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The Importance of the Included Serum Proteins in the Immune Response in Rabbits to a Rat Skin Xenograft  

PubMed Central

Various substances were isolated from rat skin including, protein-dermatan sulfate, certain other species of heavy and light protein-mucopolysaccharides, five electrophoretically separable nonstructural glycoproteins and a crude and two “purified” variants of structural glycoproteins. When the serum proteins contaminating these substances were removed as completely as possible, none of these produced an accelerated immune response to a rat skin graft in appropriately preimmunized rabbits, and none of those that were tested had a blocking effect on the immune response. On the other hand, the contaminated products and undenatured and denatured rat serum produced accelerated immune responses to a rat skin graft in appropriately preimmunized rabbits. These observations, together with those on skin reactions to the isolated products and to rat serum in rabbits sensitized by rat skin grafts, emphasize the importance of the included serum proteins in the immune response to this type of xenograft. ImagesFig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 1 PMID:4271965

Krakower, Cecil A.; Greenspon, Seymour A.




PubMed Central

The injection into one rabbit (with Freund's adjuvants) of a specific precipitate made with antibodies from the serum of another rabbit is usually followed by the appearance in the serum of the first rabbit of antibodies which precipitate the serum of certain rabbits but not of others. It was found that the antigen (or one of the antigens) concerned in the reaction of these anti rabbit serum antibodies with rabbit sera had an antibody function, and was therefore a protein. It was concluded that at least one serum protein antigen, the specificity of which so far has been considered to be uniform throughout the animal species, can instead be present in different individuals as different forms or allotypes with somewhat different antigenic specificities. A large number of rabbit sera were allowed to react with a large number of rabbit immune sera. The gel method of immunochemical analysis made it possible to enumerate the allotypes that took part in each reaction. In addition, the technique mainly used (simple diffusion in separate tubes) made it possible to recognize the presence of one given allotype by the mere aspect of the precipitation zone in the reaction of one suitable immune serum with any serum in which the concerned allotype occurred. Neighboring reactions of sera, in contact with each other and with the suitable immune serum, in suitable cells easily constructed in the laboratory, were carried out occasionally and, each time, their results agreed with the previous identification. The analysis of the reactions in tubes lead to a list of seven allotypes designated by a, b, c, d, e, f, and g, of which two or more (e not included) were contained in almost every serum. The specific conditions necessary for antibody formation against an allotype are its absence from the serum of the immunized animal and, except in the case of cross-reactivity, its presence in the immunizing material. When these necessary conditions are fulfilled for several allotypes at the same time, their competition in the immunization seems to favor the allotype present at the highest concentration. The individuality of six of the listed allotypes has been discussed independently of the part of their specificity that may be common to all the allotypes of one given protein antigen in all the individuals of the same animal species. A cross-reaction of the anti f rabbit antibodies with allotype g has been observed. When two allotypic specificities were detected in one serum, attempts were made to find whether they were carried by two allotypes, i.e. by two distinct kinds of molecules, instead of being the manifestation of two "allotypic patterns" present on the same molecules. The presence of several allotypes in the immune sera made it often impossible to find definitive answers in this regard. However, for a limited number of cases of two allotypic specificities present in one serum, it could be demonstrated that at least a large proportion (if not the totality) of the two allotypes were independent of each other. No sign of a systematic coexistence of two allotypic patterns on the same molecules has been observed to date. PMID:13731716

Oudin, Jacques



A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.  


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered. PMID:22090467

Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe



A Survey of Membrane Proteins in Human Serum  

PubMed Central

Serum and membrane proteins are two of the most attractive targets for proteomic analysis. Previous membrane protein studies tend to focus on tissue sample, while membrane protein studies in serum are still limited. In this study, an analysis of membrane proteins in normal human serum was carried out. Nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) and bioinformatics tools were used to identify membrane proteins. Two hundred and seventeen membrane proteins were detected in the human serum, of which 129 membrane proteins have at least one transmembrane domain (TMD). Further characterizations of identified membrane proteins including their subcellular distributions, molecular weights, post translational modifications, transmembrane domains and average of hydrophobicity, were also implemented. Our results showed the potential of membrane proteins in serum for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Dung, Nguyen Tien; Van Chi, Phan



Influence of road transportation on plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and ceruloplasmin, in dromedary camels ( Camelus dromedarius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is an inevitable husbandry practice which animals encounter in the livestock industry and raises considerable\\u000a interest both in economic and animal welfare terms. With respect to the growing interest in using acute phase proteins as\\u000a health and welfare indicators, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of road transportation on the concentrations\\u000a of fibrinogen, haptoglobin,

H. Baghshani; S. Nazifi; M. Saeb; S. Saeb



Microchip-based capillary electrophoresis of human serum proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation and relative quantitation of human serum proteins is important to the clinical diagnosis of various states of disease. Microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE) of human serum proteins offers several advantages over sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(acrylamide) gel electrophoresis and conventional CE methods, including decreased sample consumption and analysis time and the possibility of on-chip sample manipulation (dilution, labelling, etc.). The microchip

Christa L. Colyer; Shakuntala D. Mangru; D. Jed Harrison



Serum Protein Pattern in African Neonates  

PubMed Central

Serum protein concentrations were determined in the cord blood of 75 African and 10 European babies born in Zambia, and in the venous blood of 5 pregnant African women at term. When the high ?-globulin fraction was excluded, there was no significant difference between the pattern of serum proteins of the Africans and the Europeans at birth. Present evidence favours the view that the high serum ?-globulin and low albumin of the adult Negro have an environmental rather than a genetic background. PMID:4103832

Ezeilo, Gabriel C.



Differential serum protein markers and the clinical severity of asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different clinical phenotypes and the involvement of multiple inflammatory pathways. During airway inflammation, many cytokines and chemokines are released and some are detectable in the sera. Objective Serum chemokines and cytokines, involved in airway inflammation in asthma patients, were investigated. Methods A total of 191 asthma patients were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis, including the following parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) serum levels, blood eosinophils, Junipers asthma symptom score, and the change in FEV1, ECP serum levels, and blood eosinophils after 3 weeks of asthma therapy. Serum proteins were measured by multiplex analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the validity of serum proteins for discriminating between asthma clusters. Results Classification of asthma patients identified one cluster with high ECP serum levels, increased blood eosinophils, low FEV1 values, and good FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=60) and one cluster with low ECP serum levels, low numbers of blood eosinophils, higher FEV1 values, and no FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=131). Serum interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK), growth-related oncogene (GRO)-?, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly different between the two clusters of asthma patients. ROC analysis for serum proteins calculated a sensitivity of 55.9% and specificity of 75.8% for discriminating between them. Conclusion Serum cytokine and chemokine levels might be predictors for the severity of asthmatic inflammation, asthma control, and response to therapy, and therefore might be useful for treatment optimization. PMID:24851055

Meyer, Norbert; Nuss, Sarah Janine; Rothe, Thomas; Siebenhuner, Alexander; Akdis, Cezmi A; Menz, Gunter



Serum globulin electrophoresis  


... levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunfixation Protein electrophoresis


Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Methods Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Results Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and ?-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Conclusion Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer. PMID:16117833

Gao, Wei-Min; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M



Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which

Sriharsha Damera; Kalani L Raphael; Bradley C Baird; Alfred K Cheung; Tom Greene; Srinivasan Beddhu



Potential problems in serum protein electrophoresis.  


Potential problems are described that one could encounter in carrying out an electrophoretic procedure including its ancillary phases of visualization (staining) and quantification (densitometry). Endpoint-like measurements for separated isoenzymes may provide artifactual kinetic values as well, because stain measurement is fixed at a single time whereas reagent blanking in the electrophoretic medium is substituted for the conventional serum initial absorbance readings of test-tube determinations. Truncation of separated electrophoretic zones or opacity of an electrophoretic anti-convection medium such as uncleared cellulose acetate may also interfere with absolute quantification procedures. PMID:2427271

Artiss, J D; Epstein, E; Kiechle, F L; Zak, B



Sensing of proteins in human serum using conjugates of nanoparticles and green fluorescent protein.  


There is a direct correlation between protein levels and disease states in human serum, which makes it an attractive target for sensors and diagnostics. However, this is challenging because serum features more than 20,000 proteins, with an overall protein content greater than 1 mM. Here we report a sensor based on a hybrid synthetic-biomolecule that uses arrays of green fluorescent protein and nanoparticles to detect proteins at biorelevant concentrations in both buffer and human serum. Distinct and reproducible fluorescence-response patterns were obtained from five serum proteins (human serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, transferrin, fibrinogen and a-antitrypsin), both in buffer and when spiked into human serum. Using linear discriminant analysis we identified these proteins with an identification accuracy of 100% in buffer and 97% in human serum. The arrays were also able to discriminate between different concentrations of the same protein, as well as a mixture of different proteins in human serum. PMID:20161380

De, Mrinmoy; Rana, Subinoy; Akpinar, Handan; Miranda, Oscar R; Arvizo, Rochelle R; Bunz, Uwe H F; Rotello, Vincent M



Sensing of Proteins in Human Serum using Nanoparticle-Green Fluorescent Protein Conjugates  

PubMed Central

There is a direct correlation between protein levels and disease states in human serum making it an attractive target for sensors and diagnostics. However this is made challenging because serum features more than 20,000 proteins with an overall protein content of greater than 1 mM. Here we report a hybrid synthetic-biomolecule based sensor that uses green fluorescent protein-nanoparticle arrays to detect proteins at biorelevant concentrations in both buffer and human serum. Distinct and reproducible fluorescence response patterns were obtained from five serum proteins (human serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, transferrin, fibrinogen and ?-antitrypsin) in buffer and when spiked into human serum. Using linear discriminant analysis we identified these proteins with an identification accuracy of 100% in buffer and 97% in human serum. The arrays were also able to discriminate between different concentrations of the same protein as well as a mixture of different proteins in human serum. PMID:20161380




Yolk sac endoderm: exclusive site of serum protein synthesis in the early chick embryo  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine which cell type or types synthesized serum proteins, yolk sacs from 4-day chick embryos were manually separated into ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm and incubated in the presence of radioactive valine. Analysis of the incubation media by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by immunoprecipitation showed that all serum proteins were synthesized exclusively by the cells of the endoderm. These included transferrin and three embryo-specific serum proteins: ..cap alpha..reverse arrowglobulin ..cap alpha..-globulin b, and prealbumin.

Young, M.F.; Minghetti, P.P.; Klein, N.W.




Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) accumulates in the liver and blood of exposed organisms. The potential for these surfactant molecules to interfere with hormone\\/protein interactions in blood is of concern given the importance of these interactions. The PFOS binding to serum proteins was investigated by assessing its ability to displace a variety of steroid hormones from specific binding proteins in the

Paul D. Jones; Wenyue Hu; Wim De Coen; John L. Newsted; John P. Giesy



Protein Depletion for Plasma and Serum Proteomic Analysis  

E-print Network

categories of proteins in the human body were represented in the blood plasma [15]. Thus, the plasma proteome proteins REFERENCES Human plasma and serum represents an important biological material for disease or pathological states. A recent extensive compilation of human plasma proteins indicated that most of the major

Lebendiker, Mario


Spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using quantum cascade lasers.  


First measurements of biomedical imaging using quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are presented. We report spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using QCLs as an example for monitoring surface biocontamination. We found that dry smears of human serum can be spectroscopically imaged, identified, and quantified with high sensitivity and specificity. The core parts of the imaging platform consist of optically multiplexing three QCLs and an uncooled microbolometer camera. We show imaging of human serum proteins at 6.1, 9.25, and 9.5 ?m QCLs with high sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity limit of 3???g/cm˛ of the human serum spot was measured at an S/N=3.The specificity of human serum detection was measured at 99% probability at a threshold of 77???g/cm˛. We anticipate our imaging technique to be a starting point for more sophisticated biomolecular diagnostic applications. PMID:23515866

Mukherjee, Anadi; Bylund, Quentin; Prasanna, Manu; Margalit, Yotam; Tihan, Tarik



Courses may include: Protein Structure and Function  

E-print Network

-year or Honours Bachelor-level degree in Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry or accepted equivalent from an academic institution approved by the University of Windsor · The equivalent of a B Average or higher in undergraduate costs, but do not include books, living expenses and health insurance. See our web site for the current


Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T



Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum  


Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

Clemons, G.K.



Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum  


Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

Clemons, Gisela K. (Berkeley, CA)



Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.  


Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. PMID:20347821

Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M



Detection of human serum proteins using Raman and SERS spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of normal Raman (NR) spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to analyze the biochemical information of human serum proteins and hence distinguish between normal and primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) serum samples was investigated. The serum samples were obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed with PHC (n=20) and healthy volunteers (n=20). All spectra were collected in the spectral range of 400-1800 cm-1 and analyzed through the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that both NR and SERS combined with PCA had good performance in distinguishing the human serum proteins between PHC patients and healthy volunteers with high sensitivity and specificity of 100%. And we can get more detail information of component and conformation of human serum proteins by considering NR and SERS spectrum. Our results support the concept again that serum protein Raman and SERS spectroscopy combined with PCA analysis both can become noninvasive and rapid diagnostic tools to detect the primary hepatic carcinoma.

Ruan, Qiuyong; Liao, Fadian; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Rong



Identification of Differentially Expressed Serum Proteins in Infectious Purpura Fulminans  

PubMed Central

Purpura fulminans (PF) is a life-threatening hemorrhagic condition. Because of the rarity and randomness of the disease, no improvement in treatment has been made for a long time. In this study, we assessed the serum proteome response to PF by comparing serum proteins between healthy controls and PF patient. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach was used after depleting 6 abundant proteins of serum. In total, 262 proteins were confidently identified with 2 unique peptides, and 38 proteins were identified significantly up- (?2) or downregulated (?0.5) based on spectral counting ratios (SpCPF/N). In the 38 proteins with significant abundance changes, 11 proteins were previously known to be associated with burn or sepsis response, but 27 potentially novel proteins may be specifically associated with PF process. Two differentially expressed proteins, alpha-1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and alpha-2 antiplasmin (SERPINF2), were validated by Western blot. This is the first study where PF patient and healthy controls are compared in a proteomic study to elucidate proteins involved in the response to PF. This study provides an initial basis for future studies of PF, and the differentially expressed proteins might provide new therapeutic targets to decrease the mortality of PF. PMID:24659849

Hu, Jiong-yu; Han, Jian; Zhang, Dong-xia; Jiang, Xu-pin; Chen, Bing; Huang, Yue-sheng



Serum bone GLA protein in streak gonad syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Osteoporosis is one of the most common complications of streak gonad syndrome (SGS), however its pathogenesis is still unclear.\\u000a Bone Gla protein (BGP) has been found to be a serum marker of bone turnover in various metabolic disease states. In the present\\u000a study serum BGP and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were measured in 13 osteoporotic patients with SGS and in 56

János Zséli; Péter Bösze; Péter Lakatos; Péter Vargha; Gábor Tarján; Éva Kollin; Csaba Horváth; János László; István Holló



2D Photonic Crystal Protein Hydrogel Coulometer for Sensing Serum Albumin Ligand Binding  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA) are globular proteins that function as bloodstream hydrogels. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are globular proteins that are used2D Photonic Crystal Protein Hydrogel Coulometer for Sensing Serum Albumin Ligand Binding Zhongyu

Asher, Sanford A.


Serum and saliva protein levels in females with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in the total protein content between the serum and saliva of female patients with breast cancer and in healthy females. The study was conducted between October 2012 and November 2013. There were 80 females in the present study with 40 breast cancer patients and 40 healthy control subjects, with an age range of 50–70 years. The results of the study showed that the mean value ± standard deviation of the total serum protein in patients with breast cancer was 7.63±0.41 g/dl, whereas in the healthy subjects it was 6.14±1.84 g/dl. The total salivary protein measurement was 0.14±0.07 g/dl and 0.25±0.09 g/dl in the breast cancer and healthy group, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the total serum protein was higher in female patients with breast cancer, whereas the levels in the saliva were lower compared to the healthy female group. The results of the present study indicate that serum protein levels may be used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25364460




Distribution of Serum Total Protein in Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

The serum total protein levels of the elderly possibly decrease gradually with aging. However, serum total protein levels are not suitable as a uniform reference standard for the elderly at different ages and genders. Thus, we investigated the total serum protein distribution in different gender and age groups of 11,453 elderly individuals aged ?60 years and without liver or renal disease from Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China. The total protein levels (TPL) of these individuals exhibited normal distribution (Z?=?1.206, P?=?0.109), whereas the reference range (95% CI) was 54.1 g/L to 82.3 g/L. TPL was higher in females than in males for those aged between 60 and 75 years, whereas no significant difference was observed for those aged between 80 and 95 years. TPL was negatively correlated with age in males (r?=??0.1342, P<0.05), females (r?=??0.304, P<0.05), and the total group (r?=??0.2136, P<0.05). TPL also decreased with aging and showed a faster rate in women than in men. These results indicated that an appropriate range of serum total protein based on age and gender differences should be used for clinical applications. PMID:24967900

Tian, Chang-Rong; Qian, Li; Shen, Xiao-Zhu; Li, Jia-Jing; Wen, Jiang-Tao



Serum Protein Profile at Remission Can Accurately Assess Therapeutic Outcomes and Survival for Serous Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Biomarkers play critical roles in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic outcome and recurrence of cancer. Previous biomarker research on ovarian cancer (OC) has mostly focused on the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers. The primary purpose of this study is to identify serum biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic outcomes of ovarian cancer. Experimental Design Forty serum proteins were analyzed in 70 serum samples from healthy controls (HC) and 101 serum samples from serous OC patients at three different disease phases: post diagnosis (PD), remission (RM) and recurrence (RC). The utility of serum proteins as OC biomarkers was evaluated using a variety of statistical methods including survival analysis. Results Ten serum proteins (PDGF-AB/BB, PDGF-AA, CRP, sFas, CA125, SAA, sTNFRII, sIL-6R, IGFBP6 and MDC) have individually good area-under-the-curve (AUC) values (AUC?=?0.69–0.86) and more than 10 three-marker combinations have excellent AUC values (0.91–0.93) in distinguishing active cancer samples (PD & RC) from HC. The mean serum protein levels for RM samples are usually intermediate between HC and OC patients with active cancer (PD & RC). Most importantly, five proteins (sICAM1, RANTES, sgp130, sTNFR-II and sVCAM1) measured at remission can classify, individually and in combination, serous OC patients into two subsets with significantly different overall survival (best HR?=?17, p<10?3). Conclusion We identified five serum proteins which, when measured at remission, can accurately predict the overall survival of serous OC patients, suggesting that they may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic outcomes for ovarian cancer. PMID:24244307

Ghamande, Sharad A.; Bush, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Zhi, Wenbo; He, Mingfang; Wang, Meiyao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miller, Eric; Hopkins, Diane; Macfee, Michael; Guan, Ruili; Tang, Jinhai; She, Jin-Xiong



Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis of feline serum proteins.  

PubMed Central

Serum from 28 clinically healthy cats was subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis and the migration distance relative to albumin was determined. The reference values for the relative and absolute concentrations of each protein fraction were determined and compared to previous reports. The immunoelectrophoretic, crossed immunoelectrophoretic and crossed line immunoelectrophoretic pattern, of a pooled sample of serum from clinically normal cats was determined. The cross-reactivity between goat and/or rabbit monospecific antisera to human proteins and feline serum was determined using immunoelectrophoresis and crossed-line absorption immunoelectrophoresis. Feline alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, B1C-globulin, IgG, albumin and ceruloplasmin cross reacted strongly with the monospecific antisera. Alpha-2-macroglobulin migrated anodal to haptoglobin. Lipoproteins and ceruloplasmin were studied using staining procedures described in man. Feline transferrin was precipitated with Rivanol. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2458817

Baker, R J; Valli, V E



Chemical labelling of active serum thioester proteins for quantification  

PubMed Central

The complement serum proteins C3 and C4 and the protease inhibitor ?-2 macroglobulin are all members of the C3/?-2M thioester protein family, an evolutionarily ancient and conserved family that contains an intrachain thioester bond. The chemistry of the thioester bond is a key to the function of the thioester proteins. All these proteins function by covalently linking to their target by acyl transfer of the protein via the thioester moiety. We show that the signature thioester bond can be targeted with nucleophiles linked to a bioreporter molecule, site-specifically modifying the whole, intact thioester protein. Conditions were optimised to label selectively and efficiently pull-down unprocessed thioester-containing proteins from serum. We demonstrated pull-down of full-length C3, ?-2M and C4 from sera in high salt, using a biotinylated nucleophile and streptavidin-coated resin, confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS identification of the gel bands. The potential for the development of a quantitative method for measuring active C3 in serum was investigated in patient sera pre and post operation. Quantifying active C3 in clinical assays using current methods is difficult. Methods based on antibody detection (e.g. nephelometry) do not distinguish between active C3 and inactive breakdown products. C3-specific haemolytic assays can be used, but these require use of relatively unstable reagents. The current work represents a promising robust, enzyme- and antibody-free chemical method for detecting active thioester proteins in blood, plasma or serum. PMID:21852021

Holm, Lotta; Ackland, Gareth L.; Edwards, Mark R.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Sim, Robert B.; Offer, John



Amyloid-related serum component (protein ASC) IN LEPROSY PATIENTS.  

PubMed Central

The presence of amyloid-related serum component, protein ASC, in serum samples from 63 leprosy patients was investigated. Protein ASC was detected in 38% of the patients. A correlation to the disease spectrum of leprosy was apparent: polar lepromatous cases, 64% positive; borderline lepromatous, 50%; borderline tuberculoid, 36%; subpolar tuberculoid, 17%; and polar tuberculoid, negative. Antibody activity against the a antigen of Mycobacterium leprae was also determined, showing a similar correlation to the disease spectrum. Serum samples from 23 apparently healthy Ethiopians serving as controls showed a protein ASC incidence of 22%. This figure is significantly higher than the frequency found by others among healthy Norwegian blood donors. Immunoglobulin M levels among patients were elevated in the borderline lepromatous and poplar lepromatous groups. The three tuberculoid groups did not differ in this respect from the control group but were all elevated as compared to a normal Caucasian serum pool. Although raised immunoglobulin M levels seemed to parallel increased frequencies of protein ASC in the patient groups as well as in controls, this correlation might be only secondary to a primary derangement in T-cell function. PMID:804451

Kronvall, G; Husby, G; Samuel, D; Bjune, G; Wheate, H



Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion  

PubMed Central

We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50–100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion. Limits of quantification (LOQ) at low ng/mL levels with a median coefficient of variation (CV) of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum. PRISM-SRM provided >100-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional LC-SRM measurements. PRISM-SRM was then applied to measure several low-abundance endogenous serum proteins, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in clinical prostate cancer patient sera. PRISM-SRM enabled confident detection of all target endogenous serum proteins except the low pg/mL-level cardiac troponin T. A correlation coefficient >0.99 was observed for PSA between the results from PRISM-SRM and immunoassays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can successful quantify low ng/mL proteins in human plasma or serum without depletion. We anticipate broad applications for PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance proteins in candidate biomarker verification and systems biology studies. PMID:23763644

Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Wei-Jun



Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas

Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas Table A20. Total protein foods including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%


The trypanocidal Cape buffalo serum protein is xanthine oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Plasma and serum from Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) kill bloodstream stages of all species of African trypanosomes in vitro. The trypanocidal serum component was isolated by sequential chromatography on hydroxylapatite, protein A-G, Mono Q, and Superose 12. The purified trypanocidal protein had a molecular mass of 150 kDa, and activity correlated with the presence of a 146-kDa polypeptide detected upon reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Amino acid sequences of three peptide fragments of the 146-kDa reduced polypeptide, ligand affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography of the native protein, and sensitivity to pharmacological inhibitors, identified the trypanocidal material as xanthine oxidase (EC Trypanocidal activity resulted in the inhibition of trypanosome glycolysis and was due to H2O2 produced during catabolism of extracellular xanthine and hypoxanthine by the purine catabolic enzyme. PMID:9284156

Muranjan, M; Wang, Q; Li, Y L; Hamilton, E; Otieno-Omondi, F P; Wang, J; Van Praagh, A; Grootenhuis, J G; Black, S J



Serum proteins of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).  


We separated and identified the major serum proteins of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura): albumin, HDL, LDL, IgG and M, transferrin, alpha 2M and putatively, IgA, ceruloplasmin and fibronectin. Turkey vulture HDL and LDL had similar electrophorectic mobility and solution properties as those from gallinaceous birds. Turkey vulture IgG and M, and their subunits, had molecular weights comparable to other birds. Serum IgG and M levels in wild turkey vultures were within the range of values reported for domestic avian species. PMID:6661906

Apanius, V; Temple, S A; Bale, M



Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear  

PubMed Central

Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (?25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included ?2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin ? and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, ?2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.



Pathology Case Study: Monoclonal Protein in Serum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 47-year-old man working in the paint industry with a complicated past medical history is hospitalized and treated over the course of a year. Visitors are given a summary of all of the patient's visits and test results, including images. A final diagnosis is given, with notes by the attending doctors, along with references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical immunology.

Kelly, Robert; Torbenson, Michael



Characterization of proteins in the human serum proteome.  


This paper presents a multidimensional profile of the human serum proteome, produced by a two-dimensional protein fractionation system based on liquid chromatography followed by characterization with capillary electrophoresis (CE). The first-dimension separation was done by chromatofocusing over a pH range from 8.5 to 4.0, where proteins were separated by their isoelectric points (pI). In this dimension, fractions were collected based on pH. The first-dimension pI fractions were then resolved in the second dimension by high-resolution, reversed-phase chromatography with a gradient of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in acetonitrile and TFA in water. A selected protein fraction collected from the second dimension by time was characterized by CE for molecular-weight estimation and for presence of isoforms. Molecular-weight estimation was done by sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary gel electrophoresis, where proteins were separated in the range of 10,000-225,000 Da. Detection of isoforms was done by capillary isoelectric focusing over a pH range of 3-10. A selected second-dimension fraction that contained the putative serum iron-binding protein transferrin was analyzed by these two CE techniques for molecular-weight determination and the presence of isoforms. The combination of two-dimensional protein fractionation and CE characterization represents an advanced tool for proteomics. PMID:16522849

Betgovargez, Edna; Knudson, Vita; Simonian, Michael H




E-print Network

SERUM PROTEIN PROFILES IN THE SUCKLING AND NON SUCKLING PIGLET: THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOSTRUM J PORCELET NOUVEAU-NE : IMPOR- TANCE DU COLOSTRUM. ― Le profil des protĂ©ines sĂ©riques a Ă©tĂ© Ă©tudiĂ©, qui ont reçu le colostrum, un profil de type adulte est observĂ© dans les deux heures qui suivent la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Specific Changes of Serum Proteins in Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to identify and validate protein change in the serum from PD patients. We used serum samples from 21 PD patients and 20 age-matched normal people as control to conduct a comparative proteomic study. We performed 2-DE and analyzed the differentially expressed protein spots by LC-MS/MS. In PD group 13 spots were shown to be differentially expressed compared to control group. They were identified as 6 proteins. Among these, 3 proteins were confirmed by Western blot analysis. It showed that the frequency of fibrinogen ?-chain (FGG) appeared 70% in PD, which could not be detected in control group. The protein of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITI-H4) was found to exist two forms in serum. The full size (120 kDa) of the protein was increased and the fragmented ITI-H4 (35 kDa) was decreased in PD group. The ratio of full size ITI-H4 to fragmented ITI-H4 in PD patients was 3.85±0.29-fold higher than in control group. Furthermore, fragmented Apo A-IV (?26 kDa) was mainly detected in control group, while it was rare to be found in PD group. Above findings might be useful for diagnosis of PD. When the expressions of FGG and 120 kDa ITI-H4 are increase, as well as ?26 kDa Apo A-IV disappear would provide strong evidence for PD. PMID:24769800

Lu, Wenwen; Wan, Xinhua; Liu, Bin; Rong, Xianfang; Zhu, Lei; Li, Pingping; Li, Jiang; Wang, Ling; Cui, Liying; Wang, Xiaoliang



Identification of M protein from filter paper using serum protein and immunofixation electrophoresis.  


Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) are standard methods for detection and monitoring of monoclonal (M) proteins. However, these tests are rarely available in the remote areas, especially in developing countries. Transportation of fresh serum (FS) samples is also usually inconvenient. This study investigated M-protein identification using serum blot on filter paper (FP). SPE and IFE were performed on FS and FP specimens using the Sebia Hydrasys automated electrophoresis system. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess sample stability and agreement of FS vs FP. The FP method showed good agreement with the FS method. The r values for correlation of albumin levels-?(1), ?(2), ?, and ? (%)-between FP and FS samples in SPE were all more than 0.95 (P < .01). IFE displayed no significant difference between those 2 methods in the identification of M protein. The FP method demonstrated an accurate and reproducible alternative to FS for identification of M protein using SPE and IFE. PMID:23010716

Wu, Yonghua; Yang, Xu; Wang, Tiancheng; Wang, Haining; Li, Zhenrong



Homology of Serum Proteins of Golden Shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing properties of electrophoretically-separated proteins of the golden shiner with those of man permitted an evaluation of the suitability of traditional terminology for naming the proteins of fishes. Collectively, electrophoretic mobility, percentage composition, solubility properties, and distribution of lipoproteins of six golden shiner serum proteins differed sufficiently from the classical definitions of serum proteins to prevent homologizing the proteins of

Robert C. Summerfelt



Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate: postulated mechanism of action for management of enteropathy  

PubMed Central

The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight management, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. This review summarizes data from preclinical and clinical studies with immunoglobulin-containing plasma/serum protein concentrates, with a focus on the postulated mode of action of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate for patients with enteropathy. PMID:24904221

Petschow, Bryon W; Burnett, Bruce; Shaw, Audrey L; Weaver, Eric M; Klein, Gerald L



Protein binding and serum bactericidal activities of vancomycin and teicoplanin.  

PubMed Central

In a randomized crossover study, the protein binding and serum bactericidal activities (SBAs) of vancomycin and teicoplanin against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were investigated in six healthy volunteers. Total concentrations in serum 1 h postadministration of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 25.5 +/- 2.7 and 10.8 +/- 8.9 mg/liter, respectively; mean free concentrations were 14.6 +/- 2.0 and 0.6 +/- 0.9 mg/liter, respectively. Protein binding for vancomycin was 36.9% +/- 2.87%, and that for teicoplanin was 97.4% +/- 2.6%. SBA determined in pooled human serum at 1 h against S. aureus ranged from 1:8 to 1:32 for both vancomycin and teicoplanin. Against S. pyogenes SBA at 1 h ranged from 1:16 to 1:128 for vancomycin and 1:256 to 1:2,048 for teicoplanin. In vitro kill curve studies showed that vancomycin is slowly bactericidal and that teicoplanin is bacteriostatic. Despite having less in vitro cidal activity against the study isolates and having low or unrecordable levels of free drug in serum, teicoplanin demonstrated a similar or better SBA than vancomycin. SBA was more closely related to the total drug level (r = 0.77 for S. aureus and r = 0.79 for S. pyogenes) than the free level of teicoplanin (r = 0.59 for S. aureus and r = 0.56 for S. pyogenes). The high level of protein binding of teicoplanin did not seem to impair its antibacterial activity as measured by its SBA. PMID:7486929

Dykhuizen, R S; Harvey, G; Stephenson, N; Nathwani, D; Gould, I M



Unraveling the mysteries of serum albumin-more than just a serum protein.  


Serum albumin is a multi-functional protein that is able to bind and transport numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. The development of albumin drug carriers is gaining increasing importance in the targeted delivery of cancer therapy, particularly as a result of the market approval of the paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticle, Abraxane®. Considering this, there is renewed interest in isolating and characterizing albumin-binding proteins or receptors on the plasma membrane that are responsible for albumin uptake. Initially, the cellular uptake and intracellular localization of albumin was unknown due to the large confinement of the protein within the vascular and interstitial compartment of the body. Studies have since assessed the intracellular localization of albumin in order to understand the mechanisms and pathways responsible for its uptake, distribution and catabolism in multiple tissues, and this is reviewed herein. PMID:25161624

Merlot, Angelica M; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R



Comparison between liver and serum concentrations of mannan binding protein.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To investigate staining patterns for mannan binding protein (MBP) by immunocytochemistry in liver biopsy specimens from patients with various hepatic disorders; to measure the serum MBP concentration in the patients at the time of biopsy; and to compare these to define further the role of MBP in disease. METHODS: Fifty seven consecutive patients with a variety of types of liver disease were studied. Fresh liver biopsy specimens were immunostained with anti-MBP and graded for intensity of staining. Serum MBP concentrations were measured on samples obtained on the day of biopsy, as were a full range of liver blood tests. RESULTS: MBP was only detectable in liver biopsy specimens from patients with morphological evidence of liver disease. MBP was most prominent in the livers of patients with severe alcoholic liver disease; livers harbouring metastases or showing biliary disease had moderate concentrations. Patients with liver disease were more likely to have raised serum MBP concentrations, but there was no correlation between these values and those found in the biopsy specimens. There was also no significant correlation between either of these concentrations and liver blood test abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with liver disease tend to have raised MBP concentrations in both the liver and serum, but the exact relation between the two is as yet undefined. Images PMID:8463420

Ryley, N G; Heryet, A R; Lu, J; Reid, K B; Fleming, K A



Serum proteins in magnesium-deficient rat Y. RAYSSIGUIER P. LARVOR Y. AUGUSTI J. DURLACH  

E-print Network

Serum proteins in magnesium-deficient rat Y. RAYSSIGUIER P. LARVOR Y. AUGUSTI J. DURLACH (1 Cochin, Paris Summary. Hypoproteinemia appears early in the magnesium-deficient rat with a drop in serum. In the magnesium-deficient rat, we have shown serum protein modifications related to immunologic and allergic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A comparative study of milk serum proteins in camel ( Camelus dromedarius) and bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camel (Camelus dromedarius) whey proteins were detected and compared to bovine whey proteins using size exclusion chromatography columns on HPLC. Camel whey proteins such as serum albumin and ?-lactalbumin appear to possess molecular weights similar to the respective bovine whey proteins. Camel whey lacks ?-lactoglobulin and consists of large amount of serum albumin, compared to bovine whey. Camel colostrum is

U Merin; S Bernstein; A Bloch-Damti; R Yagil; C van Creveld; P Lindner; N Gollop



Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980  

SciTech Connect

Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

Klein, N.W.



PIXE analysis of blood serum proteins, separated by gel filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gel filtration of blood serum was carried out with Sephadex G-200 gel and tris buffer at pH 7.8. The amount of protein in each of about 100 collected fractions was monitored using UV absorption. The fractions were concentrated and deposited onto Kimfol backing foils. From the PIXE results distributions of S, Fe, Cu and Zn were obtained in relation to the protein peaks, while elements like K, Ca and Br appeared at the position corresponding to small molecular sizes. Quantification, taking into account the intermediate thicknesses of the samples, gave reasonable values. By adjusting the pH of the tris buffer with acetate instead of HCl, an increase in sensitivity was achieved, as the Cl is an important source of electron bremsstrahlung. By low temperature ashing still better detection limits can be reached, but at the expense of the loss of volatile elements.

Pallon, Jan; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Akselsson, Roland



Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion  

SciTech Connect

We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion and the multiplexing potential of this technique. Limits of quantification (LOQs) at low ng/mL levels with a median CV of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum using as little as 2 µL serum. PRISM-SRM provided up to ~1000-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional SRM measurements. Multiplexing capability of PRISM-SRM was also evaluated by two sets of serum samples with 6 and 21 target peptides spiked at the low attomole/µL levels. The results from SRM measurements for pooled or post-concatenated samples were comparable to those obtained from individual peptide fractions in terms of signal-to-noise ratios and SRM peak area ratios of light to heavy peptides. PRISM-SRM was applied to measure several ng/mL-level endogenous plasma proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, in clinical patient sera where correlation coefficients > 0.99 were observed between the results from PRISM-SRM and ELISA assays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can be successfully used for quantification of low-abundance endogenous proteins in highly complex samples. Moderate throughput (50 samples/week) can be achieved by applying the post-concatenation or fraction multiplexing strategies. We anticipate broad applications for targeted PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance cellular proteins in systems biology studies as well as candidate biomarkers in biofluids.

Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun



A sex-limited serum protein of Syrian hamsters: definition of female protein and regulation by testosterone.  

PubMed Central

Normal Syrian hamster females contain a serum protein not found by simple gel diffusion assay in normal adult males. This sex-limited protein was called female protein (FP). Low levels of FP were found in sera from normal weanling male hamsters. Adult male hamsters castrated or treated with diethylstilbestrol also developed serum FP, which could be suppressed by administration of testosterone. Exogenous testosterone also suppressed serum FP in adult females, and ovarian function did not appear to be critical for maintenance of serum FP. Although FP is present in significant amounts (1-2 mg/ml) in adult females, its function is presently unknown. Images PMID:265537

Coe, J E



Using capillary electrophoresis/frontal analysis to screen drugs interacting with human serum proteins.  


We have used capillary electrophoresis in the frontal analysis mode (CE/FA) to determine the binding capacity of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs to individual serum proteins, serum protein mixtures and human serum. The free drug concentration was directly measured from the height of the frontal peak and used to calculate the bound drug concentration. From the bound drug concentration, the percentage of drug bound to the serum proteins alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and human serum albumin (HSA) was then determined. In addition to determining the percent of a drug bound to a protein, the drug-protein association constant (Ka) was determined for AGP binding to beta-blockers. The data-estimated association constants were consistent with literature values. The CE/FA studies on the beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs and the serum proteins indicated that HSA, AGP, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were the main contributors to serum binding for this series of compounds. The serum-drug binding data sorted the beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs into high and low binding categories. The protein mixture (AGP + HSA + HDL + LDL) resulted in dividing the beta-blockers into the same high/low rankings. The protein mixture (AGP + HSA + HDL + LDL) was amenable to automation, did not autoaggregate, and had constant concentrations for the proteins. PMID:9551800

McDonnell, P A; Caldwell, G W; Masucci, J A



HPLC-DAD protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.  


We here describe an HPLC-DAD method to analyse different protein kinase inhibitors. Potential applications of this method are pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring. Optimised chromatography conditions resulted in a very good separation of seven inhibitors (vatalanib, bosutinib, canertinib, tandutinib, pazopanib, dasatinib - internal standard and erlotinib). The good sensitivity makes this method competitive with LC/MS/MS. The separation was performed with a Lichrospher 100-5 RP8, 250 mm × 4 mm column maintained at 30 ± 1 °C, and with a mobile phase of 0.05 M H(3)PO(4)/KH(2)PO(4) (pH=2.3)-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. A simple and fast sample preparation sequence with liquid-liquid extraction led to good recoveries (73-90%) of all analytes. The recovery hardly reached 50% only for pazopanib. This method can also be used for targeted protein kinase inhibitor quantification. A perfect linearity in the validated range (20-10,000 ng/mL) and an LOQ of 20 ng/mL were achieved. The relative standard deviations and accuracies of all examined drug concentrations gave values much lower than 15% both for between- and within-batch calculations. All analysed PKIs were stable for 6 months in a 1mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide stock solution. Vatalanib, bosutinib and erlotinib were also stable in human serum in the whole examined concentration range. PMID:22425385

Dziadosz, Marek; Lessig, Rüdiger; Bartels, Heidemarie



Protein Intakes and Serum Albumin Levels in a Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA90  

PubMed Central

Background It is well-known that albumin is synthesized in the liver; serum albumin is a major component of serum proteins. However, it has not been well elucidated how dietary protein intakes are associated with serum albumin levels in general populations without extreme malnutrition. We cross-sectionally investigated in the representative Japanese the association between dietary protein intake and serum albumin levels. Methods A total of 7715 subjects (3220 men and 4495 women, aged 30 years or more) with measurement of serum albumin who participated in both the National Survey on Circulatory Disorders in 1990 and the National Nutrition Survey in 1990 were analyzed in the present analysis. Multiple-adjustments were performed with linear regression models to estimate the association between serum albumin levels and animal or vegetable protein intake adjusting for age and body mass index. Results The very weak positive association between animal protein and serum albumin levels was observed. On the other hand, there was no clear association observed between vegetable protein and serum albumin levels. Regardless of sex and models, age was inversely associated with serum albumin levels with statistically significance, and standardized coefficients of age were considerably larger in both sexes than other variables. Adjustment for body mass index hardly altered the coefficients of animal or vegetable protein intake, but adjustment for total cholesterol clearly attenuated the relationship between animal protein intake and serum albumin levels. Conclusions Present analysis indicated the possibility that animal protein intake was related with serum albumin levels, while vegetable protein intake was not related. PMID:20351474

Watanabe, Makoto; Higashiyama, Aya; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Yuu; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori



Using experimental data designs and multivariate modeling to assess the effect of glycated serum protein concentration on glucose prediction from near-infrared spectra of human serum.  


Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of human blood serum consist of overlapping strong absorption bands of water and serum proteins, which affect the ability of multivariate calibration models to predict glucose. Furthermore, serum proteins such as albumin and globulins undergo a glycation reaction by forming covalent bonds with freely available glucose molecules in the serum. In diabetic individuals with poor glucose control, more and more serum protein molecules react with glucose, resulting in a high glycated protein concentration. The glucose molecules covalently bonded to serum proteins might contribute to the overall glucose signal acquired by NIR spectroscopy. This might affect the prediction ability of multivariate calibration models such as partial least squares regression (PLSR). In this study, we investigated the effect of total protein concentration and the glycated protein concentration in blood serum on the prediction ability of PLSR calibration models. Serum samples were subjected to ultra-filtration, and the PLSR model was built using NIR spectra of filtered serum solutions. Prediction performance was found to improve by 39-42% in absence of serum protein molecules. Various experimental data set designs were generated by carefully varying the glycated serum protein concentration in calibration and test sets of PLSR models. This investigation revealed that the impact of varying glycated protein concentration on the root mean square error of prediction was not drastic. To test the statistical significance of the prediction results, a multiple linear regression model was built. The glycated serum protein concentration was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.86) in predicting glucose concentration. Overall, it was concluded that the glycated serum proteins do not affect the glucose prediction accuracy of PLSR models using NIR spectra of human serum. PMID:24694695

Sharma, Sandeep; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Delanghe, Joris; Ramon, Herman; Saeys, Wouter



Degeneration of Retinal ON Bipolar Cells Induced by Serum Including Autoantibody against TRPM1 in Mouse Model of Paraneoplastic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

The paraneoplastic retinopathies (PRs) are a group of eye diseases characterized by a sudden and progressive dysfunction of the retina caused by an antibody against a protein in a neoplasm. Evidence has been obtained that the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 (TRPM1) protein was one of the antigens for the autoantibody against the ON bipolar cells in PR patients. However, it has not been determined how the autoantibody causes the dysfunction of the ON bipolar cells. We hypothesized that the antibody against TRPM1 in the serum of patients with PR causes a degeneration of retinal ON bipolar cells. To test this hypothesis, we injected the serum from the PR patient, previously shown to contain anti-TRPM1 antibodies by westerblot, intravitreally into mice and examined the effects on the retina. We found that the electroretinograms (ERGs) of the mice were altered acutely after the injection, and the shape of the ERGs resembled that of the patient with PR. Immunohistochemical analysis of the eyes injected with the serum showed immunoreactivity against bipolar cells only in wild-type animals and not in TRPM1 knockout mice,consistent with the serum containing anti-TRPM1 antibodies. Histology also showed that some of the bipolar cells were apoptotic by 5 hours after the injection in wild type mice, but no bipolar cell death was found in TRPM1 knockout mice, . At 3 months, the inner nuclear layer was thinner and the amplitudes of the ERGs were still reduced. These results indicate that the serum of a patient with PR contained an antibody against TRPM1 caused an acute death of retinal ON bipolar cells of mice. PMID:24282602

Ueno, Shinji; Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Kondo, Mineo; Yasuma, Testuhiro R.; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kuno, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Masahide; Terasaki, Hiroko



Clinical impact of serum proteins on drug delivery.  


