, we decided to investigate the interaction between HSA and isoimperatorin using fluorescence and UV spectroscopy. Fluorescence data indicated that isoimperatorin quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of the HSA via a static mechanism and hydrophobic interaction play the major role in the drug binding. The binding average distance between isoimperatorin and Trp 214 of HSA was estimated on the basis of the theory of Förster energy transfer. Decrease of protein surface hydrophobicity (PSH) was also documented upon isoimperatorin binding. Furthermore, the synchronous fluorescence spectra show that the microenvironment of the tryptophan residues does not have obvious changes. Site marker compettive and fluorescence experiments revealed that the binding of isoimperatorin to HSA occurred at or near site I. Finally, the binding details between isoimperatorin and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking and esterase activity inhibition studies which revealed that drug was bound at subdomain IIA. PMID:24319355

  18. Interactions between human serum proteins and oral streptococci reveal occurrence of receptors for aggregated beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, D; Bratthall, D; Björck, L; Myhre, E; Kronvall, G

    1979-01-01

    A total of 31 strains of oral streptococci representing Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitior, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus milleri were tested for possible binding of human immunoglobulins G, G1, G2, G3, G4, A1, A2, M1, and M2 and haptoglobin, hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and aggregated beta 2-microglobulin. Radiolabeled beta 2-microglobulin in aggregated form showed affinity for 20 of the 31 strains tested. Binding activity for the protein was found in strains belonging to all five species. The bacterial receptor was resistant to trypsin. Monomeric, unlabeled beta 2-microglobulin did not interfere with the binding of the aggregated form. Of the other proteins tested, only the immunoglobulin A1 protein showed positive binding, and that was only with a single strain of S. milleri. beta 2-Microglobulin is present on all nucleated cell membranes in vivo. The reaction between aggregated beta 2-microglobulin and oral streptococci is a new type of human-bacterium interaction which should be considered in studies of bacterial adherence. PMID:90015

  19. Photochemically Generated Elemental Selenium Forms Conjugates with Serum Proteins that Are Preferentially Cytotoxic to Leukemia and Selected Solid Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Daziano, Jean-Pierre; Günther, Wolfgang H.H.; Krieg, Marianne; Tsujino, Ichiro; Miyagi, Kiyoko; Anderson, Gregory S.; Sampson, Reynée W.; Ostrowski, Martin D.; Muir, Sarah A.; Bula, Raymond J.; Sieber, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if and how photoproducts contribute to the anti-tumor effect of merocyanine-mediated PDT. A panel of barbituric, thiobarbituric and selenobarbituric acid analogues of Merocyanine 540 was photobleached, and the resulting photoproducts were characterized by absorption, fluorescence emission, mass, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and tested for cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines and freshly explanted bone marrow cells. While all dyes were readily photobleached, only photoproducts of selone dyes showed cytotoxic activity. One-hour incubations with micromolar concentrations of selone-derived photoproducts were sufficient to reduce leukemia/lymphoma cells ?10,000 fold while preserving virtually all normal CD34-positive bone marrow cells. Of 6 multi-drug resistant tumor cell lines tested, 5 were as sensitive or more sensitive to photoproducts than the corresponding wild-type lines. Physicochemical characterizations of the cytotoxic activity indicated that it consisted of conjugates of subnano particles of elemental selenium and (lipo)proteins. The discovery of cytotoxic Se-protein conjugates provides a rare example of photoproducts contributing substantially to the anti-tumor effect of PDT and challenges the long-held view that Se in oxidation state zero is biologically inert. Agents modeled after our Se-protein conjugates may prove useful for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:22211823

  20. Encapsulation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from mastitic milk: relationship between capsular polysaccharide types 5 and 8 and colony morphology in serum-soft agar, clumping factor, teichoic acid, and protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Sutra, L; Mendolia, C; Rainard, P; Poutrel, B

    1990-01-01

    A total of 193 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine, caprine, and ovine mastitis producing type 5 or 8 capsular polysaccharides were investigated for colony morphology in serum-soft agar and agglutinability by an anti-teichoic acid serum, after cultivation in modified staphylococcus medium no. 110. Also, 40 of these strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion and submitted to clumping factor and protein A detection tests. Considering capsular serotyping as a reference method, diffuse growth in serum-soft agar and inagglutinability by anti-teichoic acid serum identified, respectively, 57.5 and 45% of encapsulated strains cultivated in brain heart infusion and 85.5 and 77.2% of those cultivated in modified staphylococcus medium 110. Consequently, these indirect techniques underestimated encapsulation and were greatly influenced by culture conditions. Whatever the medium used, diffuse colony morphology in serum-soft agar was generally characterized by a masking of teichoic acid and protein A. By contrast, these surface antigens were detected in association with compact morphology; the presence of a thin or discontinuous capsular material could explain this result. Moreover, the masking of teichoic acid and the removal of capsular polysaccharide by washing in saline suggest that type 8 capsular polysaccharide is more abundant and labile than type 5. PMID:2324272

  1. Encapsulation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from mastitic milk: relationship between capsular polysaccharide types 5 and 8 and colony morphology in serum-soft agar, clumping factor, teichoic acid, and protein A.

