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Sample records for serum proteins including

  1. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePLUS

    This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation Globulin electrophoresis

  2. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  3. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies such as Herceptin and Cetuximab. The PEMS displayed a limit of detection of 100 fg/mL, which was 100 times lower than the current methods of protein detection in serum, such as ELISA. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the PEMS device allows it to be capable of determining the dissociation constant, K d, of selective receptors such as antibodies. Using the dose response trials of Her2, Kd has been deduced for H3 scFv, and Herceptin, a commercial antibody specific for Her2.

  4. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  5. ALLOTYPY OF RABBIT SERUM PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Jacques

    1960-01-01

    The relationships between six of the seven allotypes or families of allotypes (a, b, c, d, f, g) described in the preceding paper, have been studied from the standpoints of (1) their antigenic specificities, (2) their mutual influence on the limitation of their respective frequencies, and (3) their genetic control. Although the six different allotypes (or families) react quite differently with the rabbit antisera, at least five of them react identically with a guinea pig antiserum. Therefore, a large portion of the antigenic specificity of these allotypes, distinct from their allotypic specificity, is uniform in all the individuals of the rabbit species and is termed for this reason "isotypic specificity." In the early period of the rabbit's life, allotypes may be found in the serum, which are not determined by the genotype of the individual, but are directly transmitted by the mother. The allotypes of the antigenic species of globulin studied in this paper, which were synthesized by the young animal, did not appear in its serum before a certain period of time. Allelic relationships between the genes which control allotypes were indicated by, (1) the absence of certain kinds of groupings of the allotypes, which limits the number of allotypic formulas in the population sample studied, (2) dosage effects, the concentration of certain allotypes (drawn from the penetration of the zones in gel tubes) being smaller in supposed heterozygotes than in supposed homozygotes, (3) the results of the analysis of the sera of a number of rabbits and of their parents. Eight of the different antigenic substances studied in this paper (allotype e excluded) appear to be allotypic forms of what would have been considered to be a uniform protein antigen. They may be classified as follows: a first group which contains two allotypes b and d and a family of two allotypes c and c' apparently controlled by three allelic genes b c d, c and c' being controlled by the same gene; a second group which contains two allotypes a and f and a family g, g' apparently controlled by three allelic genes a f g. There are reasons to believe that this list is not complete, especially in the b c d group. PMID:13731717

  6. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  7. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  8. Differential serum protein markers and the clinical severity of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Norbert; Nuss, Sarah Janine; Rothe, Thomas; Siebenhner, Alexander; Akdis, Cezmi A; Menz, Gnter

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different clinical phenotypes and the involvement of multiple inflammatory pathways. During airway inflammation, many cytokines and chemokines are released and some are detectable in the sera. Objective Serum chemokines and cytokines, involved in airway inflammation in asthma patients, were investigated. Methods A total of 191 asthma patients were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis, including the following parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) serum levels, blood eosinophils, Junipers asthma symptom score, and the change in FEV1, ECP serum levels, and blood eosinophils after 3 weeks of asthma therapy. Serum proteins were measured by multiplex analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the validity of serum proteins for discriminating between asthma clusters. Results Classification of asthma patients identified one cluster with high ECP serum levels, increased blood eosinophils, low FEV1 values, and good FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=60) and one cluster with low ECP serum levels, low numbers of blood eosinophils, higher FEV1 values, and no FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=131). Serum interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK), growth-related oncogene (GRO)-?, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly different between the two clusters of asthma patients. ROC analysis for serum proteins calculated a sensitivity of 55.9% and specificity of 75.8% for discriminating between them. Conclusion Serum cytokine and chemokine levels might be predictors for the severity of asthmatic inflammation, asthma control, and response to therapy, and therefore might be useful for treatment optimization. PMID:24851055

  9. Binding of aluminum to human serum transferrin, human serum albumin and rat serum proteins

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae, A.K.H.; Zeid, M.M.A.; Abdel-Rahman, F.H.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Human serum transferrin (HSTF), human serum albumin (HSA) and rat serum were compared for their interaction with AlCl[sub 3], in a Tris-HCl buffer solutions. The AlCl[sub 3] was tested in series of concentrations in the range of 50 [mu]M up to 500 [mu]M. HSTF, HSA and their 1:1 mixture and rat serum were incubated at 37 C with series of AlCl[sub 3] concentrations. The protein profile of the incubated solutions were compared to control using SDS-PAGE and FPLC tests. The results indicated that HSTF was more specifically responsive to AlCl[sub 3] showing a characteristic increase in it UV absorption, peak and area dimensions. Simultaneously, HSA was less affected, but it showed a significant shift with an increase in molecular weight accompanied with a change in its profile. The respective bands of transferrin and albumin in rat serum behaved similarly.