Among serum proteins albumin and transferrin have attracted the most interest as drug carriers in the past two decades. Prior to that, their potential use was overshadowed by the advent of monoclonal antibodies that was initiated by Milstein and Koehler in 1975. Meanwhile intensive pursuit of exploiting transferrin, but above all albumin as an exogenous or endogenous carrier protein for treating various diseases, primarily cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and hepatitis has resulted in several marketed products and numerous clinical trials. While the use of transferrin has clinically been primarily restricted to immunotoxins, albumin-based drug delivery systems ranging from albumin drug nanoparticles, albumin fusion protein, prodrugs and peptide derivatives that bind covalently to albumin as well as physically binding antibody fragments and therapeutically active peptides are in advanced clinical trials or approved products. For treating diabetes, Levemir and Victoza that are myristic acid derivatives of human insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) act as long-acting peptides by binding to the fatty acid binding sites on circulating albumin to control glucose levels. Levemir from Novo Nordisk has already developed into a blockbuster since its market approval in 2004. Abraxane, an albumin paclitaxel nanoparticle as a water-soluble galenic formulation avoiding the use of cremophor/ethanol, transports paclitaxel through passive targeting as an albumin paclitaxel complex to the tumor site and is superior to conventional Taxol against metastatic breast cancer. INNO-206, an albumin-binding doxorubicin prodrug that also accumulates in solid tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect but releases the parent drug through acid cleavage, either intra- or extracellularly, is entering phase II studies against sarcoma. An expanding field is the use of albumin-binding antibody moieties which do not contain the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of, conventional immunoglobulin G (IgG) but are comprised of monovalent or bivalent light and/or heavy chains and incorporate an additional albumin-binding peptide or antibody domain. The most advanced antibody of this kind is ATN-103 (Ozoralizumab), a trivalent albumin-binding nanobody that neutralizes the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) as a causative agent for exacerbating rheumatoid arthritis. ATN-103 is currently in multi-center phase II trials against this debilitating disease. In summary, because albumin as the most abundant circulating protein cannot only be used to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of therapeutically relevant peptides and the targeting moiety of antibodies but also for peptide-based targeting as well as low-molecular weight drugs to inflamed or malignant tissue, it is anticipated that R&D efforts of academia and the pharmaceutical industry in this field of drug delivery will prosper. PMID:22155554

Kratz, Felix; Elsadek, Bakheet



Electrochemical detection of glycan and protein epitopes of glycoproteins in serum.  


Aberrant protein glycosylation is associated with a range of pathological conditions including cancer and possesses diagnostic importance. Translation of glycoprotein biomarkers will be facilitated by the development of a rapid and sensitive analytical platform that simultaneously interrogates both the glycan and protein epitopes of glycoproteins in body fluids such as serum or saliva. To this end, we developed an electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of a lectin on the gold electrode surface to recognize/capture a target glycan epitope conjugated to glycoproteins, followed by detection of the protein epitope using a target protein-specific antibody. Electrochemical signals are generated by label-free voltammetric or impedimetric interrogation of a ferro/ferricyanide redox couple (e.g. [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) on the sensing surface, where the change in voltammetric current or interfacial electron transfer resistance was measured. The detection system was demonstrated using the model glycoprotein chicken ovalbumin with Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA lectin), and exhibits femtomolar sensitivity in the background of diluted human serum. The results obtained in this proof-of-concept study demonstrate the possibility of using electrochemical detection for developing cheap point-of-care diagnostics with high specificity and sensitivity for blood glycoprotein biomarkers. PMID:25267970

Shah, Alok K; Hill, Michelle M; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt



Serum proteins and paraproteins in women with silicone implants and connective tissue disease: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested abnormalities of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in women with silicone implants but did not control for the presence of connective-tissue disease (CTD). This retrospective case–control study, performed in tertiary-care academic centers, assessed possible alterations of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in such a population. Seventy-four women with silicone implants who subsequently developed CTD, and 74 age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants, were assessed in the primary study; other groups were used for additional comparisons. Routine serum protein determinations and high-sensitivity protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed for detection of paraproteins. Women with silicone implants, either with or without CTD, had significantly lower serum total protein and ?1-globulin, ?2-globulin, ?-globulin, ?-globulin, and IgG levels compared with those without silicone implants. There was no significant difference, however, in the frequency of paraproteinemia between women with silicone implants and CTD (9.5%) and age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants (5.4%) (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–6.45). Paraprotein isotypes were similar in the two groups, and the clinical characteristics of the 13 women with paraproteinemia were comparable with an independent population of 10 women with silicone breast implants, CTD, and previously diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies. In summary, this first comprehensive study of serum proteins in women with silicone implants and CTD found no substantially increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy. Women with silicone implants, however, had unexpectedly low serum globulin and immunoglobulin levels, with or without the subsequent development of CTD. The causes and clinical implications of these findings require further investigation. PMID:17875216

Csako, Gyorgy; Costello, Rene; Shamim, Ejaz A; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Tran, Anthony; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, H James; Miller, Frederick W



Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation  

PubMed Central

Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040



A Proteomic Workflow for Discovery of Serum Carrier Protein-Bound Biomarker Candidates of Alcohol Abuse Using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and care of patients with alcohol abuse and dependence is hampered by a lack of sensitive and specific screening and monitoring tests. Proteomics is a good approach to search for biomarkers of alcohol abuse. Serum carrier protein-bound proteins have attracted significant interest because they remain a relatively un-mined region of the proteome. In the present study, a proteomic workflow including LC-MS/MS with enrichment of serum carrier protein-bound biomarkers technique was applied to profile the changes in quality and quantity of serum carrier protein-bound proteins for the discovery of novel biomarker candidates of alcohol abuse. In total, 311 proteins identified with high confidence were discovered to be bound to serum carrier proteins. Complement isoforms, Ig fragments, and apolipoprotein family proteins are the main serum carrier-bound proteins. Protein quantification analysis with and without concern as to gender revealed that gender is a critical consideration for biomarker development in alcohol abuse. Identified proteins not previously associated with alcohol abuse include gelsolin, selenoprotein P, serotransferrin, tetranectin, hemopexin, histidine-rich glycoprotein, plasma kallikrein, and vitronectin. Altered abundance of these proteins suggests that they may be potential novel biomarkers for alcohol abuse. PMID:19544491

Lai, Xianyin; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Ringham, Heather N.; Witzmann, Frank A.



May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?  


Abstract The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (p<0.006), not in advanced disease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (p<0.05), the indicators of nitrosative stress. The thyroidectomized subjects showed very low levels of serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (78% reduction vs. controls) and, among these proteins, the nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein was nearly absent. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum ?-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2143-2148. PMID:25125346

Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José



Bovine serum amine oxidase: some differences between chromatographically defined forms including sensitivity to inhibition by dithiomolybdate.  


1. Bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) forms, defined by DEAE-cellulose and hydroxyapatite chromatography, were shown to have different kinetic characteristics with p-dimethylaminobenzylamine as a substrate; there was also some variation in heat sensitivity. 2. The forms showed similar sensitivity to inhibition by aminoguanidine but there were differences with respect to dithiomolybdate. 3. The results also provided some support for the view that both subunits were active catalytically. 4. It is concluded that while the forms were interconvertible, the practice of pooling different chromatographic fractions may not be acceptable in all circumstances. 5. While inhibition by dithiomolybdate is of biochemical interest it is concluded that inhibition of BSAO by thiomolybdates is unlikely to play a role in the clinical syndromes which are common in cattle exposed to Mo in the herbage. PMID:8386076

Mulryan, G; Mason, J



A unique property of fetal bovine serum: High levels of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fetal bovine serum has been reported to delay or inhibit “spontaneous” neoplastic transformation in vitro as compared with\\u000a all other sera tested. The present results indicate that fetal bovine serum is also unique in containing high levels of protein-glutathione\\u000a mixed disulfides (3 to 7 ?g glutathione as mixed disulfide per ml serum). The level of mixed disulfide appears to vary

Edward A. Bump; Donald J. Reed



Immunoprecipitation of Serum Albumin with Protein A-Sepharose: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exercise has been designed and optimized to acquaint students with the simple yet powerful technique of immunoprecipitation. Protein A-Sepharose (PA-S) is used as a solid-phase precipitant to recover bovine serum albumin (BSA, the antigen) recognized by anti-BSA antibody (Ab). The high degree of binding specificity between antigen and antibody is illustrated by recovery of BSA from a complex mixture of proteins obtained from wheat germ and chicken breast. Various controls are included for a thorough data analysis. The solid phase of Ag/Ab/PA-S is recovered by centrifugation, thoroughly washed, and treated to dissociate the BSA antigen. Samples are examined by discontinuous denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with Coomassie blue staining. The supernatants, containing proteins that are not precipitated, are also analyzed. Antigenic cross-reactivity, ranging from strong to none, is demonstrated in a second part by using serum albumins from seven different sources. Systems can be set up, shaken, and prepared for electrophoresis in a single lab period with time for laboratory lecture and discussion about antibody structure and function, antibody-based methods in general, and immunoprecipitation in particular.

Bohinski, Robert C.



Effect of Polyelectrolyte Structure on Protein-Polyelectrolyte Coacervates: Coacervates of Bovine Serum Albumin with  

E-print Network

-polyelectrolyte interactions. We report here on the properties of coacervates obtained for bovine serum albumin (BSA Serum Albumin with Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) versus Chitosan A. Basak Kayitmazer,*,, SabinaEffect of Polyelectrolyte Structure on Protein-Polyelectrolyte Coacervates: Coacervates of Bovine

Dubin, Paul D.


Serum protein identification and quantification of the corona of 5, 15 and 80 nm gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When nanoparticles (NP) enter the body they come into contact with body fluids containing proteins which can adsorb to their surface. These proteins may influence the NP interactions with the biological vicinity, eventually determining their biological fate inside the body. Adsorption of the most abundantly binding proteins was studied after an in vitro 24 hr incubation of monodisperse, negatively charged 5, 15 and 80 nm gold spheres (AuNP) in mouse serum by a two-step analysis: proteomic protein identification and quantitative protein biochemistry. The adsorbed proteins were separated from non-adsorbed proteins by centrifugation and gel electrophoresis and identified using a MALDI-TOF-MS-Proteomics-Analyzer. Quantitative analysis of proteins in gel bands by protein densitometry, required the focus on predominantly binding serum proteins. Numerous proteins adsorbed to the AuNP depending on their size, e.g. apolipoproteins or complement C3. The qualitative and quantitative amount of adsorbed proteins differed between 5, 15 and 80 nm AuNP. Band intensities of adsorbed proteins decreased with increasing AuNP sizes based not only on their mass but also on their surface area. Summarizing, the AuNP surface is covered with serum proteins containing transport and immune related proteins among others. Hence, protein binding depends on the size, surface area and curvature of the AuNP.

Schäffler, Martin; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Sarioglu, Hakan; Takenaka, Shinji; Wenk, Alexander; Schleh, Carsten; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Johnston, Blair D.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.



Human serum protein enhances HIV-1 replication and up-regulates the transcription factor AP-1  

PubMed Central

In vitro studies on HIV (HIV-1) replication and neutralization are usually performed in human cell cultures supplemented with FBS instead of human serum (HS). Here we show that in contrast to FBS, addition of increasing amounts of human serum from noninfected donors to the cell culture directly correlates with an increase in HIV-1 replication in vitro. This effect is independent of cell line, virus strain, or batch of pooled human serum used. We found that human serum affects viral transcription in a dose-dependent manner by activating the activator protein-1 (AP-1) member proteins c-FOS, JunD, and JunB in TZM-bl cells. Analysis of the human serum component responsible for this effect indicates that it is a protein having a molecular mass between 250 and 300 kDa. This serum protein, HIV-1 enhancing serum protein (HESP), might promote viral transcription in vivo and consequently play a role in disease progression. PMID:23047699

Perdomo, Maria F.; Hosia, Waltteri; Jejcic, Alenka; Corthals, Garry L.; Vahlne, Anders



Relief of amplification inhibition in PCR with bovine serum albumin or T4 gene 32 protein  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) or T4 gene 32 proteins (gp32) to PCR were evaluated with reaction mixtures containing substances that inhibit amplification. Whereas 10- to 1,000-fold more FeCl{sub 3}, hemin, fulvic acids, humic acids, tannic acids, or extracts from feces, freshwater, or marine water were accommodated in PCR when either 400 ng of BSA per {mu}l was included in the reactions, neither BSA nor gp32 relieved interference significantly when minimum inhibitory levels of bile salts, bilirubin, EDTA, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or Triton X-100 were present. Use of BSA and gp32 together offered no more relief of inhibition than either alone at its optimal level, and neither protein had any noticeable effect on amplification in the absence of inhibitors. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Kreader, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)



Serum C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Elective Total Hip Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background. The sensitivity and the specificity of different methods to detect periprosthetic infection have been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in patients undergoing uncomplicated elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), to provide a better interpretation of their levels in noninfectious inflammatory reaction. Methods. A total of 51 patients were included. Serum CRP and PCT concentrations were obtained before surgery, on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative days and after discharge on the 14th and 30th days and at 2 years. Results. Both markers were confirmed to increase after surgery. The serum CRP showed a marked increase on the 3rd postoperative day while the peak of serum PCT was earlier, even if much lower, on the first day. Then, they declined slowly approaching the baseline values by the second postoperative week. PCT mean values never exceed concentrations typically related to bacterial infections. Conclusions. CRP is very sensitive to inflammation. It could be the routine screening test in the follow-up of THA orthopaedic patients, but it should be complemented by PCT when there is the clinical suspicion of periprosthetic infection. PMID:24877114

Battistelli, Sandra; Fortina, Mattia; Carta, Serafino; Guerranti, Roberto; Nobile, Francesco; Ferrata, Paolo



Correlation Between Hypertension, C-Reactive Protein and Serum Uric Acid With Psychological Well-being  

PubMed Central

Background: Multiple population-based human studies have established a strong association between increasing levels of serum C-reactive protein, uric acid and subsequent development of hypertension. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between mental well-being with presence of hypertension, hyperuricemia and hs-CRP levels. ?? Patients and Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 801 individuals aged 35-85 years old in Broujerd, Iran, included by randomized cluster sampling. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for assessing mental health/distress level, MONICA standard questions for evaluating hypertension history, serum hs-CRP and Serum Uric Acid (SUA) were evaluated Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical test such as chi-square, T-test and correlation. Results: One hundred eighty five patients (23.1%) had high distress/minor psychiatric disorders. SUA had significant association with hypertension (r = 0.64, P = 0.034). No significant relation was observed between hs-CRP and hypertension. The correlation between GHQ and hs-CRP was not significant but a weak and negative correlation was found between GHQ and SUA SUA (P = 0.012, r = -0.089). Conclusions: The weak and strong correlation among these parameters indicate that mental wellbeing relays on physical wellness and interact with each other; therefore, controlling hypertension along with uric acid control may effect mental health of any kind of patients. PMID:25237581

Maleki, Ali; Samandari, Saeid; Almeida, Osvaldo; Jafarian Kerman, Scott Reza; Abdolvand, Mahdi; Aliyari, Farshid; Foroughi, Saeid



A study of serum proteins from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCZENCE Flay 1972 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiolo'y A STUDY OF SERUM PROTEINS FROM HORSES INFECTED NITH EQUINE ZNFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS A Thesis THOMAS MURZLL FOLKS Approved as to style and content by: o. (Chairman of Committee...) (Head of' Department) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) May 1972 ABS RAUT . ', Study of Serum Proteins from Horses Infected with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus. (May 1972) Thomas Murill Folks, B. A. , Univer- sity oz" Texas at Austin...

Folks, Thomas Murill



Clinical significance of serum S-100? protein level after pediatric cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The serum S-100? protein level is a specific marker of damage to the central nerve system (CNS). We studied its significance\\u000a in pediatric cardiac surgery as a possible marker of CNS damage.Methods: Subjects were 18 consecutive pediatric patients aged 12 days to 13 years (mean: 2.8 years) undergoing open-heart surgery.\\u000a We measured the serum S-100? protein level using ELISA

Masaaki Koide; Yoshifumi Kunii; Naoya Moriki; Yoshikazu Ayusawa; Akira Sakai



Pulmonary surfactant proteins and polymer combinations reduce surfactant inhibition by serum  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition that can be associated with capillary leak of serum into alveoli causing inactivation of surfactant. Resistance to inactivation is affected by types and concentrations of surfactant proteins, lipids, and polymers. Our aim was to investigate the effects of different combinations of these three components. A simple lipid mixture (DPPC/POPG) or a more complex lipid mixture (DPPC/POPC/POPG/cholesterol) was used. Native surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C obtained from pig lung lavage were added either singly or combined at two concentrations. Also, non-ionic polymers polyethylene glycol and dextran and the anionic polymer hyaluronan were added either singly or in pairs with hyaluronan included. Non-ionic polymers work by different mechanisms than anionic polymers, thus the purpose of placing them together in the same surfactant mixture was to evaluate if the combination would show enhanced beneficial effects. The resulting surfactant mixtures were studied in the presence or absence of serum. A modified bubble surfactometer was used to evaluate surface activities. Mixtures that included both SP-B and SP-C plus hyaluronan and either dextran or polyethylene glycol were found to be the most resistant to inhibition by serum. These mixtures, as well as some with either SP-B or SP-C with combined polymers were as or more resistant to inactivation than native surfactant. These results suggest that improved formulations of lung surfactants are possible and may be useful in reducing some types of surfactant inactivation in treating lung injuries. PMID:21741354

Lu, Karen W.; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H. William



Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.  


This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation. PMID:23871371

Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A



Increased serum heat-shock protein 70 levels reflect systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury in preeclampsia.  


It has been previously reported that serum levels of 70-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70) are elevated in preeclampsia. The aim of the present study was to examine whether increased serum Hsp70 levels are related to clinical characteristics and standard laboratory parameters of preeclamptic patients, as well as to markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein), endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor antigen) or endothelial injury (fibronectin), trophoblast debris (cell-free fetal DNA) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde). Sixty-seven preeclamptic patients and 70 normotensive, healthy pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Serum Hsp70 levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standard laboratory parameters (clinical chemistry) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined by an autoanalyzer using the manufacturer's kits. Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) levels were quantified by ELISA, and plasma fibronectin concentration by nephelometry. The amount of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the sex-determining region Y gene. Plasma malondialdehyde levels were measured by the thiobarbituric acid-based colorimetric assay. Serum Hsp70 levels were increased in preeclampsia. Furthermore, serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin and CRP, serum alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, as well as plasma levels of VWF:Ag, fibronectin, cell-free fetal DNA and malondialdehyde were also significantly higher in preeclamptic patients than in normotensive, healthy pregnant women. In preeclamptic patients, serum Hsp70 levels showed significant correlations with serum CRP levels (Spearman R = 0.32, p = 0.010), serum aspartate aminotransferase (R = 0.32, p = 0.008) and LDH activities (R = 0.50, p < 0.001), as well as with plasma malondialdehyde levels (R = 0.25, p = 0.043). However, there was no other relationship between serum Hsp70 levels and clinical characteristics (age, parity, body mass index, blood pressure, gestational age, fetal birth weight) and laboratory parameters of preeclamptic patients, including markers of endothelial activation or injury and trophoblast debris. In conclusion, increased serum Hsp70 levels seem to reflect systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury in preeclampsia. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine whether circulating Hsp70 plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:18686014

Molvarec, Attila; Rigó, János; Lázár, Levente; Balogh, Krisztián; Makó, Veronika; Cervenak, László; Mézes, Miklós; Prohászka, Zoltán



Increased serum heat-shock protein 70 levels reflect systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury in preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

It has been previously reported that serum levels of 70-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70) are elevated in preeclampsia. The aim of the present study was to examine whether increased serum Hsp70 levels are related to clinical characteristics and standard laboratory parameters of preeclamptic patients, as well as to markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein), endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor antigen) or endothelial injury (fibronectin), trophoblast debris (cell-free fetal DNA) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde). Sixty-seven preeclamptic patients and 70 normotensive, healthy pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Serum Hsp70 levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standard laboratory parameters (clinical chemistry) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined by an autoanalyzer using the manufacturer’s kits. Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) levels were quantified by ELISA, and plasma fibronectin concentration by nephelometry. The amount of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the sex-determining region Y gene. Plasma malondialdehyde levels were measured by the thiobarbituric acid-based colorimetric assay. Serum Hsp70 levels were increased in preeclampsia. Furthermore, serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin and CRP, serum alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, as well as plasma levels of VWF:Ag, fibronectin, cell-free fetal DNA and malondialdehyde were also significantly higher in preeclamptic patients than in normotensive, healthy pregnant women. In preeclamptic patients, serum Hsp70 levels showed significant correlations with serum CRP levels (Spearman R?=?0.32, p?=?0.010), serum aspartate aminotransferase (R?=?0.32, p?=?0.008) and LDH activities (R?=?0.50, p?serum Hsp70 levels and clinical characteristics (age, parity, body mass index, blood pressure, gestational age, fetal birth weight) and laboratory parameters of preeclamptic patients, including markers of endothelial activation or injury and trophoblast debris. In conclusion, increased serum Hsp70 levels seem to reflect systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury in preeclampsia. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine whether circulating Hsp70 plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:18686014

Rigo, Janos; Lazar, Levente; Balogh, Krisztian; Mako, Veronika; Cervenak, Laszlo; Mezes, Miklos; Prohaszka, Zoltan



IL-31 Serum Protein and Tissue mRNA Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Severe pruritus is the primary symptom in atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the novel cytokine IL-31 has been implicated in the itching associated with AD. Objective We performed this study to determine whether IL-31 serum levels are elevated in AD patients and to better characterize the relationship between serum IL-31 level and other established laboratory parameters. Methods We recruited 55 AD patients, 34 with allergic type AD and 21 with non-allergic type AD, and 38 healthy, non-atopic controls. We checked the laboratory values, severity score, and serum IL-31 levels in all patients and controls, and IL-31 mRNA levels in lesion skin were measured in 13 subjects with AD and in four controls. Results AD patients displayed significantly higher levels of serum IL-31 that were associated with serum IgE, disease severity, and subjective itch intensity. In AD patients, IL-31 mRNA levels from the lesional skin samples also correlated with serum IL-31 level. Conclusion IL-31 is likely one of the many mediators inducing inflammation and pruritus in AD. Although our limited sample size prevents us from making any definitive conclusions, our data demonstrate a strong correlation between IL-31 mRNA level and serum IL-31 protein level, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we found correlations between serum IL-31 level and serum IgE, eosinophil cationic protein, disease severity, and subject itch intensity in certain degrees in AD patients. PMID:22148014

Kim, Song; Kim, Hyun-Je; Yang, Hee Seung; Kim, Eugene; Huh, Ik-Soo



Revision of MELD to Include Serum Albumin Improves Prediction of Mortality on the Liver Transplant Waiting List  

PubMed Central

Background Allocation of donor livers for transplantation in most regions is based on the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) or MELD-sodium (MELDNa). Our objective was to assess revisions to MELD and MELDNa that include serum albumin for predicting waiting list mortality. Methods Adults registered for liver transplantation in the United States (2002–2007) were identified from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database. Cox regression was used to determine the association between serum albumin and 3-month mortality, and to derive revised MELD and MELDNa scores incorporating albumin (‘MELD-albumin’ and ‘5-variable MELD [5vMELD]’). Results Among 40,393 patients, 9% died and 24% underwent transplantation within 3 months of listing. For serum albumin concentrations between 1.0 and 4.0 g/dL, a linear, inverse relationship was observed between albumin and 3-month mortality (adjusted hazard ratio per 1 g/dL reduction in albumin: 1.44; 95% CI 1.35–1.54). The c-statistics for 3-month mortality of MELD-albumin and MELD were 0.913 and 0.896, respectively (P<0.001); 5vMELD was superior to MELDNa (c-statistics 0.922 vs. 0.912, P<0.001). The potential benefit of 5vMELD was greatest in patients with low MELD (<15). Among low MELD patients who died, 27% would have gained ?10 points with 5vMELD over MELD versus only 4–7% among low MELD survivors and high MELD (?15) candidates (P<0.0005). Conclusion Modification of MELD and MELDNa to include serum albumin is associated with improved prediction of waiting list mortality. If validated and shown to be associated with reduced mortality, adoption of 5vMELD as the basis for liver allograft allocation may improve outcomes on the liver transplant waiting list. PMID:23349678

Myers, Robert P.; Shaheen, Abdel Aziz M.; Faris, Peter; Aspinall, Alexander I.; Burak, Kelly W.



A quantitative proteomic approach to identify significantly altered protein networks in the serum of patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).  


Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare and progressive cystic lung condition affecting approximately 3.4-7.5/million women, with an average lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of upwards of 4 years. The aim of this work was to identify altered proteins in LAM serum which may be potential biomarkers of disease. Serum from LAM patient volunteers and healthy control volunteers were pooled and analysis carried out using quantitative 4-plex iTRAQ technology. Differentially expressed proteins were validated using ELISAs and pathway analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Fourteen proteins were differentially expressed in LAM serum compared to control serum (p<0.05). Further screening validated the observed differences in extracellular matrix remodelling proteins including fibronectin (30% decrease in LAM, p?=?0.03), von Willebrand Factor (40% reduction in LAM, p?=?0.03) and Kallikrein III (25% increase in LAM, p?=?0.03). Pathway networks elucidated the relationships between the ECM and cell trafficking in LAM. This study was the first to highlight an imbalance in networks important for remodelling in LAM, providing a set of novel potential biomarkers. These understandings may lead to a new effective treatment for LAM in the future. PMID:25133674

Banville, Nessa; Burgess, Janette K; Jaffar, Jade; Tjin, Gavin; Richeldi, Luca; Cerri, Stefania; Persiani, Elisa; Black, Judith L; Oliver, Brian G



Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.  


It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-?52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig



Using competitive protein adsorption to measure fibrinogen in undiluted human serum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a unique sensing mechanism based on competitive protein adsorption to measure fibrinogen, a cardiovascular biomarker, in undiluted human serum. The method uses physical adsorption of proteins to a surface rather than complex and time-consuming immobilization procedures. Two fibrinogen concentrations were differentiated in spiked in human serum [3.0 mg/ml (normal concentration) versus 3.2 mg/ml (abnormal concentration with heart disease)]. Real-time surface plasmon resonance signals were monitored as fibrinogen displaced a preadsorbed protein, IgM, on a hydrophobic gold surface. The relatively strong-affinity protein, IgM, was displaced primarily by fibrinogen and much less by other proteins in human serum.

Choi, Seokheun; Wang, Ran; Lajevardi-Khosh, Arad; Chae, Junseok



Serum, like phorbol esters, rapidly activates protein kinase C in intact quiescent fibroblasts.  


Addition of serum to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells and mouse embryo fibroblasts causes a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an 80 000 mol. wt. cellular protein (termed 80 K). The effect is dose- and time-dependent; enhancement in 80 K phosphorylation can be detected as early as 10-15 s after adding serum. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor elicits the response after a lag of 1.5 min suggesting that this growth factor does not mediate the response to serum. Recently a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an 80 K cellular protein following treatment with phorbol esters or diacylglycerol has been shown to reflect the activation of protein kinase C in intact fibroblasts. The 80 K phosphoproteins generated in response to serum and to phorbol dibutyrate (PBt2) co-migrated in one- and two-dimensional PAGE and produced identical phosphopeptide fragments when subjected to partial digestion with Staphyloccocus aureus V8 protease. These observations suggest that the same 80 K protein is generated in response to serum and PBt2. We conclude that activation of protein kinase C in intact cells is one of the earliest effects elicited by serum in quiescent fibroblasts. PMID:3160581

Rodriguez-Pena, A; Rozengurt, E



Characterization of gender-specific bovine serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal cell cultures generally require a nutrient-rich medium supplemented with animal serum. Adult bovine serum contains a variety of nutrients including inorganic minerals, vitamins, salts, proteins and lipids as well as growth factors that promote animal cell growth. To evaluate the potential use of gender-specific bovine serum (GSBS) for cell culture, the biochemical properties of male serum (MS), female serum

Jihoe Kim; Minsoo Kim; Sang-Soep Nahm; Dong-Mok Lee; Smritee Pokharel; Inho Choi



Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.  


Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne




PubMed Central

The binding of drugs with serum proteins can affect the activity, distribution, rate of excretion, and toxicity of pharmaceutical agents in the body. One tool that can be used to quickly analyze and characterize these interactions is high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). This review shows how HPAC can be used to study drug-protein binding and describes the various applications of this approach when examining drug interactions with serum proteins. Methods for determining binding constants, characterizing binding sites, examining drug-drug interactions, and studying drug-protein dissociation rates will be discussed. Applications that illustrate the use of HPAC with serum binding agents such as human serum albumin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins will be presented. Recent developments will also be examined, such as new methods for immobilizing serum proteins in HPAC columns, the utilization of HPAC as a tool in personalized medicine, and HPAC methods for the high-throughput screening and characterization of drug-protein binding. PMID:21395530

Hage, David S.; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Barnaby, Omar; Jackson, Abby; Yoo, Michelle J.; Papastavros, Efthimia; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Sobansky, Matt; Tong, Zenghan



A panel of regulated proteins in serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.  


We developed a discovery-validation mass-spectrometry-based pipeline to identify a set of proteins that are regulated in serum of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and squamous cell cervical cancer using iTRAQ, label-free shotgun, and targeted mass-spectrometric quantification. In the discovery stage we used a "pooling" strategy for the comparative analysis of immunodepleted serum and revealed 15 up- and 26 down-regulated proteins in patients with early- (CES) and late-stage (CLS) cervical cancer. The analysis of nondepleted serum samples from patients with CIN, CES, an CLS and healthy controls showed significant changes in abundance of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein. We validated our findings using a fast UHPLC/MRM method in an independent set of serum samples from patients with cervical cancer or CIN and healthy controls as well as serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer (more than 400 samples in total). The panel of six proteins showed 67% sensitivity and 88% specificity for discrimination of patients with CIN from healthy controls, a stage of the disease where current protein-based biomarkers, for example, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), fail to show any discrimination. Additionally, combining the six-protein panel with SCCA improves the discrimination of patients with CES and CLS from healthy controls. PMID:25232869

Boichenko, Alexander P; Govorukhina, Natalia; Klip, Harry G; van der Zee, A G J; Güzel, Co?kun; Luider, Theo M; Bischoff, Rainer



A Serum Protein Profile Predictive of the Resistance to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Breast Cancers*  

PubMed Central

Prediction of the responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) can improve the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. Genes and proteins predictive of chemoresistance have been extensively studied in breast cancer tissues. However, noninvasive serum biomarkers capable of such prediction have been rarely exploited. Here, we performed profiling of N-glycosylated proteins in serum from fifteen advanced breast cancer patients (ten patients sensitive to and five patients resistant to NACT) to discover serum biomarkers of chemoresistance using a label-free liquid chromatography-tandem MS method. By performing a series of statistical analyses of the proteomic data, we selected thirteen biomarker candidates and tested their differential serum levels by Western blotting in 13 independent samples (eight patients sensitive to and five patients resistant to NACT). Among the candidates, we then selected the final set of six potential serum biomarkers (AHSG, APOB, C3, C9, CP, and ORM1) whose differential expression was confirmed in the independent samples. Finally, we demonstrated that a multivariate classification model using the six proteins could predict responses to NACT and further predict relapse-free survival of patients. In summary, global N-glycoproteome profile in serum revealed a protein pattern predictive of the responses to NACT, which can be further validated in large clinical studies. PMID:21799047

Hyung, Seok-Won; Lee, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Han; Shin, Byunghee; Jung, Hee-Jung; Park, Jong-Moon; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Kyung-Min; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Sang-Won; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Noh, Dong-Young



Precipitins to Dietary Proteins in Serum and Upper Intestinal Secretions of Coeliac Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used precipitin tests to detect antibodies to 10 dietary proteins in the serum (71 cases) and intestinal secretions (51 cases) of a group of children. Thirty-three of the patients had untreated coeliac disease. Our aims were to find out if, in coeliac patients, there was intestinal secretion of antibodies to wheat proteins only or if, as in coeliac

Anne Ferguson; F. Carswell



Association of increased serum heat shock protein 70 and C-reactive protein concentrations and decreased serum alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein concentration with the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.  


The primary aim of this study was to determine serum Hsp70 concentrations in HELLP syndrome. We measured also the serum concentrations of three acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha(2)-macroglobulin (AMG) and alpha(2)-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). Ten severe preeclamptic patients with HELLP syndrome, 20 severe preeclamptic patients without HELLP syndrome and 20 normotensive, healthy pregnant women were included in this case-control study. Serum concentrations of Hsp70, CRP, AMG and AHSG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Hsp70), particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay (CRP) and radial immunodiffusion (AMG, AHSG). The serum Hsp70 and CRP concentrations were significantly higher, whereas the serum AHSG concentration was significantly lower in the HELLP group (H) than the severe preeclamptic (P) and control (C) groups (median (25-75 percentile); Hsp70: 2.02 ng/ml (0.76-2.23) (H) versus 0.54 ng/ml (0.47-0.79) (P), p<0.01, and 0.30 ng/ml (0.27-0.33) (C), p<0.001; CRP: 43.9 mg/l (27.1-84.5) (H) versus 6.5 mg/l (2.7-10.7) (P), p<0.001, and 2.5 mg/l (1.1-6.7) (C), p<0.001; AHSG: 588 microg/ml (492-660) (H) versus 654 microg/ml (576-768) (P), p<0.05, and 738 microg/ml (666-804) (C), p<0.01, respectively). The serum AMG concentration did not differ between the study groups. In the HELLP group, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between serum Hsp70 concentration and platelet count (Spearman R=-0.69, p=0.026). In conclusion, serum Hsp70 and CRP concentrations are increased, whereas serum AHSG concentration is decreased, in HELLP syndrome. The maternal systemic inflammation seems to be more pronounced in HELLP syndrome than preeclampsia without HELLP syndrome, as suggested by the alterations in serum CRP and AHSG levels. However, it requires further investigation to determine whether these changes are causes or consequences of the disease. PMID:17023052

Molvarec, Attila; Prohászka, Zoltán; Nagy, Bálint; Kalabay, László; Szalay, János; Füst, Georg; Karádi, István; Rigó, János



Influence of colostral quality on serum proteins in dairy calves raised in smallholder farms in Thailand.  


The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of colostral quality on serum proteins in calves. Samples were collected from visited farms in Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Kamphaeng Saen and Nong Pho Animal Hospital. In total, 35 dairy farms contributed 80 dams and calves' samples. Colostrum samples from 80 dairy cows and blood samples from their calves were taken to evaluate colostral immunoglobulins (Ig) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), and calf serum protein and IgG. Total colostral Ig, colostral and serum IgG, and serum protein were measured by a colostrometer, single radial immunodiffusion, and refractrometer, respectively. Immunoglobulin G and serum protein concentrations increased in the 1st day after birth, and maximum concentrations were seen in the 2nd day and then decreased in the 7th and 14th days. Average?±?SD total colostral IgG concentrations at calving date and at 1 and 2 days after calving were 93.85?±?33.89, 37.11?±?23.51, and 17.23?±?9.4 mg/mL, respectively. The profile of total Ig and IgG concentrations in colostrum had a similar pattern, with the maximum concentrations obtained in calving date and rapidly decreased thereafter. Low IgG concentrations were seen in the 7th and 14th day after calving. The calves that were fed with high quality colostrum had higher serum protein at 1 day of age, 7.49?±?1.01 g/dL, than calves fed with low quality colostrum, 6.40?±?0.86 g/dL (P?serum protein after first colostrum feeding of high and low quality colostrum was 1.55?±?1.07 and 0.81?±?0.69 g/dL, respectively (P?=?0.02). PMID:23645514

Kananub, Suppada; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Arunvipas, Pipat



The presence of antibodies to oxidative modified proteins in serum from polycystic ovary syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age. Free radicals, as a product of oxidative stress, impair cells and tissue properties related to human fertility. These free radicals, together with the oxidized molecules, may have a cytotoxic or deleterious effects on sperm and oocytes, on early embryo development or on the endometrium. Aldehyde-modified proteins are highly immunogenic and circulating autoantibodies to new epitopes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), may affect the reproductive system. Autoantibodies or elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum are often associated with inflammatory response. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether PCOS women show increased levels of oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) and anti-endometrial antibodies (AEA) in their sera, compared with control patients, and to determine whether AEA specificity is related to oxidized protein derivatives. Sera from 31 women [10 patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 21 women with male factor of infertility (control group)] were chosen from patients attending for infertility. Anti-endometrial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an endometrial cell line (RL-95). Antibodies against MDA modified human serum albumin (HSA–MDA) were also determined by ELISA. Oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum were determined by a colorimetric assay. Patients with PCOS have significantly higher levels of AEA and anti-HSA–MDA, as well as oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum than control patients. For the first time, we describe an autoimmune response in PCOS patients, in terms of AEA. The evidence of protein–MDA in the serum of these patients, together with the increased antibody reactivity to MDA-modified proteins (HSA–MDA) in vitro, supports the conclusion that oxidative stress may be one of the important causes for abnormal endometrial environment with poor embryo receptivity in PCOS patients. PMID:16634794

Palacio, J R; Iborra, A; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Badia, R; Martinez, P



Serum steroid hormones including 11-ketotestosterone, 11-ketoandrostenedione, and dihydroprogesterone in juvenile and adult bonnethead sharks, Sphyrna tiburo.  


Previous studies in the placental viviparous bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, have correlated 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone with reproductive events in both males and females. However, several key reproductive events, including implantation, maintenance of pregnancy, and parturition, did not correlate with these four steroid hormones. Therefore, the present study investigated three steroid hormones, 11-ketotestosterone, 11-ketoandrostenedione, and dihydroprogesterone, which have demonstrably important roles in the reproductive cycles of teleosts. It was hypothesized that one or more of these three hormones would correlate with specific reproductive events in S. tiburo. Concurrently, developmental (growth and/or maturation) analyses of these three steroids plus 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone were investigated in juvenile bonnethead sharks. Serum dihydroprogesterone concentrations were highest in mature females and 11-ketotestosterone concentrations were highest in mature males. In mature females, 11-ketoandrostenedione levels were elevated from the time of mating, through six months of sperm storage and another four months of gestation. At parturition concentrations became significantly lower and remained lower until mating occurred again in another two to three months. Serum 11-ketotestosterone concentrations were the highest at implantation though not significant. In mature males, significantly elevated serum levels of dihydroprogesterone occurred in April and May, near the start of annual testicular development. During growth in males, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased progressively and in females, testosterone increased progressively. At maturity in males, significant increases occurred in testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone concentrations while, in females, dihydroprogesterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased. This study shows that although testosterone may be the primary androgen in the bonnethead shark, other derived androgens may have important functions in growth, maturation, and reproduction. J. Exp. Zool. 284:595-603, 1999. PMID:10469997

Manire, C A; Rasmussen, L E; Gross, T S



Effects of soy protein and saponins on serum, tissue and feces steroids in rat.  


Four groups of rats were fed, for 45 days, one of the following semipurified diets containing sucrose 55% (w/w) and (a) casein 25%, (b) casein 24%, saponins (from Saponaria officinalis) 1%, (c) isolated soy protein 25%, (d) soy protein 24%, saponins 1%. The soy protein diet, compared to the casein one, produced an increase in the fecal excretion of neutral sterols on the 29th and 42nd days, without any modification in the liver, aorta and serum cholesterol concentrations. The effect of soy protein cannot be attributed to its saponin content but other substances associated to soy protein may interfere. With the casein diet, added saponins increased the fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids and decreased liver and aorta cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol was found unchanged. The effects of saponins were suppressed or greatly reduced with the soy protein diet. These results could be explained by binding of the sterols in insoluble forms. PMID:574769

Sautier, C; Doucet, C; Flament, C; Lemonnier, D



Serum tau protein as a marker for the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total tau protein (t-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (CSF-tau) are markedly elevated in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob\\u000a disease (CJD). Some CSF-tau may leak into the blood. We evaluated t-tau levels in serum (serum-tau) as a possible marker for\\u000a the differential diagnosis of CJD from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other rapidly progressive dementias (RPD). Serum- and\\u000a CSF-tau levels were determined in

Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara; Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi; Ichiro Nozaki; Kenji Sakai; Masahito Yamada


Probing thyroglobulin in undiluted human serum based on pattern recognition and competitive adsorption of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive indicator of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin. Detection of Tg in human serum is challenging as bio-receptors, such as anti-Tg, used in immunoassay have relatively weak binding affinity. We engineer sensing surfaces using the competitive adsorption of proteins, termed the Vroman Effect. Coupled with Surface Plasmon Resonance, the "cross-responsive" interactions of Tg on the engineered surfaces produce uniquely distinguishable multiple signature patterns, which are discriminated using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Tg-spiked samples, down to 2 ng/ml Tg in undiluted human serum, are sensitively and selectively discriminated from the control (undiluted human serum).

Wang, Ran; Huang, Shuai; Li, Jing; Chae, Junseok



Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound /sup 125/I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.



Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition  

SciTech Connect

Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of (/sup 14/C)urate and p-(/sup 3/H)aminohippurate ((/sup 3/H)PAH) in rabbit S/sub 2/ proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and ..gamma..-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit ..gamma..-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. ..cap alpha..-Lactalbumin and ..beta..-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and ..gamma..-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and ..gamma..-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S/sub 2/ proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH.

Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.



The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n = 466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n = 76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n = 13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9 mg/l, 79.6 mg/l, and 98.6 mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6 mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0 mg/l vs. 55.4 mg/l, P = 0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:24768783

Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mortl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Kohler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans



Various protein and albumin corrections of the serum fructosamine concentration in the diagnosis of canine diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructosamines are formed when glucose reacts non-enzymatically with amino groups on proteins, and previous studies have indicated that the serum fructosamine concentration could be of importance in the diagnosis of canine diabetes mellitus. Owing to the connection between the protein\\/albumin concentration and serum fructosamine concentration, it has been suggested that the serum fructosamine concentration should be corrected for the protein\\/albumin

A. L. Jensen



Serum-Based Protein Biomarkers in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

The biological consequences of exposure to explosive blast are extremely complex. Serum protein biomarkers in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) can aid in determining injury severity, monitoring progress, and predicting outcome. Exposure to blast results in varying degrees of physical injury. Explosive blast can also induce psychological stress that can contribute to or amplify the extent of physical damage. Given the complexity, scale of injury, and variety of symptoms, bTBI may be best described as a spectrum disorder. In this focused review, we summarize the status of serum protein biomarkers in bTBI in the context of the classification and pathological changes of other forms of TBI. Finally, we recommend specific and easily implementable measures to accelerate serum protein biomarker discovery and validation in bTBI. PMID:22783223

Agoston, Denes V.; Elsayed, Mohammad



Homology Modeling and Domain Interactions in Fetal Serum Protein  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is intended to engage students to design, model, visualize and evaluate the theoretical three dimensional image of a protein whose structure has not yet been determined. The phylogenetic analysis in Biology Workbench of paralogs and orthologs to alphafetoprotein reveals more divergent sequences within active site domains of related proteins without biological activity and greater conservation of the alphafetoprotein active domain between different species.