    PubMed

    Sutra, L; Mendolia, C; Rainard, P; Poutrel, B

    1990-03-01

    A total of 193 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine, caprine, and ovine mastitis producing type 5 or 8 capsular polysaccharides were investigated for colony morphology in serum-soft agar and agglutinability by an anti-teichoic acid serum, after cultivation in modified staphylococcus medium no. 110. Also, 40 of these strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion and submitted to clumping factor and protein A detection tests. Considering capsular serotyping as a reference method, diffuse growth in serum-soft agar and inagglutinability by anti-teichoic acid serum identified, respectively, 57.5 and 45% of encapsulated strains cultivated in brain heart infusion and 85.5 and 77.2% of those cultivated in modified staphylococcus medium 110. Consequently, these indirect techniques underestimated encapsulation and were greatly influenced by culture conditions. Whatever the medium used, diffuse colony morphology in serum-soft agar was generally characterized by a masking of teichoic acid and protein A. By contrast, these surface antigens were detected in association with compact morphology; the presence of a thin or discontinuous capsular material could explain this result. Moreover, the masking of teichoic acid and the removal of capsular polysaccharide by washing in saline suggest that type 8 capsular polysaccharide is more abundant and labile than type 5. PMID:2324272

  2. Maternal serum Schwangerschafts protein-1 (SP1) and fetal chromosomal abnormalities at 10-13 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Brizot, M L; Bersinger, N A; Xydias, G; Snijders, R J; Nicolaides, K H

    1995-08-30

    Maternal serum SP1 concentration was measured at 10-13 weeks' gestation in samples from 87 pregnancies with fetal chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 21 n = 45; trisomy 18 n = 19; trisomy 13 n = 8; Turner syndrome n = 7; 47,XXX or 47,XXY n = 4; triploidy n = 4), and in samples from 348 matched controls. In the control group, SP1 increased significantly with fetal crown-rump length (r = 0.20, P < 0.0001) and there was no significant association with fetal nuchal translucency thickness (r = 0.03). Similarly, in the group with fetal chromosomal abnormalities, SP1 increased significantly with crown-rump length (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and there was no significant association with nuchal translucency thickness (r = -0.08). In the groups with fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, the median SP1 (0.76 MoM and 0.57 MoM, respectively) was significantly lower than in the controls (z = 2.64 and z = 3.27, respectively); in 21% and 25% of the cases, values were below the 5th centile. In the group with trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormalities the median SP1 (0.96 MoM and 0.93 MoM, respectively) was not significantly different from controls (z = 1.17 and z = 0.67, respectively). Measurement of SP1 concentration at 10-13 weeks' gestation is not likely to be useful in the prediction of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:8575349

  3. Evaluation of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 & serum amyloid A as diagnostic biomarkers of bacterial infection in febrile patients

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Junyan; Lü, Xiaoju; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Early identification of bacterial infection in patients with fever is important for prompt treatment. However, the available parameters such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts are not very specific. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A (SAA) for bacterial infection in febrile patients. Methods: Serum samples were collected from febrile patients between January and December 2012 and processed for blood cultures. PCT, IL-6, CRP and SAA levels were measured. The patients were divided into three groups according to the final diagnosis: bacteraemia group (group1), bacterial infection with negative blood culture (group 2) and non-bacterial infection group (group 3). Results: There were significant (P<0.05) difference in the levels of PCT, CRP, IL-6 and SAA among the three groups. The PCT levels of patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections were lower than Gram-negative bacterial infections (0.53 vs 2.13, P < 0.01). The best cut-off value to detect bacterial infections was 0.26 ng/ml for PCT. PCT, CRP, IL-6 and SAA had areas under the curve of 0.804, 0.693, 0.658 and 0.687, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed PCT as a valuable marker of bacterial infections in febrile patients. PCT was superior to CRP, IL-6 or SAA in the early identification of bacterial infection. More prospective and large scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25963492

  4. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  5. Serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) as new diagnostic and prognostic tools for epithelial ovarian cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Romani, Chiara; Specchia, Claudia; Zanotti, Laura; Galli, Claudio; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Tognon, Germana; Bignotti, Eliana; Tassi, Renata A.; Odicino, Franco; Caimi, Luigi; Sartori, Enrico; Santin, Alessandro D.; Pecorelli, Sergio; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to analyze the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS Preoperative serum samples of 419 women (140 healthy controls, 131 ovarian benign cysts, 34 endometriosis, 114 EOC) were tested for CA125 and HE4 using fully automated methods (Abbott ARCHITECT) and validated cut-off values. RESULTS For the discrimination of benign masses from EOC, in pre-menopausal women the sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% and 59.4% for CA125, 84.6% and 94.2% for HE4, and 84.6% and 81.2% for ROMA while in post-menopausal women the sensitivity and specificity were 94.3% and 82.3% for CA125, 78.2% and 99.0% for HE4, 93.1% and 84.4% for ROMA. In patients with EOC, elevated CA125, HE4 and ROMA levels were associated with advanced FIGO stage, sub-optimally debulking, ascites, positive cytology, lymph node involvement and advanced age (all p?0.05). Elevated HE4 and ROMA (both p?0.01), but not CA125 (p=0.0579), were associated with undifferentiated tumours. In multivariable analysis, elevated HE4 and ROMA (all p?0.05) were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall survival, disease free survival and progression free survival. CONCLUSIONS and IMPACT This study underlines the high specificity of HE4 in discriminating endometriosis and ovarian benign cysts from EOC and the high sensitivity of CA125 in detecting EOC. We demonstrated HE4 and ROMA as independent prognostic factors. Multicenter studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about the applicability of HE4 and ROMA in clinical practice. PMID:22028406