  10. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  11. Studies on paracetamol binding to serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Milligan, T P; Morris, H C; Hammond, P M; Price, C P

    1994-09-01

    There is a limited amount of data on the binding of paracetamol to plasma proteins. It has been suggested that binding might influence the ability of some analytical methods to quantify the total amount of drug present in the plasma fraction--the basis of clinical experience in risk assessment and antidote usage. We have investigated the binding of paracetamol to plasma proteins using an ultrafiltration technique. In overdose and spiked uraemic plasma samples the mean percentage of paracetamol bound was 24.1 (1SD = 7.0) with no significant correlation with drug levels or degree of uraemia. There is a small but significant increase in binding with increasing serum albumin concentration both in plasma (rs = 0.549, P = 0.014) and in pure serum albumin solutions (rs = 0.848, P < 0.001). PMID:7832576

  12. Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Mir, Sartaj Ahmad; Renuse, Santosh; Manda, Srikanth S.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Solanki, Hitendra Singh; Manju, H.C.; Syed, Nazia; Sharma, Rakesh; Christopher, Rita; Vijayakumar, M.; Kumar, K.V. Veerendra; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Ramaswamy, Girija; Kumar, Rekha V.; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Blood based biomarkers of gastric cancer have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. Proteins that show altered levels in the circulation of gastric cancer patients could prove useful as putative biomarkers. We used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that show altered levels in the sera of patients with gastric cancer. Our study resulted in identification of 643 proteins, of which 48 proteins showed increased levels and 11 proteins showed decreased levels in serum from gastric cancer patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Proteins that showed increased expression in gastric cancer included inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), Mannose-binding protein C (MBL2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), serum amyloid A protein (SAA1), Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) and extracellular superoxide dismutase [CuZn] (SOD3). We used multiple reaction monitoring assays and validated elevated levels of ITIH4 and SAA1 proteins in serum from gastric cancer patients. Biological significance Gastric cancer is a highly aggressive cancer associated with high mortality. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable interest in diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases including cancers. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Pathological diagnosis using biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable importance as they are minimally invasive. In this study, we carried out quantitative proteomic profiling of serum from gastric cancer patients to identify proteins that show altered levels in gastric cancer patients. We identified more than 50 proteins that showed altered levels in gastric cancer patient sera. Validation in a large cohort of well classified patient samples would prove useful in identifying novel blood based biomarkers for gastric cancers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25952687

  13. Serum protein changes after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, P G; Ball, A J; Spurr, E D

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the concentrations of 11 serum proteins following surgery for a variety of conditions have been investigated. Protein changes were analogous to those observed after injury or trauma, but showed differences in the detailed behaviour of the pattern of change. Marked increases in the concentrations of five acute-phase reactant proteins (APRP) were seen, with maximum concentrations usually being reached 2 days after surgery in patients who made an uncomplicated recovery from their operations. Considerable differences were observed between the patterns of change of APRP in patients who developed complications during recovery and in patients who made an uncomplicated recovery from surgery. Concentrations of C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) were much higher in the patients who developed complications, with ACT concentrations providing the clearest separation between the groups. The main factor influencing the changes in APRP during the recovery period appeared to be the development of sepsis. Preoperative concentrations of APRP had no prognostic value for identifying patients at risk of developing complications. The study suggests that the localisation of inflamed tissue involved in the disease processes may influence the detailed behaviour of the acute-phase reactant proteins. PMID:2472099

  14. Multiplexed microfluidic quantification of proteins in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Nitin; Rajauria, Sukumar; Cleland, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and low cost immunoassays targeting proteins in blood or other bodily fluids are highly sought after for point-of-care devices and early screening of patients. Immunoturbidimetric assays utilize latex particles functionalized with antibodies, with particle aggregation in the presence of the analyte detected by a change in absorbance. Using a high throughput micro-fluidic particle analyzer based solely on electrical signals (resistive pulse sensing), we are able to accurately quantify the degree of aggregation by analyzing the changes in the particle size distribution. Thus we study the aggregation of streptavidin (SAv) coated beads in the presence of biotinylated bovine serum albumin as a proof-of-principle assay and extract the binding capacity of the SAv beads from the dose-response curve. We also use our aggregation measurement platform to characterize a commercial C-reactive protein (CRP) immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP, Diazyme Inc.). We obtain a linear calibration curve as well as a better limit of detection of CRP than that obtained by absorbance measurements. By using different bead sizes functionalized with different antibodies, multiplexed analyte detection is also possible. We demonstrate this by combining the commercial anti-CRP functionalized beads (0.4 microns) with biotin coated beads (1.0 microns), and carry out the simultaneous detection of SAv and CRP in a single sample.