Steve Festin (Hamilton College;)



Suppression of severe lesions, myonecrosis and hemorrhage, caused by Protobothrops flavoviridis venom with its serum proteins.  


Protobothrops flavoviridis serum proteins precipitated with ammonium sulfate were chromatographed on a DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column at pH 7.5 with stepwise increase or with linear gradient of NaCl concentration. Peaks 3 and 4 serum proteins, obtained by linear gradient elution and named Fr(de3) and Fr(de4), contained Habu serum factors (HSF) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors (PfPLI), respectively. The serum proteins eluted at 0.2 M NaCl by stepwise elution, named Fr(0.2NaCl), effectively suppressed myonecrosis and hemorrhage caused by P. flavoviridis venom in rat or mouse thigh muscles. The Fr(0.2NaCl) were fractionated by HPLC and the fractions, after SDS-PAGE, underwent far-western blot analysis with PLA2 ([Asp(49)]PLA2) and BPI ([Lys(49)]PLA2) as the probes. Four PfPLIs, namely, Pf?PLI-A, Pf?PLI-B, Pf?PLI-A and Pf?PLI-B, were identified together with their selective binding specificities to PLA2 species. In addition, a new 9 kDa protein, which is specifically bound to BPI, was found. Suppression of P. flavoviridis venom-induced severe lesions, such as myonecrosis, hemorrhage and edema, with its serum proteins was histopathologically observed in the present work for the first time. The cooperative use of P. flavoviridis antivenom and its serum proteins as medication for P. flavoviridis snake bites is discussed. PMID:24139850

Chijiwa, Takahito; So, Shuhei; Hattori, Shosaku; Yoshida, Aichi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ohno, Motonori



Protein-linked iodotyrosines in serum after topical application of povidone-iodine (Betadine).  


Markedly elevated serum PBI levels occur after therapy with povidone-iodine (Betadine), an iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone iodophor. In this study, we investigated the serum iodine compounds from a severely burned patient with normal initial thyroid function tests who was swabbed with Betadine ointment and received daily therapeutic baths in Betadine. Three and 9 days after therapy, his serum contained 93 and 168 micrograms PGI/dl, respectively (normal range, 4-8), while the serum T4 and free T4 index were normal; the serum T3 level, however, was abnormally depressed. Most of the PBI was in albumin, and hydrolysis of the serum proteins with proteases released 35% of the PBI as monoiodotyrosine, 3.2% as diiodotyrosine, 0.01% as T3, and 2.5% as T4, as determined by competitive radioassays, anion exchange, and reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The same concentrations of T4 and T3 were detected before and after hydrolysis. Failure of the proteases to completely hydrolyze iodoalbumin partially explains why all of the PBI was not recovered as iodotyrosines in the serum protein hydrolysates. Povidone-iodine rapidly iodinated tyrosine residues in human serum albumin at pH 7.4 and 37 C in vitro, and the ratio of diiodotyrosine to monoiodotyrosine increased as the molar ratio of povidone-iodine to albumin was increased. It is concluded that the abnormal increase in serum PBI resulted from absorption of the iodophor into the blood where it primarily iodinated albumin and, to a lesser extent, the globulins. PMID:6165730

Alexander, N M; Nishimoto, M



Long-Term Biological Variation of Serum Protein Electrophoresis M-Spike, Urine M-Spike, and Monoclonal Serum Free Light Chain Quantification: Implications for Monitoring Monoclonal Gammopathies  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND We analyzed serial data in patients with clinically stable monoclonal gammopathy to determine the total variation of serum M-spikes [measured with serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP)], urine M-spikes [measured with urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP)], and monoclonal serum free light chain (FLC) concentrations measured with immunoassay. METHODS Patients to be studied were identified by (a) no treatment during the study interval, (b) no change in diagnosis and <5 g/L change in serum M-spike over the course of observation; (c) performance of all 3 tests (SPEP, UPEP, FLC immunoassay) in at least 3 serial samples that were obtained 9 months to 5 years apart; (d) serum M-spike ?10 g/L, urine M-spike ?200 mg/24 h, or clonal FLC ?100 mg/L. The total CV was calculated for each method. RESULTS Among the cohort of 158 patients, 90 had measurable serum M-spikes, 25 had urine M-spikes, and 52 had measurable serum FLC abnormalities. The CVs were calculated for serial SPEP M-spikes (8.1%), UPEP M-spikes (35.8%), and serum FLC concentrations (28.4%). Combining these CVs and the interassay analytical CVs, we calculated the biological CV for the serum M-spike (7.8%), urine M-spike (35.5%), and serum FLC concentration (27.8%). CONCLUSIONS The variations in urine M-spike and serum FLC measurements during patient monitoring are similar and are larger than those for serum M-spikes. In addition, in this group of stable patients, a measurable serum FLC concentration was available twice as often as a measurable urine M-spike. PMID:21980167

Katzmann, Jerry A.; Snyder, Melissa R.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Benson, Joanne T.; Dispenzieri, Angela



The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Serum C - Reactive Protein and Leptin Levels in Untrained Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on serum inflammatory markers in untrained middle-aged women. Methods: Nineteen healthy female middle-aged were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=11) and control (n=8) groups. The exercise protocol included aerobic exercise training lasted for 6 months and 3 sessions per week and every session lasted for 60 minutes and with intensity of 55–65 percent of maximum heart rate reserve (MHR). Blood samples were taken to measure serum leptin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) before and after aerobic training period. General linear-Repeated measures (GL-RM) was used to comparing of within, Interactive and between means groups. The level of significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The level of serum leptin in middle-aged women did not change significant. However, the levels of CRP during this period did not change significantly. Conclusion: Six months of aerobic exercise does not induce significant change in serum levels of CRP, while leptin levels reduced in middle-aged women. Regular physical activity probably causes decrease in serum leptin level if body mass index and body fat mass reduce simultaneously. PMID:23193504

Bijeh, N; Hosseini, SR Attarzadeh; Hejazi, K



Tracer diffusion coefficients of proteins by means of holographic relaxation spectroscopy: application to bovine serum albumin  

SciTech Connect

Holographic relaxation spectroscopy has been used to measure tracer diffusion coefficients for photochromically labeled bovine serum albumin in solutions having total bovine serum albumin concentrations in the range 3.25 to 257 g/liter. In the limit of zero concentration, the diffusion coefficient was found to be 5.9 X 10(-7) cm/sup 2//s and the initial slope was zero. The concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient was not significantly affected by the fraction of protein molecules which were labeled. Holographic relaxation spectroscopy permits rapid, accurate determination of tracer diffusion coefficients for proteins in mixtures.

Arunyawongsakorn, U.; Johnson, C.S. Jr.; Gabriel, D.A.



Detection of ? and ? Light Chain Monoclonal Proteins in Human Serum: Automated Immunoassay versus Immunofixation Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Recently, turbidimetric immunoassays for detecting and quantifying ? and ? free light chains (FLC) have become available and are promoted as being more sensitive than immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in detecting FLC monoclonal proteins. In this study, we assessed the ability of these turbidimetric assays to detect serum monoclonal proteins involving both free and heavy-chain-bound ? and ? light chains compared to standard immunofixation electrophoresis. Sera demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration (other than a definite M spike) by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), which may represent early monoclonal proteins, were also examined. When compared to IFE, percent agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for the ?-FLC and ?-FLC were 94.6, 72.9, and 99.5% and 98.5, 91.4, and 99.7%, respectively, in detecting monoclonal proteins involving free and heavy-chain-bound light chains. The majority of sera (73.7%) demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration on SPE demonstrated abnormal IFE patterns suggestive of multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, but gave normal ?/? FLC ratios using the turbidimetric immunoassays. In conclusion, the ? and ? FLC assays are significantly less sensitive (72.9 to 91.4%) than IFE, but specific in detecting serum monoclonal proteins. Moreover, the ?/? ratio has little value in routine screening since the majority of sera with abnormal IFE patterns had normal ?/? FLC ratios. PMID:16467338

Jaskowski, Troy D.; Litwin, Christine M.; Hill, Harry R.



Discovery of the serum biomarker proteins in severe preeclampsia by proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Preeclapsia (PE) is a severe disorder that occurs during pregnancy, leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. PE affects about 3-8% of all pregnancies. In this study, we conducted liquid chromatographymass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze serum samples depleted of the six most abundant proteins from normal and PE-affected pregnancies to profile serum proteins. A total of 237 proteins were confidently identified with < 1% false discovery rate from the two groups of duplicate analysis. The expression levels of those identified proteins were compared semiquantitatively by spectral counting. To further validate the candidate proteins with a quantitative mass spectrometric method, selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA) of serum samples collected from pregnant women with severe PE (n = 8) or normal pregnant women (n = 5) was conducted. ?2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and ?-1-microglobulin/bikunin (AMBP) and Insulin like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit (IGFBP-ALS) were confirmed to be differentially expressed in PE using SRM (P < 0.05). Among these proteins, AHSG was verified by ELISA and showed a statistically significant increase in PE samples when compared to controls. PMID:21646846

Park, Jisook; Cha, Dong Hyun; Lee, Soo Jae; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Young Hwan



Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.  


Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P < 0.05), with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores (R = 0.43, P < 0.05) and with sebum output levels (R = 0.41, P < 0.01). The sebum output levels correlated with total pore area (R = 0.32, P < 0.05). Our study found that serum levels of IGF-1 are correlated with facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. PMID:20646082

Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T



Gross protein influence upon blood plasma and serum self organization processes in patients with coronary heart disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood plasma pattern formation is a process sensitive to environment and carrier properties, and plasma biochemical content. 96 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were involved in the study. Control group include 12 practically health persons (PHP). Platelets poor plasma and serum were used to study functional morphology. Plasma and serum samples of equal volume were placed on degreased glass carrier with after going wedge dehydration. The result of wedge dehydration is a formation of a special structure called facia. To the samples of compare albumin solution was added. Morphology of prepared facies was studied by means of light microscopy ("Lomo Biolam P2-1") with 10 times magnification. All received facies were of the same principle structure with central, intermediate and edge zones. Zone index was increasing in samples with albumin adding. Special structures obligatory to atherosclerosis, vessels stiffness increase and hypoxia were found in facies of plasma and serum of patients with CHD. Quantity of these structures correlated to protein concentration (p = 0.021). Samples' drying period was also increasing in samples of compare, and differed significantly in patients with CHD and PHP. In our study gross proteins concentration increase modified plasma and serum morphology. Albumin solution can be proposed as a probe to elucidate differences of facies of patients with CHD and PHP.

Malinova, Lidia I.; Sergeeva, Uliya V.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatiana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.



BPV E1 protein alters the kinetics of cell cycle entry of serum starved mouse fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

A stable bovine papillomarvirus E1 expressing cell line (C2E1) was used to investigate the effects of E1 protein on the requirement for growth factors during serum-induced reentry from quiescence to proliferation. Flow cytometric bivariate DNA/PCNA analysis was utilized to study the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) concomitant with this transition. C2E1 cells, unlike the control cells (CNEO), were able to reenter the cell cycle when stimulated with low serum (1%). Stimulation with 10% serum revealed that C2E1 cells entered the first cell cycle faster than CNEO, indicating that E1 protein decreased the time of progression from GO state upon serum activation. It was also shown that PCNA expression started earlier in C2E1 cells than in CNEO cells after quiescent cells were stimulated with 10% serum. Addition of 1% serum was able to induce PCNA expression in C2E1 but not in CNEO cells in the first 24 h after stimulation. Using Triton X-100 treatment, it was found that the distribution between bound and unbound forms of PCNA was altered in E1-expressing cells compared to CNEO cells. Based on these results, it is suggested that E1 might possess mitogen-like properties. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Belyavskyi, M.; Miller, J.; Belyavskaya, E.; Wilson, V. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)



The influence of serum IgE levels of selected recipients, including patients with allergy, helminthiasis and tuberculosis, on the apparent P-K titre of a reaginic serum  

PubMed Central

The P–K titre of a donor serum in different recipients was found to be inversely related to the serum IgE level of those recipients. The median serum IgE level of subjects who gave a negative P–K reaction with a 1:2 dilution of the donor serum was 3325 units/ml; patients who reacted positively to dilutions of 1:2, 1:8 and 1:32 of the test serum had median serum IgE levels of 1950, 410 and 155 units/ml respectively. Recipients included normal adults and selected patients with allergy, helminthiasis or tuberculosis. Most individuals with very high serum IgE levels had helminthiasis. All subjects gave normal reactions when skin-tested with histamine, codeine and anti-IgE antiserum. The inverse relationship between P–K reactivity and serum IgE level may be due to saturation of mast cell IgE-binding sites by endogenous serum IgE. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4716100

Bazaral, M.; Orgel, H. Alice; Hamburger, R. N.



Water-in-carbon dioxide microemulsions: An environment for hydrophiles including proteins  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide in the liquid and supercritical fluid states is useful as a replacement for toxic organic solvents. However, nonvolatile hydrophilic substances such as proteins, ions, and most catalysts are insoluble. This limitation was overcome by the formation of aqueous microemulsion droplets in a carbon dioxide-continuous phase with a nontoxic ammonium carboxylate perfluoropolyether surfactant. Several spectroscopic techniques consistently indicated that the properties of the droplets approach those of bulk water. The protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) with a molecular weight of 67,000 is soluble in this microemulsion and experiences an environment similar to that of native BSA in buffer. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Johnston, K.P.; Harrison, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Clarke, M.J. [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)] [and others



Annexin A1 protein regulates the expression of PMVEC cytoskeletal proteins in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by advanced liver disease, hypoxemia and intrapulmonary vascular dilatation (IPVD). The pathogenesis of HPS is not completely understood. Recent findings have established the role of proliferation and phenotype differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in IPVD of HPS; the change in cytoskeletal proteins and their molecular mechanism play an essential role in the proliferation, phenotype modulation and differentiation of PMVECs. However, little is known about the relevance of cytoskeletal protein expression and its molecular mechanism in IPVD of HPS. In addition, ANX A1 protein has been identified as a key regulator in some important signaling pathways, which influences cytoskeletal remodeling in many diseases, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, etc. Methods PMVECs were cultured from the normal rats and then divided into three groups(Ad-ANXA1-transfected group, a non-transfected group, and an adenovirus empty vector group) and incubated by nomal rat serum or hepatopulmonary syndrome rat serum respectively. mRNA level was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assay. Results In this study, we found that the serum from a common bile duct ligation(CBDL) Rat model decreased the expression levels of the ANX A1 mRNA and protein by at least two-fold in human PMVECs. We also found the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) in PMVECs significantly increased. After stimulating ANX A1 over-expression in PMVECs by adenovirus-mediated ANX A1 (Ad-ANXA1) transfection, we found the expression levels of cytoskeletal proteins were significantly suppressed in PMVECs at all time points. Additionally, we report here that serum from a CBDL Rat model increases the proliferation of PMVECs by nearly two-fold and that over-expression of Ad-ANXA1 significantly inhibits HPS-rat-serum-induced PMVEC proliferation (p <0.05). These findings suggest that the ANX A1 down-regulation of PMVEC proliferation in the presence of HPS-rat-serum may be the major cause of aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) and may, therefore, play a fundamental role in the proliferation and phenotype differentiation of PMVECs in the PVD of HPS. Conclusion Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-ANXA1 results in inhibition of the aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins and proliferation of PMVECs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on PVD of HPS. PMID:23587191



Serum proteins prevent aggregation of Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Aggregation of metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media complicates interpretation of in vitro studies of nanoparticle–cell interactions. We used dynamic light scattering to investigate the aggregation dynamics of iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Our results show that iron oxide particles aggregate more readily than zinc oxide particles. Pretreatment with serum stabilises iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles against aggregation. Serum-treated iron oxide is stable only in pure water, while zinc oxide is stable in water or cell culture media. These findings, combined with zeta potential measurements and quantification of proteins adsorbed on particle surface, suggest that serum stabilisation of iron oxide particles occurs primarily through protein adsorption and resulting net surface charge. Zinc oxide stabilisation, however, also involves steric hindrance of particle aggregation. Fluid shear at levels used in flow experiments breaks up iron oxide particle aggregates. These results enhance our understanding of nanoparticle aggregation and its consequences for research on the biological effects of nanomaterials. PMID:22149273

Wells, Mark A.; Abid, Aamir; Kennedy, Ian M.; Barakat, Abdul I.



Expression of Serum Retinol Binding Protein and Transthyretin within Mouse Gastric Ghrelin Cells  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide hormone produced mainly by a distinct group of dispersed endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. Besides secreted gene products derived from the preproghrelin gene, which include acyl-ghrelin, desacyl-ghrelin and obestatin, ghrelin cells also synthesize the secreted protein nesfatin-1. The main goal of the current study was to identify other proteins secreted from ghrelin cells. An initial gene chip screen using mRNAs derived from highly enriched pools of mouse gastric ghrelin cells demonstrated high levels of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4) and transthyretin (TTR), both of which are known to circulate in the bloodstream bound to each other. This high expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR using as template mRNA derived from the enriched gastric ghrelin cell pools and from two ghrelin-producing cell lines (SG-1 and PG-1). RBP4 protein also was shown to be secreted into the culture medium of ghrelin cell lines. Neither acute nor chronic caloric restriction had a significant effect on RBP4 mRNA levels within stomachs of C57BL/6J mice, although both manipulations significantly decreased stomach TTR mRNA levels. In vitro studies using PG-1 cells showed no effect on RBP4 release of octanoic acid, epinephrine or norepinephrine, all of which are known to act directly on ghrelin cells to stimulate ghrelin secretion. These data provide new insights into ghrelin cell physiology, and given the known functions of RBP4 and TTR, support an emerging role for the ghrelin cell in blood glucose handling and metabolism. PMID:23840311

Walker, Angela K.; Gong, Zhi; Park, Won-Mee



Serum protein profiles as potential biomarkers for infectious disease status in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background In veterinary medicine and animal husbandry, there is a need for tools allowing the early warning of diseases. Preferably, tests should be available that warn farmers and veterinarians during the incubation periods of disease and before the onset of clinical signs. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of serum protein profiles as an early biomarker for infectious disease status. Serum samples were obtained from an experimental pig model for porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), consisting of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection in combination with either Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) or Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV). Sera were collected before and after onset of clinical signs at day 0, 5 and 19 post infection. Serum protein profiles were evaluated against sera from non-infected control animals. Results Protein profiles were generated by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in combination with the Proteominer™ technology to enrich for low-abundance proteins. Based on these protein profiles, the experimentally infected pigs could be classified according to their infectious disease status. Before the onset of clinical signs 88% of the infected animals could be classified correctly, after the onset of clinical sigs 93%. The sensitivity of the classification appeared to be high. The protein profiles could distinguish between separate infection models, although specificity was moderate to low. Classification of PCV2/PRRSV infected animals was superior compared to PCV2/PPV infected animals. Limiting the number of proteins in the profiles (ranging from 568 to 10) had only minor effects on the classification performance. Conclusions This study shows that serum protein profiles have potential for detection and identification of viral infections in pigs before clinical signs of the disease become visible. PMID:22439879



Growth hormone receptor and serum binding protein: purification, cloning and expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A putative growth hormone receptor from rabbit liver and the growth hormone binding protein from rabbit serum have the same ammo-terminal amino-acid sequence, indicating that the binding protein corresponds to the extracellular hormone-binding domain of the liver receptor. The complete amino-acid sequences derived from complementary DNA clones encoding the putative human and rabbit growth hormone receptors are not similar to

David W. Leung; Steven A. Spencer; George Cachianes; R. Glenn Hammonds; Carol Collins; William J. Henzel; Ross Barnard; Michael J. Waters; William I. Wood



A DNA-Binding Protein in the Serum of Certain Mammalian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mammalian species contain an anionic serum protein that reacts specifically with native DNA. It is considerably less reactive with single-strand DNA and does not react with monodeoxyribonucleotides, homopolyribonucleotides, or duplexes of homopolyribonucleotides. Synthetic dA\\\\cdot dT was an effective inhibitor of the reaction with native DNA, while Micrococcus luteus DNA and dG\\\\cdot dC were not inhibitory. This protein was encountered

R. Thoburn; A. I. Hurvitz; H. G. Kunkel



Serum electrolyte and protein modification during different workload in jumper horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five clinically healthy Italian saddle horses were used to assess serum electrolyte and protein modification during different\\u000a workloads. Blood samples were collected from each horse at rest, immediately after each exercise and at 30 and 60 min after\\u000a the end of exercise. Our results confirm that exercise has variable effects, depending on work intensity, on some electrolytes,\\u000a total protein and haematocrit.

G. Piccione; C. Giannetto; A. Assenza; F. Fazio; G. Caola



Serum Protein Profiles of Juvenile Ring-Necked Pheasants Vaccinated or Not Against Newcastle Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

6 Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate blood protein parameters in juvenile ring-necked pheasants using Ulster 2C, B1 and LaSota vaccines strains of the Newcastle disease virus. Total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations showed significantly differences among vaccinated and non- vaccinated birds. Significant variations were not observed in the analyses in relation to protei n electrophoresis

Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Antonio Carlos Pau; Olair Beltrame; Janine Denadai



Oxidative damage of bovine serum albumin and other enzyme proteins by iron-chelate complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct oxidative protein damage by iron-nitrilotriacetate (NTA), as well as physiological iron complexes, iron-citrate and iron-ADP was studied in the presence or absence of H2O2, using bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), glutathione reductase (GSSGRase) and catalase as the target proteins. Both Fe(III)NTA + H2O2 and Fe(II)NTA + H2O2 caused marked BSA fragmentation which accompanied the decrease in the

Tetsuya Ogino; Shigeru Okada



Integrative Proteomic Analysis of Serum and Peritoneal Fluids Helps Identify Proteins that Are Up-Regulated in Serum of Women with Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We used intensive modern proteomics approaches to identify predictive proteins in ovary cancer. We identify up-regulated proteins in both serum and peritoneal fluid. To evaluate the overall performance of the approach we track the behavior of 20 validated markers across these experiments. Methodology Mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics following extensive protein fractionation was used to compare serum of women with serous ovarian cancer to healthy women and women with benign ovarian tumors. Quantitation was achieved by isotopically labeling cysteine amino acids. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to compare peritoneal fluid taken from women with serous ovarian cancer and those with benign tumors. All data were integrated and annotated based on whether the proteins have been previously validated using antibody-based assays. Findings We selected 54 quantified serum proteins and 358 peritoneal fluid proteins whose case-control differences exceeded a predefined threshold. Seventeen proteins were quantified in both materials and 14 are extracellular. Of 19 validated markers that were identified all were found in cancer peritoneal fluid and a subset of 7 were quantified in serum, with one of these proteins, IGFBP1, newly validated here. Conclusion Proteome profiling applied to symptomatic ovarian cancer cases identifies a large number of up-regulated serum proteins, many of which are or have been confirmed by immunoassays. The number of currently known validated markers is highest in peritoneal fluid, but they make up a higher percentage of the proteins observed in both serum and peritoneal fluid, suggesting that the 10 additional markers in this group may be high quality candidates. PMID:20559444

Amon, Lynn M.; Law, Wendy; Fitzgibbon, Matthew P.; Gross, Jennifer A.; O'Briant, Kathy; Peterson, Amelia; Drescher, Charles; Martin, Daniel B.; McIntosh, Martin



Antibody production in packed bed reactors using serum-free and protein-free medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work demonstrates the utility of packed bed reactors for the production of monoclonal antibody. We present data from a continuous process run for the production of over 100 grams of antibody, using serum-free medium. An additional pilot run also demonstrates the potential for continued antibody production under protein-free conditions, using a standard basal medium.

R. Bliem; R. Oakley; K. Matsuoka; R. Varecka; V. Taiariol



High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi



Synthetic serum substitute (SSS): A globulin-enriched protein supplement for human embryo culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether an IVF protein supplement prepared from human serum albumin (HSA) and human globulins would retain performance characteristics equivalent to those reported for the commercial plasma expanders, Plasmatein (Alpha Therapeutics, Los Angeles, California) and Plasmanate (Cutter Biological, Miles Inc., Elkhart, Indiana). Methods: Pronuclear-stage human embryos were randomly divided and cultured

Paul S. Weathersbee; Thomas B. Pool; Teri Ord



Peculiarities of the Genetic Variability of Blood Serum Proteins in Some Species of the Family Anatidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated blood serum of the following eight waterfowl species from the family Anatidae in polyacrylamide gel: Goosander (Mergus merganser), Smew (Mergus albellus), Eider (Somateria mollissima), Spectacled Eider (Somateria fisheri), Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra), Harlequin (Histronicus histronicus), Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis). During our investigations we identified the systems of general protein and enzymes in polyacrylamide gel.

Sigita Slav?nait?; Aniolas Sruoga; Algimantas Paulauskas; Elena Mozalien?



Serum Levels of Calcification Inhibition Proteins and Coronary Artery Calcium Score: Comparison between Transplantation and Dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular calcifications in CKD are now linked to serum alterations of both divalent ions and calcification inhibitory proteins. Due to possible biochemical differences between dialysis (D) and transplantation (Tx), we examined the entity and severity of these biochemical modifications and of coronary artery calcium score separately in these two populations. We assayed, besides standard markers of inflammation, divalent ions and

Sandro Mazzaferro; Marzia Pasquali; Francesco Pugliese; Giusi Barresi; Iacopo Carbone; Marco Francone; Daniela Sardella; Franco Taggi



Analysis of Serum Proteins by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography. Application to a Drug Carrier Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of proteins of fetal calf serum using a MECC method was developed. The influence of pH, sample dilution, nature and concentration of buffer, concentration of surfactant and other conditions affecting the separation were optimized. The usefulness of the addition of two replaceable polymers: hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and dextran to the buffer was investigated. Although their addition had little influence on

K. Andrieux; J. C. Olivier; M. Taverna; C. Vauthier; P. Couvreur; D. Ferrier



Influence of protein intake associated with coconut or salmon oil on serum,  

E-print Network

Influence of protein intake associated with coconut or salmon oil on serum, VLDL, LDL and HDL% casein + 5% salmon oil), SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil), COC (20% casein + 5% coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% coconut oil). Blood was removed, plasma VLDL, HDL and LDL frac- tions were obtained

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Novel serum protein biomarker panel revealed by mass spectrometry and its prognostic value in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Serum profiling using proteomic techniques has great potential to detect biomarkers that might improve diagnosis and predict outcome for breast cancer patients (BC). This study used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins in sera from BC and healthy volunteers (HV), with the goal of developing a new prognostic biomarker panel. Methods Training set serum samples from 99 BC and 51 HV subjects were applied to four adsorptive chip surfaces (anion-exchange, cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and metal affinity) and analyzed by time-of-flight MS. For validation, 100 independent BC serum samples and 70 HV samples were analyzed similarly. Cluster analysis of protein spectra was performed to identify protein patterns related to BC and HV groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to develop a protein panel to distinguish breast cancer sera from healthy sera, and its prognostic potential was evaluated. Results From 51 protein peaks that were significantly up- or downregulated in BC patients by univariate analysis, binary logistic regression yielded five protein peaks that together classified BC and HV with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area-under-the-curve value of 0.961. Validation on an independent patient cohort confirmed the five-protein parameter (ROC value 0.939). The five-protein parameter showed positive association with large tumor size (P?=?0.018) and lymph node involvement (P?=?0.016). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, immunoprecipitation and western blotting the proteins were identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein H (ApoH), ApoCI, complement C3a, transthyretin, and ApoAI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on 181 subjects after median follow-up of >5 years demonstrated that the panel significantly predicted disease-free survival (P?=?0.005), its efficacy apparently greater in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (n?=?50, P?=?0.003) compared to ER-positive (n?=?131, P?=?0.161), although the influence of ER status needs to be confirmed after longer follow-up. Conclusions Protein mass profiling by MS has revealed five serum proteins which, in combination, can distinguish between serum from women with breast cancer and healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. The five-protein panel significantly predicts recurrence-free survival in women with ER-negative tumors and may have value in the management of these patients. PMID:24935269



Discovery and Validation of Serum Protein Changes in Type 1 Diabetes Patients Using High Throughput Two Dimensional Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Immunoassays*  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is expected to cause significant changes in the serum proteome; however, few studies have systematically assessed the proteomic profile change associated with the disease. In this study, a semiquantitative spectral counting-based two dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry platform was used to analyze serum samples from T1D patients and controls. In this discovery phase, significant differences were found for 21 serum proteins implicated in inflammation, oxidation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity. To assess the validity of these findings, six candidate proteins including adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, serum amyloid protein A, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and transforming growth factor beta induced were selected for subsequent immune assays for 1139 T1D patients and 848 controls. A series of statistical analyses using cases and controls matched for age, sex, and genetic risk confirmed that T1D patients have significantly higher serum levels for four of the six proteins: adiponectin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, p = 10?27), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (OR = 2.02, p < 10?20), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.13, p = 0.007), serum amyloid protein A (OR = 1.51, p < 10?16); whereas the serum levels were significantly lower in patients than controls for the two other proteins: transforming growth factor beta induced (OR = 0.74, p < 10?5) and myeloperoxidase (OR = 0.51, p < 10?41). Compared with subjects in the bottom quartile, subjects in the top quartile for adiponectin (OR = 6.29, p < 10?37), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (OR = 7.95, p < 10?46), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.38, p = 0.025), serum amyloid protein A (OR = 3.36, p < 10?16) had the highest risk of T1D, whereas subjects in the top quartile of transforming growth factor beta induced (OR = 0.41, p < 10?11) and myeloperoxidase (OR = 0.10, p < 10?43) had the lowest risk of T1D. These findings provided valuable information on the proteomic changes in the sera of T1D patients. PMID:21900154

Zhi, Wenbo; Sharma, Ashok; Purohit, Sharad; Miller, Eric; Bode, Bruce; Anderson, Stephen W.; Reed, John Chip; Steed, R. Dennis; Steed, Leigh; Hopkins, Diane; She, Jin-Xiong



Determination of Ring-Necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Serum Protein Concentrations by Refractometry and the Biuret Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of hand-held refractometer in determining serum protein concentrations in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as compared with the standard biuret method. The results indicated that serum protein values may be accurately determined in ring-necked pheasants with a hand-held refractometer.

Elizabeth Moreira; Santos Schmidt; Antonio Carlos Paulillo


Brief Characterization of Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Separated from Serum on Protein A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) im- munoglobulin fraction was separated from whole serum by Protein A Sepharose chroma- tography. In serum electrophoresis, this frac- tion had a gamma motility; when electropho- resed on a polyactylamide gel with sodium do- decyl sulfate it resolved into two protein bands of approximately 52 and 25 kilodaltons, respec- tively. These bands were consistent with mo- lecular

Joanna D. Boruclnska; Antonio E. Garmendia


Altered protein expression in serum from endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in women. The diagnosis of the disease at early or premalignant stages is crucial for the patient's prognosis. To date, diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia require invasive procedures. Therefore, there is considerable demand for the identification of biomarkers to allow non-invasive detection of these conditions. Methods In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomics analysis on serum samples from simple endometrial hyperplasia, complex endometrial hyperplasia, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma patients, as well as healthy women. Serum samples were first depleted of high-abundance proteins, labeled with isobaric tags (iTRAQ™), and then analyzed via two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification and quantitation information were acquired by comparing the mass spectrometry data against the International Protein Index Database using ProteinPilot software. Bioinformatics annotation of identified proteins was performed by searching against the PANTHER database. Results In total, 74 proteins were identified and quantified in serum samples from endometrial lesion patients and healthy women. Using a 1.6-fold change as the benchmark, 12 proteins showed significantly altered expression levels in at least one disease group compared with healthy women. Among them, 7 proteins were found, for the first time, to be differentially expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia. These proteins are orosomucoid 1, haptoglobin, SERPINC 1, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Conclusions The differentially expressed proteins we discovered in this study may serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. PMID:21489304



Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows.  


The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period. Thirty-four cows kept under similar conditions at a university dairy farm (no experimental treatments) were monitored from 4 wk before until 8 wk after calving. Mobilization of muscle protein was investigated by analysis of plasma 3-methylhistidine concentrations (3-MH, analyzed by a recently developed HPLC tandem mass spectrometry method) and ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle thickness. Mobilization of fat tissue was monitored by serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness. Large variation was observed between cows in onset and duration of periparturient protein and fat mobilization. Plasma 3-MH concentrations and muscle thickness profiles indicated that protein mobilization started, on average, before parturition and continued until approximately wk 4 of lactation. Serum NEFA concentrations and backfat thickness profiles showed that fat mobilization occurred from parturition until the end of the study. Thus, muscle protein mobilization occurred in advance of fat mobilization in most cows from this study. We hypothesized that this might be due to a prepartum amino acid deficiency in the absence of negative energy balance. The incidence of hyperketonemia in this study was 16/34 = 47%. With the exception of 3 cows defined as having severe hyperketonemia, cows with lower 3-MH concentrations had higher serum BHBA concentrations. A possible explanation for this observation might be that higher mobilization of protein around calving might restrict ketone body production due to the higher availability of glucogenic precursors in the period of most severe negative energy balance and highest fat mobilization. The validity of this hypothesis needs to be confirmed, but data from this study indicate that further research on the role of protein mobilization in the etiology of hyperketonemia in dairy cows is needed. PMID:22916895

van der Drift, S G A; Houweling, M; Schonewille, J T; Tielens, A G M; Jorritsma, R



Serum heat shock protein 70 levels are decreased in normal human pregnancy.  


Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily known to be intracellular proteins with molecular chaperone and cytoprotective functions. However, Hsp60 and Hsp70 have been found in the serum and plasma of healthy non-pregnant individuals. We aimed to compare serum Hsp70 concentrations in healthy pregnant women with those of healthy non-pregnant women and to determine factors influencing serum Hsp70 levels in normal pregnancy. One hundred and seventy six healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (age, 17-44 years; gestational age, 20-41 weeks) and 81 healthy, age-matched non-pregnant women (age, 22-40 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum Hsp70 concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and were significantly lower in healthy pregnant women than in healthy non-pregnant women (median (25-75 percentile): 0.29 (0.20-0.35)ng/ml versus 1.27 (0.86-1.72)ng/ml; p<0.001). In healthy pregnant women, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between maternal age and serum Hsp70 concentration (Spearman R=-0.35; p<0.001) and a significant positive correlation between gestational age and serum Hsp70 level (Spearman R=0.35; p<0.001). The capacity of extracellular Hsp70 to elicit innate and adaptive proinflammatory immune responses might be harmful in pregnancy and lead to immune rejection of the fetal semi-allograft. We hypothesize that decreased circulating Hsp70 levels are due to unknown regulatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining immune tolerance in pregnancy. In conclusion, serum Hsp70 concentrations are decreased in normal human pregnancy; however, further studies are needed to explain the observed differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:17296233

Molvarec, Attila; Rigó, János; Nagy, Bálint; Walentin, Szilvia; Szalay, János; Füst, George; Karádi, István; Prohászka, Zoltán



Serum heat shock protein-70 as a prognostic factor in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In the cochlear cells, it has been known that HSP70 was expressed after ototoxic stimuli. We performed this study to investigate the increased serum HSP70 and its clinical role in the patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL).Methods: A total of 67 patients with SSNHL and age-sex matched normal controls were included in this study. Their serum HSP70 levels

Sang-Won Yeo; Shi-nae Park; Kyoung-Ho Park



Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus  

SciTech Connect

The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection.

Iki, Shigeo [Department of Microbiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Yokota, Shin-ichi [Department of Microbiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Okabayashi, Tamaki [Department of Microbiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Yokosawa, Noriko [Department of Microbiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Nagata, Kyosuke [Department of Infection Biology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Fujii, Nobuhiro [Department of Microbiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)]. E-mail:



Antibody-Array Interaction Mapping, a New Method to Detect Protein Complexes Applied to the Discovery and Study of Serum Amyloid P Interactions with Kininogen in Human Plasma*  

PubMed Central

Protein-protein interactions are fundamentally important in biological processes, but the existing analytical tools have limited ability to sensitively and precisely measure the dynamic composition of protein complexes in biological samples. We report here the development of antibody-array interaction mapping (AAIM) to address that need. We used AAIM to probe interactions among a set of 48 proteins in serum and found several known interactions as well potentially novel interactions, including multiprotein clusters of interactions. A novel interaction initially identified between the innate immune system protein C-reactive protein and the inflammatory protein kininogen (KNG) was confirmed in subsequent experiments to involve serum amyloid P instead of its highly related family member, C-reactive protein. AAIM was used in a variety of formats to further study this interaction. In vitro studies confirmed the ability of the purified proteins to interact and revealed a zinc dependence of the interaction. Studies using plasma samples collected longitudinally following a controlled myocardial infarction revealed no consistent changes in the serum amyloid P-KNG interaction levels but consistent changes in KNG activation and interactions with plasma prekallikrein. These results demonstrate a versatile platform for measuring the dynamic composition of protein complexes in biological samples that should have value for studies of normal and disease-related signaling networks, multiprotein clusters, or enzymatic cascades. PMID:20023212

Bergsma, Derek; Chen, Songming; Buchweitz, John; Gerszten, Robert; Haab, Brian B.



Mid-Trimester Maternal Serum hCG and Alpha Fetal Protein Levels: Clinical Significance and Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome  

PubMed Central

Context Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Results Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Conclusions Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester. PMID:23825981

Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Gkogkos, Panagiotis; Decavalas, Georgios



Evaluation of steric exclusion chromatography on cryogel column for the separation of serum proteins.  


Steric exclusion chromatography (SXC) is a new mode of protein chromatography, in which large proteins are retained on hydrophilic stationary phase surface due to the steric exclusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the mobile phase, and thereafter the retained proteins can be eluted by reducing PEG concentration. In this work, SXC was evaluated on a polyacrylamide cryogel monolith. Microscopic observation of ?-globulin precipitates on the gel surface in SXC was reported for the first time. Due to the compact packing of protein precipitates on the stationary phase surface, the dynamic retention capacity of the cryogel monolith for ?-globulin reached 20 mg/mL bed volume, much higher than those of cryogel beds in adsorption-based chromatography. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of PEG, solution pH and salt concentration on protein retention capacity was in agreement with the earlier work on SXC. Because the cryogel monoliths with interconnected macropores (10-100 ?m) allow much easy flow-through of viscous PEG buffer, the SXC can be operated at low back pressure. Hence, the cryogel monoliths are more suitable for SXC than other monoliths of narrow pores reported previously. In the separation of bovine serum proteins, albumin was recovered in the breakthrough fraction with high purity, and globulin was over eight times concentrated in the elution pool. This work has, thus, demonstrated the rapid serum protein separation and concentration by SXC on the cryogel monolith columns. PMID:24552971

Wang, Chuan; Bai, Shu; Tao, Shi-Peng; Sun, Yan



Measuring interactions between polydimethylsiloxane and serum proteins at the air-water interface.  


The interaction between synthetic polymers and proteins at interfaces is relevant to basic science as well as a wide range of applications in biotechnology and medicine. One particularly common and important interface is the air-water interface (AWI). Due to the special energetics and dynamics of molecules at the AWI, the interplay between synthetic polymer and protein can be very different from that in bulk solution. In this paper, we applied the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and fluorescence microscopy to investigate how the compression state of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film at the AWI affects the subsequent adsorption of serum protein [e.g., human serum albumin (HSA) or immunoglobulin G (IgG)] and the interaction between PDMS and protein. Of particular note is our observation of circular PDMS domains with micrometer diameters that form at the AWI in the highly compressed state of the surface film: proteins were shown to adsorb preferentially to the surface of these circular PDMS domains, accompanied by a greater than 4-fold increase in protein found in the interfacial film. The PDMS-only film and the PDMS-IgG composite film were transferred to cover glass, and platinum-carbon replicas of the transferred films were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We conclude that the structure of the PDMS film greatly affects the amount and distribution of protein at the interface. PMID:23819833

Liao, Zhengzheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Baumgart, Tobias; Dmochowski, Ivan J



MALDI-TOF-MS serum protein profiling for developing diagnostic models and identifying serum markers for discogenic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of the cause of chronic low back pain (CLBP) represents a great challenge to orthopedists due to the controversy over the diagnosis of discogenic low back pain (DLBP) and the existence of a number of cases of CLBP of unknown origin. This study aimed to develop diagnostic models to distinguish DLBP from other forms of CLBP and to identify serum biomarkers for DLBP. Methods Serum samples were collected from patients with DLBP, chronic lumbar disc herniation (LDH), or CLBP of unknown origin, and healthy controls (N), and randomly divided into a training set (n?=?30) and a blind test set (n?=?30). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed for protein profiling of these samples. After the discriminative ability of two most significantly differential peaks from each two groups was assessed using scatter plots, classification models were developed using differential peptide peaks to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy. The identity of peptides corresponding to three representative differential peaks was analyzed. Results The fewest statistically significant differential peaks were identified between DLBP and CLBP (3), followed by CLBP vs. N (5), DLBP vs. N (9), LDH vs. CLBP (20), DLBP vs. LDH (23), and LDH vs. N (43). The discriminative ability of two most significantly differential peaks was poor in classifying DLBP vs. CLBP but good in classifying DLBP vs. LDH. The accuracy of models for classification of DLBP vs. CLBP was not very high in the blind test (forecasting ability, 67.24%; sensitivity, 70%), although a higher accuracy was observed for classification of DLBP vs. LDH and LDH vs. N (forecasting abilities, ~90%; sensitivities, >90%). A further investigation of three representative differential peaks led to the identification of two peaks as peptides of complement C3, and one peak as a human fibrinogen peptide. Conclusions Our findings benefit not only the diagnosis of CLBP but also the understanding of the differences between different forms of DLBP. The ability to distinguish between different causes of CLBP and the identification of serum biomarkers may be of great value to diagnose different causes of DLBP and predict treatment efficacy. PMID:24889399



Serum antibodies to cow's milk folate-binding protein in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.  


Antibodies to folate-binding protein (FBP) of cow's milk were studied in serum from patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD), since earlier studies had shown IgG- and IgM-serum antibodies to other isotypes of milk proteins to be elevated in such patients, indicating a possible primary role or an epiphenomenon in the pathogenesis of CIBD. The amount of IgG antibodies to FBP was compared to disease activity, localization and duration by means of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No statistically significant differences were seen between groups of patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, as compared to healthy volunteers. Median values of FBP for ulcerative colitis were: 13 units/ml (4-74), for Crohn's disease: 14 units/ml (7-73), and healthy volunteers: 14 units/ml (4-51). No correlation was seen when comparing serum antibody values to disease activity, localization or duration. The intra-assay coefficient of variation of the ELISA technique was 0.05. The concentration of FBP in cow's milk (10 mg/l) is more than 50 times lower than that of other proteins (albumin, lactoglobulin, and casein). Even if a local defect in the endothelial barrier in these diseases may allow access of other milk protein antigens into the blood circulation, FBP is consequently not of importance for the humoral immune response in CIBD. PMID:2636225

Hřier-Madsen, M; Holm, J; Hansen, S I; Nielsen, O H



Mass spectrum analysis of serum biomarker proteins from patients with schizophrenia.  