  6. An energy-reduced dietary pattern, including moderate protein and increased nonfat dairy intake combined with walking promotes beneficial body composition and metabolic changes in women with excess adiposity: a randomized comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Shlisky, Julie D; Durward, Carrie M; Zack, Melissa K; Gugger, Carolyn K; Campbell, Jessica K; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-09-01

    Moderate protein and nonfat dairy intake within an energy-reduced diet (ERD) may contribute to health benefits achieved with body weight (BW) loss. The current study examined the effectiveness of a weight-loss/weight-loss maintenance intervention using an ERD with moderate dietary protein (30% of kcals) and increased nonfat dairy intake (4-5 svg/d), including yogurt (INT group) and daily walking compared to an ERD with standard protein (16-17% of kcals) and standard nonfat dairy intake (3 svg/d) (COM group) with daily walking. A randomized comparative trial with 104 healthy premenopausal women with overweight/obesity was conducted in a university setting. Women were randomized to INT group or COM group. Anthropometric measurements, as well as dietary intake, selected vital signs, resting energy expenditure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and selected adipose-derived hormones were measured at baseline, and weeks 2, 12, and 24. Targets for dietary protein and nonfat dairy intake, while initially achieved, were not sustained in the INT group. There were no significant effects of diet group on anthropometric measurements. Women in the INT group and COM group, respectively, reduced BW (-4.9 ± 3.2 and -4.3 ± 3.3 kg, P < 0.001) and fat mass (-3.0 ± 2.2 and -2.3 ± 2.3 kg, P < 0.001) during the 12-week weight-loss phase and maintained these losses at 24 weeks. Both groups experienced significant decreases in body mass index, fat-free soft tissue mass, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumferences and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin (all P < 0.001). Healthy premenopausal women with excess adiposity effectively lost BW and fat mass and improved some metabolic risk factors following an ERD with approximately 20% protein and 3 svg/d of nonfat dairy intake. PMID:26405524

  7. An energy-reduced dietary pattern, including moderate protein and increased nonfat dairy intake combined with walking promotes beneficial body composition and metabolic changes in women with excess adiposity: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Shlisky, Julie D; Durward, Carrie M; Zack, Melissa K; Gugger, Carolyn K; Campbell, Jessica K; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Moderate protein and nonfat dairy intake within an energy-reduced diet (ERD) may contribute to health benefits achieved with body weight (BW) loss. The current study examined the effectiveness of a weight-loss/weight-loss maintenance intervention using an ERD with moderate dietary protein (30% of kcals) and increased nonfat dairy intake (4–5 svg/d), including yogurt (INT group) and daily walking compared to an ERD with standard protein (16–17% of kcals) and standard nonfat dairy intake (3 svg/d) (COM group) with daily walking. A randomized comparative trial with 104 healthy premenopausal women with overweight/obesity was conducted in a university setting. Women were randomized to INT group or COM group. Anthropometric measurements, as well as dietary intake, selected vital signs, resting energy expenditure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and selected adipose-derived hormones were measured at baseline, and weeks 2, 12, and 24. Targets for dietary protein and nonfat dairy intake, while initially achieved, were not sustained in the INT group. There were no significant effects of diet group on anthropometric measurements. Women in the INT group and COM group, respectively, reduced BW (?4.9 ± 3.2 and ?4.3 ± 3.3 kg, P < 0.001) and fat mass (?3.0 ± 2.2 and ?2.3 ± 2.3 kg, P < 0.001) during the 12-week weight-loss phase and maintained these losses at 24 weeks. Both groups experienced significant decreases in body mass index, fat-free soft tissue mass, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumferences and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin (all P < 0.001). Healthy premenopausal women with excess adiposity effectively lost BW and fat mass and improved some metabolic risk factors following an ERD with approximately 20% protein and 3 svg/d of nonfat dairy intake. PMID:26405524

  8. HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THE ANALYSIS OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH MODIFIED PROTEINS: BINDING OF GLICLAZIDE WITH GLYCATED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryan; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study used high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) to examine the binding of gliclazide (i.e., a sulfonylurea drug used to treat diabetes) with the protein human serum albumin (HSA) at various stages of modification due to glycation. Frontal analysis conducted with small HPAC columns was first used to estimate the number of binding sites and association equilibrium constants (Ka) for gliclazide with normal HSA and glycated HSA. Both normal and glycated HSA interacted with gliclazide according to a two-site model, with a class of high affinity sites (average Ka, 7.1-10 × 104 M?1) and a group of lower affinity sites (average Ka, 5.7-8.9 × 103 M?1) at pH 7.4 and 37°C. Competition experiments indicated that Sudlow sites I and II of HSA were both involved in these interactions, with the Ka values for gliclazide at these sites being 1.9 × 104 M?1 and 6.0 × 104 M?1, respectively, for normal HSA. Two samples of glycated HSA had similar affinities to normal HSA for gliclazide at Sudlow site I, but one sample had a 1.9-fold increase in affinity at this site. All three glycated HSA samples differed from normal HSA in their affinity for gliclazide at Sudlow site II. This work illustrated how HPAC can be used to examine both the overall binding of a drug with normal or modified proteins and the site-specific changes that can occur in these interactions as a result of protein modification. PMID:21922305