  15. Intracellular protein degradation in serum-deprived human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Slot, L A; Lauridsen, A M; Hendil, K B

    1986-01-01

    IMR90 human fibroblasts were labelled by incubation of cells for 48 h in medium containing 10% serum and [3H]leucine. The labelled protein was degraded at a rate of 1%/h during a subsequent incubation in medium with 10% serum. Incubation in medium without serum caused a transient enhancement of the degradation of endogenous protein, which was also found in cells labelled in medium without serum. The degradation of micro-injected haemoglobin was enhanced by serum deprivation in a non-transient manner. These results suggest that enhanced degradation in serum-free medium occurs only for a subpopulation of cell proteins and that it appears transient because the major part of the pool of susceptible endogenous proteins is being degraded during the first 20-30 h in serum-free unlabelled medium. Protein turnover in various cell compartments was measured by a double-labelling technique. Most of the enhanced degradation in serum-deprived cultures (73-83%) was due to breakdown of cytosolic proteins. The enhanced degradation of cytosolic proteins seemed to affect several proteins irrespective of their molecular mass or metabolic stability. PMID:2432873

  16. Serum acute phase proteins and swine health status

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Fung, Hang-Pong; Ho, Lin-Lin; Yang, Ping-Chin; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Yan-Pai; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between swine health status and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins, haptoglobin (HP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 378 clinically healthy pigs from farms A and B, plus 20 pigs culled from farm A due to poor growth, were used in this experiment. Each pig was examined and blood samples were collected during slaughter. The HP concentration was measured by using an HP-hemoglobin binding assay. The CRP concentration was measured by using a CRP enzyme immunoassay. Gross and histopathological lesions were examined and recorded at slaughter. Representative samples were then collected in order to isolate pathogens. Swine enzootic pneumonia, found in 47.7% of the pigs, was the most common lesion. Other lesions included pleuropneumonia (32.7%), suppurative pneumonia (10.3%), fibrinous pericardititis (4.3%), Ascaris migration in the liver (33.9%), and intestinal serositis (3.0%). On farm A, the percentage of pigs with 1 or more lesions was 88.2%. For culled pigs from farm A, the mean serum concentrations of HP and CRP were 2.23 0.14 mg/mL and 252.93 11.62 ?g/mL, which were significantly higher than concentrations in clinically normal pigs (1.42 0.02 mg/mL and 84.88 2.61 ?g/mL, respectively, P < 0.01). Moreover, among clinically normal farm A pigs, the mean HP concentration in pigs with lesions (1.43 0.02 mg/mL) was significantly higher than in pigs without lesions (1.32 0.07 mg/mL) (P < 0.05). However, the mean serum CRP concentrations in these animals were not significantly different. On farm B, the percentage of pigs with one or more lesions was 50.0%. Interestingly, the mean serum HP concentration in clinically normal pigs with lesions was significantly lower in farm B pigs (1.23 0.07 mg/mL) than in the farm A pigs (1.43 0.02 mg/mL; P < 0.01). However, serum CRP concentrations in farm A and B pigs were not significantly different. Serum HP concentration, which is a better indicator of inflammatory reactions in pig herds than serum CRP concentration, provides an important marker for swine health status. PMID:14620865

  17. Nanoparticle-Assisted Removal of Protein in Human Serum for Metabolomics Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Mouzhe; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Brschweiler, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Among human body fluids, serum plays a key role for diagnostic tests and, increasingly, for metabolomics analysis. However, the high protein content of serum poses significant challenges for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics studies because it can strongly interfere with metabolite signal detection and quantitation. Although several methods for protein removal have been proposed, including ultrafiltration and organic-solvent-induced protein precipitation, there is currently no standard operating procedure for the elimination of protein from human serum samples. Here, we introduce novel procedures for the removal of protein from serum by the addition of nanoparticles. It is demonstrated how serum protein can be efficiently, cost-effectively, and environmentally friendly removed at physiological pH (pH 7.4) through attractive interactions with silica nanoparticles. It is further shown how serum can be processed with nanoparticles prior to ultrafiltration or organic-solvent-induced protein precipitation for optimal protein removal. After examination of all of the procedures, the combination of nanoparticle treatment and ultrafiltration is found to have a minimal effect on the metabolite content, leading to remarkably clean homo- and heteronuclear NMR spectra of the serum metabolome that compare favorably to other methods for protein removal. PMID:26605638