Diagnosis of schizophrenia does not have a clear objective test at present, so we aimed to identify the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by comparison of serum protein profiling between first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The combination of a magnetic bead separation system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) was used to analyze the serum protein spectra of 286 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 41 chronic disease patients and 304 healthy controls. FlexAnlysis 3.0 and ClinProTools(TM) 2.1 software was used to establish a diagnostic model for schizophrenia. The results demonstrated that 10 fragmented peptides demonstrated an optimal discriminatory performance. Among these fragmented peptides, the peptide with m/z 1206.58 was identified as a fragment of fibrinopeptide A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for m/z 1206.58 showed that the area under the curve was 0.981 for schizophrenia vs healthy controls, and 0.999 for schizophrenia vs other chronic disease controls. From our result, we consider that the analysis of serum protein spectrum using the magnetic bead separation system and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS is an objective diagnostic tool. We conclude that fibrinopeptide A has the potential to be a biomarker for diagnosis of schizophrenia. This protein may also help to elucidate schizophrenia disease pathogenesis. PMID:24254984

Zhou, Na; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Qiong



Polymorphism of rs873308 near the transmembrane protein 57 gene is associated with serum lipid levels  

PubMed Central

SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) of rs10903129 near the TMEM (transmembrane protein) 57 locus has been associated with TC (total cholesterol) in a previous GWAS (genome-wide association study), but the association of TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid levels has not been previously reported. The current study was undertaken to detect the association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Han Chinese and Mulao populations. The genotypes of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP in 865 individuals of Han Chinese and 902 participants of Mulao nationality were determined by PCR and RFLP (restriction-fragment-length polymorphism) combined with gel electrophoresis and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The T allele frequency of TMEM57 rs873308 SNP was not different between Han and Mulao (23.18% versus 25.72%, P>0.05), but different between males and females in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05). The T allele carriers had lower serum TC, Apo (apolipoprotein) B, HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels, ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and lower TAG (triacylglycerol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), ApoA1 levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio and higher HDL-C levels in Mulao than the T allele non-carriers. There was also different association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid profiles between males and females in the both ethnic groups. Serum lipid parameters in the two ethnic groups were also associated with several environmental factors. The association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid levels was different in the Han Chinese and Mulao populations and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be a sex-specific association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:24517463

Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Shen, Shao-Wen; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Li, Hui; Wang, Yi-Ming



Tests for Serum Levels of Trefoil Factor Family Proteins Can Improve Gastric Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Improving methods for early detection of gastric cancer could reduce mortality. Measurements of serum pepsinogen have been used for screening in Japan, without satisfactory levels of sensitivity or specificity. Trefoil factor family (TFF) proteins (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) are small, stable molecules secreted by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Foveolar hyperplasia, spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2)-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), and intestinal metaplasia are histological changes observed in patients with atrophic gastritis; they express TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, respectively. We investigated whether serum levels of TFF can be used as markers for gastric cancer screening. Methods Serum was collected from 183 patients with gastric cancer and 280 healthy individuals without cancer. Serum levels of anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G, pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were measured by ELISA and associated with gastric cancer. Results Using a cut-off of 3.6 ng/ml, the level of TFF3 was significantly increased in serum samples from cancer patients (odds ratio of 18.1; 95% confidence interval, 11.2–29.2); using this test cancer patients were identified with 80.9% sensitivity and 81.0% specificity. The test for TFF3 had a significantly higher odds ratio than that for pepsinogen. A test for the combination of TFF3 and pepsinogen had better results than the test for only pepsinogen. Conclusion Serum levels of TFF3 are a better marker of gastric cancer than pepsinogen; a test for the combined levels of serum pepsinogen and TFF3 could improve gastric cancer screening. PMID:21699780

Aikou, Susumu; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Gunji, Toshiaki; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Miura, Hirona; Kubota, Kensuke; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Goldenring, James R; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo



Serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation by a semiautomated electrophoresis system.  


Semiautomated agarose electrophoresis and immunofixation performed with Hydrasys-Hyrys (Sebia) were compared with conventional, manually performed methods, including cellulose acetate electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunofixation. Reference intervals for agarose electrophoresis with Hydrasys-Hyrys were determined. Within-run imprecision (CV) for fraction quantitation with the semiautomated system was between 1% (albumin) and 4.5% (beta-globulin). Total imprecision (CV) was between 2.7% (albumin) and 7.3% (beta-globulin). Semiautomated agarose electrophoresis showed linear correlation with cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Thirty-four specimens with monoclonal components were analyzed by manual immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation and by Hydrasys. In one case, a light-chain disease was missed with Hydrasys when the sample was diluted 1:3 (the routine dilution) but not when the sample was assayed undiluted. In another case, the Hydrasys system revealed a small IgGA monoclonal component in addition to the IgA monoclonal component detected by the manual methods. In the other cases, no differences between the manual methods and the semiautomated method were seen with respect to paraprotein identification. PMID:9590366

Bossuyt, X; Bogaerts, A; Schiettekatte, G; Blanckaert, N



Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.  


Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu



Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea  

PubMed Central

Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease. PMID:25282157



The human urinary proteome contains more than 1500 proteins, including a large proportion of membrane proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Urine is a desirable material for the diagnosis and classification of diseases because of the convenience of its collection in large amounts; however, all of the urinary proteome catalogs currently being generated have limitations in their depth and confidence of identification. Our laboratory has developed methods for the in-depth characterization of body fluids; these involve a linear ion trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) mass spectrometer. Here we applied these methods to the analysis of the human urinary proteome. Results We employed one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for protein separation and fractionation. Fractionated proteins were digested in-gel or in-solution, and digests were analyzed with the LTQ-FT and LTQ-Orbitrap at parts per million accuracy and with two consecutive stages of mass spectrometric fragmentation. We identified 1543 proteins in urine obtained from ten healthy donors, while essentially eliminating false-positive identifications. Surprisingly, nearly half of the annotated proteins were membrane proteins according to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Furthermore, extracellular, lysosomal, and plasma membrane proteins were enriched in the urine compared with all GO entries. Plasma membrane proteins are probably present in urine by secretion in exosomes. Conclusion Our analysis provides a high-confidence set of proteins present in human urinary proteome and provides a useful reference for comparing datasets obtained using different methodologies. The urinary proteome is unexpectedly complex and may prove useful in biomarker discovery in the future. PMID:16948836

Adachi, Jun; Kumar, Chanchal; Zhang, Yanling; Olsen, Jesper V; Mann, Matthias



Serum and urine electrophoresis for detection and identification of monoclonal proteins.  


Electrophoresis may be defined as the separation of charged particles in a uniform electric field. For a particular system of electrophoresis, the voltage is held constant as are the pH and ionic strength of the suspending medium. Tiselius, using a moving boundary liquid system, separated serum proteins by electrophoresis into four components in 1937. Paper electrophoresis, popular in the 1950s, provided the rst solid electrophoresis support. The fragility of paper as a support medium saw the introduction of the more robust cellulose acetate a decade later. An improvement in resolution was subsequently gained by using agarose gel, which, in serum samples, gave 5 bands of separation. In the late 1980s, high resolution agarose gels were introduced which produced at least 6 bands, and depending on the system, as many as 17 bands in serum. Fully automated serum electrophoresis commenced in the 1990s with the introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE), a reintroduction of a liquid medium but with exquisite resolution compared to Tiselius' procedure. Using CE instrumentation it is possible to program a sequence of samples and leave them overnight to be processed.Amalgamation of laboratories with an increasing number of patient samples was probably the reason for the semi-automation of gel electrophoresis. The introduction of the Helena SPIFE and Sebia Hydrasys gel systems provided ways of electrophoresing over a hundred serum samples per day. There is certainly a role for such instrumentation in electrophoresis laboratories today. PMID:19841694

Jenkins, Margaret A



Serum and Urine Electrophoresis for Detection and Identification of Monoclonal Proteins  

PubMed Central

Electrophoresis may be defined as the separation of charged particles in a uniform electric field. For a particular system of electrophoresis, the voltage is held constant as are the pH and ionic strength of the suspending medium. Tiselius, using a moving boundary liquid system, separated serum proteins by electrophoresis into four components in 1937.1 Paper electrophoresis, popular in the 1950s, provided the rst solid electrophoresis support. The fragility of paper as a support medium saw the introduction of the more robust cellulose acetate a decade later. An improvement in resolution was subsequently gained by using agarose gel, which, in serum samples, gave 5 bands of separation.2,3 In the late 1980s, high resolution agarose gels were introduced which produced at least 6 bands, and depending on the system, as many as 17 bands in serum.4,5 Fully automated serum electrophoresis commenced in the 1990s with the introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE), a reintroduction of a liquid medium but with exquisite resolution compared to Tiselius’ procedure. Using CE instrumentation it is possible to program a sequence of samples and leave them overnight to be processed. Amalgamation of laboratories with an increasing number of patient samples was probably the reason for the semi-automation of gel electrophoresis. The introduction of the Helena SPIFE and Sebia Hydrasys gel systems provided ways of electrophoresing over a hundred serum samples per day. There is certainly a role for such instrumentation in electrophoresis laboratories today. PMID:19841694

Jenkins, Margaret A.



A novel protein isolated from the serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) is lethal to Cryptocaryon irritans.  


The susceptibility of eight marine fish species cultured in South China were tested for infection by the parasitic ciliate, Cryptocaryon irritans, via a challenge examination and an immobilization assay. All species of fish (representing six different families) that we investigated were infected by C. irritans except the rabbitfish (Siganus oramin), which displayed resistance to C. irritans infection. The infection intensity of rabbitfish (0.92+/-0.97, p<0.05) was significantly lower while the immobilization titres of rabbitfish serum were significantly higher (44.51+/-22.98, p<0.05) than the other seven species of fish. Additionally, the serum of the rabbitfish presented a strong killing effect to C. irritans in vitro. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that rabbitfish serum could induce the theront cilia fall off, rupture of the cell membrane because of the swell and rupture of the macronucleus. Rabbitfish serum could also induce the rupture of the trophont membrane and content efflux. Herein a novel antiparasitic protein (APP) was isolated and purified from the serum of rabbitfish (S. oramin) by using a series of salting-out, cation exchange chromatography and two step of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that APP was a homogenous polymeric protein with an N-terminal amino acid sequence of SSVEKNLAACLRDND. Its monomeric molecular mass, determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS), was found to be 61,739.87 Da. Results of homology analyses indicated that this protein was a newly discovered functional protein in the rabbitfish serum. Laser confocal fluorescence microscopy conformed that the action site of the APP was mainly on the cell membrane and nucleus of theront, which agreed with the results of light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These findings suggest that this protein may contribute considerably to the innate host defence mechanism to combat microbes of the rabbitfish. PMID:20117218

Wang, Fang-Hua; Xie, Ming-Quan; Li, An-Xing



Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari



Effects of egg white protein supplementation on muscle strength and serum free amino acid concentrations.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari



Genetic influences in the development of emphysema in persons with normal serum proteins.  


This review has failed to uncover convincing evidence to support the existence of familial emphysema in patients with normal serum proteins. Although a large number of studies have documented that non-A1PI hereditary factors are important in the development of nonspecific chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is far less certain that emphysema accounts for this familial occurrence. To the contrary, most existing evidence fails to support this possibility. Nevertheless, the issue remains unsettled and incompletely studied. Further investigations should include a major effort to identify young persons, 20 to 45 years of age, with emphysema alone but without A1PI deficiency. Based on prior reports, 76 it is likely that such persons will be found. As emphasized by Kazazian, "this is the group that should be studied for the presence of a single mutant gene in the homozygous state." 42 It is possible that several or many rare single-gene causes of emphysema await discovery. Careful family studies of young emphysematous subjects are indicated as well to determine whether emphysema-producing genes also constitute a risk factor in heterozygous persons. If such patients and families are discovered, further hypotheses will have to be drawn-up and carefully investigated to attempt a better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of emphysema. PMID:6357601

Faling, L J



Liver Retinol Transporter and Receptor for Serum Retinol-binding Protein (RBP4)*  

PubMed Central

Vitamin A (retinol) is absorbed in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). Circulating retinol may be taken up by extrahepatic tissues or recycled back to liver multiple times before it is finally metabolized or degraded. Liver exhibits high affinity binding sites for RBP4, but specific receptors have not been identified. The only known high affinity receptor for RBP4, Stra6, is not expressed in the liver. Here we report discovery of RBP4 receptor-2 (RBPR2), a novel retinol transporter expressed primarily in liver and intestine and induced in adipose tissue of obese mice. RBPR2 is structurally related to Stra6 and highly conserved in vertebrates, including humans. Expression of RBPR2 in cultured cells confers high affinity RBP4 binding and retinol transport, and RBPR2 knockdown reduces RBP4 binding/retinol transport. RBPR2 expression is suppressed by retinol and retinoic acid and correlates inversely with liver retinol stores in vivo. We conclude that RBPR2 is a novel retinol transporter that potentially regulates retinol homeostasis in liver and other tissues. In addition, expression of RBPR2 in liver and fat suggests a possible role in mediating established metabolic actions of RBP4 in those tissues. PMID:23105095

Alapatt, Philomena; Guo, Fangjian; Komanetsky, Susan M.; Wang, Shuping; Cai, Jinjin; Sargsyan, Ashot; Rodriguez Diaz, Eduardo; Bacon, Brandon T.; Aryal, Pratik; Graham, Timothy E.



Serum sickness  


Serum sickness is a reaction that is similar to an allergy. The immune system reacts to medications ... immune response against the toxin or germ. During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein ...


Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.  


Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M



Serum heat shock protein 47 levels in patients with drug-induced lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that is required for molecular maturation of various types of collagens. We recently reported that HSP47 serum levels were markedly higher in patients with acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when compared with patients with stable IPF, suggesting that serum HSP47 levels correlate with interstitial pneumonia activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum HSP47 levels in patients with drug-induced lung disease (DILD). Methods Findings from high-resolution computed tomographic chest scans of 47 patients with DILD were classified into one of four predominant patterns: organizing pneumonia (OP) (n?=?4), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) (n?=?24), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n?=?11), and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n?=?8). Serum levels of HSP47, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein (SP)-A, and SP-D were measured in these patients. Results The PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratios were significantly lower and the alveolar-arterial difference of oxygen (A-a DO2) was significantly higher in the DAD group than in the other groups. Patients with DAD had the worst outcomes among the different subgroups. Patients in the DAD group had significantly higher serum HSP47 levels than those in other groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that HSP47 was superior to KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D for discriminating between the DAD group and the other groups. The cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy was 1711.5 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.5%, 97.4%, and 95.7%, respectively. Serum levels of HSP47 in the group of patients requiring glucocorticoids were significantly higher than those in patients who experienced clinical improvement without glucocorticoid administration. Serum HSP47 levels also significantly correlated with various respiratory parameters. Conclusion This study demonstrated that serum HSP47 levels were elevated in patients with DILD with a DAD pattern who had the worst outcomes among the different subgroups, and that this was correlated with P/F ratio and A-a DO2. PMID:24256690



Detection of serum p53 protein in patients with different gastrointestinal cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of p53 has been found in many types of human malignancy. The present study aimed to detect preoperative serum p53 among 158 patients with different gastrointestinal cancers using ELISA technique based on mouse anti-p53 DO-7 monoclonal antibody and anti-p53 rabbit polyclonal antibody. A single band of 53kDa was detected in nuclear protein tissue extracts of selected cancer patients and

Abdelfattah Mohamed Attallah; Mohamed Mohamed Abdel-Aziz; Amina Mohamed El-Sayed; Ashraf Abdou Tabll



Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In obesity and type 2 diabetes, expression of the GLUT4 glucose transporter is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific Glut4 (also known as Slc2a4) knockout (adipose-Glut4-\\/-) mice show insulin resistance secondarily in muscle and liver. Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in adipose tissue of adipose-Glut4-\\/- mice. We show that serum RBP4

Qin Yang; Timothy E. Graham; Nimesh Mody; Frederic Preitner; Odile D. Peroni; Janice M. Zabolotny; Ko Kotani; Loredana Quadro; Barbara B. Kahn



Measurement of serum C-reactive protein concentration in myocardial ischaemia and infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) MB levels were measured prospectively in patients with definite myocardial infarction, patients with spontaneous or exercise-induced angina, subjects undergoing coronary arteriography, and patients with non-cardiac chest pain. All individuals with infarction developed raised CRP levels and there was a significant correlation between the peak CRP and CK MB values. The CRP, however,

F C de Beer; C R Hind; K M Fox; R M Allan; A Maseri; M B Pepys



Noninvasive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using DNA sequencer–based total serum protein glycomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied our 'clinical glycomics' technology, based on DNA sequencer\\/fragment analyzers, to generate profiles of serum protein N-glycans of liver disease patients. This technology yielded a biomarker that distinguished compensated cirrhotic from noncirrhotic chronic liver disease patients, with 79% sensitivity and 86% specificity (100% sensitivity and specificity for decompensated cirrhosis). In combination with the clinical chemistry–based Fibrotest biomarker, compensated cirrhosis

Hans Van Vlierberghe; Annelies Van Hecke; Wouter Laroy; Joris Delanghe; Nico Callewaert; Roland Contreras



Olmesartan reduces arterial stiffness and serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein in hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) has been reported to be involved in insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and\\u000a atherosclerosis; however, little is known about the effect of medication on the change in circulating A-FABP in human subjects.\\u000a We evaluated the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) on arterial stiffness and its association with serum\\u000a A-FABP in patients

Toru MiyoshiMasayuki; Masayuki Doi; Satoshi Hirohata; Shigeshi Kamikawa; Shinichi Usui; Hiroko Ogawa; Kosuke Sakane; Reishi Izumi; Yoshifumi Ninomiya; Shozo Kusachi


Comparison of inhibitory effects of oxygen radicals and calf serum protein on surfactant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O\\u000a2\\u000a.\\u000a–) and hydroxyl radical (OH) on the surface tension lowering properties of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) were compared to the effects of calf serum protein (CSP) in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). O\\u000a2\\u000a.\\u000a– was generated from xanthine\\/xanthine oxidase (X\\/XO), and OH was generated

M. M. Lee; F. H. Y. Green; S. Schürch; S. Cheng; S. G. Bjarnason; S. Leonard; W. Wallace; F. Possmayer; V. Vallyathan



Relief of amplification inhibition in PCR with bovine serum albumin or T4 gene 32 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) or T4 gene 32 proteins (gp32) to PCR were evaluated with reaction mixtures containing substances that inhibit amplification. Whereas 10- to 1,000-fold more FeClâ, hemin, fulvic acids, humic acids, tannic acids, or extracts from feces, freshwater, or marine water were accommodated in PCR when either 400 ng of BSA per ÎĽl was




Dietary Magnesium Intake is Inversely Associated with Serum C-reactive Protein Levels: Meta-analysis and Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantitatively summarize the association of dietary magnesium (Mg) intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. Methods Observational and experimental studies through February 2013 were reviewed in PubMed and EMBASE. Additional information was retrieved through Google or hand search of related reference lists. The main outcome is either adjusted geometric mean of CRP or odds ratio (OR) of having serum CRP?3 mg/L. Meta-regression was used to determine the linear association of dietary Mg intake and adjusted geometric means of CRP levels. A fixed-effects model was used to pool ORs of interest, comparing those in the lowest with those in the highest group of dietary Mg intake. Results A dataset derived from seven cross-sectional studies including 32,918 participants was quantitatively assessed. A weighted inverse association between Mg intake and serum CRP levels was observed[? coefficient: ?0.0028; 95% CI, ?0.0043 to ?0.0013; P for trend=0.001] from four cross-sectional studies. The pooled OR (95%CI) of having CRP?3 mg/L was 1.49(1.18 to 1.89) comparing the lowest to the highest group of Mg intake from three studies with data available. Qualitative assessment among five intervention studies also showed a potential beneficial effect of Mg intake on serum CRP levels. Conclusion This meta-analysis and systematic review indicate that dietary Mg intake is significantly and inversely associated with serum CRP levels. The potential beneficial effect of Mg intake on chronic diseases may be, at least in part, explained by inhibiting inflammation. PMID:24518747

Dibaba, Daniel T.; Xun, Pengcheng; He, Ka



Regulation of serum amyloid A protein expression during the acute-phase response.  

PubMed Central

The acute-phase (AP) serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAA) are multifunctional apolipoproteins which are involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism, and in modulating numerous immunological responses during inflammation and the AP response to infection, trauma or stress. During the AP response the hepatic biosynthesis of A-SAA is up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and circulating concentrations can increase by up to 1000-fold. Chronically elevated A-SAA concentrations are a prerequisite for the pathogenesis of secondary amyloidosis, a progressive and fatal disease characterized by the deposition in major organs of insoluble plaques composed principally of proteolytically cleaved A-SAA, and may also contribute to physiological processes that lead to atherosclerosis. There is therefore a requirement for both positive and negative control mechanisms that permit the rapid induction of A-SAA expression until it has fulfilled its host-protective function(s) and subsequently ensure that its expression can be rapidly returned to baseline. These mechanisms include modulation of promoter activity involving, for example, the inducer nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and its inhibitor IkappaB, up-regulatory transcription factors of the nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) family and transcriptional repressors such as yin and yang 1 (YY1). Post-transcriptional modulation involving changes in mRNA stability and translation efficiency permit further up- and down-regulatory control of A-SAA protein synthesis to be achieved. In the later stages of the AP response, A-SAA expression is effectively down-regulated via the increased production of cytokine antagonists such as the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and of soluble cytokine receptors, resulting in less signal transduction driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9729453

Jensen, L E; Whitehead, A S



Does Binding of Complement Factor H to the Meningococcal Vaccine Antigen, Factor H Binding Protein, Decrease Protective Serum Antibody Responses?  

PubMed Central

Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a principal antigen in a multicomponent meningococcal vaccine recently licensed in Europe for prevention of serogroup B diseases. The protein recruits the complement downregulator, factor H (fH), to the bacterial surface, which enables the organism to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Binding is specific for human fH. In preclinical studies, mice and rabbits immunized with fHbp vaccines developed serum bactericidal antibody responses, which in humans predict protection against developing meningococcal disease. These studies, however, were in animals whose fH did not bind to the vaccine antigen. Here we review the immunogenicity of fHbp vaccines in human fH transgenic mice. The data suggest that animals with high serum human fH concentrations have impaired protective antibody responses. Further, mutant fHbp vaccines with single amino acid substitutions that decrease fH binding are superior immunogens, possibly by unmasking epitopes in the fH binding site that are important for eliciting serum bactericidal antibody responses. Humans immunized with fHbp vaccines develop serum bactericidal antibody, but achieving broad coverage in infants required incorporation of additional antigens, including outer membrane vesicles, which increased rates of fever and local reactions at the injection site. The experimental results in transgenic mice predict that fHbp immunogenicity can be improved in humans by using mutant fHbp vaccines with decreased fH binding. These results have important public health implications for developing improved fHbp vaccines for control of serogroup B meningococcal disease and for development of vaccines against other microbes that bind host molecules. PMID:23740919

Ram, Sanjay; Beernink, Peter T.



Multidimensional liquid chromatography separation of intact proteins by chromatographic focusing and reversed phase of the human serum proteome: optimization and protein database.  


In biomarker discovery, the detection of proteins with low abundance in the serum proteome can be achieved by optimization of protein separation methods as well as selective depletion of the higher abundance proteins such as immunoglobins (e.g. IgG) and albumin. A relative newcomer to the proteomic separation arena is the commercial instrument PF2D from Beckman Coulter that separates proteins in the first dimension using chromatofocusing followed in line by reversed phase chromatography in the second dimension, thereby separating intact proteins based on pI and hydrophobicity. In this study, assessment and optimization of serum separation (undepleted serum and albumin-IgG-depleted serum) by the PF2D is presented. Protein databases were created for serum obtained from a healthy individual under traditional and optimized methods and under different sample preparation protocols. Separation of the doubly depleted serum using the PF2D with 20% isopropanol present in the first dimension running buffer allowed us to unambiguously identify 150 non-redundant serum proteins (excluding all immunoglobulin and albumin, a minimum of two peptide matches with acceptable Mascot score) in which 81 have not been identified previously in serum. Among them, numerous cellular proteins were identified to be specifically the skeletal muscle isoform, such as skeletal muscle fast twitch isoforms of troponin T, myosin alkali light chain 1, and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase. The detection of specific skeletal muscle protein isoforms in the serum from healthy individuals reflects the physiological turnover that occurs in skeletal muscle, which will have an impact on the ability to use generic "cellular" proteins as biomarkers without further characterization of the precise isoforms or post-translational modifications present. PMID:16188874

Sheng, Simon; Chen, Dawn; Van Eyk, Jennifer E



Medroxyprogesterone acetate has opposite effects on the androgen binding protein concentrations in serum and epididymis.  


In the rat, the effects of progestin and androgen administration on serum, testicular and epididymal androgen binding protein (rABP) concentrations were determined and related to the organ weight and morphology. Adult rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 17 alpha-acetoxy-6 alpha-methylprogesterone), testosterone propionate (TP) and mibolerone (MB; 7 alpha, 17 alpha-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone). MPA reduced testicular and epididymal weights and the concentrations of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. During MPA treatment testicular and epididymal ABP content declined in parallel with organ weights and hormone concentrations, whereas serum ABP concentrations increased. Combinations of MPA and TP reduced testicular and epididymal ABP, but the reductions were less than with MPA alone; this combined treatment also elevated serum AMP. Both MB and TP reduced ABP in the male reproductive tract, but unlike MPA did not increase the concentration of this protein in serum. The results suggest that MPA acts directly on Sertoli cells resulting in increased ABP release into the blood. The comparison was made of steady state polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SS-PAGE) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods of estimating rABP. The potency ratio of testicular ABP estimated by the two methods (RIA:SS-PAGE) was three times higher than this ratio in the epididymis in normal and hormonally treated animals. Due to differences in end points, these observations imply that these assays do not quantify the molecules in the same way in one or both of these tissues. The results indicate, however, that both assays are suitable for following rABP concentration in animals with altered hormonal states. PMID:6226325

Lobl, T J; Musto, N A; Gunsalus, G L; Bardin, C W



Interaction of Mycobacterium avium complex with human macrophages: roles of membrane receptors and serum proteins.  

PubMed Central

Invasive, disease-associated members of the Mycobacterium avium complex are facultative intracellular pathogens of mammalian macrophages. The mechanism(s) by which M. avium is ingested by mononuclear phagocytes is unknown. We examined the role of membrane receptors on macrophages as well as the role of opsonic components of the serum (complement, fibronectin, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the attachment and ingestion of M. avium by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Preincubation of serum with antibodies against C3 and fibronectin, in contrast to preincubation of serum with antibodies against complement-reactive protein and fibrinogen, significantly reduced the binding of M. avium to macrophages in concentration-dependent manner (57 to 93% and 35 to 61% inhibition by anti-C3 and anti-fibronectin antibody, respectively, in a concentration range of 25 to 100 micrograms/ml). We also observed that incubation of macrophages with OKM1 anti-complement receptor type 3 (CR3) antibody in the presence of serum decreased the binding of M. avium to macrophages by 86% +/- 6%, while the same antibody inhibited binding by 63% +/- 7% in the absence of serum. In contrast, incubation of macrophages with anti-LFA-1, anti-p 150.95, anti-CR1, or anti-Mac-1 had no effect on the ability of M. avium to bind to the cell. In addition, incubation of macrophages with alpha-methyl-D-mannoside was also associated with decreased attachment of M. avium to macrophages. These results provide evidence for the role of three macrophage receptors (CR3, fibronectin, and mannosyl-fucosyl receptors) in the uptake of M. avium by human macrophages. PMID:1826895

Bermudez, L E; Young, L S; Enkel, H



Many heme-binding proteins with diverse functions are known, including electron-transferring cytochromes,  

E-print Network

regulatory proteins; hence, a search for matches in non-coding DNA sequences would not be expectedMany heme-binding proteins with diverse functions are known, including electron. They are not commonly implicated in catalysis or electron transfer; instead, the heme-bound iron stays in its 2+ (Fe

Hardison, Ross C.


Immunologic and Fine Structure Evidence of Avidly Bound Host Serum Proteins in the Surface Coat of a Bloodstream Trypanosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact, washed Trypanosoma lewisi bloodstream forms, isolated from rats, were agglutinated specifically by antisera against rat whole serum, albumin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, and IgG. However, trypsinized bloodstream and intact culture forms lacking surface coat were not agglutinated by these antisera. Trypsinized bloodstream forms, incubated in dilute rat or heterologous host serum proteins, were agglutinated with specific antisera. The characteristic surface coat

Dennis M. Dwyer



Protein–Incorporated Serum Total Antioxidant Capacity Measurement by a Modified CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to inadequacies in analytical methodology of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) measurement, proteins are initially separated from the human serum matrix by precipitation and are left unmeasured, thereby causing an important “antioxidant gap”. The aim of this work is to measure the TAC of serum with the modified CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) method, and to identify the contribution of

Sema Demirci Çekiç; Nilay Kara; Esma Tütem; Kevser Sözgen Ba?kan; Re?at Apak



Isolation of alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin from cow's milk using gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography including evaluation of their antigenicity.  


The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, reproducible, and less expensive method for isolation of alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin from cow's milk while retaining their antigenicity. Whey (lactoserum) was obtained by isolating casein from defatted milk using hydrochloric acid. Globulins were then precipitated from whey by half-saturated ammonium sulfate and beta-lactoglobulin was purified further using Sephadex G-50 gel filtration. The proteins in the supernatant were also fractionated using diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography in which beta-lactoglobulin was separated from alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin. The latter two proteins that co-eluted in anion-exchange chromatography were then gently isolated from each other by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration. Pure beta-lactoglobulin was also obtained by anion-exchange chromatography of the ammonium sulfate-precipitated globulins. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and ELISA inhibition assay, antigenicity of the purified proteins was evaluated. Our results showed high purity and well-preserved antigenicity of alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin thus purified. PMID:12767810

Neyestani, Tirang R; Djalali, Mahmoud; Pezeshki, Mohamad



Identification of Serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Prolactin as Potential Tumor Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio® L-Series 507 Antibody Array and found 113 serum markers that were significantly modulated between HCC and control groups. Selected potential biomarkers from this list were quantified using a multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array in an expanded SGH cohort (126 resectable HCC patients and 115 non-HCC chronic HBV carriers (NC group)), confirming that serum prolactin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly upregulated in HCC patients. This finding of serum MCP-1 elevation in HCC patients was validated in a separate cohort of serum samples from the Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Indonesia (98 resectable HCC, 101 chronic hepatitis B patients and 100 asymptomatic HBV/HCV carriers) by sandwich ELISA. MCP-1 and prolactin levels were found to correlate with AFP, while MCP-1 also correlated with disease stage. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of AFP, prolactin and MCP-1 in the SGH cohort and comparing their area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated that neither prolactin nor MCP-1 on their own performed better than AFP. However, the combination of AFP+MCP-1 (AUC, 0.974) had significantly superior discriminative ability than AFP alone (AUC, 0.942; p<0.001). In conclusion, prolactin and MCP-1 are overexpressed in HCC and are conveniently quantifiable in patients’ sera by ELISA. MCP-1 appears to be a promising complementary biomarker for HCC diagnosis and this MCP-1+AFP model should be further evaluated as potential biomarker on a larger scale in patients at-risk of HCC. PMID:23874805

Kumar, Rajneesh; Heah, Charmain; Utama, Andi; Tania, Navessa Padma; Li, Huihua; Tan, Sze Huey; Poo, Desmond; Choo, Su Pin; Chow, Wan Cheng; Tan, Chee Kiat; Toh, Han Chong



Accessing Low-Abundance Proteins in Serum and Plasma With a Novel, Simple Enrichment and Depletion Method  

E-print Network

treatment. Typically, protein changes for a given disease can be measured in tissue samples or body fluids available. As a result, body fluids such as serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine- decorated beads, the high-abundance proteins are retained and the low-abundance proteins are eluted for use

Lebendiker, Mario


Serum-induced up-regulation of hepcidin expression involves the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the liver and that functions as the central regulator of systemic iron metabolism in mammals. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by changes in iron status and iron requirements, and by inflammatory cues. There is considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms that influence hepcidin expression because dysregulation of hepcidin production is associated with a number of disease states and can lead to iron overload or iron-restricted anemia. In order to shed light on the factors that alter hepcidin expression, we carried out experiments with HepG2 and HuH7, human hepatoma cell lines that are widely used for this purpose. We found that the addition of heat-inactivated fetal calf serum to these cells resulted in a significant dose- and time-dependent up-regulation of hepcidin expression. Serum also activated signaling events known to be downstream of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), a group of molecules that have been implicated previously in hepcidin regulation. Inhibition of these signals with dorsomorphin significantly suppressed serum-induced hepcidin up-regulation. Our results indicate that a BMP or BMP-like molecule present in serum may play an important role in regulating hepcidin expression. PMID:24157792

Shanmugam, Nanda Kumar N.; Cherayil, Bobby J.



Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute interstitial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. We hypothesized that HSP47 could be a useful marker for fibrotic lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of HSP47 in patients with various idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods Subjects comprised 9 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), 12 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), 16 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 19 healthy adult volunteers. Results Patients with AIP had serum HSP47 levels that were significantly higher than those of COP, NSIP or IPF patients and those of healthy volunteers. In contrast, serum levels of HSP47 among patients with COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between AIP and COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy controls was 859.3 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that, among patients with various IIPs, serum levels of HSP47 were elevated specifically in patients with AIP. PMID:24650086



Serum-induced up-regulation of hepcidin expression involves the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway.  


Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the liver and that functions as the central regulator of systemic iron metabolism in mammals. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by changes in iron status and iron requirements, and by inflammatory cues. There is considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms that influence hepcidin expression because dysregulation of hepcidin production is associated with a number of disease states and can lead to iron overload or iron-restricted anemia. In order to shed light on the factors that alter hepcidin expression, we carried out experiments with HepG2 and HuH7, human hepatoma cell lines that are widely used for this purpose. We found that the addition of heat-inactivated fetal calf serum to these cells resulted in a significant dose- and time-dependent up-regulation of hepcidin expression. Serum also activated signaling events known to be downstream of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a group of molecules that have been implicated previously in hepcidin regulation. Inhibition of these signals with dorsomorphin significantly suppressed serum-induced hepcidin up-regulation. Our results indicate that a BMP or BMP-like molecule present in serum may play an important role in regulating hepcidin expression. PMID:24157792

Shanmugam, Nanda Kumar N; Cherayil, Bobby J



Down-regulated expression of complement factor I: A potential suppressive protein for gastric cancer identified by serum proteome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScreening tests are needed for gastric cancer. In order to find serologic biomarkers for gastric cancer screening, we used proteomics to search for protein biomarkers that may be detected in serum of gastric cancer patients.

Wentao Liu; Bingya Liu; Lin Xin; Yi Zhang; Xuehua Chen; Zhenggang Zhu; Yanzhen Lin



Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with progressive myelomalacia.  


In humans, increased levels of GFAP in the CSF and blood have been reported with various neural diseases. However, there has been no study describing the usefulness of GFAP in the blood for disease of the spinal cord in dogs. The aim of this study was to describe the utility of GFAP in serum for a diagnosis of progressive myelomalacia. Fifty-six dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDD diagnosed by computed tomography with myelography or MRI were included. Serum specimens were collected at initial presentation from all cases and at follow-up examinations from some cases. Serum samples were assayed for GFAP concentrations using a commercially available GFAP ELISA Kit. Progressive myelomalacia was the final diagnosis in 8/51 cases (15.6%). Eight dogs had clinical signs suggestive of progressive myelomalacia, of which 6 were positive and 2 were negative by GFAP. Seven dogs had a detectable level of serum GFAP, of which 6 had the onset of progressive myelomalacia. The sensitivity and specificity of the GFAP to progressive myelomalacia were 75% and 97.7%, respectively. The results suggest the utility of GFAP in serum in the diagnosis of progressive myelomalacia. PMID:23470323

Sato, Yasunori; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Mashita, Tadahisa; Kobayashi, Saori; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Masaaki; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Sato, Reeko; Uzuka, Yuji; Yasuda, Jun



Simultaneous analysis of multiple serum proteins adhering to the surface of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane elastomers.  


Although polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) elastomers are presumed to be chemically inert and of negligible toxicity, they induce a prompt acute inflammatory response with subsequent fibrotic reactions. Since local inflammatory and fibrotic side effects are associated with the proteinaceous film on the surface of silicone implants, the process of protein adherence to silicone is of practical medical relevance, and interesting from theoretical, clinical and biotechnological perspectives. It is hypothesized that the systemic side effects resembling rheumatoid and other connective tissue diseases may be triggered by local immunological changes, but this functional relationship has yet to be defined. Because the proteinaceous film on the surface of silicone has been identified as a key player in the activation of host defense mechanisms, we propose a test system based on a proteomics screen to simultaneously identify proteins adsorbed from serum to the surface of silicone. Herein, we describe protein adsorption kinetics on the surface of silicone implants, correlate the adhesion properties of serum proteins with the occurrence of adverse reactions to silicone, and successfully discriminate their signature on the silicone surface in a blinded study of patients suffering from fibrotic reactions (as determined by Baker scale) to silicone implants. PMID:17920619

Backovic, Aleksandar; Wolfram, Dolores; Del-Frari, Barbara; Piza, Hildegunde; Huber, Lukas A; Wick, Georg



Biophysical analysis of the interaction of the serum protein human ?2GPI with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.  


There are several human serum proteins for which no clear role is yet known. Among these is the abundant serum protein beta2-glycoprotein-I (?2GPI), which is known to bind to negatively charged phospholipids as well as to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and was therefore proposed to play a role in the immune response. To understand the details of these interactions, a biophysical analysis of the binding of ?2GPI to LPS and phosphatidylserine (PS) was performed. The data indicate only a moderate tendency of the protein (1) to influence the LPS-induced cytokine production in vitro, (2) to react exothermally with LPS in a non-saturable way, and (3) to change its local microenvironment upon LPS association. Additionally, we found that the protein binds more strongly to phosphatidylserine (PS) than to LPS. Furthermore, ?2GPI converts the LPS bilayer aggregates into a stronger multilamellar form, and reduces the fluidity of the hydrocarbon moiety of LPS due to a rigidification of the acyl chains. From these data it can be concluded that ?2GPI plays a role as an immune-modulating agent, but there is much less evidence for a role in immune defense against bacterial toxins such as LPS. PMID:24918058

Gries, Anna; Prassl, Ruth; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Rössle, Manfred; Kaconis, Yani; Heinbockel, Lena; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus



Estrogen Downregulation of Albumin and a 170-kDa Serum Protein in the Turtle, Trachemys scripta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in serum protein composition after estradiol-17? treatment of ovariectomized female Trachemys scripta, with the objective of identifying proteins that are repressed by estrogen. The experimental protocol was validated by measuring serum estradiol-17? levels with a specific radioimmunoassay. Control turtle sera contained little or no estradiol-17? (mean = 25.8 pg\\/ml) while estrogen-treated turtle sera had elevated estradiol-17? levels

Kyle W. Selcer; Brent D. Palmer



Each row in the table corresponds to one protein group. A. Protein IDs: SGD ORFs, including all proteins that could be identified from the peptides identified.  

E-print Network

: SGD ORFs, including all proteins that could be identified from the peptides identified. Protein ids are ordered by number of peptides identified (most to least number of peptide identified. C. SGD Id: Mapping from first id to SGD

Martin, Alain


Proteomic expression profiling and identification of serum proteins using immobilized trypsin beads with MALDI-TOF/TOF.  


MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for serum protein expression profiling and biomarker discovery. Many profiling strategies typically employ chemical affinity beads or surfaces to decrease sample complexity of dynamic fluids such as serum or plasma. However, many of the proteins captured on a particular surface or bead are not resolved in the lower mass ranges where time-of-flight mass spectrometers are most effective. Thus, a majority of reported protein expression profiling studies primarily interrogate the native low molecular mass constituents of the target sample. We report an expression profiling workflow that utilizes immobilized trypsin paramagnetic beads following an initial affinity bead fractionation step, thereby reducing large mass proteins to peptides that are better suited to analysis and sequencing determinations. Our bead-based trypsin approach resulted in more efficient digestion of complex serum protein extracts at short incubation times. This method was reproducible and readily adaptable to robotic sample handling and may be combined in tandem with other bead fractionation surfaces. When weak cationic and weak anionic bead surfaces were used, experimental conditions were optimized for tandem combinations of these beads with the immobilized trypsin step to produce an efficient serum fractionation strategy. A proof-of-concept pilot experiment using pooled human serum samples demonstrating reproducibility is presented, along with the sequence determination of selected tryptic peptides of serum proteins. PMID:19603828

Karbassi, Izabela D; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Wilkins, Christopher E; Cazares, Lisa H; Lance, Raymond S; Semmes, O John; Drake, Richard R



Immunochemical and ultrastructural study of multiple myeloma with a heavy chain protein in the serum.  

PubMed Central

A patient with multiple myeloma had antigenically related monoclonal Fc-gamma fragments and complete IgG-kappa molecules in the serum. The urine contained only Fc-gamma fragments in the absence of Bence-Jones protein. The two distinct M-components in the serum showed electrophoretic identity but could be separated by chromatography. The simultaneous presence of complete monoclonal IgG molecules and Fc-gamma fragments, though difficult to detect, could be a frequent occurrence in multiple myeloma, and it could be defined as 'double paraproteinaemia'. A detailed ultrastructural study was performed in this case and showed fibril bundles being released from the malignant plasma cells; such fibrils could be the supramolecular organisation of the neosynthesised heavy chain fragments. Images Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 PMID:6776150

Bartoloni, C; Flamini, G; Gentiloni, N; Russo, M A; Barone, C; Gambassi, G; Terranova, T



Pretreatment serum C-reactive protein level predicts poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.  


C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We investigated the relationship between the pretreatment serum CRP level and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in various stages of the disease. A cohort of 133 patients with newly diagnosed HCC was prospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: high-CRP group (n=27) with the pretreatment serum CRP level?1.0 mg/dl and low-CRP group (n=106) with the CRP level<1.0 mg/dl. They were followed 22 months in average (1-69 months) and clinicopathological variables, and overall survivals between the two groups were compared at the end of the follow-up period. There was a significant difference between the two groups in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, albumin, ?-fetoprotein level, maximal tumor diameter, frequency of vascular invasion and extrahepatic metastases. Patients in the high-CRP group had higher Child-Pugh scores, higher Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores and higher Japan Integrated Staging scores than patients in the low-CRP group. The overall survival rates in the high-CRP group were significantly lower than those in the low-CRP group. Survival rates were similar in tumor stage and liver function-matched patients. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment serum CRP level was independently associated with overall survival. Our results demonstrate that the pretreatment serum CRP level is associated with tumor progression and reduced liver function and is an independent poor prognostic marker in patients with HCC. PMID:22460836

Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Onoda, Hiroshi; Takano, Keiko; Imai, Nami; Saeki, Chisato; Fushiya, Nao; Miyakawa, Yoshinari; Nishino, Hirokazu; Tajiri, Hisao



Interaction of silver nanoparticles with serum proteins affects their antimicrobial activity in vivo.  


The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M; Chakravortty, Dipshikha



Biophysical Insights into How Surfaces, Including Lipid Membranes, Modulate Protein Aggregation Related to Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

There are a vast number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD), associated with the rearrangement of specific proteins to non-native conformations that promotes aggregation and deposition within tissues and/or cellular compartments. These diseases are commonly classified as protein-misfolding or amyloid diseases. The interaction of these proteins with liquid/surface interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon with potential implications for protein-misfolding diseases. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that significant conformational changes can be induced in proteins encountering surfaces, which can play a critical role in nucleating aggregate formation or stabilizing specific aggregation states. Surfaces of particular interest in neurodegenerative diseases are cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominately comprised of lipid components. The two-dimensional liquid environments provided by lipid bilayers can profoundly alter protein structure and dynamics by both specific and non-specific interactions. Importantly for misfolding diseases, these bilayer properties can not only modulate protein conformation, but also exert influence on aggregation state. A detailed understanding of the influence of (sub)cellular surfaces in driving protein aggregation and/or stabilizing specific aggregate forms could provide new insights into toxic mechanisms associated with these diseases. Here, we review the influence of surfaces in driving and stabilizing protein aggregation with a specific emphasis on lipid membranes. PMID:23459674

Burke, Kathleen A.; Yates, Elizabeth A.; Legleiter, Justin



Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

G. R. Wiggans



Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, iron, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A for prediction of outcome in dogs with pyometra.  