  9. A soluble envelope protein of endogenous retrovirus (FeLIX) present in serum of domestic cats mediates infection of a pathogenic variant of feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Shojima, Takayuki; Fukui, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    T-lymphotropic feline leukemia virus (FeLV-T), a highly pathogenic variant of FeLV, induces severe immunosuppression in cats. FeLV-T is fusion defective because in its PHQ motif, a gammaretroviral consensus motif in the N terminus of an envelope protein, histidine is replaced with aspartate. Infection by FeLV-T requires FeLIX, a truncated envelope protein encoded by an endogenous FeLV, for transactivation of infectivity and Pit1 for binding FeLIX. Although Pit1 is present in most tissues in cats, the expression of FeLIX is limited to certain cells in lymphoid organs. Therefore, the host cell range of FeLV-T was thought to be restricted to cells expressing FeLIX. However, because FeLIX is a soluble factor and is expressed constitutively in lymphoid organs, we presumed it to be present in blood and evaluated its activities in sera of various mammalian species using a pseudotype assay. We demonstrated that cat serum has FeLIX activity at a functional level, suggesting that FeLIX is present in the blood and that FeLV-T may be able to infect cells expressing Pit1 regardless of the expression of FeLIX in vivo. In addition, FeLIX activities in sera were detected only in domestic cats and not in other feline species tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report to prove that a large amount of truncated envelope protein of endogenous retrovirus is circulating in the blood to facilitate the infection of a pathogenic exogenous retrovirus. PMID:25395593

  10. Serum iron as an indicator of acute inflammation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Ersoy; Dabak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of serum iron concentration in the diagnosis of acute inflammation in cattle. The diagnostic value of this approach was compared with that of various other hematological tests, including commonly used techniques that measure the levels of various other acute-phase proteins. The study population comprised 10 cows with acute traumatic reticuloperitonitis (RPT group) and 10 cows with acute mastitis (mastitis group) admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Firat University (Elazi?, Turkey). Ten cows from local barns, kept and fed under same conditions as the diseased animals, were used as controls. After the clinical examination, blood samples were collected for biochemical, hematological, and acute-phase protein (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, and fibrinogen) analyses. The mean levels of serum iron in the RPT, mastitis, and control groups were 6.00, 7.82, and 26.78 µmol/L, respectively. Serum iron level was significantly reduced in the RPT and mastitis groups. The results of this study indicate that serum iron analysis, preferably in combination with other markers of inflammation, may be a useful diagnostic tool for acute inflammation in cattle. Because serum iron measurement is individually available and easily applicable, it may be used for clinical cases as well as the determination of herd health. PMID:24268402

  11. Protein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  12. Adsorption and conformation of serum albumin protein on gold nanoparticles investigated using dimensional measurements and in situ spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Hao; DelRio, Frank W; Keene, Athena M; Tyner, Katherine M; MacCuspie, Robert I; Cho, Tae Joon; Zachariah, Michael R; Hackley, Vincent A

    2011-03-15

    The adsorption and conformation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were interrogated both qualitatively and quantitatively via complementary physicochemical characterization methods. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (AFFF), fluorescence spectrometry, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were combined to characterize BSA-AuNP conjugates under fluid conditions, while conjugates in the aerosol state were characterized by electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA). The presence of unbound BSA molecules interferes with DLS analysis of the conjugates, particularly as the AuNP size decreases (i.e., below 30 nm in diameter). Under conditions where the ? value is high, where ? is defined as the ratio of scattering intensity by AuNPs to the scattering intensity by unbound BSA, DLS size results are consistent with results obtained after fractionation by AFFF. Additionally, the AuNP hydrodynamic size exhibits a greater proportional increase due to BSA conjugation at pH values below 2.5 compared with less acidic pH values (3.4-7.3), corresponding with the reversibly denatured (E or F form) conformation of BSA below pH 2.5. Over the pH range from 3.4 to 7.3, the hydrodynamic size of the conjugate is nearly constant, suggesting conformational stability over this range. Because of the difference in the measurement environment, a larger increase of AuNP size is observed following BSA conjugation when measured in the wet state (i.e., by DLS and AFFF) compared to the dry state (by ES-DMA). Molecular surface density for BSA is estimated based on ES-DMA and fluorescence measurements. Results from the two techniques are consistent and similar, but slightly higher for ES-DMA, with an average adsorbate density of 0.015 nm(-2). Moreover, from the change of particle size, we determine the extent of adsorption for BSA on AuNPs using DLS and ES-DMA at 21 °C, which show that increasing the concentration of BSA increases the measured change in AuNP size. Using ES-DMA, we observe that the BSA surface density reaches 90% of saturation at a solution phase concentration between 10 and 30 ?mol/L, which is roughly consistent with fluorescence and ATR-FTIR results. The equilibrium binding constant for BSA on AuNPs is calculated by applying the Langmuir equation, with resulting values ranging from 0.51 × 10(6) to 1.65 × 10(6) L/mol, suggesting a strong affinity due to bonding between the single free exterior thiol on N-form BSA (associated with a cysteine residue) and the AuNP surface. Moreover, the adsorption interaction induces a conformational change in BSA secondary structure, resulting in less ?-helix content and more open structures (?-sheet, random, or expanded). PMID:21341776

  13. Investigation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Attachment onto Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) Using Combinatorial Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE).