Pyometra, accumulation of pus in the uterus, is a bacterial infection that frequently initiates systemic inflammation. The disease may have lethal consequences when the systemic effects are severe or complications occur. Markers for identifying high-risk patients and predicting outcome are therefore in high demand. The objective of this study was to measure serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), iron, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in bitches with pyometra and to explore the possible value of these variables for detection of increased morbidity. In total, 31 bitches were diagnosed with pyometra and destined for surgical treatment (ovariohysterectomy) and 17 healthy bitches were included in the study. Concentrations of IGF-I and iron were lower in the pyometra group (mean concentration 221.2 ± 22.5 ng/mL and 16.9 ± 1.6 ?mol/L, respectively) compared with the healthy control group (mean concentration 366.7 ± 46.2 ng/mL and 38.1 ± 2.7 ?mol/L, respectively). In contrast, concentrations of CRP and SAA were significantly higher in bitches with pyometra (mean concentrations 212.9 ± 17.3 mg/L and 119.9 ± 8.5 mg/L, respectively) compared with the control group (<5 mg/L and <10 mg/L, respectively). None of the explored variables were associated with morbidity as measured by duration of postoperative hospitalization. In conclusion, IGF-I and iron concentrations were decreased in pyometra, whereas SAA and CRP concentrations were increased in the disease. Although unspecific, measurement of these variables may be valuable as adjunctive markers for prognosis in cases of pyometra. PMID:24661434

Jitpean, Supranee; Holst, Bodil Ström; Höglund, Odd V; Pettersson, Ann; Olsson, Ulf; Strage, Emma; Södersten, Fredrik; Hagman, Ragnvi



Investigating protein haptenation mechanisms of skin sensitisers using human serum albumin as a model protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent modification of skin proteins by electrophiles is a key event in the induction of skin sensitisation but not skin irritation although the exact nature of the binding mechanisms has not been determined empirically for the vast majority of sensitisers. It is also unknown whether immunologically relevant protein targets exist in the skin contributing to effecting skin sensitisation. To determine

Maja Aleksic; Camilla K. Pease; David A. Basketter; Maria Panico; Howard R. Morris; Anne Dell



Five unusual serum protein presentations found by capillary electrophoresis in the clinical laboratory.  


Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used in our teaching hospital clinical laboratory to assay approximately 13 000 specimens for serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) in 4 1/2 years. During that period we have found several unusual samples, five of which are discussed here. These samples are from separate patients with IgD myeloma, IgG heavy chain disease, a triple IgG(Kappa) monoclonal band, a rapidly changing abnormal/monoclonal band and a mixed type-11 cryoglobulinaemia. Albumin has been used to calibrate the 50-microm fused silica capillary, the quantity of the monoclonal bands being calculated by the software of either the Applied Biosystems 270A-HT or BioFocus instrument. We have found CE for the initial SPE to be a robust, labour-saving, cost effective technique, which is able to determine less than 1 g/l of monoclonal protein. However, because of the expense and time required for immunosubtraction, we prefer isoelectric focusing (IEF) for typing of paraproteins. The only samples which need care in handling are serum containing large amounts of cryoglobulin protein. PMID:10512037

Jenkins, M A; Ratnaike, S



BZP, a novel serum-responsive zinc finger protein that inhibits gene transcription.  

PubMed Central

We report the fortuitous isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel zinc finger DNA-binding protein termed BZP. The protein encoded is 114 kDa and contains eight zinc finger motifs, seven of which are present in two clusters at opposite ends of the molecule. Both finger clusters bound to the 9-bp sequence AAAGGTGCA with apparent Kds of approximately 2.5 nM. Two of the finger motifs within the amino- and carboxy-terminal finger clusters share 63% amino acid identity. BZP inhibited transcription of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter when copies of the 9-bp target motif were linked in cis, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional repressor. BZP mRNA and immunoreactivity were detected in several established cell lines but were most abundant in hamster insulinoma (HIT) cells, the parental source of the cDNAs. In mouse tissues, BZP mRNA and immunoreactivity were identified in cells of the endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, and central nervous system. Interestingly, in HIT cells proliferating in culture, BZP immunoreactivity was predominately nuclear in location, whereas it was usually located in the cytoplasm in most neural and neuroendocrine tissues. Serum deprivation of HIT cells caused BZP immunoreactivity to become predominantly cytoplasmic in location and attenuated its inhibitory effect on transcription, thereby suggesting that the both the subcellular location and the function of this protein are modulated by factors in serum. Images PMID:7935395

Franklin, A J; Jetton, T L; Shelton, K D; Magnuson, M A



Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu



Serum S-100B protein monitoring in patients with severe traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  S-100B protein is a promising marker of injury severity and outcome after head injury. We examined the relationship between\\u000a serum S-100B concentrations and injury severity, clinical course, survival, and treatment efficacy after severe traumatic\\u000a brain injury (TBI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective observational study in a neurosurgical intensive care unit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and participants  102 adult patients with severe TBI, admitted between June 2001 and November

Stefanos Korfias; George Stranjalis; Efstathios Boviatsis; Christina Psachoulia; Gerard Jullien; Barbara Gregson; A. David Mendelow; Damianos E. Sakas



Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of 25(OH)D to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary 25(OH)D transport protein, and whether DBP modified the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk. Methods In a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, controls were 1?1 matched to 416 colorectal cancer cases based on age and date of blood collection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of 25(OH)D, DBP, and the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP, a proxy for free, unbound circulating 25(OH)D. Results Comparing highest to lowest quartiles, DBP was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR?=?0.91; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.42, p for trend ?=?0.58); however, a positive risk association was observed for the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP (OR?=?1.44; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26, p for trend ?=?0.04). In stratified analyses, the positive association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer was stronger among men with DBP levels above the median (OR?=?1.89; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.36, p for trend ?=?0.01) than below the median (OR?=?1.20; 95% CI: 0.68, 2.12, p for trend ?=?0.87), although the interaction was not statistically significant (p for interaction ?=?0.24). Conclusion Circulating DBP may influence the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer in male smokers, with the suggestion of a stronger positive association in men with higher DBP concentrations. This finding should be examined in other populations, especially those that include women and non-smokers. PMID:25036524

Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Mannisto, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius



Serum-stable quantum dot--protein hybrid nanocapsules for optical bio-imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce shell cross-linked protein/quantum dot (QD) hybrid nanocapsules as a serum-stable systemic delivery nanocarrier for tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging applications. Highly luminescent, heavy-metal-free Cu0.3InS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core-shell QDs are synthesized and mixed with amine-reactive six-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in dichloromethane. Emulsification in an aqueous solution containing human serum albumin (HSA) results in shell cross-linked nanocapsules incorporating CIS/ZnS QDs, exhibiting high luminescence and excellent dispersion stability in a serum-containing medium. Folic acid is introduced as a tumor-targeting ligand. The feasibility of tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging is demonstrated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of several major organs and tumor tissue after an intravenous tail vein injection of the nanocapsules into nude mice. The cytotoxicity of the QD-loaded HSA-PEG nanocapsules is also examined in several types of cells. Our results show that the cellular uptake of the QDs is critical for cytotoxicity. Moreover, a significantly lower level of cell death is observed in the CIS/ZnS QDs compared to nanocapsules loaded with cadmium-based QDs. This study suggests that the systemic tumor targeting of heavy-metal-free QDs using shell cross-linked HSA-PEG hybrid nanocapsules is a promising route for in vivo tumor diagnosis with reduced non-specific toxicity.

Lee, Jeong Yu; Nam, Dong Heon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Youngsun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jeon, Duk Young; Beum Park, Chan; Nam, Yoon Sung



Differential expression profiling of serum proteins and metabolites for biomarker discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomics and metabolomics platform is presented for quantitative differential expression analysis. Proteome profiles obtained from 1.5 [mu]L of human serum show ~5000 de-isotoped and quantifiable molecular ions. Approximately 1500 metabolites are observed from 100 [mu]L of serum. Quantification is based on reproducible sample preparation and linear signal intensity as a function of concentration. The platform is validated using human serum, but is generally applicable to all biological fluids and tissues. The median coefficient of variation (CV) for ~5000 proteomic and ~1500 metabolomic molecular ions is approximately 25%. For the case of C-reactive protein, results agree with quantification by immunoassay. The independent contributions of two sources of variance, namely sample preparation and LC-MS analysis, are respectively quantified as 20.4 and 15.1% for the proteome, and 19.5 and 13.5% for the metabolome, for median CV values. Furthermore, biological diversity for ~20 healthy individuals is estimated by measuring the variance of ~6500 proteomic and metabolomic molecular ions in sera for each sample; the median CV is 22.3% for the proteome and 16.7% for the metabolome. Finally, quantitative differential expression profiling is applied to a clinical study comparing healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

Roy, Sushmita Mimi; Anderle, Markus; Lin, Hua; Becker, Christopher H.



Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in Patients with Facial Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum. Design A prospective study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data. Participants We consecutively enrolled 59 patients: 34 men and 25 women with a mean age of 60.4±17.6 years (range, 17–93). Methods Demodex counting was performed based on lash sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis. Facial rosacea, lid margin, and ocular surface inflammation were documented by photography and graded in a masked fashion. Main Outcome Measures Statistical significance based on correlative analyses of clinical and laboratory data. Results These 59 patients were age matched, but not gender matched, regarding serum immunoreactivity, ocular Demodex infestation, or facial rosacea. There was a significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and facial rosacea (P = 0.009), lid margin inflammation (P = 0.040), and ocular Demodex infestation (P = 0.048), but not inferior bulbar conjunctival inflammation (P = 0.573). The Demodex count was significantly higher in patients with positive facial rosacea (6.6±9.0 vs. 1.9±2.2; P = 0.014). There was a significant correlation of facial rosacea with lid margin inflammation (P = 0.016), but not with inferior bulbar conjunctival inflammation (P = 0.728). Ocular Demodex infestation was less prevalent in patients with aqueous tear-deficiency dry eye than those without (7/38 vs. 12/21; P = 0.002). Conclusions The strong correlation provides a better understanding of comorbidity between Demodex mites and their symbiotic B oleronius in facial rosacea and blepharitis. Treatments directed to both warrant future investigation. PMID:20079929

Li, Jianjing; O'Reilly, Niamh; Sheha, Hosam; Katz, Raananah; Raju, Vadrevu K.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.



Serum Albumin Prevents Protein Aggregation and Amyloid Formation and Retains Chaperone-like Activity in the Presence of Physiological Ligands  

PubMed Central

Although serum albumin has an established function as a transport protein, evidence is emerging that serum albumin may also have a role as a molecular chaperone. Using established techniques to characterize chaperone interactions, this study demonstrates that bovine serum albumin: 1) preferentially binds stressed over unstressed client proteins; 2) forms stable, soluble, high molecular weight complexes with stressed client proteins; 3) reduces the aggregation of client proteins when it is present at physiological levels; and 4) inhibits amyloid formation by both WT and L55P transthyretin. Although the antiaggregatory effect of serum albumin is maintained in the presence of physiological levels of Ca2+ and Cu2+, the presence of free fatty acids significantly alters this activity: stabilizing serum albumin at normal levels but diminishing chaperone-like activity at high concentrations. Moreover, here it is shown that depletion of albumin from human plasma leads to a significant increase in aggregation under physiologically relevant heat and shear stresses. This study demonstrates that serum albumin possesses chaperone-like properties and that this activity is maintained under a number of physiologically relevant conditions. PMID:22549788

Finn, Thomas E.; Nunez, Andrea C.; Sunde, Margaret; Easterbrook-Smith, Simon B.



[Serum protein electrophoresis: comparison of capillary zone electrophoresis Capillarys (Sebia) and agarose gel electrophoresis Hydrasys (Sebia)].  


Since several years, serum proteins electrophoresis became a routine analysis, mainly performed by agarose gel electrophoresis, frequently semi-automated. We compared the new fully automated capillary electrophoresis system from Sebia, Capillarys, with our reference method, agarose gel electrophoresis Hydrasys (Sebia). This study focused on the evaluation of both the analytical performances and some practical aspects such as ease of use, rapidity, costs. It appears clearly from that study that both methods give similar results for the detection of monoclonal proteins. We notice that the capillary electrophoresis (Capillarys) displays higher sensitivity (97.2%) than the agarose gel electrophoresis Hydrasys (93.5%), however with a lower specificity (93.7 versus 98.9%). On the other hand, the Capillarys method displays obvious practical advantages such as full automation, ease of use and rapidity. PMID:14671753

Lissoir, B; Wallemacq, P; Maisin, D



Serum amyloid A protein enhances the activity of secretory non-pancreatic phospholipase A2.  

PubMed Central

The acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are simultaneously expressed during inflammatory conditions. SAA associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) altering its physicochemical composition. We found that purified acute-phase SAA, but not the constitutive form, markedly enhances the lipolytic activity of sPLA2 in a dose-related manner with phosphatidylcholine/lysophosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine/lysophosphatidylethanolamine liposomal substrates. Normal HDL was found to reduce activity of sPLA2 in a dose-dependent manner, but when acute-phase HDL containing 27% SAA was tested, it enhanced sPLA2 activity. Immunopurified monospecific antibodies against SAA completely abolished the enhancing activity of SAA and acute-phase HDL. Given the central role of HDL in lipoprotein metabolism, the interaction between HDL, SAA and sPLA2 may account for changes detected in lipoprotein metabolism during the acute phase. PMID:7542869

Pruzanski, W; de Beer, F C; de Beer, M C; Stefanski, E; Vadas, P



Doping Human Serum Albumin with Retinoate Markedly Enhances Electron Transport Across the Protein  

E-print Network

Electrons can migrate via proteins over distances that are considered long for non-conjugated systems. Proteins' nano-scale dimensions and the enormous flexibility of their structures and chemistry makes them fascinating subjects for investigating the mechanism of their electron transport (ETp) capacity. One particular attractive research direction is that of tuning their ETp efficiency by doping them with external small molecules. Here we report that solid-state ETp across human serum albumin (HSA) increases by more than two orders of magnitude upon retinoate (RA) binding to HSA. RA was chosen because optical spectroscopy has provided evidence for the non-covalent binding of at least three RA molecules to HSA and indications for their relative structural positions. The temperature dependence of ETp shows that both the activation energy and the distance-decay constant decrease with increasing RA binding to HSA. Furthermore, the observed transition from temperature-activated ETp above 190K to temperature-indep...

Amdursky, Nadav; Sheves, Mordechai; Cahen, David



Immunising with the transmembrane envelope proteins of different retroviruses including HIV-1: a comparative study.  


The induction of neutralizing antibodies is a promising way to prevent retrovirus infections. Neutralizing antibodies are mainly directed against the envelope proteins, which consist of two molecules, the surface envelope (SU) protein and the transmembrane envelope (TM) protein. Antibodies broadly neutralizing the human immunodeficiencvy virus-1 (HIV-1) and binding to the TM protein gp41 of the virus have been isolated from infected individuals. Their epitopes are located in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). Since there are difficulties to induce such neutralizing antibodies as basis for an effective AIDS vaccine, we performed a comparative analysis immunising with the TM proteins of different viruses from the family Retroviridae. Both subfamilies, the Orthoretrovirinae and the Spumaretrovirinae were included. In this study, the TM proteins of three gammaretroviruses including (1) the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), (2) the Koala retrovirus (KoRV), (3) the feline leukemia virus (FeLV), of two lentiviruses, HIV-1, HIV-2, and of two spumaviruses, the feline foamy virus (FFV) and the primate foamy virus (PFV) were used for immunisation. Whereas in all immunisation studies binding antibodies were induced, neutralizing antibodies were only found in the case of the gammaretroviruses. The induced antibodies were directed against the MPER and the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of their TM proteins; however only the antibodies against the MPER were neutralizing. Most importantly, the epitopes in the MPER were localized in the same position as the epitopes of the antibodies broadly neutralizing HIV-1 in the TM protein gp41 of HIV-1, indicating that the MPER is an effective target for the neutralization of retroviruses. PMID:23249763

Denner, Joachim



Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Comprehensive fourteen year report, 1968-1982  

SciTech Connect

A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free chemically defined media. Media containing proteins from whole egg were superior. No single protein would support growth and development, at least two proteins were required. One protein was a transferrin, the second protein could be either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. To determine the path taken by nutrient proteins from medium to embryo, radioactive ovalbumin was prepared. The results showed that intact ovalbumin was taken up by the extra-embryonic yolk-sac and degraded to constituent amino acids within this structure. This observation was difficult to reconcile with the observed responses of the embryo to nutrient proteins. Consideration was given to yolk-sac function. When isolated yolk-sacs were incubated in Ringer's salt solution, they synthesized and secreted a distinct group of proteins. Yolk-sacs cultured on media containing various protein constituents synthesized serum proteins in relative amounts that were distinct for each medium. This suggested that the embryo responses to various culture media were mediated by changes in the relative synthesis of serum proteins. This hypothesis led to two lines of experimentation: what are the mechanisms regulating the relative synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac; and do serum proteins actually provide signals of developmental significance. The first question led to studies with cultures of endodermal cells while the second question led to work on the development of a test for teratological surveillance. (ERB)

Klein, N.W.



Integration of binding peptide selection and multifunctional particles as tool-box for capture of soluble proteins in serum.  


In this paper, we report on a general approach for the detection of a specific tumoural biomarker directly in serum. Such detection is made possible using a protein-binding peptide selected through an improved phage display technique and then conjugated to engineered microparticles (MPs). Protein biomarkers represent an unlimited source of information for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tests; MP-based assays are becoming largely used in manipulation of soluble biomarkers, but their direct use in serum is hampered by the complex biomolecular environment. Our technique overcomes the current limitations as it produces a selective MP--engineered with an antifouling layer--that 'captures' the relevant protein staying impervious to the background. Our system succeeds in fishing-out the human tumour necrosis factor alpha directly in serum with a high selectivity degree. Our method could have great impact in soluble protein manipulation and detection for a wide variety of diagnostic applications. PMID:25100324

Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Moglie, Raffaella Della; Falco, Nunzia; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Aliberti, Anna; Vecchione, Raffaele; Battista, Edmondo; Marasco, Daniela; Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Rega, Nadia; Netti, Paolo Antonio



Isolation and characterization of two distinct mannan-binding proteins from rat serum.  


Two binding proteins, which are specific for mannose and N-acetylglucosamine, were isolated from rat serum to homogeneity. The minor component [serum mannan-binding protein I (S-MBP-I)] was indistinguishable from rat liver mannan-binding protein (L-MBP). S-MBP-I had a molecular mass of about 200 kDa and consisted of about six identical 32-kDa subunits; the molecule had a collagen-like structure, and its properties were identical to those of L-MBP. S-MBP-I was also indistinguishable from L-MBP in immunochemical reactivity. Furthermore, the sequence of 15 NH2-terminal amino acids of S-MBP-I was identical to that of L-MBP, the complete primary structure of which has been elucidated [Drickamer, K., Dordal, M. S., and Reynolds, L. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6878-6887; Oka, S., Itoh, N., Kawasaki, T., and Yamashina, I. (1987) J. Biochem. 101, 135-144]. The major component (S-MBP-II) had a molecular mass of about 650 kDa and consisted of about 20 identical 31-kDa subunits; it was immunochemically distinct from L-MBP and S-MBP-I, although the molecule had a collagen-like structure similar to L-MBP and S-MBP-I. Metabolic studies using [3H]leucine showed that S-MBP-II is a typical plasma protein turning over with a half-life of 1.6 days. S-MBP-I was unusual in its late appearance and rapid turnover rate in plasma. These results, together with the fact that L-MBP decayed with biphasic curves, suggest that a part of L-MBP is leaked from liver into plasma in the form of S-MBP-I. PMID:3124748

Oka, S; Ikeda, K; Kawasaki, T; Yamashina, I



Advanced glycated human serum albumin as AGE-carrier protein in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  


Competitive ELISAs for advanced glycation end product (AGE) measurements are based on anti-AGE-antibody and in vitro prepared AGE-carrier competitive antigen. AGE-human serum albumin (HSA) prepared by non-enzymatic reaction between protein and glucose is often used as a competitive antigen. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of pH on AGE-HSA preparation. The sets of AGE-HSA analyzed by gel filtration chromatography, IEF and UV/VIS showed significant modifications of native albumin. A competitive ELISA was developed by using polyclonal-AGE-antibody and in vitro prepared AGE-HSA at pH 4.5-8.0. AGE-HSA preparations showed an impact on the ELISA ability to recognize AGE-immunoreactivity of serum proteins. The highest AGE-immunoreactivity was recorded with the antigen prepared at pH 4.5; detection limit declined by approximately 50% with antigens prepared at pH 6.5, 7.5 or 8.0. Study results confirmed the impact of pH on the glycation adduct formation, thus significantly modifying the results of competitive ELISA measurements. PMID:19097490

Benko, Bojan; Turk, Zdenka



Short-term space flight on nitrogenous compounds, lipoproteins, and serum proteins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biochemical variables in blood were measured in venous blood samples from 38 to 72 Space Shuttle astronauts before and immediately after flights of 2 to 11 days. Mean pre- and postflight values were compared using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The largest change in serum enzymes was a 21% increase (P = .0014) in gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, which may have been related to stress. The median value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I decreased from 152 to 127 mg/dL (P < .0001), but the change in apo B (77 to 73 mg/dL) was not statistically significant, and the mean apo A-I/apo B ratio remained well above 1.5. A decrease in dietary fat and cholesterol intake during shuttle missions may have been a cause of the change in apo A-I. Twelve of the 16 nonenzyme serum proteins measured were significantly elevated (P < .05), possibly because of hemoconcentration and increased protein catabolism. The 56% increase in haptoglobin may be related to release of suppressed erythropoiesis at landing.

Leach, C. S.; Lane, H. W.; Krauhs, J. M.



Development of an ELISA detecting Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 in serum of prostate cancer patients?  

PubMed Central

Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1) plays an important role during cell stress response in synergy with the potent “genome-keeper” p53. In human, the gene encoding TP53INP1 is expressed at very high level in some pathological situations, such as inflammation and prostate cancer (PC). TP53INP1 overexpression in PC seems to be a worse prognostic factor, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse, making TP53INP1 a relevant specific target for molecular therapy of Castration Resistant (CR) PC. In that context, detection of TP53INP1 in patient biological fluids is a promising diagnostic avenue. We report here successful development of a new Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detecting TP53INP1, taking advantage of molecular tools (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins) generated in the laboratory during the course of basic functional investigations devoted to TP53INP1. The ELISA principle is based on a sandwich immunoenzymatic system, TP53INP1 protein being trapped by a first specific mAb coated on microplate then recognized by a second specific mAb. This new assay allows specific detection of TP53INP1 in serum of several PC patients. This breakthrough paves the way towards investigation of a large cohort of patients and assessment of clinical applications of TP53INP1 dosage. PMID:24600558

Saadi, Houda; Seillier, Marion; Sandi, Maria Jose; Peuget, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Dusetti, Nelson J.; Iovanna, Juan L.; Rocchi, Palma; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice



Differential Effects of Corticosteroids on Serum Eosinophil Cationic Protein and Cytokine Production in Rhinovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Acute Exacerbation of Childhood Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little information is available on eosinophil activation and the cytokine profile in virus-induced acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma; therefore, we examined the effects of treatments that included systemic corticosteroids on serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and 17 cytokines\\/chemokines in rhinovirus- and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus-induced acute exacerbation of childhood asthma. Methods: We measured the peripheral eosinophil count, as well

Masahiko Kato; Yoshiyuki Yamada; Kenichi Maruyama; Yasuhide Hayashi



Identification of the SELDI ProteinChip human serum retentate by microcapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely applied for conducting biomarker research with the goal of discovering patterns of proteins and/or peptides from biological samples that reflect disease status. Many diseases, ranging from cancers of the colon, breast, and prostate to Alzheimer's disease, have been studied through serum protein profiling using SELDI-based methods. Although the results from SELDI-based diagnostic studies have generated a great deal of excitement and skepticism alike, the basis of the molecular identities of the features that underpin the diagnostic potential of the mass spectra is still largely unexplored. A detailed investigation has been undertaken to identify the compliment of serum proteins that bind to the commonly used weak cation exchange (WCX-2) SELDI protein chip. Following incubation and washing of a standard serum sample on the WCX-2 sorbent, proteins were harvested, digested with trypsin, fractionated by strong cation exchange liquid chromatography (LC), and subsequently analyzed by microcapillary reversed-phase LC coupled online with an ion-trap mass spectrometer. This analysis resulted in the identification of 383 unique proteins in the WCX-2 serum retentate. Among the proteins identified, 50 (13%) are documented clinical biomarkers with 36 of these (72%) identified from multiple peptides. PMID:16944932

Zhou, Ming; Prieto, DaRue A; Lucas, David A; Chan, King C; Issaq, Haleem J; Veenstra, Timothy D; Conrads, Thomas P



Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical imprinting was developed to prepare the protein imprinted materials, as the artificial antibody, for the selective depletion of HSA from the human serum proteome. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was employed as the dummy template for the fabrication of the recognition sites. To demonstrate the advantages of the hierarchical imprinting, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique (h-MIPs) were compared with those obtained by bulk imprinting (b-MIPs), in terms of the binding capacity, adsorption kinetics, selectivity and synthesis reproducibility. The binding capacity of h-MIPs could reach 12 mg g-1. And saturation binding could be reached in less than 20 min for the h-MIPs. In the protein mixture, h-MIPs exhibit excellent selectivity for PSA, with imprinting factors as about 3.6, much higher than those for non-template proteins. For the proteomic application, the identified protein group number in serum treated by h-MIPs was increased to 422, which is 21% higher than that obtained from the original serum, meanwhile the identified protein group number for the Albumin Removal kit was only 376. The results demonstrate that protein imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique, might become the artificial antibodies for the selective depletion of high abundance proteins in proteome study.

Liu, Jinxiang; Deng, Qiliang; Tao, Dingyin; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui




Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro study for the determination of the toxicity of some pesticides (gly-phospate and paraquat) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the activities of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), and acid phosphatase (AcP) is described. Changes in electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins were also tested. Results revealed that glyphosate was effective

F. M. El-Demerdash; M. I. Yousef; E. I. Elagamy



Protein G binding to enriched serum immunoglobulin from nondomestic hoofstock species.  


Quick and cost-effective serologic assays, such as those based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology, are useful for screening animal populations for infectious diseases. Recombinant protein G is described as an almost universal ELISA conjugate for the detection of antibodies from a wide range of animal species. However, there is limited data documenting the ability of protein G to bind immunoglobulin (Ig) from many captive and free-ranging nondomestic hoofstock (Order Artiodactyla, e.g., elk, antelope, bison). Protein G binding to Ig from 11 species within this taxonomic order (addax, antelope, bison, bontebok, elk, impala, kudu/nyala, muntjac, oryx, sheep, and white-tailed deer) and 2 control species (bovine and chicken) was assessed. A serum Ig enrichment protocol, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was optimized in bovids (Bos taurus) and then applied to the other study species. Binding assays were performed by adding protein G to microtiter wells coated with titrated dilutions of enriched artiodactyl Ig. Optical densities were measured and binding curves generated. Differences in protein G binding were observed, both within and among species, as well as within taxonomic families. Significant intraspecies binding variation was observed for 7 species tested (antelope, oryx, sheep, muntjac, impala, bontebok, and addax). No statistically significant intraspecies differences in protein G binding were found for Ig from bison, elk, kudu/nyala, white-tailed deer, plus control species (cattle and chicken). Binding of protein G to Ig from impala, muntjac, and elk was statistically different from the positive control (cattle), with muntjac binding curves statistically comparable with the negative control (chicken). For the other 7 species tested, binding curves illustrated the ability of protein G to bind Ig as well as, or better than, the positive control. These findings expand the list of animal species whose Ig is capable of being detected using recombinant protein G, with the caveat that protein G does not bind Ig uniformly in closely related species. It is concluded that recombinant protein G conjugates may serve as useful reagents for serodiagnosis by ELISA in nondomestic hoofstock, although different assay interpretation algorithms and assay protocols may need to be developed on a per species basis for maximum diagnostic effectiveness. PMID:12735347

Kramsky, Joely A; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Collins, Michael T



A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein.  


The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the assay to detect a ?2 fold rise in IgG level in a panel of serum samples from a longitudinal study was compared to a gold standard virus-capture ELISA. A strong association was observed between the assays (p<0.001; chi-squared test) with assay performances remaining similar when the samples were subdivided as having a fold change increase in VP6 antibody levels (a) within 90 days of RV RNA detection in stool or (b) if no RV RNA was detected within that time period. This study demonstrates the suitability of using recombinant proteins to measure anti-RV immune responses and serves as a "proof of principle" to examine the antibody responses generated to other recombinant RV proteins and thereby possibly identify a correlate of protection. PMID:23183143

Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K



Helicobacter pylori Interactions with Host Serum and Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Potential Role in the Infectious Process  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, specifically colonizes the stomachs of humans. Once established in this harsh ecological niche, it remains there virtually for the entire life of the host. To date, numerous virulence factors responsible for gastric colonization, survival, and tissue damage have been described for this bacterium. Nevertheless, a critical feature of H. pylori is its ability to establish a long-lasting infection. In fact, although good humoral (against many bacterial proteins) and cellular responses are observed, most infected persons are unable to eradicate the infection. A large body of evidence has shown that the interaction between H. pylori and the host is very complex. In addition to the effect of virulence factors on colonization and persistence, binding of specialized bacterial proteins, known as receptins, to certain host molecules (ligands) could explain the success of H. pylori as a chronically persisting pathogen. Some of the reported interactions are of high affinity, as revealed by their calculated dissociation constant. This review examines the binding of host proteins (serum and extracellular matrix proteins) to H. pylori and considers the significance of these interactions in the infectious process. A more thorough understanding of the kinetics of these receptin interactions could provide a new approach to preventing deeper tissue invasion in H. pylori infections and could represent an alternative to antibiotic treatment. PMID:12456785

Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Del; Rappuoli, Rino



Differential Denaturation of Serum Proteome Reveals a Significant Amount of Hidden Information in Complex Mixtures of Proteins  

PubMed Central

Recently developed proteomic technologies allow to profile thousands of proteins within a high-throughput approach towards biomarker discovery, although results are not as satisfactory as expected. In the present study we demonstrate that serum proteome denaturation is a key underestimated feature; in fact, a new differential denaturation protocol better discriminates serum proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility as compared to single-denaturation protocols. Sixty nine different denaturation treatments were tested and the 3 most discriminating ones were selected (TRIDENT analysis) and applied to human sera, showing a significant improvement of serum protein discrimination as confirmed by MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS identification, depending on the type of denaturation applied. Thereafter sera from mice and patients carrying cutaneous melanoma were analyzed through TRIDENT. Nine and 8 protein bands were found differentially expressed in mice and human melanoma sera, compared to healthy controls (p<0.05); three of them were found, for the first time, significantly modulated: ?2macroglobulin (down-regulated in melanoma, p<0.001), Apolipoprotein-E and Apolipoprotein-A1 (both up-regulated in melanoma, p<0.04), both in mice and humans. The modulation was confirmed by immunological methods. Other less abundant proteins (e.g. gelsolin) were found significantly modulated (p<0.05). Conclusions: i) serum proteome contains a large amount of information, still neglected, related to proteins folding; ii) a careful serum denaturation may significantly improve analytical procedures involving complex protein mixtures; iii) serum differential denaturation protocol highlights interesting proteomic differences between cancer and healthy sera. PMID:23533572

Polci, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Stefania; Cordella, Martina; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Paolo; Antonini-Cappellini, Giancarlo; Facchiano, Antonio; D'Arcangelo, Daniela; Facchiano, Francesco



Serum thyroid hormone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and protein concentrations in normal horses: association with topical dexamethasone usage.  


The aim of this study was to determine if topical application of dexamethasone affected the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine T(3) and thyroxine T(4)), glucose, triglycerides, total protein and insulin in normal horses. Ten horses were treated twice daily for 10 days with 50 g dexamethasone using an ointment formulation. Thyroid hormones and insulin were assayed using standard radioimmunoassay methods, while glucose, triglycerides and total protein were determined using a standard enzymatic method and the Biuret reaction, respectively. An increase in serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations was accompanied by 2-6-fold increases in serum insulin concentrations, but there was no change in serum total protein concentration. Insulin secretion increased with concomitant hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. A non-significant decline in T(4) secretion was noted. Serum T(3) and T(4) concentrations declined continuously below baseline values from 48 h. Glucose and insulin levels returned to baseline values 3 days after treatment withdrawal, whereas triglycerides reverted to baseline by 7 days. In contrast, baseline values of serum T(3) and T(4) were not reached by 20 days following drug withdrawal. The results indicated that topical administration of dexamethasone affected thyroid function and physiological metabolic functions, which may have implications for potential doping cases in racing horses. PMID:20594877

Abraham, Getu; Allersmeier, Maren; Schusser, Gerald F; Ungemach, Fritz R



Increased serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-3? and cystatin a predict a poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  


This study was aimed to investigate the roles of serum macrophage inflammatory protein-3? (MIP-3?) and cystatin A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) prognosis.The serum levels of MIP-3? and cystatin A in 140 primary NPC patients without distant metastasis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. The results were compared with those in 100 healthy controls. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves of the 2 groups. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors used Cox proportional hazards regression model.Serum levels of MIP-3? and cystatin A in pretreatment patients with NPC were higher than those in healthy controls. Concentrations of these 2 factors in the majority of patients after the therapy decreased to control level. Patients with high serum level of MIP-3? and cystatin A before treatment had poorer overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival than the ones with low level. In addition, serum pretreatment MIP-3? and cystatin A levels were independent prognostic factors for OS and distant metastasis-free survival of NPC patients; serum posttreatment MIP-3? and cystatin A levels were independent prognostic factors of local recurrence-free survival.Our results revealed that serum MIP-3? and cystatin A may be promising candidate prognostic factors for NPC, and higher serum levels of MIP-3? and cystatin A correlate with shorter probability of OS, local recurrence, and distant metastasis. PMID:25396333

Cai, Yonglin; Li, Jun; Lu, Aiying; Zhong, Weiming; Gao, Jianquan; Zheng, Yuming; Zeng, Hong; Wang, Wei; Tang, Minzhong



Pathogenic autoantibodies from patients with lupus nephritis cause reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of podocyte proteins, including tubulin  

PubMed Central

Introduction The tertiary structure of normal podocytes prevents protein from leaking into urine. Patients with lupus nephritis (LN) develop proteinuria, and kidney biopsies from these patients display a number of podocyte abnormalities including retraction of podocyte processes. Autoantibodies have been shown to deposit in the kidneys of patients and mice with LN and are believed to play a key role in causing renal inflammation and dysfunction. The objective of this research was to study the effects of IgG antibodies from patients with LN on cultured human podocytes. Methods We exposed a human podocyte cell line to heat-inactivated (HI) plasma and purified polyclonal IgG from the following groups of subjects; patients with LN, patients with lupus without nephritis, patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls. We measured expression and intracellular distribution of podocyte-specific proteins and global phosphorylation of tyrosine. We then used mass spectrometry to identify the major protein targets of this phosphorylation. Results HI LN plasma did not alter expression or cellular distribution of podocyte-specific proteins but caused a significant reduction in podocyte protein tyrosine phosphorylation compared with plasma from healthy controls (p=0.0008). This result was replicated using purified IgG but was not seen with plasma from rheumatoid arthritis or non-renal lupus patients. The dominant tyrosine phosphorylated protein in podocytes was 55?kDa in size and was identified as tubulin. Conclusions Since tubulin is an important component of podocyte major processes, these results suggest that autoantibodies from LN patients may exert an important pathogenic effect by dephosphorylation of this protein in podocytes.

Manson, Jessica J; Mills, Kevin; Jury, Elizabeth; Mason, Lesley; D'Cruz, David P; Ni, Lan; Saleem, Moin; Mathieson, Peter; Isenberg, David; Rahman, Anisur



An electrochemical immunosensor to minimize the nonspecific adsorption and to improve sensitivity of protein assays in human serum.  


An electrochemical immunoassay which minimizes nonspecific protein adsorption and improves detection sensitivity of proteomic cancer biomarker is described. Our technique comprises two novel features: (i) a high density terminally functionalized poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) 'brush' layer is grown by surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method from the electrode surface in order to minimize nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins and other biomolecules, and (ii) a signal amplifying 'bionanoconjugate' comprised of graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with CdSe quantum dots and recombinant single-chain variable fragments towards MSLN, is used to 'physically' amplify the anodic stripping voltammetric signal. This method enabled a detection limit of ca. 1 pg/mL MSLN (RSD=4.6%, n=4) spiked in serum samples. Because of the simple, specific and sensitive nature of this methodology, we feel that it may find potential use in serum-based protein diagnostics. PMID:22705407

Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Kithva, Prakash H; Kozak, Darby; Trau, Matt



Serum retinol binding protein 4 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  


Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a protein secreted by adipocytes, and closely associated with insulin resistance. Whereas RBP4 is also mainly expressed in hepatocytes as the principal transport protein for retinol (vitamin A) in the circulation, and its pathophysiological role in liver remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between RBP4 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Serum RBP4 and adiponectin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 52 diabetic patients who had NAFLD and 50 sex- and age-matched diabetic patients without any clinical features of liver diseases who had normal liver ultrasonic appearance and normal liver function. Serum RBP4 levels were elevated in diabetic patients with NAFLD (32.0+/-8.9 microg/ml vs. 41.3+/-9.8 microg/ml, p<0.001), while adiponectin decreased (17.4+/-9.3 microg/ml vs. 13.8+/-7.0 microg/ml, p=0.032). Male diabetic patients had higher serum RBP4 concentration and lower serum adiponectin concentration than female diabetic patients (38.5+/-9.9 microg/ml vs. 34.0+/-10.7 microg/ml, p=0.031 and 12.7+/-5.7 microg/ml vs. 20.23+/-9.8 microg/ml, p<0.001, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed RBP4 and triglyceride as independent association factors for NAFLD, while the association between serum adiponectin and NAFLD was not significant. Increasing concentrations of RBP4 were independently and significantly associated with NAFLD in diabetic patients. In multiple linear regression analysis, alanine aminotransferase, fasting serum insulin and adiponectin were independent factors for serum RBP4 level. The study demonstrates that retinol binding protein 4 might contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:17904683

Wu, Haiya; Jia, Weiping; Bao, Yuqian; Lu, Junxi; Zhu, Jiehua; Wang, Ren; Chen, Yaqing; Xiang, Kunsan



Decreased serum protein associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis shedding in German Holstein cows.  


Using well established metabolic parameters, this study aimed to substantiate differences in protein and energy metabolism between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) positive and negative dairy cows tested by faecal culture. A total of 227 MAP-positive and 239 MAP-negative German Holstein cows kept in 13 MAP-positive dairy herds were selected for metabolic testing. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP), bilirubin, cholesterol and betahydroxybutyrate were measured as well as the activities of Glutamate-Dehydrogenase (GLDH) and Aspartate-Aminotransferase. MAP-positive cows were characterised by a decreased mean TP (66.5 g/l) compared to the MAP-negative controls (73.2 g/l). Mean log10 GLDH activities tended to be higher in MAP-positive than MAP-negative cows. Concerning TP, there was a significant interaction between MAP status and farm. Within four farms, the difference between MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals differed significantly, while in the other farms this difference was not significant. It is concluded that a decreased TP and an increased GLDH indicate alterations in protein metabolism. These findings suggest an enhanced liver cell turnover in MAP-positive cows. The results contribute to an understanding of the metabolic alterations in MAP-positive dairy cows. PMID:24578317

Donat, K; Erhardt, G; Soschinka, A; Brandt, H R



Characteristics of retinol accumulation from serum retinol-binding protein by cultured sertoli cells  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of retinol was examined in cultured Sertoli cells when retinol was provided as a complex with the transport protein retinol-binding protein (RBP). Sertoil cells accumulated ({sup 3}H)retinol in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The change in rate of retinol accumulation occurred when the cells had accumulated approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol/{mu}g of cellular DNA. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the cell-associated radioactivity yielded retinol and retinyl esters, indicating that a significant proportion of the accumulated retinol was esterified. Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with ({sup 3}H)retinol-RBP for ({sup 3}H)retinol delivery to the cells, indicating that RBP delivery of retinol was a saturable and competable process. However, free ({sup 3}H)retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a noncompetable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 3.0 {mu}M. Neither iodinated nor reductively methylated RBP was accumulated by or tightly bound to Sertoli cells. Competition studies indicated, however, that protein recognition is important in the retinol uptake process. RBP, CRBP, and CRBP(II) competed with ({sup 3}H)retinol-RBP for ({sup 3}H)retinol accumulation, but free retinol, retinol-bovine serum albumin, and retinol-{beta}-lactoglobulin did not. These studies indicated that Sertoli cell uptake of retinol involved recognition of the retinol-RBP complex at the cell surface with subsequent internalization of retinol, but not RBP.

Shingleton, J.L.; Skinner, M.K.; Ong, D.E. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))



Developing column material for the separation of serum amyloid P and C reactive protein from biological sources.  


In this study, we have investigated the isolation of serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) from rainbow trout. It has recently been found that SAP is deposited in atherosclerotic lesions or neurofibrillary tangles, which are related to aging process and Alzheimer's disease. Given the importance of CRP, the CRP level in blood is becoming recognized as a potential means of monitoring cardiovascular risk. These two proteins, members of the pentraxin family of oligomeric serum proteins, were isolated from rainbow trout using N-methacryloyl-phosphoserine (MA-pSer) immobilized poly (2-hydroxy ethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogels as a column material in a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The separation process was verified in two steps. First, SAP and CRP proteins were isolated together from serum sample of rainbow trout using MA-pSer/PHEMA cryogel columns. Second, SAP protein was separated chromatographically from CRP protein using the Ca(2+) ion immobilized PHEMA cryogel column. According to the data, a new and effective technique has been developed for the isolation of SAP and CRP proteins from a biological source, rainbow trout. Finally, purified SAP and CRP were loaded using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel and western blot analysis to investigate the purity of chromatographically isolated SAP and CRP compared with commertial SAP and CRP. PMID:24827758

Ersöz, Arzu; Ünlüer, Özlem Biçen; Dönmez, Gülnur; Hür, Deniz; Say, R Dvan



Effect of Langmuir monolayer of bovine serum albumin protein on the morphology of calcium carbonate  

E-print Network

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Langmuir monolayer, as a model of biomineralization-associated proteins, was used to study its effect on regulated biomineralization of calcium carbonate. The effects of the BSA Langmuir monolayer and the concentration of the subphase solution on the nucleation and growth processes and morphology of the calcium carbonate crystal were investigated. The morphology and polymorphic phase of the resulting calcium carbonate crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Moreover, the interaction mechanisms of the subphase solution with the BSA Langmuir monolayer were discussed. It was found that BSA Langmuir monolayer could be used as a template to successfully manipulate the polymorphic phase and crystal morphology of calcium carbonate and had obvious influence on the oriented crystallization and growth. The final morphology or aggregation mode of the calcite crystal was closely dependent on the concentration of calcium bicarbonate...