    PubMed

    Phan, Hanh T M; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Rodenhausen, Keith B; Schubert, Mathias; Bartz, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption kinetics to surfaces is of importance for various environmental and biomedical applications. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin to various self-assembled monolayer surfaces including neutral and charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was investigated using in-situ combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin varied as a function of surface properties, bovine serum albumin concentration and pH value. Charged surfaces exhibited a greater quantity of bovine serum albumin adsorption, a larger bovine serum albumin layer thickness, and increased density of bovine serum albumin protein compared to neutral surfaces at neutral pH value. The quantity of adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein increased with increasing bovine serum albumin concentration. After equilibrium sorption was reached at pH 7.0, desorption of bovine serum albumin occurred when pH was lowered to 2.0, which is below the isoelectric point of bovine serum albumin. Our data provide further evidence that combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry is a sensitive analytical tool to evaluate attachment and detachment of adsorbed proteins in systems with environmental implications. PMID:26505481

  14. Investigation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Attachment onto Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) Using Combinatorial Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE)

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Hanh T. M.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Rodenhausen, Keith B.; Schubert, Mathias; Bartz, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption kinetics to surfaces is of importance for various environmental and biomedical applications. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin to various self-assembled monolayer surfaces including neutral and charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was investigated using in-situ combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin varied as a function of surface properties, bovine serum albumin concentration and pH value. Charged surfaces exhibited a greater quantity of bovine serum albumin adsorption, a larger bovine serum albumin layer thickness, and increased density of bovine serum albumin protein compared to neutral surfaces at neutral pH value. The quantity of adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein increased with increasing bovine serum albumin concentration. After equilibrium sorption was reached at pH 7.0, desorption of bovine serum albumin occurred when pH was lowered to 2.0, which is below the isoelectric point of bovine serum albumin. Our data provide further evidence that combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry is a sensitive analytical tool to evaluate attachment and detachment of adsorbed proteins in systems with environmental implications. PMID:26505481

  15. Do we see what we should see? Describing non-covalent interactions in protein structures including precision.

    PubMed

    Gurusaran, Manickam; Shankar, Mani; Nagarajan, Raju; Helliwell, John R; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2014-01-01

    The power of X-ray crystal structure analysis as a technique is to 'see where the atoms are'. The results are extensively used by a wide variety of research communities. However, this 'seeing where the atoms are' can give a false sense of security unless the precision of the placement of the atoms has been taken into account. Indeed, the presentation of bond distances and angles to a false precision (i.e. to too many decimal places) is commonplace. This article has three themes. Firstly, a basis for a proper representation of protein crystal structure results is detailed and demonstrated with respect to analyses of Protein Data Bank entries. The basis for establishing the precision of placement of each atom in a protein crystal structure is non-trivial. Secondly, a knowledge base harnessing such a descriptor of precision is presented. It is applied here to the case of salt bridges, i.e. ion pairs, in protein structures; this is the most fundamental place to start with such structure-precision representations since salt bridges are one of the tenets of protein structure stability. Ion pairs also play a central role in protein oligomerization, molecular recognition of ligands and substrates, allosteric regulation, domain motion and ?-helix capping. A new knowledge base, SBPS (Salt Bridges in Protein Structures), takes these structural precisions into account and is the first of its kind. The third theme of the article is to indicate natural extensions of the need for such a description of precision, such as those involving metalloproteins and the determination of the protonation states of ionizable amino acids. Overall, it is also noted that this work and these examples are also relevant to protein three-dimensional structure molecular graphics software. PMID:25075321

  16. Do we see what we should see? Describing non-covalent interactions in protein structures including precision

    PubMed Central

    Gurusaran, Manickam; Shankar, Mani; Nagarajan, Raju; Helliwell, John R.; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2014-01-01

    The power of X-ray crystal structure analysis as a technique is to ‘see where the atoms are’. The results are extensively used by a wide variety of research communities. However, this ‘seeing where the atoms are’ can give a false sense of security unless the precision of the placement of the atoms has been taken into account. Indeed, the presentation of bond distances and angles to a false precision (i.e. to too many decimal places) is commonplace. This article has three themes. Firstly, a basis for a proper representation of protein crystal structure results is detailed and demonstrated with respect to analyses of Protein Data Bank entries. The basis for establishing the precision of placement of each atom in a protein crystal structure is non-trivial. Secondly, a knowledge base harnessing such a descriptor of precision is presented. It is applied here to the case of salt bridges, i.e. ion pairs, in protein structures; this is the most fundamental place to start with such structure-precision representations since salt bridges are one of the tenets of protein structure stability. Ion pairs also play a central role in protein oligomerization, molecular recognition of ligands and substrates, allosteric regulation, domain motion and ?-helix capping. A new knowledge base, SBPS (Salt Bridges in Protein Structures), takes these structural precisions into account and is the first of its kind. The third theme of the article is to indicate natural extensions of the need for such a description of precision, such as those involving metalloproteins and the determination of the protonation states of ionizable amino acids. Overall, it is also noted that this work and these examples are also relevant to protein three-dimensional structure molecular graphics software. PMID:25075321

  17. ANALYSIS OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH MODIFIED PROTEINS BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: BINDING OF GLIBENCLAMIDE TO NORMAL AND GLYCATED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryan; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.

    2012-01-01

    High-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was used to examine the changes in binding that occur for the sulfonylurea drug glibenclamide with human serum albumin (HSA) at various stages of glycation for HSA. Frontal analysis on columns containing normal HSA or glycated HSA indicated glibenclamide was interacting through both high affinity sites (association equilibrium constant, Ka, 1.4–1.9 × 106 M?1 at pH 7.4 and 37°C) and lower affinity sites (Ka, 4.4–7.2 × 104 M?1). Competition studies were used to examine the effect of glycation at specific binding sites of HSA. An increase in affinity of 1.7- to 1.9-fold was seen at Sudlow site I with moderate to high levels of glycation. An even larger increase of 4.3- to 6.0-fold in affinity was noted at Sudlow site II for all of the tested samples of glycated HSA. A slight decrease in affinity may have occurred at the digitoxin site, but this change was not significant for any individual glycated HSA sample. These results illustrate how HPAC can be used as tool for examining the interactions of relatively non-polar drugs like glibenclamide with modified proteins and should lead to a more complete understanding of how glycation can alter the binding of drugs in blood. PMID:23092871

  18. Pancreas-specific protein (PASP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and neopterin (NEOP) in the diagnosis of rejection after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Müller, T F; Trösch, F; Ebel, H; Grüssner, R W; Feiber, H; Göke, B; Greger, B; Lange, H

    1997-01-01

    A reliable, noninvasive indicator of pancreatic allograft rejection is urgently needed. In this study, serum (S), plasma (P), and urine (U) levels of pancreas-specific protein (P-PASP, U-PASP), neopterin (S-NEOP, U-NEOP), amylase (U-AMYL), and amyloid A (SAA) were measured daily in ten type I diabetic patients following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK). Rejection episodes occurred in three isolated pancreas, nine isolated kidney, and five simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplants. In the case of the eight pancreas rejections, SAA was the rejection marker with the highest diagnostic accuracy (94%). Using P-PASP and U-PASP, an accuracy of 81% and 79%, respectively, was achieved. During viral infections, U-NEOP levels increased to a maximum level of 1904 mumol/mol creatinine, whereas during bacterial infections, SAA levels increased to a maximum value of 43 mg/dl. SAA, measured for the first time in SPK, appears to be a valuable rejection parameter. In combination with U-NEOP and U-AMYL, a differential diagnosis between rejection, bacterial infection, and viral infection was possible. Neither U-PASP nor P-PASP monitoring led to a significant improvement in the results. PMID:9163857

  19. Protection of Human Podocytes from Shiga Toxin 2-Induced Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Apoptosis by Human Serum Amyloid P Component

    PubMed Central

    Dettmar, Anne K.; Binder, Elisabeth; Greiner, Friederike R.; Liebau, Max C.; Kurschat, Christine E.; Jungraithmayr, Therese C.; Saleem, Moin A.; Schmitt, Claus-Peter; Feifel, Elisabeth; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Kemper, Markus J.; Pepys, Mark; Würzner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is mainly induced by Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli. Proteinuria can occur in the early phase of the disease, and its persistence determines the renal prognosis. Stx2 may injure podocytes and induce proteinuria. Human serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, has been shown to protect against Stx2-induced lethality in mice in vivo, presumably by specific binding to the toxin. We therefore tested the hypothesis that SAP can protect against Stx2-induced injury of human podocytes. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying podocyte injury in HUS-associated proteinuria, we assessed Stx2-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and apoptosis in immortalized human podocytes and evaluated the impact of SAP on Stx2-induced damage. Human podocytes express Stx2-binding globotriaosylceramide 3. Stx2 applied to cultured podocytes was internalized and then activated p38? MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), important signaling steps in cell differentiation and apoptosis. Stx2 also activated caspase 3, resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. Coincubation of podocytes with SAP and Stx2 mitigated the effects of Stx2 and induced upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl2. These data suggest that podocytes are a target of Stx2 and that SAP protects podocytes against Stx2-induced injury. SAP may therefore be a useful therapeutic option. PMID:24566618

  20. Effect of topical application of melatonin on serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Cutando, Antonio; Montero, Javier; Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Ferrera, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Background The present clinical trial study was designed to assess the effect of topical application of melatonin on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease in comparison with healthy controls. Material and Methods Serum levels of TNF-? and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and CRP by nephelometry by using the proper commercial kits in 30 patients with diabetes and periodontal disease, and also in a control group of 30 healthy subjects. Periodontograms were performed using the Florida Probe®. Patients with diabetes were treated with a topical application of melatonin (1% orabase cream formula) once daily for 20 days. Healthy subjects were treated with a placebo orabase cream. Results Patients with diabetes and periodontal disease had significantly higher mean levels of serum TNF-?, IL-6 and CRP than healthy subjects (P < 0.001). Following topical melatonin application, there was a statistically significant decrease in the gingival index and pocket depth (P < 0.001) as well as a significant decrease in IL-6 and CRP serum levels (P < 0.001). Local melatonin application in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease resulted in a significant decrease in CRP and IL-6 serum levels as well as an improvement in the gingival index and pocket depth. Patients with periodontal disease had significantly higher serum CRP, IL-6 and TNF-? values by comparison with healthy subjects. Conclusions We conclude that melatonin can modulate the inflammatory action of these molecules in periodontal patients. Key words:Melatonin, periodontal disease, diabetes mellitus, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, inflammatory markers. PMID:26644840