Xue, Zhong-Hui; Hu, Bin-Bin; Du, Zu-Liang; 10.1016/j.msec.2009.03.016



3H-Cymarol in man. Excretion pathways and serum protein binding.  


In 10 patients, 5 having received 3H-cymarol i.v., 5 orally, the radioactivity in plasma, urine and in the feces of some patients also was determined. After oral administration the plasma levels rose rapidly reaching maximum levels 1--2 h after administration. After i.v. injection about 30% of the given radioactivity were excreted in the urine. The remaining radioactivity was found in the feces suggesting a high biliary excretion. Only 10% of the radioactivity excreted in the first 24 h were chloroform-extractable. The radioactivity found in the urine after oral administration of the drug amounted to 17.6%. Between 51.1 and 58.5% of the drug were bound to serum proteins. PMID:582706

Gundert-Remy, U; Weber, E; Rabl, W



Association of elevated serum heat-shock protein 70 concentration with transient hypertension of pregnancy, preeclampsia and superimposed preeclampsia: a case-control study.  


Our aim was to investigate the association between serum heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 concentration and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. One hundred and forty-two pregnant women with hypertensive disorders (93 with preeclampsia, 29 with transient hypertension of pregnancy and 20 with superimposed preeclampsia) and 127 normotensive, healthy pregnant women were included in the study. Serum Hsp70 concentration was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum Hsp70 concentration was significantly higher in patients with transient hypertension of pregnancy, in preeclamptic patients and in patients with superimposed preeclampsia than in the control group (median (25-75 percentile): 0.66 (0.52-0.84), 0.55 (0.42-0.80), 0.61 (0.42-0.91) ng/ml vs 0.31 (0.27-0.39) ng/ml, respectively; P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed independent association of elevated serum Hsp70 level with transient hypertension of pregnancy, preeclampsia and superimposed preeclampsia. The difference in serum Hsp70 concentration between preeclamptic patients and the control group was statistically significant in each gestational age category. In the groups of preeclamptic and superimposed preeclamptic patients, there was no significant difference in serum Hsp70 concentration between mild and severe preeclamptic patients, between patients with late and early onset of the disease, as well as between preeclamptic patients without and with foetal growth restriction. In conclusion, serum Hsp70 concentration is elevated in transient hypertension of pregnancy, in preeclampsia and in superimposed preeclampsia. Circulating Hsp70 may not only be a marker for these conditions, but might also play a role in their pathogenesis. However, further studies are needed to explore its role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:16761027

Molvarec, A; Prohászka, Z; Nagy, B; Szalay, J; Füst, G; Karádi, I; Rigó, J



Detection of Colorectal Cancer by Serum and Tissue Protein Profiling: A Prospective Study in a Population at Risk  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Europe and its prognosis is largely dependent on stage at diagnosis. Currently, there are no suitable tumour markers for early detection of CRC. In a retrospective study we previously found discriminative CRC serum protein profiles with surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation—time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). We now aimed at prospective validation of these profiles. Additionally, we assessed their applicability for follow-up after surgery and investigated tissue protein profiles of patients with CRC and adenomatous polyps (AP). Serum and tissue samples were collected from patients without known malignancy with an indication for colonoscopy and patients with AP and CRC during colonoscopy. Serum samples of controls (CON; n = 359), patients with AP (n = 177) and CRC (n = 73), as well as tissue samples from AP (n = 52) and CRC (n = 47) were analysed as described previously. Peak intensities were compared by non-parametric testing. Discriminative power of differentially expressed proteins was assessed with support vector machines (SVM). We confirmed the decreased serum levels of apolipoprotein C-1 in CRC in the current population. No differences were observed between CON and AP. Apolipoprotein C-I levels did not change significantly within 1 month post-surgery, although a gradual return to normal levels was observed. Several proteins differed between AP and CRC tissue, among which a peak with similar mass as apolipoprotein C-1. This peak was increased in CRC compared to AP. Although we prospectively validated the serum decrease of apolipoprotein C-1 in CRC, serum protein profiles did not yield SVM classifiers with suitable sensitivity and specificity for classification of our patient groups. PMID:19578519

Engwegen, Judith Y.M.N.; Depla, Annekatrien C.T.M.; Smits, Marianne E.; Cats, Annemieke; Tuynman, Henriëtte; van Heukelem, Henk A.; Snel, Pleun; Meuleman, Wouter; Wessels, Lodewyk F.; Schellens, Jan H.M.; Beijnen, Jos H.



Modulated photophysics of a cationic DNA-staining dye inside protein bovine serum albumin: study of binding interaction and structural changes of protein.  


The binding affinity of cationic DNA-staining dye, propidium iodide, with transport protein, bovine serum albumin, has been explored using UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies authenticate that fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin by propidium iodide is due to bovine serum albumin-propidium iodide complex formation. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from temperature dependent spectral studies cast light on binding interaction between the probe and protein. Site marker competitive binding has been encountered using phenylbutazone and flufenamic acid for site I and site II, respectively. Energy transfer efficiency and distance between bovine serum albumin and propidium iodide have been determined using Förster mechanism. Structural stabilization or destabilization of protein by propidium iodide has been investigated by urea denaturation study. The circular dichroism study as well as FT-IR measurement demonstrates some configurational changes of the protein in presence of the dye. Docking studies support the experimental data thereby reinforcing the binding site of the probe to the subdomain IIA of bovine serum albumin. PMID:24216153

Samanta, Anuva; Jana, Sankar; Ray, Debarati; Guchhait, Nikhil



Mass spectrometric discovery and selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of putative protein biomarker candidates in first trimester Trisomy 21 maternal serum.  


The accurate diagnosis of Trisomy 21 requires invasive procedures that carry a risk of miscarriage. The current state-of-the-art maternal serum screening tests measure levels of PAPP-A, free bhCG, AFP, and uE3 in various combinations with a maximum sensitivity of 60-75% and a false positive rate of 5%. There is currently an unmet need for noninvasive screening tests with high selectivity that can detect pregnancies at risk, preferably within the first trimester. The aim of this study was to apply proteomics and mass spectrometry techniques for the discovery of new putative biomarkers for Trisomy 21 in first trimester maternal serum coupled with the immediate development of quantitative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays. The results of the novel workflow were 2-fold: (1) we identified a list of differentially expressed proteins in Trisomy 21 vs Normal samples, including PAPP-A, and (2) we developed a multiplexed, high-throughput SRM assay for verification of 12 new putative markers identified in the discovery experiments. To narrow down the initial large list of differentially expressed candidates resulting from the discovery experiments, we incorporated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve algorithms early in the data analysis process. We believe this approach provides a substantial advantage in sifting through the large and complex data typically obtained from discovery experiments. The workflow efficiently mined information derived from high-resolution LC-MS/MS discovery data for the seamless construction of rapid, targeted assays that were performed on unfractionated serum digests. The SRM assay lower limit of detection (LLOD) for the target peptides in a background of digested serum matrix was approximately 250-500 attomoles on column and the limit of accurate quantitation (LOQ) was approximately 1-5 femtomoles on column. The assay error as determined by coefficient of variation at LOQ and above ranged from 0 to 16%. The workflow developed in this study bridges the gap between proteomic biomarker discovery and translation into a clinical research environment. Specifically, for Trisomy 21, the described multiplexed SRM assay provides a vehicle for high-throughput verification of these, and potentially other, peptide candidates on larger sample cohorts. PMID:20499897

Lopez, Mary F; Kuppusamy, Ramesh; Sarracino, David A; Prakash, Amol; Athanas, Michael; Krastins, Bryan; Rezai, Taha; Sutton, Jennifer N; Peterman, Scott; Nicolaides, Kypros



Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and C-reactive protein in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has frequently been associated with vitamin D deficiency as well as chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in a cohort of HIV-positive people. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people (181 men and 135 women) aged 16 to 60 years residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Serum high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by the latex agglutination nephelometry method and the competitive protein-binding assay, respectively. The relationship between serum CRP concentrations and 25(OH)D serum level was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment of potential cardiovascular and HIV-related factors. The proportions of participants with 25(OH)D serum levels <20 ng/ml, 20-30 ng/ml, and ?30 ng/ml were 83.2%, 15.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. The mean 25(OH)D serum levels in men and women were 15.3 ng/ml and 14.4 ng/ml, respectively. Participants with a 25(OH)D serum level of <20 ng/ml had a 3.2-fold higher odds of high CRP (>3 mg/liter) compared to those with a 25(OH)D serum level of ?20 ng/ml (p=0.005). Men and women with a 25(OH)D serum level of <20 ng/ml had 3.2- and 2.7-fold higher odds of high CRP (>3 mg/liter), respectively, compared to those with a 25(OH)D serum level of ?20 ng/ml. The relationships remained significant only in men (p =0.02) but not in women (p=0.28). The risk of having a high level of inflammation (CRP>3 mg/liter) may be high among HIV-positive men and women with a 25(OH)D serum level of <20 ng/ml. PMID:23003113

Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine; Kobayashi, Jun; Johnson, C Anderson; Palmer, Paula H



Animal model evaluation of dairy goats for milk, fat, and protein yields with crossbred animals included.  


Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred animals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds were processed simultaneously and evaluations of relatives included data from does without a first lactation record and from later herds for does that changed herds. Unknown parent groups were defined for each breed except Oberhasli, which was grouped with the Alpine breed because of small population size. Management groups were 2-mo seasons with separate groups for first and later lactations. Management groups with fewer than five lactation records were combined with other groups until five lactations were included or the management group was 10-mo long. Evaluations for milk and fat were computed for 141,003 animals: 80,227 does with lactation records, 34,294 dams without records, and 26,482 bucks. About 70% of animals had protein evaluations. Genetic trend in 1984 for the five breeds with largest population sizes ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 kg/yr for milk yield. PMID:2592651

Wiggans, G R



Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering.  


In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:24708858

Kasálková, Nikola Slepi?ková; Slepi?ka, Petr; Kolská, Zde?ka; Hoda?ová, Petra; Ku?ková, St?pánka; Svor?ík, Václav



Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:24708858



Brief characterization of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) immunoglobulin G (IgG) separated from serum on protein A.  


Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) immunoglobulin fraction was separated from whole serum by Protein A Sepharose chromatography. In serum electrophoresis, this fraction had a gamma motility; when electrophoresed on a polyacrylamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate it resolved into two protein bands of approximately 52 and 25 kilodaltons, respectively. These bands were consistent with molecular weights of known heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in other closely related species. Furthermore, the putative muskrat immunoglobulins had a strong cross-reactivity with mouse IgG1, IgG3, and kappa chain in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We propose, that the proteins bound to the Protein A Sepharose represent muskrat immunoglobulins of the IgG class. PMID:9359072

Borucinska, J D; Ayoub, I; Garmendia, A E



Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

Kasálková, Nikola Slepi?ková; Slepi?ka, Petr; Kolská, Zde?ka; Hoda?ová, Petra; Ku?ková, Št?pánka; Švor?ík, Václav



Effect of Langmuir monolayer of bovine serum albumin protein on the morphology of calcium carbonate  

E-print Network

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Langmuir monolayer, as a model of biomineralization-associated proteins, was used to study its effect on regulated biomineralization of calcium carbonate. The effects of the BSA Langmuir monolayer and the concentration of the subphase solution on the nucleation and growth processes and morphology of the calcium carbonate crystal were investigated. The morphology and polymorphic phase of the resulting calcium carbonate crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Moreover, the interaction mechanisms of the subphase solution with the BSA Langmuir monolayer were discussed. It was found that BSA Langmuir monolayer could be used as a template to successfully manipulate the polymorphic phase and crystal morphology of calcium carbonate and had obvious influence on the oriented crystallization and growth. The final morphology or aggregation mode of the calcite crystal was closely dependent on the concentration of calcium bicarbonate solution. It is expected that this research would help to better understand the mechanism of biomineralization by revealing the interactions between protein matrices and crystallization of calcium carbonate crystal.

Zhong-Hui Xue; Shu-Xi Dai; Bin-Bin Hu; Zu-Liang Du



A fluorescence aptasensor based on DNA charge transport for sensitive protein detection in serum.  


A novel fluorescence aptasensor based on DNA charge transport for sensitive protein detection has been developed. A 15nt DNA aptamer against thrombin was used as a model system. The aptamer was integrated into a double strand DNA (dsDNA) that was labeled with a hole injector, naphthalimide (NI), and a fluorophore, Alexa532, at its two ends. After irradiation by UV light, the fluorescence of Alexa532 was bleached due to the oxidization of Alexa532 by the positive charge transported from naphthalimide through the dsDNA. In the presence of thrombin, the binding of thrombin to the aptamer resulted in the unwinding of the dsDNA into ssDNA, which led to the blocking of charge transfer and the strong fluorescence emission of Alexa532. By monitoring the fluorescence signal change, we were able to detect thrombin in homogeneous solutions with high selectivity and high sensitivity down to 1.2 pM. Moreover, as DNA charge transfer is resistant to interferences from biological contexts, the aptasensor can be used directly in undiluted serum with similar sensitivity as that in buffer. This new sensing strategy is expected to promote the exploitation of aptamer-based biosensors for protein assays in complex biological matrixes. PMID:21949940

Zhang, Xinyue; Zhao, Zilong; Mei, Hongcheng; Qiao, Yupu; Liu, Qiaoling; Luo, Wangxi; Xia, Tie; Fang, Xiaohong



Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.  


Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E



Correlation Between Proinflammatory Serum Markers: High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin6 with Disability Score in Acute Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke being the third leading cause of death and foremost cause of disability, if potential diagnostic utility of blood borne\\u000a protein biomarkers in predicting acute stroke is established, it would be a substantial adjunct to computerized tomography\\u000a and magnetic resonance imaging which have their own limitations. This study was done to correlate serum Interleukin 6, high\\u000a sensitivity C reactive protein

Anuradha Bharosay; Kiran Saxena; Meena Varma; Vivek Vikram Bharosay; Aparna Pandey


Characterization of protein degradation in serum-based lubricants during simulation wear testing of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.  


A size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) method has been developed which is capable of separation and quantitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum globulin (BSG) components of serum-based lubricant (SBL) solutions. This allowed characterization of the stability profiles of these proteins when acting as lubricants during hip wear simulation, and identification of wear-specific mechanisms of degradation. Using cobalt-chromium metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints, it was observed that BSA remained stable for up to 3 days (215K cycles) of wear testing after which the protein degraded in a fairly linear fashion. BSG on the other hand, began to degrade immediately and in a linear fashion with a rate constant of 5% per day. Loss of both proteins occurred via the formation of high molecular weight aggregates which precipitated out of solution. No fragmentation of the polypeptide backbone of either protein was observed. Data obtained suggest that protein degradation was not due to microbial contamination, denaturation at the air-water interface, or frictional heating of articulating joint surfaces in these studies. We conclude that the primary source of protein degradation during MOM simulation testing occurs via high shear rates experienced by SBL solutions at articulating surfaces, possibly coupled with metal-protein interactions occurring as new and reactive metal surfaces are generated during wear testing. The development of this analytical methodology will allow new studies to clarify the role of SBL solutions in wear simulation studies and the interactions and lubricating properties of serum proteins with prosthetic surfaces other than MOM. PMID:20583304

Maskiewicz, Victoria K; Williams, Paul A; Prates, Sarah J; Bowsher, John G; Clarke, Ian C



Free serum concentrations of the protein-bound retention solute p-cresol predict mortality in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on in vitro data, protein-bound uremic retention solutes have increasingly been recognized to play a pathophysiological role in the uremic syndrome. p-Cresol, a representative of this group of molecules, has been shown to be implicated in uremic immunodeficiency and endothelial dysfunction, potentially linking its serum levels to mortality. Thus far, however, no clinical information on this issue is available.

B Bammens; P Evenepoel; H Keuleers; K Verbeke; Y Vanrenterghem



Serum thyroid hormone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and protein concentrations in normal horses: Association with topical dexamethasone usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if topical application of dexamethasone affected the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4), glucose, triglycerides, total protein and insulin in normal horses. Ten horses were treated twice daily for 10days with 50g dexamethasone using an ointment formulation. Thyroid hormones and insulin were assayed using standard radioimmunoassay methods, while

Getu Abraham; Maren Allersmeier; Gerald F. Schusser; Fritz R. Ungemach



Bioinformatics characterization of differential proteins in serum of mothers carrying Down syndrome fetuses: combining bioinformatics and ELISA  

PubMed Central

Introduction Characterization of novel proteins in maternal serum derived from mothers carrying Down syndrome (DS) fetuses. Material and methods Based on last comparative proteomic analysis, five significant differences of expressed proteins in serum from four groups have been confirmed by ELISA. DAVID and GeneGo MetaCore were used to bioinformatically analyze candidate protein markers. Results The serum levels of ceruloplasmin (CP) and complement factor B (CFB) were significantly increased in mother carried DS fetuses (346.5 ng/ml and 466.8 ng/ml vs. 248.6 ng/ml and 293.5 ng/ml, p< 0.05). Twenty-nine proteins were mainly categorized into binding, catalytic activity and enzyme regulator activity proteins, and their biological roles were involved in biological regulation, metabolic processes, cellular processes, and response to stimuli. The immune response alternative complement pathway was the most significant GeneGo Pathway related to DS. Conclusions These 29 proteins have relations with the development of Down syndrome, especially CP and CFB play more important roles. PMID:22661988

Yu, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Ye; Shao, Shi-he; Huang, Rui-ping; Yang, Yu-qi



Evaluation of sialic acids and their correlation with acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinically healthy Iranian camels ( Camelus dromedarius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to define the reference range for sialic acids and to investigate their correlation with acute-phase\\u000a proteins (haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A) in clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Serum Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA), total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA), and protein-bound sialic acid\\u000a (PBSA) were measured in 103 clinically healthy camels by

Saeed Nazifi; A. Oryan; M. Ansari-Lari; M. R. Tabandeh; A. Mohammadalipour; M. Gowharnia


Toward standardized high-throughput serum diagnostics: multiplex-protein array identifies IL-8 and VEGF as serum markers for colon cancer.  


Development and progression of colon cancer may be related to cytokines. Cytokines with diagnostic value have been identified individually but have not been implemented into clinical praxis. Using a multiplex protein array, the authors explore a panel of cytokines simultaneously and compared its performance to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). Serum concentrations of 12 cytokines were simultaneously determined by multiplex biochip technology in 50 colon cancer patients and 50 healthy controls. Serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CEA were significantly higher in cancer patients than in healthy controls. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were largest for IL-8, followed by CEA, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and CA 19-9. Analyses regarding marker combinations showed an advantage over single marker performance for CEA, VEGF, and CA 19-9 but not for IL-8. Multiplex biochip array technology represents a practical tool in cytokine and cancer research when simultaneous determination of different biomarkers is of interest. The results suggest that the assessment of IL-8, CEA, VEGF, and possibly CA 19-9 serum levels could be useful for colon cancer screening with the potential of also detecting early stage tumors. Further validation studies using these and additional markers on a multiplex array format are encouraged. PMID:21807963

Bünger, Stefanie; Haug, Ulrike; Kelly, Frances Maria; Klempt-Giessing, Katja; Cartwright, Andrew; Posorski, Nicole; Dibbelt, Leif; Fitzgerald, Stephen Peter; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Roblick, Uwe Johannes; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Brenner, Hermann; Habermann, Jens Karsten



Identification of serum sirtuins as novel noninvasive protein markers for frailty.  


Frailty has emerged as a major health issue among older patients. A consensus on definition and diagnosis is yet to be achieved. Various biochemical abnormalities have been reported in frailty. Activation of sirtuins, a conserved family of NAD-dependent proteins, is one of the many mimics of calorie restriction which improves lifespan and health in experimental animals. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the circulating sirtuin levels in 119 (59.5%) nonfrail and 81 (40.5%) frail individuals, diagnosed by Fried's criteria. Serum SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 were estimated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Western blot. Serum sirtuins level in mean+SD; SIRT1 (nonfrail -4.67 ± 0.48 ng/?L; frail - 3.72 ± 0.48 ng/?L; P < 0.0001), SIRT2 (nonfrail - 15.18 ± 2.94 ng/?L; frail - 14.19 ± 2.66 ng/?L; P = 0.016), and SIRT3 (nonfrail-7.72 ± 1.84 ng/?L; frail - 6.12 ± 0.97 ng/?L; P < 0.0001) levels were significantly lower among frail patients compared with the nonfrail. In multivariable regression analysis, lower sirtuins level were significantly associated with frailty after adjusting age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination scores) and number of comorbidities. For detecting the optimum diagnostic cutoff value a ROC analysis was carried out. The area under curve for SIRT1 was 0.9037 (cutoff - 4.29 ng/?L; sensitivity - 81.48%; specificity - 79.83%) and SIRT3 was 0.7988 (cutoff - 6.61 ng/?L; sensitivity - 70.37%; specificity - 70.59%). This study shows that lower circulating SIRT1 and SIRT3 levels can be distinctive marker of frailty. PMID:25100619

Kumar, Rahul; Mohan, Navinath; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Singh, Amrendra Pratap; Sahu, Vishal; Dwivedi, Sadanand; Dey, Aparajit B; Dey, Sharmistha



Daytime napping, sleep duration and serum C reactive protein: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore whether daytime napping and sleep duration are linked to serum C reactive protein (CRP), a pro-inflammatory marker, in an older aged British population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study. Participants A total of 5018 men and women aged 48–92?years reported their sleep habits and had serum CRP levels measured. Outcome and measures CRP was measured (mg/L) during 2006–2011 in fresh blood samples using high-sensitivity methods. Participants reported napping habits during 2002–2004, and reported sleep quantity during 2006–2007. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between napping and log-transformed CRP, and geometric mean CRP levels were calculated. Results After adjustment for age and sex, those who reported napping had 10% higher CRP levels compared with those not napping. The association was attenuated but remained borderline significant (?=0.05 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.10)) after further adjustment for social class, education, marital status, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported health, pre-existing diseases, systolic blood pressure, hypnotic drug use, depression and in women-only hormone replacement therapy use. The geometric means (95% CI) of CRP levels were 2.38 (2.29 to 2.47) mg/L and 2.26 (2.21 to 2.32) mg/L for those who reported napping and no napping, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed between time spent in bed at night and CRP levels, and nighttime sleep duration was not associated with serum CRP levels. The association between napping and CRP was stronger for older participants, and among extremes of time spent in bed at night. Conclusions Daytime napping was associated with increased CRP levels in an older aged British population. Further studies are needed to determine whether daytime napping is a cause for systemic inflammation, or if it is a symptom or consequence of underlying health problems. PMID:25387759

Leng, Yue; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee



Transcortin and vitamin D-binding protein levels in mouse serum.  


The influence of age, sex and strain on the serum concentration of transcortin (corticosteroid-binding globulin) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) in mice was investigated. The effect of age was studied in two strains, C57BL/6JPfd and BALB/cmHeAPfd. The concentration of transcortin and DBP increased with age. In young animals the concentration of each protein showed a significant strain difference, which disappeared in older mice for DBP, but not for transcortin. In 7-day-old animals, no sex difference was observed for either protein, but in older animals a clear sex difference was found for transcortin. Adult males tended to have somewhat higher levels of DBP than adult females, but this difference was significant only on day 70. The variation in transcortin and DBP levels was further investigated in a large number of mouse strains. The DBP concentration did not markedly vary among strains (5.98-9.65 mumol/l in males and 5.08-8.85 mumol/l in females). Transcortin, however, showed marked strain variations, ranging from 0.72 to 2.06 mumol/l in males and from 1.02 to 4.55 mumol/l in females and there was a significant correlation (r = 0.66, n = 26, P less than 0.001) between the mean transcortin levels in males and females of different strains. Interstrain variation was much higher than intrastrain variation or variation among related strains, suggesting that the transcortin concentration is largely controlled by genetically determined factors. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.82, n = 9, P less than 0.01) between the mean corticosterone and transcortin concentrations (measured at 21.00 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3711757

Faict, D; De Moor, P; Bouillon, R; Heyns, W; Heiniger, H J; Corrow, D; Lesaffre, E




PubMed Central

This study examined the use of affinity microcolumns as tools for the rapid analysis and high-throughput screening of drug-protein binding. The protein used was immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) and the model analytes were warfarin and L-tryptophan, two solutes often used as site-specific probes for drug binding to Sudlow sites I and II of HSA, respectively. The use of HSA microcolumns in binding studies was examined by using both zonal elution and frontal analysis formats. The zonal elution studies were conducted by injecting the probe compounds onto HSA microcolumns of varying lengths while measuring the resulting retention factors, plate heights and peak asymmetries. A decrease in the retention factor was noted when moving from longer to shorter column lengths while using a constant amount of injected solute. However, this change could be corrected, in part, by determining the relative retention factor of a solute versus a reference compound injected onto the same microcolumn. The plate height values were relatively consistent for all column lengths and gave an expected increase at higher linear velocities. The peak asymmetries were similar for all columns up to 1 mL/min but shifted to larger values at higher flow rates and when using short microcolumns (e.g., 1 mm length). The association equilibrium constants and number of binding sites estimated by frontal analysis for warfarin with HSA were consistent at the various columns sizes that were tested and gave good agreement with previous literature values. These results confirmed affinity microcolumns provide comparable results to those obtained with longer columns and can be used in the rapid analysis of drug-protein binding and in the high-throughput screening of such interactions. PMID:20462808

Yoo, Michelle J.; Schiel, John E.; Hage, David S.



Radioimmunoassay of glycated serum protein using monoclonal antibody to glucitollysine and coomassie-brilliant-blue-coated polystyrene beads.  


A radioimmunoassay for glycated serum protein (GSP) was developed using monoclonal antibody to glucitollysine and polystyrene beads coated with Coomassie-Brilliant-Blue (CBB) as adsorbent for serum protein. The monoclonal antibody was raised by immunizing BALB/c mice with reduced glycated LDL and fusing their spleen cells with mouse myeloma cells. CBB-coated polystyrene beads were introduced to absorb a constant amount of serum protein. The protein adsorbed on the CBB-coated beads was reduced by NaHB4, and after treatment with radiolabeled antibody, the radioactivity of each bead was counted with an automatic gamma-counter. The standard glycated protein used was reduced glycated human serum albumin, in which 8 of 59 lysine residues were glycated. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of GSP were 4.8-6.5% and 1.6-6.0%, respectively. The GSP level of diabetic patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls (1.97 +/- 1.23 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.21 nmol/mg-protein; mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). The GSP levels of patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were 3.03 +/- 1.05 and 1.51 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg-protein, respectively. A good correlation was found between the levels of GSP and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (r = 0.85, p less than 0.001). In patients admitted to the hospital for diabetes education and glycemic control, the GSP level decreased 43 +/- 12% with the decrease in the fasting plasma glucose level (39 +/- 13%) and the mean daily plasma glucose level (MPG, 47 +/- 15%) in a four week period after admission, whereas the HbA1c level decreased only 13 +/- 6% during this period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2515933

Yamamoto, Y; Tahara, Y; Cha, T; Noma, Y; Fukuda, M; Yamato, E; Yoneda, H; Hashimoto, F; Ohboshi, C; Hirota, M



Increased serum C-reactive protein level in Japanese patients of psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.  


Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which may be associated with metabolic syndrome accompanied by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Ninety-seven psoriasis vulgaris patients and 79 healthy controls were assessed for serum CRP levels by immunoturbidimetry. The data were analyzed in terms of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, and comorbidity of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. There was no significant difference between male and female CRP levels in either psoriasis or healthy controls. No correlation was detected between PASI scores and serum CRP levels, either. Psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with those without the diseases. Furthermore, psoriasis with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher serum CRP levels than those without the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, serum CRP level is increased in psoriasis, and may be a useful marker for the prediction of the future risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:25291969

Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Iinuma, Shin; Honma, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime



The level of serum protein-bound iodine, its repeatability and relationship to rate of gain in immature beef cattle  

E-print Network

of radioactive iodine. The uncertainties that exist concerning the mechanism of thyroid function are of little consequence at this point3 since it has been established with certainty that the concentration of protein-bound iodine (FBI) i.n the serum or blood... by serum FBI in dairy and beef cattle (Long et alon 1951;, 1952^ Reese and Mans 1952^ Lewis and Ralston,, 1953) has been observed to decrease with increasing f$x: Similar results have bees, reported, for the baboon (van. Zyl 9 1955) fw0 sheep (Henneman...

Green, George G.



Protein signature-based estimation of metagenomic abundances including all domains of life and viruses  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Metagenome analysis requires tools that can estimate the taxonomic abundances in anonymous sequence data over the whole range of biological entities. Because there is usually no prior knowledge about the data composition, not only all domains of life but also viruses have to be included in taxonomic profiling. Such a full-range approach, however, is difficult to realize owing to the limited coverage of available reference data. In particular, archaea and viruses are generally not well represented by current genome databases. Results: We introduce a novel approach to taxonomic profiling of metagenomes that is based on mixture model analysis of protein signatures. Our results on simulated and real data reveal the difficulties of the existing methods when measuring achaeal or viral abundances and show the overall good profiling performance of the protein-based mixture model. As an application example, we provide a large-scale analysis of data from the Human Microbiome Project. This demonstrates the utility of our method as a first instance profiling tool for a fast estimate of the community structure. Availability: Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary Material is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23418187

Klingenberg, Heiner; Asshauer, Kathrin Petra; Lingner, Thomas; Meinicke, Peter



Factors Influencing the Measurement of Plasma/Serum Surfactant Protein D Levels by ELISA  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive variations in human surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels in circulation as measured by ELISA exist in the published literature. In order to determine the source of these variations, factors influencing the measurement by ELISA were explored. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood from healthy individuals was collected into various vacutainers during the same blood draw. Recombinant SP-D was diluted into different matrices and used for a standard curve. Samples were analyzed by capture ELISA using one of two distinct detection antibodies. Results The type of matrix had some effects on detection of recombinant SP-D. The type of anticoagulant used and dilution factor had very little effect, except for in plasma collected in EDTA vacutainers. The extent of variation in published values seemed to be due to the ELISA configuration employed, and, in agreement with this, we found that by switching the detection antibody, there was a 50% decrease in the extrapolated SP-D value of serum and plasma samples. Storage of samples resulted in slight changes in measured SP-D levels. Conclusions The ELISA configuration employed to measure circulating levels of SP-D has a significant effect on the extrapolated values. In both configurations tested, the use of EDTA as a coagulant resulted in inconsistent values, and we, therefore, suggest the avoidance of this anticoagulant when assaying for SP-D by ELISA. While the demonstrated effects of several factors on measurement of SP-D may not account for all the disparities amongst the previous studies, they stress that variations in methodologies for measuring the same protein can result in very inconsistent results. PMID:25365324

Bratcher, Preston E.; Gaggar, Amit



Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: is There a Repeated Bout Effect?  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years) performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval) carried out at a 3 week interval. After each intervention, sCOMP and muscle soreness were assessed on 8 and 6 occasions respectively. Muscle soreness was determined via a visual analog scale with a maximum pain score of 10. sComp levels did not show a blunted response after the second bout (Bout 1: 12.2±3.3 U/L?1; Bout 2: 13.1±4.0 U/L?1; P>0.05). Remarkably, sCOMP increased from baseline levels by 16% after bout 1 and 15% after bout 2. Muscle soreness was blunted following the second intervention (Bout 1: 5.0±1.8; Bout 2: 1.6±0.8). Unlike the known repeated bout effect for muscle damage markers, sCOMP levels do not show a blunted response after two similar loading interventions. This information on biomarker behavior is essential to clinicians attempting to use this marker as an indicator of cartilage damage associated with the development or progression of osteoarthritis.

Montag, Johannes; Kilian, Yvonne; McCourt, Molly; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Mester, Joachim



In vitro and in vivo interactions of selected nanoparticles with rodent serum proteins and their consequences in biokinetics  

PubMed Central

Summary When particles incorporated within a mammalian organism come into contact with body fluids they will bind to soluble proteins or those within cellular membranes forming what is called a protein corona. This binding process is very complex and highly dynamic due to the plethora of proteins with different affinities and fractions in different body fluids and the large variation of compounds and structures of the particle surface. Interestingly, in the case of nanoparticles (NP) this protein corona is well suited to provide a guiding vehicle of translocation within body fluids and across membranes. This NP translocation may subsequently lead to accumulation in various organs and tissues and their respective cell types that are not expected to accumulate such tiny foreign bodies. Because of this unprecedented NP accumulation, potentially adverse biological responses in tissues and cells cannot be neglected a priori but require thorough investigations. Therefore, we studied the interactions and protein binding kinetics of blood serum proteins with a number of engineered NP as a function of their physicochemical properties. Here we show by in vitro incubation tests that the binding capacity of different engineered NP (polystyrene, elemental carbon) for selected serum proteins depends strongly on the NP size and the properties of engineered surface modifications. In the following attempt, we studied systematically the effect of the size (5, 15, 80 nm) of gold spheres (AuNP), surface-modified with the same ionic ligand; as well as 5 nm AuNP with five different surface modifications on the binding to serum proteins by using proteomics analyses. We found that the binding of numerous serum proteins depended strongly on the physicochemical properties of the AuNP. These in vitro results helped us substantially in the interpretation of our numerous in vivo biokinetics studies performed in rodents using the same NP. These had shown that not only the physicochemical properties determined the AuNP translocation from the organ of intake towards blood circulation and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues but also the the transport across organ membranes depended on the route of AuNP application. Our in vitro protein binding studies support the notion that the observed differences in in vivo biokinetics are mediated by the NP protein corona and its dynamical change during AuNP translocation in fluids and across membranes within the organism. PMID:25383281

Fertsch-Gapp, Stefanie; Schäffler, Martin; Johnston, Blair D; Haberl, Nadine; Pfeiffer, Christian; Diendorf, Jörg; Schleh, Carsten; Hirn, Stephanie; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Epple, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J



Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans  

PubMed Central

Summary Reduced function mutations in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway increase maximal lifespan and health span in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) decreases serum IGF-1 concentration by ~40%, protects against cancer and slows aging in rodents. However, the long-term effects of CR with adequate nutrition on circulating IGF-1 levels in humans are unknown. Here we report data from two long-term CR studies (1 and 6 years) showing that severe CR without malnutrition did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio levels in humans. In contrast, total and free IGF-1 concentrations were significantly lower in moderately protein-restricted individuals. Reducing protein intake from an average of 1.67 g kg ?1 of body weight per day to 0.95 g kg ?1 of body weight per day for 3 weeks in six volunteers practicing CR resulted in a reduction in serum IGF-1 from 194 ng mL ?1 to 152 ng mL ?1 . These findings demonstrate that, unlike in rodents, long-term severe CR does not reduce serum IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio in humans. In addition, our data provide evidence that protein intake is a key determinant of circulating IGF-1 levels in humans, and suggest that reduced protein intake may become an important component of anticancer and anti-aging dietary interventions. PMID:18843793

Fontana, Luigi; Weiss, Edward P.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O.



Development of a suspension array assay in multiplex for the simultaneous measurement of serum levels of four eosinophil granule proteins.  


The concentrations of major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) have been associated with eosinophilic disease severity. Whereas a variety of techniques have been used to measure individual eosinophil granule protein concentration, none of these methods efficiently measures MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO simultaneously. A multiplex suspension array system was developed to simultaneously measure the concentrations of MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO in serum. The assay showed excellent inter- and intra-assay reliability, and serum levels of MBP, ECP and EDN from eosinophilic subjects analyzed by ELISA and multiplex were highly correlated (r=0.8579; P<0.0001, r=0.6356; P=0.0006 and r=0.8600; P<0.0001, respectively, Spearman rank correlation). Moreover, the multiplex assay required 500-fold less serum than a single ELISA to achieve comparable sensitivity. Absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil surface expression of the activation marker, CD69, were significantly correlated with concentrations of MBP, EDN and EPO, but not ECP, in serum from eosinophilic subjects. Furthermore, subjects with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and normal peripheral absolute eosinophil counts (<0.5×10(9)/l) had significantly increased concentrations of MBP (P<0.0001), ECP (P<0.0001), EDN (P=0.0001) and EPO (P<0.0001) compared to normal donors. In summary, the eosinophil granule protein multiplex assay provides a rapid and reliable way to measure eosinophil granule protein levels and should prove useful in assessing patterns of degranulation in patients with eosinophilic disorders. PMID:24914990

Makiya, Michelle A; Herrick, Jesica A; Khoury, Paneez; Prussin, Calman P; Nutman, Thomas B; Klion, Amy D



Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach.  


We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q < 0.05). However, WPH increased lysine (false discovery rate using a q-value <0.05) and tended to increase isoleucine and valine 15 min post-feeding (q < 0.10) as well as aspartylleucine 30 min post-feeding compared with WPC (q < 0.05). While both protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q < 0.05), WPH also uniquely resulted in a 30 min post-feeding elevation in free fatty acids compared with WPC (q < 0.05), an effect which may be due to the robust 30 min postprandial increase in epinephrine in the WPH cohort. These data provide a unique postprandial time-course perspective on how WPH versus WPC feedings affect circulating biochemicals and will guide future research comparing these 2 protein sources. PMID:24476471

Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W



Fetal bovine serum xenoproteins modulate human monocyte adhesion and protein release on biomaterials in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocyte-derived macrophages are critical in the host–foreign body response to biomaterials and have been studied extensively in various culture conditions in vitro, such as medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) or autologous human serum (AHS). Since monocyte maturation into macrophages is highly plastic and may vary considerably depending on the surface, isolation procedures and in vitro culture conditions, we

David Schmidt; Evan James Joyce; Weiyuan John Kao



Effects of Protein-Polyelectrolyte Affinity and Polyelectrolyte Molecular Weight on Dynamic Properties of Bovine Serum  

E-print Network

Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin-Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Coacervates H. Bohidar, P. L. Dubin serum albumin (BSA) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) spontaneously form, over Potsdam-Golm, Germany Received December 28, 2004; Revised Manuscript Received February 21, 2005 Bovine

Dubin, Paul D.


The influence of naturally occurring heterophilic anti-immunoglobulin antibodies on direct measurement of serum proteins using sandwich ELISAs.  


Sandwich ELISAs have become a widely used method for the quantitative detection of serum proteins. However, they can be biased by a variety of interfering substances. As reported recently, we observed false-positive levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha and -beta in up to 27% of sera from healthy blood donors using commercial ELISAs. We now demonstrate that two different groups of naturally occurring heterophilic antibodies (IgG-type) are responsible for these titers. Group I (representing 85% of positive samples) binds to the Fab region of IgG from goat, mouse, rat, horse, and bovidae (but not rabbit). Group II (15%) recognizes an epitope in the Fc region of mouse, horse, bovine, and rabbit (but not goat or rat) immunoglobulins. The antibodies did not crossreact with human IgG subclasses but contributed to false-positive IgG rheumatoid factor levels obtained using a commercially available ELISA. To investigate the susceptibility of assays to these artifacts, various combinations of capture and detection antibodies have been tested. On this basis, we defined the relative risks that standard ELISAs might be influenced by heterophilic anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. In general, assays that use monoclonal antibodies for both capture and detection are less susceptible than others which include at least one polyclonal antiserum. However, only systems utilizing rabbit F(ab')(2) fragments have been found to be immune to this interference. PMID:10675759

Hennig, C; Rink, L; Fagin, U; Jabs, W J; Kirchner, H



AB0 blood groups, inv serum groups, and serum proteins in leprosy patients from West Bengal (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between ABO blood groups and prevalence as well as type and severity of the leprosy infection were examined in 1034 Indians from West Bengal (leprosy patients and normal controls). There are no associations in the present series; combined analysis of 41 series from the literature (ours included) gives a slightly, but significantly higher frequency of groups A and

F. Vogel; J. KRffGER; M. R. Chakravartti; H. Ritter; G. Flatz



Serum protein and enzyme levels in rats following administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed).  


The The potential hepatotoxic effects following oral administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) was investigated in albino Wistar rats. Twenty eight (28) adult male Wistar rats were uniformly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were respectively gavaged with 200 mg/kg body weight, 400 mg/kg body weight and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for 21 days. At the end of treatments, animals were sacrificed, serum and liver tissues obtained for assay of total protein concentration and levels of ALT, AST and ALP. Results showed that treatment of rats with the respective doses of the extract did not significantly alter the serum and liver levels of total protein, ALT, AST and ALP in all test groups. This result suggests that ingestion of the extract may not be toxic at the doses investigated. PMID:20234750

Antai, A B; Eyong, E U; Eteng, M U; Itam, E H; Eko, M E; Ita, S O



Proteomic analysis of serum proteins in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice: implications for identifying biomarkers for use to screen potential candidate therapeutic drugs for early Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers of early AD. This study aims to search for potential early protein biomarkers in serum from a triple transgenic (PS1M146V/APPSwe/TauP301L) mouse model. Proteomic analysis via two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was performed on serum samples from wild-type (WT) and triple transgenic mice that were treated with or without coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (800 mg/kg body weight/day), a powerful endogenous antioxidant displaying therapeutic benefits against AD pathology and cognitive impairment in multiple AD mouse models, for a period of three months beginning at two months of age. A total of 15 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between the WT and AD transgenic mice. The administration of CoQ10 was found to alter the changes in the differentially expressed serum proteins by upregulating 10 proteins and down-regulating 10 proteins. Among the proteins modulated by CoQ10, clusterin and ?-2-macroglobulin were validated via ELISA assay. These findings revealed significant changes in serum proteins in the AD mouse model at an early pathological stage and demonstrated that administration of CoQ10 could modulate these changes in serum proteins. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed serum proteins could serve as potential protein biomarkers of early AD and that screening for potential candidate AD therapeutic drugs and monitoring of therapeutic effects could be performed via measurement of the changes in these differentially expressed serum proteins. PMID:24496070

Sui, Xiaojing; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Peiwu; Li, Shuiming; Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei



Photoactivable analogs for labeling 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum binding protein and for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

3-Azidobenzoates and 3-azidonitrobenzoates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as well as 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 3-deoxy-3-azido-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared as photoaffinity labels for vitamin D serum binding protein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein. The compounds prepared were easily activated by short- or long-wavelength uv light, as monitored by uv and ir spectrometry. The efficacy of the compounds to compete with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the binding site of serum binding protein and receptor, respectively, was studied to evaluate the vitamin D label with the highest affinity for the protein. The presence of an azidobenzoate or azidonitrobenzoate substituent at the C-3 position of 25-OH-D3 significantly decreased (10(4)- to 10(6)-fold) the binding activity. However, the labels containing the azido substituent attached directly to the vitamin D skeleton at the C-3 position showed a high affinity, only 20- to 150-fold lower than that of the parent compounds with their respective proteins. Therefore, 3-deoxy-3-azidovitamins present potential ligands for photolabeling of vitamin D proteins and for studying the structures of the protein active sites.

Kutner, A.; Link, R. P.; Schnoes, H. K.; DeLuca, H. F.