  1. Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran

    PubMed Central

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  2. Improvement of surface functionalities, including allergenicity attenuation, of whole buckwheat protein fraction by maillard-type glycation with dextran.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  3. Serum miRNA Signature in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinghai; Yang, Pengfei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Li, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches. However, the etiology of this rare disease remains unknown. Serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles have been screened to identify novel biomarkers of prognostic values. Here, we identified serum miRNAs that might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MMD. A genome-wide miRNA array analysis of two pooled serum samples from patients with MMD and controls revealed 94 differentially expressed serum miRNAs, including 50 upregulated and 44 downregulated miRNAs. In an independent MMD cohort, real-time PCR confirmed that miR-106b, miR-130a and miR-126 were significantly upregulated while miR-125a-3p was significantly downregulated in serum. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed serum miRNAs were enriched in metabolic processes, transcription and signal transduction. Pathway analysis showed that the most enriched pathway was mTOR signaling pathway with 16 potential, functional targets. Finally, we found that 16 and 13 aberrant serum miRNAs coordinately inhibited RNF213 and BRCC3 protein expression at the posttranscriptional level, respectively, resulting in defective angiogenesis and MMD pathogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a serum miRNA signature in MMD. Modulation of the mechanism underlying the role of serum miRNAs in MMD is a potential therapeutic strategy and warrants further investigations. PMID:25093848

  4. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human blood: effects of extended haemodialysis in the critically ill patient with acute kidney injury, protein binding to human serum albumin and proteolysis by thermolysin.

    PubMed

    Sitar, Mustafa Erinc; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Kielstein, Jan T; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Free, non-protein bound asymmetrically guanidine-dimethylated arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Human erythrocytic membrane comprises considerable amounts of large (>50 kDa) ADMA-containing proteins. Location in the erythrocyte membrane and identity and physiological functions of ADMA-containing proteins are unrevealed. In healthy subjects, the concentration of free ADMA in heparinised plasma is almost identical to that of serum. We hypothesised that the robustness of free ADMA concentration in human blood is due to a remarkable resistance of erythrocytic ADMA-containing proteins against proteases. In vivo, we investigated the course of the concentration of ADMA in serum and EDTA plasma of a critically ill patient with acute kidney injury during extended haemodialysis. In vitro, we studied the effects of thermolysin, a useful experimental proteolytic enzyme of erythrocyte membrane proteins, on erythrocytic ADMA. The protein binding (PB) of ADMA to human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined. In these studies, ADMA was measured by a previously reported, fully validated GC-MS/MS method. We measured almost identical ADMA concentrations in plasma and serum samples of the patient. During dialysis, the circulating ADMA concentration decreased slowly and moderately indicating removal of this substance, which was however much less than expected from its low molecular weight (202 Da) and high water solubility. After dialysis, circulating ADMA concentration increased again, a phenomenon called rebound, and ADMA reached higher levels compared to the baseline. The PB value of ADMA to HSA was about 30 %. This surprisingly high PB value of ADMA to HSA may be an explanation for the rather poor dialysance of ADMA. Washed human erythrocytes suspended in phosphate-buffered physiological saline were found not to release appreciable amounts of free and ADMA-containing proteins. The lack of effect of coagulation or anticoagulation on the concentration of circulating free ADMA in humans is likely to be due to a remarkable resistance of ADMA-containing proteins in the erythrocyte membrane against proteases in vivo in humans. Our study suggests that free ADMA is released in the circulating blood at relatively high rates. The considerable PB of ADMA to HSA is likely to add to the apparently poor dialysability of ADMA. Other contributing factors could be redistribution of free ADMA between plasma and erythrocytes in favour of plasma ADMA and parallel formation of free ADMA from erythrocytic ADMA-containing proteins during haemodialysis. PMID:25921952

  5. Target genes for OBP3, a Dof transcription factor, include novel basic helix-loop-helix domain proteins inducible by

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chentao

    proteins inducible by salicylic acid Hong-Gu Kang1,y,z , Rhonda C. Foley2,z , Luis OnÄ ate-SaÂnchez2 contributed equally to the paper. Summary Overexpression of a salicylic-acid (SA)-inducible Arabidopsis DNA helix-loop-helix, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, AtDof3.6. Introduction Although there is considerable

  6. Alternative binding modes identified for growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein (GASP) family antagonism of myostatin.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan G; Angerman, Elizabeth B; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Se-Jin; Thompson, Thomas B

    2015-03-20

    Myostatin, a member of the TGF-? family of ligands, is a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. As such, it is a prime therapeutic target for muscle wasting disorders. Similar to other TGF-? family ligands, myostatin is neutralized by binding one of a number of structurally diverse antagonists. Included are the antagonists GASP-1 and GASP-2, which are unique in that they specifically antagonize myostatin. However, little is known from a structural standpoint describing the interactions of GASP antagonists with myostatin. Here, we present the First low resolution solution structure of myostatin-free and myostatin-bound states of GASP-1 and GASP-2. Our studies have revealed GASP-1, which is 100 times more potent than GASP-2, preferentially binds myostatin in an asymmetrical 1:1 complex, whereas GASP-2 binds in a symmetrical 2:1 complex. Additionally, C-terminal truncations of GASP-1 result in less potent myostatin inhibitors that form a 2:1 complex, suggesting that the C-terminal domains of GASP-1 are the primary mediators for asymmetric complex formation. Overall, this study provides a new perspective on TGF-? antagonism, where closely related antagonists can utilize different ligand-binding strategies. PMID:25657005