The Tick Salivary Protein Salp15 Inhibits the Killing of Serum-Sensitive Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by ticks. During transmission from the tick to the host, spirochetes are delivered with tick saliva, which contains the salivary protein Salp15. Salp15 has been shown to protect spirochetes against B. burgdorferi-specific antibodies. We now show that Salp15 from both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis protects serum-sensitive isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

Tim J. Schuijt; Joppe W. R. Hovius; Nathalie D. van Burgel; Nandhini Ramamoorthi; Erol Fikrig; Alje P. van Dam



Preoperative serum retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance have been linked to increased risk of occurrence and mortality of hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma (HCC). Recently, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was clarified as a specific serological marker of insulin resistance.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine whether serum RBP4 could be used as a potential marker for predicting prognosis in\\u000a patients with HCC after

Dan-Dan Wang; Yi-Ming Zhao; Lu Wang; Guang Ren; Fei Wang; Zu-Guang Xia; Xi-Long Wang; Tao Zhang; Qi Pan; Zhi Dai; Ju-Ping Chen; Hai-Yan Dai; Wei Zhang; Hong-Wei He; Jia-Min Zhou; Guang-Yu Tang; Jian Zhou; Jia Fan; Zhao-You Tang



Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with artificial neural network distinguishes glioma from healthy population or brain benign tumor*  

PubMed Central

To screen and evaluate protein biomarkers for the detection of gliomas (Astrocytoma grade I–IV) from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors by using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. SELDI-TOF-MS protein fingerprinting of serum from 105 brain tumor patients and healthy individuals, included 28 patients with glioma (Astrocytoma I–IV), 37 patients with brain benign tumor, and 40 age-matched healthy individuals. Two thirds of the total samples of every compared pair as training set were used to set up discriminating patterns, and one third of total samples of every compared pair as test set were used to cross-validate; simultaneously, discriminate-cluster analysis derived SPSS 10.0 software was used to compare Astrocytoma grade I–II with grade III–IV ones. An accuracy of 95.7%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% were obtained in a blinded test set comparing gliomas patients with healthy individuals; an accuracy of 86.4%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 84.6%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 85.7% were obtained when patient’s gliomas was compared with benign brain tumor. Total accuracy of 85.7%, accuracy of grade I–II Astrocytoma was 86.7%, accuracy of III–IV Astrocytoma was 84.6% were obtained when grade I–II Astrocytoma was compared with grade III–IV ones (discriminant analysis). SELDI-TOF-MS combined with bioinformatics tools, could greatly facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers. The high sensitivity and specificity achieved by the use of selected biomarkers showed great potential application for the discrimination of gliomas patients from healthy individuals and glioma from brain benign tumors. PMID:15593384

Liu, Jian; Zheng, Shu; Yu, Jie-kai; Zhang, Jian-min; Chen, Zhe



Association Between Dietary Pattern and Serum C-Reactive Protein in Japanese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary pattern may influence the risks of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome through its effects on inflammation. We evaluated the association between dietary pattern and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in a Japanese population. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis, we used baseline data from 3905 men and 5640 women (age 40–69 years) who participated in a population-based cohort study between November 2005 and December 2007. Participants with possible inflammation-related diseases, current analgesic use, high hs-CRP levels (?3000 ng/mL) or extreme dietary energy intake were excluded. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. Results We identified 5 dietary patterns: healthy (high in vegetables and fruit), Western (high in meat and fried foods), seafood (high in shellfish, squid, fish, etc.), bread (high in bread and low in rice), and dessert (high in confections and fruit). After adjustment for age, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, hs-CRP levels in men were inversely associated with the healthy, bread, and dessert patterns (P-trend: 0.01, 0.06, and <0.01, respectively) and positively associated with the seafood pattern (P-trend = 0.02). In women, hs-CRP levels were inversely associated with the healthy pattern (P-trend = 0.06) and positively associated with the Western pattern (P-trend = 0.06). Conclusions The healthy dietary pattern may be associated with suppressed inflammation in Japanese men and women, independently of body mass index and other factors. The sex-specific associations of hs-CRP with other dietary patterns (eg, the seafood pattern) require further study. PMID:21325731

Nanri, Hinako; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Hara, Megumi; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Tanaka, Keitaro



PEGylation of human serum albumin: reaction of PEG-phenyl-isothiocyanate with protein.  


Successful and cost-effective PEGylation protocols require pure functionalized PEG reagents, which can be synthesized by simple and efficient procedures, exhibit high stability against hydrolysis, and maintain a level of reactivity with protein functional groups under mild reaction conditions. PEG-phenyl-isothiocyanate (PIT-PEG) is a new functionalized PEG having these characteristics, and has been synthesized by condensation of the bifunctional reagent 4-isothiocyanato phenyl isocyanate with monomethoxy PEG (mPEG). The data of (1)H NMR and colormetric analysis of the new PEG reagent establish that the mPEG has been quantitatively functionalized. The t 1/4 values for the hydrolysis of PIT-PEG5K in 100 mM phosphate solution at pH 6.5 and 9.2 are about 95 and 40 h, respectively. Incubation of human serum albumin (HSA, 0.5 mM) with a 10-fold molar excess of PIT-PEG (3K or 5K) at pH 6.5 and 9.2 generated PEG-HSA conjugates with average of 3.5 and 6.0 PEG chains per HSA molecule, respectively. The circular dichroism spectra of the conjugates showed that PEGylation of HSA has little influence on the secondary structure of HSA. The hexaPEGylated HSA, (TCP-PEG5K) 6-HSA, exhibited very high hydrodynamic volume, and the molecular radius of HSA increased from 3.95 to 6.57 nm on hexaPEGylation. The hexaPEGylation also increased the viscosity of 4% HSA from 1.05 to 2.10 cP, and the colloid osmotic pressure from 15.2 to 48.0 mmHg. The large increase in the hydrodynamic volume and the solution properties of (TCP-PEG5K) 6-HSA suggest that it could be a potential candidate as a plasma volume expander. PIT-PEG is a useful addition to the spectrum of functionalized PEG reagents available for surface decoration of proteins with PEG. PMID:18572961

Meng, Fantao; Manjula, Belur N; Smith, Paul K; Acharya, Seetharama A



Zeptomole Detection of C-Reactive Protein in Serum by a Nanoparticle Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Aptasensor  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic biomarkers (i.e. proteins) are often in low abundance in bodily fluids presenting many challenges for their detection. In order to extend the application of SPRi systems in detecting biomarkers at ultralow levels, we combine the advantage of aptamer technology with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. By implementing a sandwich assay through the introduction of aptamer-modified quantum dots (QDs), it was possible to measure 7 zeptomole (at 5?fg/mL) of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively in spiked human serum. It is expected that the proposed platform will provide new direction in designing ultrasensitive SPRi biosensors with multiplexing capabilities. PMID:24875139

Vance, Stephen A.; Sandros, Marinella G.



Zeptomole detection of C-reactive protein in serum by a nanoparticle amplified surface plasmon resonance imaging aptasensor.  


Diagnostic biomarkers (i.e. proteins) are often in low abundance in bodily fluids presenting many challenges for their detection. In order to extend the application of SPRi systems in detecting biomarkers at ultralow levels, we combine the advantage of aptamer technology with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. By implementing a sandwich assay through the introduction of aptamer-modified quantum dots (QDs), it was possible to measure 7 zeptomole (at 5?fg/mL) of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively in spiked human serum. It is expected that the proposed platform will provide new direction in designing ultrasensitive SPRi biosensors with multiplexing capabilities. PMID:24875139

Vance, Stephen A; Sandros, Marinella G



Label-Free LC-MSe in Tissue and Serum Reveals Protein Networks Underlying Differences between Benign and Malignant Serous Ovarian Tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify proteins and (molecular/biological) pathways associated with differences between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. Experimental Procedures Serum of six patients with a serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary was collected before treatment, with a control group consisting of six matched patients with a serous cystadenoma. In addition to the serum, homogeneous regions of cells exhibiting uniform histology were isolated from benign and cancerous tissue by laser microdissection. We subsequently employed label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSe) to identify proteins in these serum and tissues samples. Analyses of differential expression between samples were performed using Bioconductor packages and in-house scripts in the statistical software package R. Hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, as well as network enrichment and interactome analysis using MetaCore. Results In total, we identified 20 and 71 proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serum and tissue samples, respectively. The differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue largely differed with only 2 proteins in common. MetaCore network analysis, however inferred GCR-alpha and Sp1 as common transcriptional regulators. Interactome analysis highlighted 14-3-3 zeta/delta, 14-3-3 beta/alpha, Alpha-actinin 4, HSP60, and PCBP1 as critical proteins in the tumor proteome signature based on their relative overconnectivity. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001084. Discussion Our analysis identified proteins with both novel and previously known associations to ovarian cancer biology. Despite the small overlap between differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue, APOA1 and Serotransferrin were significantly lower expressed in both serum and cancer tissue samples, suggesting a tissue-derived effect in serum. Pathway and subsequent interactome analysis also highlighted common regulators in serum and tissue samples, suggesting a yet unknown role for PCBP1 in ovarian cancer pathophysiology. PMID:25265318

Wegdam, Wouter; Argmann, Carmen A.; Kramer, Gertjan; Vissers, Johannes P.; Buist, Marrije R.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Meijer, Danielle; Moerland, Perry D.



The Effect of Simulated Microgravity Environment of RWV Bioreactors on Surface Reactions and Adsorption of Serum Proteins on Bone-bioactive Microcarriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomimetically modified bioactive materials with bone-like surface properties are attractive candidates for use as microcarriers for 3-D bone-like tissue engineering under simulated microgravity conditions of NASA designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors. The simulated microgravity environment is attainable under suitable parametric conditions of the RWV bioreactors. Ca-P containing bioactive glass (BG), whose stimulatory effect on bone cell function had been previously demonstrated, was used in the present study. BG surface modification via reactions in solution, resulting formation of bone-like minerals at the surface and adsorption of serum proteins is critical for obtaining the stimulatory effect. In this paper, we report on the major effects of simulated microgravity conditions of the RWV on the BG reactions surface reactions and protein adsorption in physiological solutions. Control tests at normal gravity were conducted at static and dynamic conditions. The study revealed that simulated microgravity remarkably enhanced reactions involved in the BG surface modification, including BG dissolution, formation of bone-like minerals at the surface and adsorption of serum proteins. Simultaneously, numerical models were developed to simulate the mass transport of chemical species to and from the BG surface under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions. The numerical results showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data at both testing conditions.

Radin, Shula; Ducheyne, P.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.



Combined Inflammatory and Metabolic Defects Reflected by Reduced Serum Protein Levels in Patients with Buruli Ulcer Disease  

PubMed Central

Buruli ulcer is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is spreading in tropical countries, with major public health and economic implications in West Africa. Multi-analyte profiling of serum proteins in patients and endemic controls revealed that Buruli ulcer disease down-regulates the circulating levels of a large array of inflammatory mediators, without impacting on the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood. Notably, several proteins contributing to acute phase reaction, lipid metabolism, coagulation and tissue remodelling were also impacted. Their down-regulation was selective and persisted after the elimination of bacteria with antibiotic therapy. It involved proteins with various functions and origins, suggesting that M. ulcerans infection causes global and chronic defects in the host's protein metabolism. Accordingly, patients had reduced levels of total serum proteins and blood urea, in the absence of signs of malnutrition, or functional failure of liver or kidney. Interestingly, slow healers had deeper metabolic and coagulation defects at the start of antibiotic therapy. In addition to providing novel insight into Buruli ulcer pathogenesis, our study therefore identifies a unique proteomic signature for this disease. PMID:24722524

Landier, Jordi; Oldenburg, Reid; Frimpong, Michael; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Abass, Kabiru; Thompson, William; Forson, Mark; Fontanet, Arnaud; Niang, Fatoumata; Demangel, Caroline



Combined inflammatory and metabolic defects reflected by reduced serum protein levels in patients with Buruli ulcer disease.  


Buruli ulcer is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is spreading in tropical countries, with major public health and economic implications in West Africa. Multi-analyte profiling of serum proteins in patients and endemic controls revealed that Buruli ulcer disease down-regulates the circulating levels of a large array of inflammatory mediators, without impacting on the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood. Notably, several proteins contributing to acute phase reaction, lipid metabolism, coagulation and tissue remodelling were also impacted. Their down-regulation was selective and persisted after the elimination of bacteria with antibiotic therapy. It involved proteins with various functions and origins, suggesting that M. ulcerans infection causes global and chronic defects in the host's protein metabolism. Accordingly, patients had reduced levels of total serum proteins and blood urea, in the absence of signs of malnutrition, or functional failure of liver or kidney. Interestingly, slow healers had deeper metabolic and coagulation defects at the start of antibiotic therapy. In addition to providing novel insight into Buruli ulcer pathogenesis, our study therefore identifies a unique proteomic signature for this disease. PMID:24722524

Phillips, Richard O; Sarfo, Fred S; Landier, Jordi; Oldenburg, Reid; Frimpong, Michael; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Abass, Kabiru; Thompson, William; Forson, Mark; Fontanet, Arnaud; Niang, Fatoumata; Demangel, Caroline



Expression of Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Induces Distinct Membrane Alterations Including a Candidate Viral Replication Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plus-strand RNA viruses characteristically replicate their genome in association with altered cellular membranes. In the present study, the capacity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins to elicit intracellular membrane alterations was investigated by expressing, in tetracycline-regulated cell lines, a comprehensive panel of HCV proteins individually as well as in the context of the entire HCV polyprotein. As visualized by electron

Denise Egger; Benno Wölk; Rainer Gosert; Leonardo Bianchi; Hubert E. Blum; Darius Moradpour; Kurt Bienz



Isolation and characterization of pharmaceutical grade human pentraxins, serum amyloid P component and C-reactive protein, for clinical use  

PubMed Central

The human pentraxin proteins, serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C?reactive protein (CRP) are important in routine clinical diagnosis, SAP for systemic amyloidosis and CRP for monitoring the non?specific acute phase response. They are also targets for novel therapies currently in development but their roles in health and disease are controversial. Thus, both for clinical use and to rigorously elucidate their functions, structurally and functionally intact, pharmaceutical grade preparations of the natural, authentic proteins are required. We report here the production from normal human donor plasma and the characterization of the first such preparations. Importantly, we demonstrate that, contrary to reports using recombinant proteins and less well characterized preparations, neither CRP nor SAP stimulate the release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro of any TNF?, IL?6 or IL?8, nor does SAP cause release of IL?1? or IL?10. Furthermore neither of our preparations was pro?inflammatory in mice in vivo. PMID:22867744

Pepys, Mark B.; Gallimore, J. Ruth; Lloyd, Joanne; Li, Zhanhong; Graham, David; Taylor, Graham W.; Ellmerich, Stephan; Mangione, Palma P.; Tennent, Glenys A.; Hutchinson, Winston L.; Millar, David J.; Bennett, Gary; More, John; Evans, David; Mistry, Yogesh; Poole, Stephen; Hawkins, Philip N.



Effect of Substituting Pumpkin Seed Protein Isolate for Casein on Serum Liver Enzymes, Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Enzymes in CCl -intoxicated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to prepare pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI) by alkaline extraction and to study the effect of its substitution for casein on body weight, feed efficiency ratio, serum liver function enzymes, serum lipids profile and antioxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) intoxicated rats. Forty two 4 male rats were divided into 6 equal

Reham A. Mohamed; Reham S. Ramadan; Lamiaa A. Ahmed



Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the authors research into teratogenesis of blood serum of patients on medication or rats injected with drugs is presented. In addition studies concerning the role of methionine in the developing fetus is given. 68 refs.

Klein, N.W.



C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Overexpression in Lung Tissues of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Although researchers have consistently demonstrated systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), its origin is yet unknown. We aimed to compare the lung bronchial and parenchymal tissues as potential sources of major acute-phase reactants in COPD patients and resistant smokers. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for suspected primary lung cancer were considered for the study. Patients were categorized as COPD or resistant smokers according to their spirometric results. Lung parenchyma and bronchus sections distant from the primary lesion were obtained. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA1, SAA2 and SAA4) gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR. Protein levels were evaluated in paraffin embedded lung tissues by immunohistochemistry and in serum samples by nephelometry. Results. Our study included 85 patients with COPD and 87 resistant smokers. In bronchial and parenchymal tissues, both CRP and SAA were overexpressed in COPD patients. In the bronchus, CRP, SAA1, SAA2, and SA4 gene expressions in COPD patients were 1.89-fold, 4.36-fold, 3.65-fold, and 3.9-fold the control values, respectively. In the parenchyma, CRP, SAA1, and SAA2 gene expressions were 2.41-, 1.97-, and 1.76-fold the control values, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed an over-stained pattern of these markers on endovascular cells of COPD patients. There was no correlation with serum protein concentration. Conclusions. These results indicate an overexpression of CRP and SAA in both bronchial and parenchymal tissue in COPD, which differs between both locations, indicating tissue/cell type specificity. The endothelial cells might play a role in the production of theses markers. PMID:23801879

Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Calero, Carmen; Rojano, Belen; Lopez-Porras, Marta; Saenz-Coronilla, Javier; Blanco, Ana I; Sanchez-Lopez, Veronica; Tobar, Daniela; Montes-Worboys, Ana; Arellano, Elena



Simple and rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone, using the protein A of Staphylococcus aureus as immunoadsorbent  

SciTech Connect

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive radioimmunoassay method for serum progesterone is described, which uses a solid-phase technique for separation of antibody-bound from antibody-free progesterone. Rabbit antiprogesterone immunoglobulins are adsorbed on the protein A of formaldehyde- and heat-treated Staphylococcus aureus cells (Pansorbin; Calbiochem-Behring Corp., La Jolla, California). The suspension of antibody-coated Pansorbin retains all its binding activity of 1-2-H(N)-progesterone when kept at + 4/sup 0/ or at -25/sup 0/C for at least 4 months. Dose-response curves obtained with ether-serum extracts and with the progesterone standard do not deviate significantly from parallelism. The progesterone standard gives identical dose-response curves whether diluted in the assay buffer or in a progesterone-free ether-serum extract. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.02 ng/assay tube. The intra-assay variation coefficient is 16%, and the routine interassay variation coefficient is 17%. The mean serum progesterone concentrations were 0.55 ng/ml during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and 12.5 ng/ml during the luteal phase. The average blank value for distilled water was 0.02 ng/assay tube.

Jungers, J.; Delogne-Desnoeck, J.; Robyn, C.



Analysis of protein dynamics within the septate junction reveals a highly stable core protein complex that does not include the basolateral polarity protein Discs large.  


Barrier junctions prevent pathogen invasion and restrict paracellular leakage across epithelial sheets. To understand how one barrier junction, the septate junction (SJ), is regulated in vivo, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to examine SJ protein dynamics in Drosophila. Most SJ-associated proteins, including Coracle, Neurexin IV and Nervana 2, displayed similar, extremely immobile kinetics. Loss of any of these components resulted in dramatically increased mobility of all others, suggesting that they form a single, highly interdependent core complex. Immobilization of SJ core components coincided with formation of the morphological SJ but occurred after their known role in maintaining epithelial polarity, suggesting that these functions are independent. In striking contrast to the core components, the tumor suppressor protein Discs large was much more mobile and its loss did not affect mobility of core SJ proteins, suggesting that it is not a member of this complex, even though it colocalizes with the SJ. Similarly, disruption of endocytosis affected localization of SJ core components, but did not affect their mobility. These results indicate that formation of a stable SJ core complex is separable from its proper subcellular localization, and provide new insights into the complex processes that regulate epithelial polarity and assembly of the SJ. PMID:21807950

Oshima, Kenzi; Fehon, Richard G



Analysis of protein dynamics within the septate junction reveals a highly stable core protein complex that does not include the basolateral polarity protein Discs large  

PubMed Central

Barrier junctions prevent pathogen invasion and restrict paracellular leakage across epithelial sheets. To understand how one barrier junction, the septate junction (SJ), is regulated in vivo, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to examine SJ protein dynamics in Drosophila. Most SJ-associated proteins, including Coracle, Neurexin IV and Nervana 2, displayed similar, extremely immobile kinetics. Loss of any of these components resulted in dramatically increased mobility of all others, suggesting that they form a single, highly interdependent core complex. Immobilization of SJ core components coincided with formation of the morphological SJ but occurred after their known role in maintaining epithelial polarity, suggesting that these functions are independent. In striking contrast to the core components, the tumor suppressor protein Discs large was much more mobile and its loss did not affect mobility of core SJ proteins, suggesting that it is not a member of this complex, even though it colocalizes with the SJ. Similarly, disruption of endocytosis affected localization of SJ core components, but did not affect their mobility. These results indicate that formation of a stable SJ core complex is separable from its proper subcellular localization, and provide new insights into the complex processes that regulate epithelial polarity and assembly of the SJ. PMID:21807950

Oshima, Kenzi; Fehon, Richard G.



[Concentration of serum proteins and blood group substances in human saliva 2. Individual differences in serum protein concentration in saliva with special reference to age estimation].  


Factors related to the concentrations of IgA, IgG and albumin (Alb) in human saliva were studied. Saliva specimens that were strongly positive for the occult blood test contained much more Alb than negative specimens. The concentrations of IgA and IgG in the saliva specimens showed no clear associations with the results of the occult blood test. Although associations were found among the concentrations of individual proteins (IgA, IgG and Alb) in saliva specimens, no association was found between the concentration of these proteins and the DMF (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and PMA (papillary, marginal and attached gingival) indexes. The concentrations and ratios of these proteins were almost the same in saliva specimens from both sexes. The ratios of IgA/Alb and IgG/Alb among those aged less than 20 years old were significantly lower than in older subjects (probability < 0.001). We also found relatively low IgA/Alb value among those 45 years old or older. The ratios of these proteins in saliva stains did not change remarkably after storage for 18 weeks. PMID:8377271

Suzuki, M



Three methods of capillary electrophoresis compared with high-resolution agarose gel electrophoresis for serum protein electrophoresis.  


We assessed the BioFocus 2000 capillary electrophoresis instrument for use in a routine clinical laboratory. We examined 210 serum samples received for serum protein electrophoresis by four methods: (1) The Bio-Rad HR015EC high-resolution serum protein kit on the BioFocus; (2) the Jenkins-Guerin (JG) method on the Applied Biosystems 270A HT Capillary Electrophoresis System (JG-ABI); (3) the Jenkins-Guerin method using the BioFocus (JG-BF); and (4) the quantitation of monoclonal bands found in 76 of the 210 samples was assayed by Helena Titan Hi-Res agarose gel electrophoresis (HRAGE). The correlation coefficient between the three sets of capillary electrophoresis monoclonal band results and the Helena quantitation was 0.92 or better. Although the quantitative comparison of monoclonal bands by HR015EC was very good, the lack of sharpness of monoclonal bands using the HR015EC kit meant our preference was to use the JG method on either the ABI or on the Biofocus. PMID:9892066

Jenkins, M A




EPA Science Inventory

Previously we reported that chlorpyrifos (CHP), an irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, induces hypertension in rats. Concomitant with hypertension, we found an increase in C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 , monocyte chemotactic protein-5 and interfer...


Increased serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) concentration after longterm alcohol consumption: further evidence for regular subclinical pancreatic damage after heavy drinking?  

PubMed Central

It has been shown recently that longterm but not short term heavy drinking of alcohol frequently results in increased serum activities of pancreatic enzymes suggesting subclinical pancreatic injury. Serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a novel protein, whose synthesis in the acinar cells and release into serum is specifically induced by acute pancreatic damage. This study was performed to further characterise the alcohol induced subclinical pancreatic injury by using serum PAP measurements. Three groups were studied: (1) control group (n = 25), (2) short term drinking group (n = 20), who consumed 2.0 g of ethanol per kg body weight during four hours, and (3) longterm drinking group (n = 32), who were admitted to withdrawal clinic after a median 30 months heavy drinking period. Serum PAP concentration was low in the control group (8 (5 to 12) micrograms/l, geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)). In the short term drinking group serum PAP was in the range of the control group values during 56 hours after drinking. Longterm drinking induced at least a 10-fold increase in serum PAP, the highest concentrations being seen on day 2 after drinking had ended (106 (61 to 184) micrograms/l). The patients did not develop abdominal symptoms, increased blood white cell count, or increased serum C reactive protein concentration. These results further support the suggestion that heavy longterm drinking often induces subclinical pancreatic damage, but not clinical pancreatitis. PMID:7890213

Nordback, I; Jaakkola, M; Iovanna, J L; Dagorn, J C



Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women  

PubMed Central

Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638



Factors influencing the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in rats: effect of xenogeneic serum protein.  

PubMed Central

Mixed culture of nylon non-adherent (T-enriched) spleen cells or lymph node cells of ACI/N or F344 rats with mitomycin C-treated autologous spleen cells resulted in the increased DNA synthesis of the responder T cells when they were cultured in medium containing foetal calf serum (FCS) or bovine serum albumin. This autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR), however, proceeds little when the cells were cultured in medium containing autologous or allogeneic rat serum, irrespective of the responder:stimulator cell ratio and to the culture period. Furthermore, the AMLR response in FCS was greatly reduced if a relatively large number of macrophages were present in the responder cell population. These results suggest that the AMLR response is unlikely to occur in a physiological condition or in vivo. PMID:6459288

Endho, N; Hashimoto, Y



Gene-Specific DNA Methylation Association with Serum Levels of C-Reactive Protein in African Americans  

PubMed Central

A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications. PMID:23977389

Sun, Yan V.; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A.; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.



Air filter devices including nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins.  


Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas



Interdialytic weight gain, systolic blood pressure, serum albumin, and C-reactive protein levels change in chronic dialysis patients prior to death  

PubMed Central

Reports from a United States cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients suggested that weight loss, a decline in pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure, and decreased serum albumin may precede death. However, no comparative studies have been reported in such patients from other countries. Here we analyzed dynamic changes in these parameters in hemodialysis patients and included 3593 individuals from 5 Asian countries; 35,146 from 18 European countries; 8649 from Argentina; and 4742 from the United States. In surviving prevalent patients, these variables appeared to have notably different dynamics than in patients who died. While in all populations the interdialytic weight gain, systolic blood pressure, and serum albumin levels were stable in surviving patients, these indicators declined starting more than a year ahead in those who died with the dynamics similar irrespective of gender and geographic region. In European patients, C-reactive protein levels were available on a routine basis and indicated that levels of this acute-phase protein were low and stable in surviving patients but rose sharply before death. Thus, relevant fundamental biological processes start many months before death in the majority of chronic hemodialysis patients. Longitudinal monitoring of these dynamics may help to identify patients at risk and aid the development of an alert system to initiate timely interventions to improve outcomes. PMID:23515055

Usvyat, Len A; Barth, Claudia; Bayh, Inga; Etter, Michael; von Gersdorff, Gero D; Grassmann, Aileen; Guinsburg, Adrian M; Lam, Maggie; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Scatizzi, Laura; Schaller, Mathias; Tashman, Adam; Toffelmire, Ted; Thijssen, Stephan; Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Levin, Nathan W; Wang, Yuedong; Kotanko, Peter



Interdialytic weight gain, systolic blood pressure, serum albumin, and C-reactive protein levels change in chronic dialysis patients prior to death.  


Reports from a United States cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients suggested that weight loss, a decline in pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure, and decreased serum albumin may precede death. However, no comparative studies have been reported in such patients from other countries. Here we analyzed dynamic changes in these parameters in hemodialysis patients and included 3593 individuals from 5 Asian countries; 35,146 from 18 European countries; 8649 from Argentina; and 4742 from the United States. In surviving prevalent patients, these variables appeared to have notably different dynamics than in patients who died. While in all populations the interdialytic weight gain, systolic blood pressure, and serum albumin levels were stable in surviving patients, these indicators declined starting more than a year ahead in those who died with the dynamics similar irrespective of gender and geographic region. In European patients, C-reactive protein levels were available on a routine basis and indicated that levels of this acute-phase protein were low and stable in surviving patients but rose sharply before death. Thus, relevant fundamental biological processes start many months before death in the majority of chronic hemodialysis patients. Longitudinal monitoring of these dynamics may help to identify patients at risk and aid the development of an alert system to initiate timely interventions to improve outcomes. PMID:23515055

Usvyat, Len A; Barth, Claudia; Bayh, Inga; Etter, Michael; von Gersdorff, Gero D; Grassmann, Aileen; Guinsburg, Adrian M; Lam, Maggie; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Scatizzi, Laura; Schaller, Mathias; Tashman, Adam; Toffelmire, Ted; Thijssen, Stephan; Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Levin, Nathan W; Wang, Yuedong; Kotanko, Peter



Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).  


Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. PMID:25086369

Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao



Serum Copeptin and Cortisol Do Not Accurately Predict Sickle Cell Anaemia Vaso-Occlusive Crisis as C-Reactive Protein  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assessed the diagnostic performance and prognostic properties of C-reactive protein (CRP), copeptin and cortisol in individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Design Prospective case-control study Methods Sixty consecutive SCA subjects (18–40 years) comprising 30 subjects in the steady state and 30 subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) were recruited into this study. Thirty (30) apparently healthy individuals with HbAA genotype served as controls. ELISA was used for the determination of serum levels of copeptin, CRP and cortisol. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Student’s t-test and Mann Whitney U as appropriate and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results SCA subjects in VOC had significantly lower copeptin level and significantly higher CRP level compared with controls. However, serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP were significantly higher in SCA subjects in VOC compared with SCA subjects in steady state. Furthermore, CRP had the widest Area under the ROC curve (AUROC) than copeptin and cortisol. No significant difference was observed in the levels of copeptin, CRP and cortisol when SCA subjects in VOC who were hospitalized for less ?5 days were compared with subjects who had longer stays. Conclusion It could be concluded that C-reactive protein has a superior diagnostic performance for vaso-occlusive crisis in individuals with sickle cell anaemia and that C-reactive protein, cortisol and copeptin are not good prognostic markers in SCA subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis. PMID:24223742

Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Atere, Adedeji David; Olaniyi, John Ayodele; Rahamon, Sheu Kadiri; Adewale, Christiana Odunayo



Investigation of serum protein profiles in scrapie infected sheep by means of SELDI-TOF-MS and multivariate data analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Classical scrapie in sheep is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with the conversion PrPC to PrPSc. Much is known about genetic susceptibility, uptake and dissemination of PrPSc in the body, but many aspects of prion diseases are still unknown. Different proteomic techniques have been used during the last decade to investigate differences in protein profiles between affected animals and healthy controls. We have investigated the protein profiles in serum of sheep with scrapie and healthy controls by SELDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS. Latent Variable methods such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis and Target Projection methods were used to describe the MS data. Results The serum proteomic profiles showed variable differences between the groups both throughout the incubation period and at the clinical end stage of scrapie. At the end stage, the target projection model separated the two groups with a sensitivity of 97.8%, and serum amyloid A was identified as one of the protein peaks that differed significantly between the groups. Conclusions At the clinical end stage of classical scrapie, ten SELDI peaks significantly discriminated the scrapie group from the healthy controls. During the non-clinical incubation period, individual SELDI peaks were differently expressed between the groups at different time points. Investigations of differences in -omic profiles can contribute to new insights into the underlying disease processes and pathways, and advance our understanding of prion diseases, but comparison and validation across laboratories is difficult and challenging. PMID:24229425



Serum Proteins and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six 4- to 37-year-old patients with tuberosis sclerosis (a chronic condition characterized by siezures, intercranial calcification, a reddish-yellow sebaceous glandular mass on the face, and frequent crises in early years), did not exhibit an elevation of the (alpha + beta) globulin fraction in their serum. (Author/MC)

Fischer, M. H.; And Others



Serum hormone and myocellular protein recovery after intermittent runs at the velocity associated with V? O 2max  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of serum myocellular proteins and hormones to exercise were studied in ten well-trained middle-distance runners\\u000a [maximal oxygen consumption (V?O2max)?=?69.4?(5.1)?ml?·?kg?1?·?min?1] during 3 recovery days and compared to various measures of physical performance. The purpose was to establish the duration\\u000a of recovery from typical intermittent middle-distance running exercises. The subjects performed, in random, order two 28-min\\u000a treadmill running exercises at

Timo Vuorimaa; Tommi Vasankari; Kari Mattila; Olli Heinonen; Keijo Häkkinen; Heikki Rusko



Exchange of adsorbed serum proteins during adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to an abiotic surface and Candida albicans hyphae--an AFM study.  


Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans are the second and third most commonly isolated microorganisms in hospital-related-infections, that are often multi-species in nature causing high morbidity and mortality. Here, adhesion forces between a S. aureus strain and abiotic (tissue-culture-polystyrene, TCPS) or partly biotic (TCPS with adhering hyphae of C. albicans) surfaces were investigated in presence of fetal-bovine-serum or individual serum proteins and related with staphylococcal adhesion. Atomic-force-microscopy was used to measure adhesion forces between S. aureus and the abiotic and biotic surfaces. Adsorption of individual serum proteins like albumin and apo-transferrin to abiotic TCPS surfaces during 60min, impeded development of strong adhesion forces as compared to fibronectin, while 60min adsorption of proteins from fetal-bovine-serum yielded a decrease in adhesion force from -5.7nN in phosphate-buffered-saline to -0.6nN. Adsorption of albumin and apo-transferrin also decreased staphylococcal adhesion forces to hyphae as compared with fibronectin. During 60min exposure to fetal-bovine-serum however, initial (5min protein adsorption) staphylococcal adhesion forces were low (-1.6nN), but strong adhesion forces of around -5.5nN were restored within 60min. This suggests for the first time that in whole fetal-bovine-serum exchange of non-adhesive proteins by fibronectin occurs on biotic C. albicans hyphal surfaces. No evidence was found for such protein exchange on abiotic TCPS surfaces. Staphylococcal adhesion of abiotic and biotic surfaces varied in line with the adhesion forces and was low on TCPS in presence of fetal-bovine-serum. On partly biotic TCPS, staphylococci aggregated in presence of fetal-bovine-serum around adhering C. albicans hyphae. PMID:23707849

Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; van der Mei, Henny C; Krom, Bastiaan P; Busscher, Henk J



Acute Sleep Deprivation Increases Serum Levels of Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) and S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S-100B) in Healthy Young Men  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) affects circulating concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S-100B) in humans. These factors are usually found in the cytoplasm of neurons and glia cells. Increasing concentrations of these factors in blood may be therefore indicative for either neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or both. In addition, amyloid ? (A?) peptides 1-42 and 1-40 were measured in plasma to calculate their ratio. A reduced plasma ratio of A? peptides 1-42 to 1-40 is considered an indirect measure of increased deposition of A? 1-42 peptide in the brain. Design: Subjects participated in two conditions (including either 8-h of nocturnal sleep [22:30-06:30] or TSD). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after sleep interventions (19:30 and 07:30, respectively). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 15 healthy young men. Results: TSD increased morning serum levels of NSE (P = 0.002) and S-100B (P = 0.02) by approximately 20%, compared with values obtained after a night of sleep. In contrast, the ratio of A? peptides 1-42 to 1-40 did not differ between the sleep interventions. Conclusions: Future studies in which both serum and cerebrospinal fluid are sampled after sleep loss should elucidate whether the increase in serum neuron-specific enolase and S100 calcium binding protein B is primarily caused by neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or is just a consequence of increased gene expression in non-neuronal cells, such as leukocytes. Citation: Benedict C; Cedernaes J; Giedraitis V; Nilsson EK; Hogenkamp PS; Vĺgesjö E; Massena S; Pettersson U; Christoffersson G; Phillipson M; Broman JE; Lannfelt L; Zetterberg H; Schiöth HB. Acute Sleep Deprivation Increases Serum Levels of Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) and S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S-100B) in Healthy Young Men. SLEEP 2014;37(1):195-198. PMID:24470708

Benedict, Christian; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Nilsson, Emil K.; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.; Vagesjo, Evelina; Massena, Sara; Pettersson, Ulrika; Christoffersson, Gustaf; Phillipson, Mia; Broman, Jan-Erik; Lannfelt, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Schioth, Helgi B.



Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity  

SciTech Connect

BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.



Increased expression and serum levels of the stromal cell-secreted protein periostin in breast cancer bone metastases.  


Periostin, a matricellular protein, is overexpressed in the stroma of several cancers. The aim of our study was to investigate more specifically whether periostin expression is associated with bone metastases from breast cancer and to determine its source in the affected bone. Nude mice were inoculated with human MDA-B02 breast cancer cells. Bone metastases-bearing mice were treated with zoledronic acid-an antiresorptive drug-or vehicle. Bone metastases were examined for tumor- and stroma-derived periostin expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with human- and mouse-specific primers and immunohistochemistry. Serum periostin and conventional bone turnover markers were also measured. MDA-B02 cells did not express periostin both in vitro and in vivo. However, mouse-derived periostin was markedly overexpressed (eightfold) in metastatic legs compared to noninoculated mice. Serum periostin levels were also markedly increased in metastatic mice and correlated with in situ expression levels. Immunostaining showed that periostin derived from the environing stromal cells of bone metastasis. Bone turnover blockade by zoledronic acid markedly decreased osteolytic lesions but only slightly modulated serum periostin levels. Bone metastases from breast cancer induce overexpression of periostin by surrounding stromal cells. Periostin could be a biochemical marker of the early stromal response associated to breast cancer bone metastasis formation. PMID:20715172

Contié, Sylvain; Voorzanger-Rousselot, Nathalie; Litvin, Judith; Clézardin, Philippe; Garnero, Patrick



Regulation of heat shock protein message in Jurkat cells cultured under serum-starved and gravity-altered conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although our understanding of effects of space flight on human physiology has advanced significantly over the past four decades, the potential contribution of stress at the cellular and gene regulation level is not characterized. The objective of this ground-based study was to evaluate stress gene regulation in cells exposed to altered gravity and environmentally suboptimal conditions. We designed primers to detect message for both the constitutive and inducible forms of the heat shock protein, HSP-70. Applying the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we probed for HSP-70 message in human acute T-cell leukemia cells, Jurkat, subjected to three types of environmental stressors: (1) altered gravity achieved by centrifugation (hypergravity) and randomization of the gravity vector in rotating bioreactors, (2) serum starvation by culture in medium containing 0.05% serum, and (3) temperature elevation (42 degrees C). Temperature elevation, as the positive control, significantly increased HSP-70 message, while centrifugation and culture in rotating bioreactors did not upregulate heat shock gene expression. We found a fourfold increase in heat shock message in serum-starved cells. Message for the housekeeping genes, actin and cyclophilin, were constant and comparable to unstressed controls for all treatments. We conclude that gravitational perturbations incurred by centrifugal forces, exceeding those characteristic of a Space Shuttle launch (3g), and culture in rotating bioreactors do not upregulate HSP-70 gene expression. In addition, we found RT-PCR useful for evaluating stress in cultured cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Lewis, M. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.



A Rapid Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Tyrosine Phosphatase-Like Protein IA-2 Autoantibodies in Human Serum  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As) are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity. PMID:25047039

Kikkas, Ingrid; Mallone, Roberto; Larger, Etienne; Volland, Herve; Morel, Nathalie



Native PAGE Protein Expression  

E-print Network

, mg/ml BA Bovine serum albumin Bovine g-globulin Standard curve generation using known standards. A, use Bio-Rad's bovine serum albumin or bovine g-globulin to make your standard curve. For best results and bovine serum albumin standard Catalog # Description 500-0121 RC DC Protein Assay Kit I, includes RC

Lebendiker, Mario


Serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of sepsis and outcome in patients with neurotrauma and subarachnoid haemorrhage.  


This prospective study evaluated serum procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)/sepsis and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Sixty-two patients were followed for 7 days. Serum PCT and CRP were measured on days 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Seventy-seven per cent of patients with traumatic brain injury and 83% with subarachnoid haemorrhage developed SIRS or sepsis (P=0.75). Baseline PCT and CRP were elevated in 35% and 55% of patients respectively (P=0.03). There was a statistically non-significant step-wise increase in serum PCT levels from no SIRS (0.4+/-0.6 ng/ml) to SIRS (3.05+/-9.3 ng/ml) to sepsis (5.5+/-12.5 ng/ml). A similar trend was noted in baseline PCT in patients with mild (0.06+/-0.9 ng/ml), moderate (0.8+/-0.7 ng/ml) and severe head injury (1.2+/-1.9 ng/ml). Such a gradation was not observed with serum CRP There was a non-significant trend towards baseline PCT being a better marker of hospital mortality compared with baseline CRP (ROC-AUC 0.56 vs 0.31 respectively). This is the first prospective study to document the high incidence of SIRS in neurosurgical patients. In our study, serum PCT appeared to correlate with severity of traumatic brain injury and mortality. However, it could not reliably distinguish between SIRS and sepsis in this cohort. This is in part because baseline PCT elevation seemed to correlate with severity of injury. Only a small proportion of patients developed sepsis, thus necessitating a larger sample size to demonstrate the diagnostic usefulness of serum PCT as a marker of sepsis. Further clinical trials with larger sample sizes are required to confirm any potential role of PCT as a sepsis and outcome indicator in patients with head injuries or subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:15675205

Oconnor, E; Venkatesh, B; Mashongonyika, C; Lipman, J; Hall, J; Thomas, P



Selective binding of naphthoquinone derivatives to serum albumin proteins and their effects on cytotoxicity.  


Naphthoquinone derivatives such as lapachol, plumbagin, dichloroallyl lawsone show anticancer activity and generally cytotoxicity measurements are carried out in presence of bovine serum albumin; so understanding on the ability of serum albumin binding with such derivatives are essential. We have investigated cytotoxicity and serum albumin binding of a series of structurally related naphthoquinone derivatives. Substrate dependency and high selectivity in binding of naphthoquinone tethered carboxylic acids or pyridines with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are observed. For example, the binding constant of BSA with 3-(1,4-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-dioxonaphthalen-3yl-thio)propanoic acid is ?594 times higher than 3-(1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino)benzoic acid; whereas 4-(1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino)benzoic acid shows ?367 times higher binding constant than the latter compound. The BSA weakly bind to pyridine tethered naphthoquinones, whereas HSA does not binds with them. The binding constant of HSA with 2-(1,4-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-dioxonaphthalene-3-ylthio)benzoic acid is 134 times higher than the HSA binding constant with 2,2'-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxo-naphthalen-2,3-diylthio)dipropanoic acid. Among the naphthoquinone carboxylic acids, the 3-(1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-amino)benzoic acid binds selectively to BSA, but it does not bind to HSA. The 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or 4-mercaptobenzoic acid strongly binds to BSA. The binding of BSA with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid or 2-mercaptobenzoic acid are insignificant. We have not observed clear relationships of structure of naphthoquinone derivatives versus serum albumin binding, but could identify the compound having the best IC50 values of cytotoxicity among the twelve naphthoquinone compounds. The compound 3-(1,2-dihydro-1,2-dioxonaphthalen-4-yl-thio)propanoic acid in four cancer cell lines has IC50 values in the range 2.7-7.6?M. This compound also has optimum binding constant with BSA (35.042×10(3)Lmol(-1)) or HSA (21.427×10(3)Lmol(-1)). The cytotoxicity values of the compounds were influenced by concentration of BSA. PMID:24560625

Jali, Bigyan R; Kuang, Yuting; Neamati, Nouri; Baruah, Jubaraj B



High sensitive C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A are inversely related to serum bilirubin: effect-modification by metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Bilirubin has been implicated in cardiovascular protection by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The metabolic syndrome is featured by enhanced low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Serum amyloid A (SAA) impairs anti-oxidative properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We determined relationships of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and SAA with bilirubin in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Serum total bilirubin, hs-CRP, SAA and homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were documented in 94 subjects with and in 73 subjects without MetS (26 and 54 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), respectively). Results Bilirubin was lower in MetS (P?=?0.013), coinciding with higher hs-CRP (P?