  7. Identification of genes involved in serum tolerance in the clinical strain Cronobacter sakazakii ES5

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens that can cause septicemia and infections of the central nervous system primarily in premature, low-birth weight and/or immune-compromised neonates. Serum resistance is a crucial virulence factor for the development of systemic infections, including bacteremia. It was the aim of the current study to identify genes involved in serum tolerance in a selected Cronobacter sakazakii strain of clinical origin. Results Screening of 2749 random transposon knock out mutants of a C. sakazakii ES 5 library for modified serum tolerance (compared to wild type) revealed 10 mutants showing significantly increased/reduced resistance to serum killing. Identification of the affected sites in mutants displaying reduced serum resistance revealed genes encoding for surface and membrane proteins as well as regulatory elements or chaperones. By this approach, the involvement of the yet undescribed Wzy_C superfamily domain containing coding region in serum tolerance was observed and experimentally confirmed. Additionally, knock out mutants with enhanced serum tolerance were observed. Examination of respective transposon insertion loci revealed regulatory (repressor) elements, coding regions for chaperones and efflux systems as well as the coding region for the protein YbaJ. Real time expression analysis experiments revealed, that knock out of the gene for this protein negatively affects the expression of the fimA gene, which is a key structural component of the formation of fimbriae. Fimbriae are structures of high immunogenic potential and it is likely that absence/truncation of the ybaJ gene resulted in a non-fimbriated phenotype accounting for the enhanced survival of this mutant in human serum. Conclusion By using a transposon knock out approach we were able to identify genes involved in both increased and reduced serum tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii ES5. This study reveals first insights in the complex nature of serum tolerance of Cronobacter spp. PMID:23414256

  8. Comment on ‘Critical micellar concentration and protein-surfactant interaction (Comment to ‘Destructive and protective action of sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles on the native conformation of Bovine Serum Albumin: A study by extrinsic fluorescence probe 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde’)’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragone, Raffaele

    2009-11-01

    Commenting on the Letter entitled 'Destructive and protective action of sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles on the native conformation of Bovine Serum Albumin: A study by extrinsic fluorescence probe 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde' [Chem. Phys. Lett. 463 (2008) 183], this short contribution aims to clarify that the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of a charged surfactant strongly depends on the ionic strength. Main features of fluorimetric determinations of the CMC are also briefly discussed. In general, the study of surfactant-induced protein transitions will greatly benefit from independent 'blank' experiments to evaluate the CMC of the surfactant under the conditions of the protein assays.

  9. The nuclear basket proteins Mlp1p and Mlp2p are part of a dynamic interactome including Esc1p and the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Niepel, Mario; Molloy, Kelly R.; Williams, Rosemary; Farr, Julia C.; Meinema, Anne C.; Vecchietti, Nicholas; Cristea, Ileana M.; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    The basket of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is generally depicted as a discrete structure of eight protein filaments that protrude into the nucleoplasm and converge in a ring distal to the NPC. We show that the yeast proteins Mlp1p and Mlp2p are necessary components of the nuclear basket and that they also embed the NPC within a dynamic protein network, whose extended interactome includes the spindle organizer, silencing factors, the proteasome, and key components of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs). Ultrastructural observations indicate that the basket reduces chromatin crowding around the central transporter of the NPC and might function as a docking site for mRNP during nuclear export. In addition, we show that the Mlps contribute to NPC positioning, nuclear stability, and nuclear envelope morphology. Our results suggest that the Mlps are multifunctional proteins linking the nuclear transport channel to multiple macromolecular complexes involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin maintenance. PMID:24152732

  10. Proteomics-based identification of DEAD-box protein 48 as a novel autoantigen, a prospective serum marker for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Kong, Xian-Tao; Zhang, Guo-An; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Qiang, Hua; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2005-05-01

    Patients with cancer frequently develop autoantibodies, and the identification of panels of tumor autoantigens may have utility in early cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy. This study aims to exploit the autoantibody repertoire in pancreatic cancer and identify the possible serum marker for pancreatic cancer. Sera from 55 newly diagnosed patients with pancreatic cancer and 52 healthy controls were analyzed for antibody-based reactivity against Hep-2, a human larynx epithelioma cancer cell line, with one-dimensional immunoblot assay. From this analysis, we observed a prominent band with a molecular weight of 47 kDa in 63.64% (35/55) patients, while in only 1.9% normal group (1/52). Using immunoblot analysis after two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, this target antigen was identified as DEAD-box protein 48 (DDX48). BLAST analysis showed that it was highly similar to eukaryotic initiation factor 4A and might play a role in pre-mRNA processing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed using recombinant, purified DDX48 as an antigen to detect anti-DDX48 autoantibodies in sera. Reactivity was observed in 20 of 60 (33.33%) pancreatic cancer patients, 3 of 30 (10.00%) colorectal cancer patients, 2 of 30 (6.67%) gastric cancer patients, 2 of 30 (6.67%) hepatocellular cancer patients, while none of the 20 chronic pancreatitis patients, 30 lung cancer patients, and 60 normal individuals. Together, these results demonstrate that the detection of autoantibodies to DDX48 may have clinical utility for the improved diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:15796914

  11. Postmortem eyefluid analysis in dogs, cats and cattle as an estimate of antemortem serum chemistry profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, P E; Bellamy, J E; Donald, A

    1990-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the diagnostic usefulness of postmortem eyefluid analysis in estimating antemortem concentrations of serochemical constituents. A total of 31 cattle, 18 dogs and 22 cats were selected from routine elective euthanasia submissions to a diagnostic laboratory. For all cases, a biochemical profile, including determinations for electrolytes, glucose, urea, creatinine, enzymes, cholesterol, b