Transient Limb Ischemia Alters Serum Protein Expression in Healthy Volunteers: Complement C3 and Vitronectin May Be Involved in Organ Protection Induced by Remote Ischemic Preconditioning  

PubMed Central

The protective mechanism underlying remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is unclear. This study aims to verify whether the protein expression profile in the serum could be altered by RIPC and to detect potential protein mediators. Transient limb ischemia consisting of three cycles of 5-min ischemia followed by 5-min reperfusion was performed on sixty healthy volunteers. Serum samples were collected at 30?min before transient limb ischemia and at 1 hour (h), 3?h, 8?h, 24?h, and 48?h after completion of three cycles. Changes in the serum protein profile were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified and, respectively, involved in immune system, lipid binding and metabolism, apoptosis, and blood coagulation. Complement C3, vitronectin, and apolipoprotein A-I were further confirmed by western blotting, and the results showed that their contents decreased significantly after transient limb ischemia. It is concluded that transient limb ischemia alters the serum protein expression profile in human being, and that reduction of serum contents of complement C3 and vitronectin may represent an important part of the mechanism whereby RIPC confers its protection. PMID:24363825

Pang, Ting; Zhang, Nan-Rong; Jin, San-Qing; Pan, San-Qiang



The diagnostic role of human epididymis protein 4 and serum amyloid-A in early-stage endometrial cancer patients.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive efficacy of the human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) and serum amyloid-A (S-AA) together with the other tumor markers (CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA, and CA 19-9) in endometrial cancer patients. The study group consisted of 64 patients with defined stage and grade of endometrial cancer and 60 women with benign uterine diseases. Thirty-four healthy women were defined as the control group. Fasting blood samples were collected prior to surgery and tumor marker levels were determined in blood samples by E170 autoanalyzer. S-AA concentrations were measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Preoperative serum HE4 and S-AA levels were significantly higher in endometrial cancer patients than in controls, whereas the other measured parameters were not significantly different. Serum levels of HE4 were related to both the stage and grade of tumor. The best cutoff point for HE4 was determined to be 59.7 pmol/L; with 75 % sensitivity and 65.5 % specificity. For S-AA, the cutoff point was 8.8 U/mL, with 68.7 % sensitivity and 58.6 % specificity. The combination of HE4, CA 125, CEA, and S-AA raised the sensitivity to 84 %. Preoperative measurement of serum HE4 and S-AA may be of help in early detection of endometrial cancer. Preoperative screening with these markers may provide important information about the patient's outcome and prognosis. PMID:23640061

Omer, Beyhan; Genc, Sema; Takmaz, Ozguc; Dirican, Ahmet; Kusku-Kiraz, Zeynep; Berkman, Sinan; Gurdol, Figen



Trace elements and some extracellular antioxidant proteins levels in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical and immunological abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the levels of serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Trf), and albumin (Alb) in SLE and whether it is related to the severity of the clinical condition of this chronic disease. Cp and Cu levels were higher, while Trf, Alb, Zn, Mg, Mn, and Fe levels were lower in serum of patients with SLE (n = 27) compared with healthy controls (n = 20). The mechanisms by which these alterations occur in certain inflammatory conditions need to be elucidated. It is also obscure whether these alterations are a cause or a consequence of the inflammation. As a conclusion, alterations in the levels of the parameters in SLE may not be a reason for, but in fact a consequence of the disease itself. PMID:15583971

Yilmaz, Adnan; Sari, Refik Ali; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Kose, Nuri; Dag, Erdinc



A fluorescence-based high throughput assay for the determination of small molecule-human serum albumin protein binding.  


Herein, we describe the development of a fluorescence-based high throughput assay to determine the small molecule binding towards human serum albumin (HSA). This innovative competition assay is based on the use of a novel fluorescent small molecule Red Mega 500 with unique spectroscopic and binding properties. The commercially available probe displays a large fluorescence intensity difference between the protein-bound and protein-unbound state. The competition of small molecules for HSA binding in the presence of probe resulted in low fluorescence intensities. The assay was evaluated with the library of pharmacological active compounds (LOPAC) small molecule library of 1,280 compounds identifying known high protein binders. The small molecule competition of HSA-Red Mega 500 binding was saturable at higher compound concentrations and exhibited IC50 values between 3 and 24 ?M. The compound affinity toward HSA was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry indicating that the new protein binding assay is a valid high throughput assay to determine plasma protein binding. PMID:24390461

McCallum, Megan M; Pawlak, Alan J; Shadrick, William R; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Yasgar, Adam; Maloney, David J; Arnold, Leggy A



Inappropriate responses to Mycobacterium leprae infections--C reactive protein in man and serum amyloid P in mice.  

PubMed Central

In a study of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the sera of 77 patients with leprosy, it was found that in the majority of newly diagnosed patients, the level was within the normal range for a healthy Malaysian population. Elevated levels did occur, but were usually found in patients with complications, and were more likely to occur in patients who had been receiving drug treatment for some time. This suggested that Mycobacterium leprae infection by itself does not stimulate CRP synthesis and could reflect a failure of synthesis by macrophages of interleukin-1, or related molecules. This was supported by the study of an analogous acute phase protein, serum amyloid P (SAP) in mice bearing M. leprae from human sources in their hind footpads. Such mice showed no significant difference in SAP levels from control mice. PMID:4042426

Thompson, R A; Sukumaran, K D; Rajagopalan, K



Denaturation of human serum albumin under the action of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide according to fluorescence polarization data of protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Denaturation of human serum albumin (HSA) under the action of cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is studied at different pH values by estimating the rotational diffusion of protein via fluorescence polarization. The degree of polarization of HSA tryptophan fluorescence, the rotational relaxation time, the rotational diffusion coefficient and the effective Einstein radius of the HSA molecules in solutions with different CTAB concentrations at different pH values are determined. The obtained rotational diffusion parameters of the HSA molecules show that under the action of CTAB, HSA denaturation has a one-stage character and proceeds more intensely and effectively at pH values higher than the p I value of protein (4.7).

Vlasova, I. M.; Zhuravleva, V. V.; Saletskii, A. M.



Quantitation of serum angiopoietin-like proteins 3 and 4 in a Finnish population sample  

PubMed Central

We have developed and validated quantitative ELISAs for human angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL)3 and 4 and correlated their serum levels with parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. For this study, we used a random subsample of the Health 2000 Health Examination Survey consisting of 125 men and 125 women, aged 30–94 years. The anthropometric and biochemical parameters of subjects were characterized in detail. ANGPTL 3 and 4 levels were determined using the developed ELISAs. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for the assays were less than 15%. The average serum concentration of ANGPTL3 was 368 ± 168 ng/ml (mean ± SD) and for ANGPTL4 it was 18 ± 23 ng/ml (mean ± SD). ANGPTL4 serum levels displayed high variability between individuals ranging from 2 to 158 ng/ml. In post-heparin plasma, both ANGPTL 3 and 4 were increased. Low levels of ANGPTL3 were associated with decreased HDL-cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. ANGPTL4 levels were positively correlated with FFAs (P = 0.044) and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.016). The developed ELISAs will be important tools to clarify the role of ANGPTL 3 and 4 in human energy metabolism and partitioning of triglycerides between sites of storage (adipose tissue) and oxidation (skeletal and cardiac muscle). PMID:19826106

Robciuc, Marius R.; Tahvanainen, Esa; Jauhiainen, Matti; Ehnholm, Christian



Enhanced stability of PEG-block-poly(N-hexyl stearate L-aspartamide) micelles in the presence of serum proteins  

PubMed Central

Polyethylene glycol-phospholipid micelles form a major class of nanocarriers in pharmacy and medicine due to proven capability in drug solubilization, sustained drug release, and evidence for targeted drug delivery in vivo. In this report, we have prepared micelles composed of PEG-block-poly(N-hexyl stearate L-aspartamide) (PEG-b-PHSA), having nine stearic acid side chains and have studied their stability in the presence of serum proteins by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. In the presence of serum albumin, alpha and beta globulins, or gamma globulins, there are minimal changes in FRET over two hours in vitro, indicating integrity of PEG-b-PHSA micelles. In contrast, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-5000] (PEG-DSPE) micelles lose FRET over two hours in vitro, especially in the presence of alpha and beta globulins, indicating the disruption of PEG-DSPE micelles and leakage of fluorescent probes. Owing to the aliphatic nature of DSPE and PHSA, both PEG-b-PHSA and PEG-DSPE micelles efficiently solubilize amphotericin B (AmB), a poorly water-soluble antifungal agent used to combat systemic mycoses. However, only PEG-b-PHSA micelles gradually liberate AmB in the presence of alpha and beta globulins, based on time-dependent changes in self-aggregation state of AmB, monitored by UV/VIS spectroscopy. PEG-b-PHSA micelles are remarkably stable in the presence of serum proteins and a more stable alternative for poorly water soluble drugs, which have been solubilized by PEG-DSPE micelles. PMID:20575526

Diezi, Thomas A.; Bae, Younsoo; Kwon, Glen S.



LINE-1 ORF1 protein localizes in stress granules with other RNA-binding proteins, including components of RNA interference RNA-induced silencing complex.  


LINE-1 retrotransposons constitute one-fifth of human DNA and have helped shape our genome. A full-length L1 encodes a 40-kDa RNA-binding protein (ORF1p) and a 150-kDa protein (ORF2p) with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. ORF1p is distinctive in forming large cytoplasmic foci, which we identified as cytoplasmic stress granules. A phylogenetically conserved central region of the protein is critical for wild-type localization and retrotransposition. Yeast two-hybrid screens revealed several RNA-binding proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with ORF1p and colocalize with ORF1p in foci. Two of these proteins, YB-1 and hnRNPA1, were previously reported in stress granules. We identified additional proteins associated with stress granules, including DNA-binding protein A, 9G8, and plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein 1 (PAI-RBP1). PAI-RBP1 is a homolog of VIG, a part of the Drosophila melanogaster RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Other RISC components, including Ago2 and FMRP, also colocalize with PAI-RBP1 and ORF1p. We suggest that targeting ORF1p, and possibly the L1 RNP, to stress granules is a mechanism for controlling retrotransposition and its associated genetic and cellular damage. PMID:17562864

Goodier, John L; Zhang, Lili; Vetter, Melissa R; Kazazian, Haig H



Quantification of human growth hormone in serum with a labeled protein as an internal standard: essential considerations.  


To manage and inform diagnostic or therapeutic decisions, measurement results which are accurate, specific, and comparable between laboratories are required. Two challenges associated with this are the definition of the measurand and the commutability of the reference standard used. Once the measurand is defined, the next step in improving standardization is developing traceable quantification methods for proteins in biological fluids. A novel reference method for the quantification of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in serum has been developed using multistep sample cleanup at the protein level, tryptic digestion, and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Critical considerations for using isotopically labeled rhGH as the internal standard are described. A bulk serum sample was prepared at the clinically relevant level of 10 ng/g and quantified using the method described to give results traceable to the International System of Units (SI) with a total measurement uncertainty of <20%. Results compared favorably with an orthogonal traceable method using total tryptic digestion, peptide separation, and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. PMID:24856175

Pritchard, Caroline; Groves, Kate J; Biesenbruch, Sabine; O'Connor, Gavin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Arsene, Cristian; Schulze, Dirk; Quaglia, Milena



Serum levels of acute phase and cardiac proteins after myocardial infarction, surgery, and infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-reactive protein and four other acute phase reactant proteins of non-cardiac, origin (orosomucoid, alpha 1- antitrypsin, heptoglobin, and alpha 2- macroglobulin) were studied serially by laser immunonephelometric assay in sera from 17 patients with myocardial infarction. A similar comparison was made in 57 patients undergoing surgery and 72 patients with acute infection. C-reactive protein was consistently the most sensitive acute

F Voulgari; P Cummins; T I Gardecki; N J Beeching; P C Stone; J Stuart



Elevated serum levels of heat shock protein 70 can be detected after radiofrequency ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their adjuvant effect and their ability to chaperone tumor-associated peptides, heat shock proteins constitute a potent\\u000a alarm signal for the immune system and can lead to activation of anti-tumor T-cell immunity. Radiofrequency ablation has been\\u000a reported to induce heat shock protein expression especially that of heat shock protein 70 in sublethally damaged tumor cells.\\u000a In this study, we

Sebastian P. Haen; Cécile Gouttefangeas; Diethard Schmidt; Andreas Boss; Stephan Clasen; Alexandra von Herbay; Bora Kosan; Hermann Aebert; Philippe L. Pereira; Hans-Georg Rammensee


Poly(A) RNAs Including Coding Proteins RNAs Occur in Plant Cajal Bodies  

PubMed Central

The localisation of poly(A) RNA in plant cells containing either reticular (Allium cepa) or chromocentric (Lupinus luteus, Arabidopsis thaliana) nuclei was studied through in situ hybridisation. In both types of nuclei, the amount of poly(A) RNA was much greater in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. In the nuclei, poly(A) RNA was present in structures resembling nuclear bodies. The molecular composition as well as the characteristic ultrastructure of the bodies containing poly(A) RNA demonstrated that they were Cajal bodies. We showed that some poly(A) RNAs in Cajal bodies code for proteins. However, examination of the localisation of active RNA polymerase II and in situ run-on transcription assays both demonstrated that CBs are not sites of transcription and that BrU-containing RNA accumulates in these structures long after synthesis. In addition, it was demonstrated that accumulation of poly(A) RNA occurs in the nuclei and CBs of hypoxia-treated cells. Our findings indicated that CBs may be involved in the later stages of poly(A) RNA metabolism, playing a role storage or retention. PMID:25369024

Niedojadlo, Janusz; Kubicka, Ewa; Kalich, Beata; Smolinski, Dariusz J.



May serum levels of advanced oxidized protein products serve as a prognostic marker of disease duration in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease?  


Protein and amine halogenation is a type of oxidative stress induced by phagocytic overstimulation, and its role in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been discerned. We have detected that advanced oxidized protein products, markers of protein halogenation, are reliably enhanced in serum of patients with PD (n=60) relative to control subjects (n=45, p<0.012), and to a lesser extent in the cerebrospinal fluid. Amine halogenation, as evaluated through 3-chlorotyrosine, is not affected. Mieloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide levels, halogenative factors of phagocytes, are devoid of changes. Levels of advanced oxidized protein products are progressively reduced over time, and the duration of PD is larger in the Hoehn-Yahr-stage-2/3 patients (n=34) with low serum levels (R(2)=0.0145, p<0.003). Levodopa treatment contributes to this reduction (R(2)=0.259, p<0.001). These protein products are not cytotoxic, unlike 3-chlorotyrosine, but they are known to form inflammatory mediators after conjugation with serum albumin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that the serum level of advanced oxidized protein products is a prognostic marker of PD duration, and these oxidized proteins could participate in the development of parkinsonian neurodegeneration. PMID:23121480

García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; García-Sánchez, María-Isabel; Méndez-Lucena, Carolina; Damas-Hermoso, Fátima; Rus, Macarena; Chacón, José; Fernández, Emilio



Proteomic Analysis of the Vibrio cholerae Type II Secretome Reveals New Proteins, Including Three Related Serine Proteases*  

PubMed Central

The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many Gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E.; Zielke, Ryszard A.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Andrews, Philip C.; Sandkvist, Maria



Proteomic analysis of the Vibrio cholerae type II secretome reveals new proteins, including three related serine proteases.  


The type II secretion (T2S) system is responsible for extracellular secretion of a broad range of proteins, including toxins and degradative enzymes that play important roles in the pathogenesis and life cycle of many gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, the T2S machinery transports cholera toxin, which induces profuse watery diarrhea, a hallmark of this life-threatening disease. Besides cholera toxin, four other proteins have been shown to be transported by the T2S machinery, including hemagglutinin protease, chitinase, GbpA, and lipase. Here, for the first time, we have applied proteomic approaches, including isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantification coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, to perform an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of proteins secreted by the T2S apparatus of the V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 under standard laboratory growth conditions. This analysis identified 16 new putative T2S substrates, including sialidase, several proteins participating in chitin utilization, two aminopeptidases, TagA-related protein, cytolysin, RbmC, three hypothetical proteins encoded by VCA0583, VCA0738, and VC2298, and three serine proteases VesA, VesB, and VesC. Focusing on the initial characterization of VesA, VesB, and VesC, we have confirmed enzymatic activities and T2S-dependent transport for each of these proteases. In addition, analysis of single, double, and triple protease knock-out strains indicated that VesA is the primary protease responsible for processing the A subunit of cholera toxin during in vitro growth of the V. cholerae strain N16961. PMID:21385872

Sikora, Aleksandra E; Zielke, Ryszard A; Lawrence, Daniel A; Andrews, Philip C; Sandkvist, Maria



Serum measurements of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer among Korean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the relationships of serum testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels with prostate cancer risk and also with known prognostic parameters of prostate cancer in Korean men who received radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for clinically-localized prostate cancer.Methods:Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were determined in 592 patients who subsequently received prostate

Sung Kyu Hong; Byung Kyu Han; Jae Seung Jeong; Seong Jin Jeong; Ki Hyuk Moon; Seok Soo Byun; Sang Eun Lee



Immune Cell Activation in Melioidosis: Increased Serum Levels of Interferon-? and Soluble Interleukin2 Receptors without Change in Soluble CD8 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate immune cell activation in patients with melioidosis, serum samples were assayed for interferon-? (IFN-?), soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), and soluble CD8 protein (sCD8). Forty patients with sepsis (23 fatal cases, 17 survivors) and 13 with localized disease were studied during acute illness; 12 additional patients were studied after discharge while on maintenance antimicrobial therapy. Serum concentrations of IFN-?

Arthur E. Brown; David A. B. Dance; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Wipada Chaowagul; Somchai Kongchareon; H. Kyle Webster; Nicholas J. White



Hydrogen peroxide-and fetal bovine serum-induced DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells: positive and negative regulation by protein kinase C isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide and fetal bovine serum stimulate DNA synthesis in growth-arrested smooth muscle cells with remarkably similar kinetics and cell density dependence. However, while stimulation with fetal bovine serum results in cell proliferation, that by H202 is followed by cell death. Depletion of conventional and novel protein kinase C isoforms, resulting from a long treatment with phorbol-l2-myristate- 13-acetate, further increases

Mara Fiorani; Orazio Cantoni; Andrea Tasinato; Daniel Boscoboinik; Angelo Azzi



Content of S100b protein, HLDF24 peptide and autoantibodies to these factors as potential biomarkers for arterial hypertension in blood serum of healthy people.  


The content of S100b protein, HLDF24 peptide, and autoantibodies to these factors in blood serum was measured in healthy individuals (35-64-year-old men and women) with various levels of "normal" BP. Significant differences in the amount of these molecular factors were found in individuals with various categories of BP. We revealed age-related and gender differences in the content of molecular factors in the serum. Our results indicate that variations in the concentration of S100b, HLDF24, and autoantibodies to these factors in blood serum from adult people can serve as a reliable criterion for the risk of arterial hypertension. PMID:24771419

Gruden, M A; Elistratova, E I; Kudrina, M V; Karlina, V P; Deryabina, I S; Semenova, I M; Ryzhov, V M; Sherstnev, V V



Serum Tau Protein Level as a Marker of Axonal Damage in Acute Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical markers of brain damage, e.g. ischemic stroke, should reflect the volume of irreversibly damaged brain parenchyma and the clinical outcome in a single patient in order to allow estimation of prognosis at an early stage. Tau protein, which derives predominantly from neurons and axons, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative disease. This makes tau protein

Andreas Bitsch; Claudia Horn; Yvonne Kemmling; Maria Seipelt; Uwe Hellenbrand; Michael Stiefel; Barbara Ciesielczyk; Lukas Cepek; Erik Bahn; Peter Ratzka; Hilmar Prange; Markus Otto



The Importance of Protein-Protein Interactions on the pH-Induced Conformational Changes of Bovine Serum Albumin: A Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract The combined effects of concentration and pH on the conformational states of bovine serum albumin (BSA) are investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering. Serum albumins, at physiological conditions, are found at concentrations of ?35–45 mg/mL (42 mg/mL in the case of humans). In this work, BSA at three different concentrations (10, 25, and 50 mg/mL) and pH values (2.0–9.0) have been studied. Data were analyzed by means of the Global Fitting procedure, with the protein form factor calculated from human serum albumin (HSA) crystallographic structure and the interference function described, considering repulsive and attractive interaction potentials within a random phase approximation. Small-angle x-ray scattering data show that BSA maintains its native state from pH 4.0 up to 9.0 at all investigated concentrations. A pH-dependence of the absolute net protein charge is shown and the charge number per BSA is quantified to 10(2), 8(1), 13(2), 20(2), and 26(2) for pH values 4.0, 5.4, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0, respectively. The attractive potential diminishes as BSA concentration increases. The coexistence of monomers and dimers is observed at 50 mg/mL and pH 5.4, near the BSA isoelectric point. Samples at pH 2.0 show a different behavior, because BSA overall shape changes as a function of concentration. At 10 mg/mL, BSA is partially unfolded and a strong repulsive protein-protein interaction occurs due to the high amount of exposed charge. At 25 and 50 mg/mL, BSA undergoes some re-folding, which likely results in a molten-globule state. This work concludes by confirming that the protein concentration plays an important role on the pH-unfolded BSA state, due to a delicate compromise between interaction forces and crowding effects. PMID:20085727

Barbosa, Leandro R.S.; Ortore, Maria Grazia; Spinozzi, Francesco; Mariani, Paolo; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Itri, Rosangela



Automatic Identification of Highly Conserved Family Regions and Relationships in Genome Wide Datasets Including Remote Protein Sequences  

PubMed Central

Identifying shared sequence segments along amino acid sequences generally requires a collection of closely related proteins, most often curated manually from the sequence datasets to suit the purpose at hand. Currently developed statistical methods are strained, however, when the collection contains remote sequences with poor alignment to the rest, or sequences containing multiple domains. In this paper, we propose a completely unsupervised and automated method to identify the shared sequence segments observed in a diverse collection of protein sequences including those present in a smaller fraction of the sequences in the collection, using a combination of sequence alignment, residue conservation scoring and graph-theoretical approaches. Since shared sequence fragments often imply conserved functional or structural attributes, the method produces a table of associations between the sequences and the identified conserved regions that can reveal previously unknown protein families as well as new members to existing ones. We evaluated the biological relevance of the method by clustering the proteins in gold standard datasets and assessing the clustering performance in comparison with previous methods from the literature. We have then applied the proposed method to a genome wide dataset of 17793 human proteins and generated a global association map to each of the 4753 identified conserved regions. Investigations on the major conserved regions revealed that they corresponded strongly to annotated structural domains. This suggests that the method can be useful in predicting novel domains on protein sequences. PMID:24069417

Dogan, Tunca; Karacal?, Bilge



Identification of a locus modulating serum C-reactive protein levels on chromosome 5p15  

PubMed Central

Objective: Individual propensity to chronic, low–grade inflammation – a determinant of atherosclerosis – is in part under the control of genetic factors. To identify genes involved in this modulation, we performed a 10 cM genome screen for linkage with plasma C-reactive protein in 38 extended families including 317 non-diabetic and 177 type 2 diabetic family members (2,547 relative pairs). Methods and results: In a variance component analysis, heritability of CRP values was significant (h2=0.39, p<0.0001). This effect was independent of BMI and was present in both diabetic (h2=0.42, p=0.003) and non-diabetic (h2=0.34, p=0.0015) relatives. The strongest evidence of linkage with CRP was on chromosome 5p15, where the LOD score reached genome-wide significance (LOD=3.41, genome-wide p=0.013). Both diabetic and non-diabetic family members contributed to linkage at this location. Smaller linkage peaks were detected on chromosomes 5q35 (LOD=1.35) and 17p11 (LOD=1.33). When the analysis was restricted to diabetic family members, another peak of moderate intensity (LOD=2.17) was evident at 3p21. Conclusions: A major gene influencing CRP levels appears to be located on chromosome 5p15, with an effect that is independent of diabetes. Another gene on 3p21 may control CRP variation but only in the presence of a diabetic or insulin-resistant environment. PMID:17343862

Keenan, Hillary A.; Poznik, G. David; Varo, Nerea; Schneider, Jennifer; Almasy, Laura; Warram, James H.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Schoenbeck, Uwe; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Doria, Alessandro



The effect of treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the serum levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients on hemodialysis.  


Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to many factors including inflammation and oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing anti-oxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to assess the effect of three months treatment with oral NAC on the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Twenty-four patients (nine males and 15 females) on maintenance HD were recruited in the study. Their mean age was 55.3 years. All the patients received oral NAC (600 mg twice a day) for a period of three months. The serum levels of biomedical parameters and IL-6 and hs-CRP were measured at baseline and three months after initiation of treatment. A significant decrease in serum levels of hs-CRP (22.4 vs. 5.2), IL-6 (8.1 vs. 3.6), parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (257.2 vs. 158.8), ferritin (632.0 vs. 515.1) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (54.2 vs. 38.3) was observed following NAC treatment. Female subjects presented with a significantly higher change in serum levels of hs-CRP compared with males (23 vs. 5.4). In three subjects who were less than 40 years old, the hs-CRP and IL-6 levels showed an increase following NAC treatment. Our study found that short-term oral NAC treatment might result in the reduction of IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients who are on regular HD. This suggests that patients with ESRD may benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of NAC. PMID:24434384

Saddadi, Fereshteh; Alatab, Sudabeh; Pasha, Farahnaz; Ganji, Mohammad Reza; Soleimanian, Tayebeh



A Protein Encoded by the Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency-Related Gene Interacts with Specific Cellular Regulatory Proteins, Including CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha?  

PubMed Central

Following acute infection, bovine herpesvirus 1 establishes latency in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG). Reactivation from latency occurs periodically, resulting in the shedding of infectious virus. The latency-related (LR) RNA is abundantly expressed in TG of latently infected calves, and the expression of LR proteins is necessary for dexamethasone-induced reactivation from latency. Previously published studies also identified an alternatively spliced LR transcript which is abundantly expressed in TG at 7 days after infection and has the potential to encode a novel LR fusion protein. Seven days after infection is when extensive viral gene expression is extinguished in TG and latency is established, suggesting that LR gene products influence the establishment of latency. In this study, we used a bacterial two-hybrid assay to identify cellular proteins that interact with the novel LR fusion protein. The LR fusion protein interacts with two proteins that can induce apoptosis (Bid and Cdc42) and with CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-?). Additional studies confirmed that the LR fusion protein interacts with human or insect C/EBP-?. C/EBP-? protein expression is induced in TG neurons of infected calves and after dexamethasone-induced reactivation from latency. Wild-type C/EBP-?, but not a DNA binding mutant of C/EBP-?, enhances plaque formation in bovine cells. We hypothesize that interactions between the LR fusion protein and C/EBP-? promote the establishment of latency. PMID:16987965

Meyer, Florencia; Perez, Sandra; Geiser, Vicki; Sintek, Mark; Inman, Melissa; Jones, Clinton



A highly sensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for the detection of human serum proteins based on the size exclusion of the polyacrylamide gel.  


A highly sensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor based on the size exclusion of the polyacrylamide gel was developed for the on-gels detection of human serum proteins after PAGE. The possible mechanism of this fluorescence sensor was illustrated and validated by utilizing five kinds of colloidal silver nanoparticles with different particle size distribution and six kinds of polyacrylamide gels with different pore size. It was attributed to that silver nanoparticles (<5 nm in diameter) had been selectively absorbed into the gel and formed the small silver nanoclusters, resulting in the red fluorescence. Using this new technique for the detection of human serum proteins after PAGE, a satisfactory sensitivity was achieved and some relatively low-abundance proteins (e.g. zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein), which are the significant proteinic markers of certain diseases can be easily detected, but not with traditional methods. Furthermore, it was also successfully applied to distinguish between serums from hepatoma patient and healthy people. As a new protein detection technique, the colloidal silver nanoparticles based "turn-on" fluorescent sensor offers a rapid, economic, low background, and sensitive way for direct detection of human serum proteins, showing available potential and significance in the development of nanobiotechnology and proteome research. PMID:24150987

Xu, Shenghao; Liu, Pingping; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Lingyun; Hua, Wenhao; He, Dacheng; Ouyang, Jin



Small serum protein-1 changes the susceptibility of an apoptosis-inducing metalloproteinase HV1 to a metalloproteinase inhibitor in habu snake (Trimeresurus flavoviridis)  

PubMed Central

Viperidae snakes containing various venomous proteins also have several anti-toxic proteins in their sera. However, the physiological function of serum protein has been elucidated incompletely. Small serum protein (SSP)-1 is a major component of the SSPs isolated from the serum of a Japanese viper, the habu snake (Trimeresurus flavoviridis). It exists in the blood as a binary complex with habu serum factor (HSF), a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor. Affinity chromatography of the venom on an SSP-1-immobilized column identified HV1, an apoptosis-inducing metalloproteinase, as the target protein of SSP-1. Biacore measurements revealed that SSP-1 was bound to HV1 with a dissociation constant of 8.2 × 10?8 M. However, SSP-1 did not inhibit the peptidase activity of HV1. Although HSF alone showed no inhibitory activity or binding affinity to HV1, the SSP-1–HSF binary complex bound to HV1 formed a ternary complex that non-competitively inhibited the peptidase activity of HV1 with a inhibition constant of 5.1 ± 1.3 × 10?9 M. The SSP-1–HSF complex also effectively suppressed the apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells and caspase 3 activation induced by HV1. Thus, SSP-1 is a unique protein that non-covalently attaches to HV1 and changes its susceptibility to HSF. PMID:23100271

Shioi, Narumi; Ogawa, Eiki; Mizukami, Yuki; Abe, Shuhei; Hayashi, Rieko; Terada, Shigeyuki



ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins  

PubMed Central

Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.



Altered phospholipid transfer protein gene expression and serum lipid profile by topotecan  

E-print Network

April 2010 Keywords: Topoisomerase I inhibitor Camptothecin Topotecan Phospholipid transfer protein High-density lipoprotein Pancreatitis Hyperlipidemia Hypertriglyceridemia A B S T R A C T Camptothecin (CPT) and its

Toledo, University of


Reaction of Ozone with Protein Tryptophans: Band III, Serum Albumin, and Cytochrome C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of red cell ghosts with ozone inhibited both AChE (marking the outside of the membrane) and G3PDH (marking the inside of the membrane). There was no change in tryptophan fluorescence of the ghosts after the ozone treatment. Band 3 protein was isolated from the ozone-treated ghosts. The protein was digested with trypsin to obtain water soluble peptides from the

J. Brian Mudd; P. J. Dawson; Sam Tseng; Fei-Pi Liu



Increased Serum and Musculotendinous Fibrogenic Proteins following Persistent Low-Grade Inflammation in a Rat Model of Long-Term Upper Extremity Overuse  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship between grip strength declines and muscle-tendon responses induced by long-term performance of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) reaching task in rats. We hypothesized that grip strength declines would correlate with inflammation, fibrosis and degradation in flexor digitorum muscles and tendons. Grip strength declined after training, and further in weeks 18 and 24, in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Flexor digitorum tissues of reach limbs showed low-grade increases in inflammatory cytokines: IL-1? after training and in week 18, IL-1? in week 18, TNF-? and IL-6 after training and in week 24, and IL-10 in week 24, with greater increases in tendons than muscles. Similar cytokine increases were detected in serum with HRLF: IL-1? and IL-10 in week 18, and TNF-? and IL-6 in week 24. Grip strength correlated inversely with IL-6 in muscles, tendons and serum, and TNF-? in muscles and serum. Four fibrogenic proteins, TGFB1, CTGF, PDGFab and PDGFbb, and hydroxyproline, a marker of collagen synthesis, increased in serum in HRLF weeks 18 or 24, concomitant with epitendon thickening, increased muscle and tendon TGFB1 and CTGF. A collagenolytic gelatinase, MMP2, increased by week 18 in serum, tendons and muscles of HRLF rats. Grip strength correlated inversely with TGFB1 in muscles, tendons and serum; with CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in tendons; and with MMP2 in tendons and serum. Thus, motor declines correlated with low-grade systemic and musculotendinous inflammation throughout task performance, and increased fibrogenic and degradative proteins with prolonged task performance. Serum TNF-?, IL-6, TGFB1, CTGF and MMP2 may serve as serum biomarkers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, although further studies in humans are needed. PMID:24015193

Gao, Helen G. L.; Fisher, Paul W.; Lambi, Alex G.; Wade, Christine K.; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E.; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.



An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304



Recombinant nucleocapsid protein based single serum dilution ELISA for the detection of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus in poultry.  


Avian infectious bronchitis is ubiquitous and highly contagious disease of poultry, with profound effect on commercial poultry production. For effective control of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), quick and specific diagnosis is of utmost importance. In this study, the virus was isolated from clinical samples from India and the full length nucleocapsid (N) gene was amplified, cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. The purified recombinant N protein based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for IBV to measure specific antibody in the sera of chickens. A total of 310 chicken sera samples were tested using the commercial IDEXX kit along with the assay developed. A linear correlation was obtained between predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding serum titres observed as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to construct a standard curve from which an equation was derived which confirmed their correlation. The developed equation was then used to extrapolate predicated ELISA antibody titer from corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution. The assay proved to be specific (95.8%) and sensitive (96.8%) when compared to the commercial IDEXX ELISA test. PMID:25173423

Pradhan, Sunil K; Kamble, Nitin M; Pillai, Aravind S; Gaikwad, Satish S; Khulape, Sagar A; Reddy, M R; Mohan, C Madhan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Dey, Sohini



Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.  


The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. PMID:21241377

Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J



PIAS1 Activates the Expression of Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation Marker Genes by Interacting with Serum Response Factor and Class I Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins  

PubMed Central

Although a critical component of vascular disease is modulation of the differentiated state of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), the mechanisms governing SMC differentiation are relatively poorly understood. We have previously shown that E-boxes and the ubiquitously expressed class I basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, including E2-2 and E12, are important in regulation of the SMC differentiation marker gene, the SM ?-actin gene. The aim of the present study was to identify proteins that bind to class I bHLH proteins in SMC and modulate transcriptional regulation of SMC differentiation marker genes. Herein we report that members of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family interact with class I bHLH factors as well as serum response factor (SRF). PIAS1 interacted with E2-2 and E12 based on yeast two-hybrid screens, mammalian two-hybrid assays, and/or coimmunoprecipitation assays. Overexpression of PIAS1 significantly activated the SM ?-actin promoter and mRNA expression, as well as SM myosin heavy chain and SM22?, whereas a small interfering RNA for PIAS1 decreased activity of these promoters, as well as endogenous mRNA expression, and SRF binding to SM ?-actin promoter within intact chromatin in cultured SMC. Of significance, PIAS1 bound to SRF and activated SM ?-actin promoter expression in wild-type but not SRF?/? embryonic stem cells. These results provide novel evidence that PIAS1 modulates transcriptional activation of SMC marker genes through cooperative interactions with both SRF and class I bHLH proteins. PMID:16135793

Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Kumar, Meena S.; Hoofnagle, Mark H.; Yoshida, Tadashi; Owens, Gary K.



[Relationship between the included levels of coffee pulp and the protein content in rations for monogastric animals].  


The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of including fresh and ensilaged coffee pulp in rations for monogastric animals, and find the best protein and coffee pulp levels in rations for rats. Fresh coffee pulp and pulp ensilaged for 12 months were used; both kinds of pulp were sun-dried before incorporating them into the rations. The chemical analyses of the pulps revealed a lower content in caffeine, tannins, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the ensilaged pulp than in fresh coffee pulp. Thirty-two experimental rations were prepared, 16 with fresh coffee pulp and 16 with the ensilaged by-product, distributed into four different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%), and three levels of pulp (15, 30 and 45%) for each protein level. The rations thus prepared were fed to Wistar albino rats for a six-week period. The parameters used to measure the effect of the two types of pulp were mortality rate, food consumption, weight gain, food conversion and apparent digestibility of the rations. Ensilaged pulp had a higher nutritive value, lower toxicity and better digestibility than fresh pulp. The increase in the protein level of the ration resulted in partial protection against the negative effects of coffee pulp on the performance of animals, since this improved as the protein level of the ration increased. PMID:3842050

Gómez-Brenes, R A; Bendańa, G; González, J M; Braham, J E; Bressani, R



Serum Response Factor-GATA Ternary Complex Required for Nuclear Signaling by a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor  

PubMed Central

Endothelins are a family of biologically active peptides that are critical for development and function of neural crest-derived and cardiovascular cells. These effects are mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors and involve transcriptional regulation of growth-responsive and/or tissue-specific genes. We have used the cardiac ANF promoter, which represents the best-studied tissue-specific endothelin target, to elucidate the nuclear pathways responsible for the transcriptional effects of endothelins. We found that cardiac-specific response to endothelin 1 (ET-1) requires the combined action of the serum response factor (SRF) and the tissue-restricted GATA proteins which bind over their adjacent sites, within a 30-bp ET-1 response element. We show that SRF and GATA proteins form a novel ternary complex reminiscent of the well-characterized SRF-ternary complex factor interaction required for transcriptional induction of c-fos in response to growth factors. In transient cotransfections, GATA factors and SRF synergistically activate atrial natriuretic factor and other ET-1-inducible promoters that contain both GATA and SRF binding sites. Thus, GATA factors may represent a new class of tissue-specific SRF accessory factors that account for muscle- and other cell-specific SRF actions. PMID:11158291

Morin, Steves; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne; Nemer, Mona



Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on CoCrMo surface: effect of temperature and protein concentration.  


The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto CoCrMo surface has been studied as a function of concentration of BSA and temperature by electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to investigate the interfacial behaviour of BSA at open circuit potential (OCP). The charge transfer resistance was very sensitive to the amount of adsorbed protein, indicating that the adsorption process was accompanied by the transfer of charge and influenced the mechanism and kinetics of the corrosion reaction. At all the temperatures studied, adsorption of BSA onto the CoCrMo surface was successfully described with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EIS study was also carried out for determine the surface charge density, resulting from protein adsorption, and it was shown to be directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed protein (surface concentration). Thermodynamic data of adsorption was obtained for analyzing the adsorption of BSA onto CoCrMo surface. Gibbs free energy of adsorption, DeltaG(ADS) values, for BSA in the investigated temperature range (-51kJmol(-1)) showed that the molecules have a strong affinity for the CoCrMo surface. Enthalpy (DeltaH(ADS)) and entropy (DeltaS(ADS)) of adsorption suggested that the adsorption process of BSA onto the CoCrMo surface is an endothermic process and the molecule suffers structural changes when adsorbing on the metallic surface. PMID:20554436

Valero Vidal, C; Olmo Juan, A; Igual Muńoz, A



Pre-association of polynuclear platinum anticancer agents on a protein, human serum albumin. Implications for drug design†  

PubMed Central

The interactions of polynuclear platinum complexes with human serum albumin were studied. The compounds examined were the “non-covalent” analogs of the trinuclear BBR3464 as well as the dinuclear spermidine-bridged compounds differing in only the presence or absence of a central -NH2-+ (BBR3571 and analogs). Thus, closely-related compounds could be compared. Evidence for pre-association, presumably through electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding, was obtained from fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). In the case of those compounds containing Pt-Cl bonds, further reaction took place presumably through displacement by sulfur nucleophiles. The implications for protein pre-association and plasma stability of polynuclear platinum compounds are discussed. PMID:17992278

Montero, Eva I.; Benedetti, Brad T.; Mangrum, John B.; Oehlsen, Michael J.; Qu, Yun; Farrell, Nicholas P.



Fungicide methyl thiophanate binding at sub-domain IIA of human serum albumin triggers conformational change and protein damage.  


Fluorescence quenching data on interaction of a fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) with human serum albumin (HSA) elucidated a primary binding site at sub-domain IIA. Stern-Volmer algorithm and double log plot revealed the binding affinity (K(a)) and capacity (n) of HSA as 1.65 x 10(4)M(-1) and 1.0 (r(2)=0.99), respectively. Cyclic voltammetric and circular dichroism (CD) studies reaffirmed MT-HSA binding and demonstrated reduction in alpha-helical content of HSA. Substantial release of the carbonyl and acid-soluble amino groups from MT treated HSA suggested protein damage. The plausible mechanism of methyl ((+)CH(3)) group transfer from MT to side chain NH group of tryptophan and HSA degradation elucidates the toxicological and clinical implications of this fungicide. PMID:20371370

Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Alarifi, Saud A; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Mustafa, Jamal; Musarrat, Javed



Method for rapid separation of 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid in human serum by fast protein liquid chromatography.  


The 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) has been approved as a valuable agent in the management of hyperthyroidism secondary to inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin. We have developed a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) method for separation and quantification of TRIAC. Serum samples charged with TRIAC were extracted with methanol/ammonium acetate, the supernatants were evaporated to dryness, reconstituted in NaOH and injected on a reversed phase column for chromatography. For separation an isocratic elution method (methanol water; 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) was used. The area under the curve (ml%) was compared with those of the calibration curves. Recoveries were 70 +/- 10.8%. TRIAC was eluted in 2.33 ml. Conclusively, the present method shows that TRIAC can be measured by FPLC and may be applied to the measurement of TRIAC in pharmacological studies. PMID:2627761

Duntas, L; Keck, F S; Wolf, C; Pfeiffer, E F



Fluorescent probing of protein bovine serum albumin stability and denaturation using polarity sensitive spectral response of a charge transfer probe.  


The polarity sensitive photo-induced intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence probe (E)-3-(4-methylamino-phenyl)-acrylic acid ethyl ester (MAPAEE) has been used to study the model protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in its native and thermal and urea induced denatured states. The interaction between BSA and the regular surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) as well as the biologically relevant steroid-based amphiphile Sodium Deoxycholate (NaDC) has also been very keenly followed using this ICT probe. The variation of micellar properties of both SDS and NaDC with increasing ionic strengths and in presence of the chaotrope urea has also been well documemted by the same probe. Steady-state spectroscopy, FRET, and fluorescence anisotropy measurements have been used to gain better insight into these processes and the molecule MAPAEE to be a full-bodied fluorescent probe for studying such intricate biological systems, their properties and interactions. PMID:20922468

Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Nath, Debnarayan; Guchhait, Nikhil



Curcuminoids Target Decreasing Serum Adipocyte-fatty Acid Binding Protein Levels in Their Glucose-lowering Effect in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.  


Whether supplementation of curcuminoids decreases serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) level and whether this decrease benefits glucose control is unclear. One-hundred participants (n=50 administered curcuminoids, n=50 administered placebo) from our previous report on the effect of curcuminoids on type 2 diabetes in a 3-month intervention were assessed for levels of serum A-FABP, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Curcuminoids supplementation led to significant decreases in serum A-FABP, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6 levels. Curcuminoids supplementation also significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The change in serum A-FABP levels showed positive correlations with changes in levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), and CRP in subjects supplemented with curcuminoids. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that A-FABP was an independent predictor for levels of FFAs, SOD, and CRP. These results suggest that curcuminoids may exert anti-diabetic effects, at least in part, by reductions in serum A-FABP level. A-FABP reduction is associated with improved metabolic parameters in human type 2 diabetes. PMID:25374024

Na, Li Xin; Yan, Bo Lin; Jiang, Shuo; Cui, Hong Li; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang Hao



The stimulus-dependent co-localization of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (Sgk) and Erk/MAPK in mammary tumor cells involves the mutual interaction with the importin-alpha nuclear import protein  

PubMed Central

In Con8 rat mammary epithelial tumor cells, indirect immunofluorescence revealed that Sgk (Serum- and Glucocorticoid-regulated kinase) and Erk/MAPK (Extracellular signal-Regulated protein kinase/Mitogen Activated protein kinase) co-localized to the nucleus in serum treated cells and to the cytoplasmic compartment in cells treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Moreover, the subcellular distribution of the importin-alpha nuclear transport protein was similarly regulated in a signal dependent manner. In vitro GST-pull down assays revealed the direct interact