  18. Identification of low-abundance proteins in serum via the isolation of HSP72 complexes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masako; Shiota, Masayuki; Nakao, Takafumi; Uemura, Ryo; Nishi, Satoshi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Maki; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Inagaki, Azusa; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Gi, Min; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Iwao, Hiroshi

    2016-03-16

    Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is an intracellular molecular chaperone that is overexpressed in tumor cells, and has also been detected in extracellular regions such as the blood. HSP72 forms complexes with peptides and proteins that are released from tumors. Accordingly, certain HSP72-binding proteins/peptides present in the blood of cancer patients may be derived from tumor cells. In this study, to effectively identify low-abundance proteins/peptides in the blood as tumor markers, we established a method for isolating HSP72-binding proteins/peptides from serum. Nine HSP72-specific monoclonal antibodies were conjugated to N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide-activated Sepharose beads (NHq) and used to isolate HSP72 complexes from serum samples. Precipitated proteins were then identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Notably, this approach enabled the isolation of low-abundance proteins from serum without albumin removal. Moreover, by subjecting the serum samples of ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) to NHq analysis, we identified 299 proteins present in MM HSP72 complexes, including 65 intracellular proteins. Among the intracellular proteins detected, 21 were present in all serum samples tested, while 11 were detected in both the conditioned media from cultured multiple myeloma cells and serum from MM patients. These results suggest that the NHq method can be applied to discover candidate tumor markers. PMID:26780229

  19. A PHASE RULE STUDY OF THE PROTEINS OF BLOOD SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Eloise; Roberts, Dorothy Brown

    1937-01-01

    A method has been developed for applying the phase rule to systems of several protein components in serum. The globulin fractions which have been investigated appear to be homogeneous substances. PMID:19873049

  20. Spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anadi; Bylund, Quentin; Prasanna, Manu; Margalit, Yotam; Tihan, Tarik

    2013-03-01

    First measurements of biomedical imaging using quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are presented. We report spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using QCLs as an example for monitoring surface biocontamination. We found that dry smears of human serum can be spectroscopically imaged, identified, and quantified with high sensitivity and specificity. The core parts of the imaging platform consist of optically multiplexing three QCLs and an uncooled microbolometer camera. We show imaging of human serum proteins at 6.1, 9.25, and 9.5 μm QCLs with high sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity limit of 3  μg/cm² of the human serum spot was measured at an S/N=3.The specificity of human serum detection was measured at 99% probability at a threshold of 77  μg/cm². We anticipate our imaging technique to be a starting point for more sophisticated biomolecular diagnostic applications. PMID:23515866

  1. Interaction of Serum Proteins with Surface of Hemodialysis Fiber Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrin, Rehana; Shirako, Yuji; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Ikai, Atsushi

    2012-08-01

    The poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-covered hydrophilic surface of hollow-fiber membranes (fiber membrane, hereafter) for hemodialysis was mechanically probed using modified tips on an atomic force microscope (AFM) with covalent crosslinkers and several types of serum protein. The retraction part of many of the force extension (F-E) curves obtained with AFM tips coated with serum albumin had a long and smooth extension up to 200-300 nm indicating forced elongation of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) chains. When fibrinogen-coated tips were used, long extension F-E curves up to 500 nm with multiple peaks were obtained in addition to smooth curves most likely reflecting the unfolding of fibrinogen molecules. The results indicated that individual polymer chains had a significant affinity toward serum proteins. The adhesion frequency of tips coated with serum proteins was lower on the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) surface than on the uncoated hydrophobic polysulfone surface.

  2. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  3. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  4. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. PMID:20347821

  5. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles-serum proteins bioconjugates for binding of irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Tamyurek, Ecem; Maltas, Esra; Bas, Salih Zeki; Ozmen, Mustafa; Yildiz, Salih

    2015-02-01

    The binding of irinotecan to serum proteins (hemoglobin, globulin and human serum albumin) was studied on the surface of epoxide modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (GPTS-SPIONs), which were synthesized by the coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric salts with NH4OH and then modified with [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyl] trimethoxy silane (GPTS) to obtain functional epoxide groups on the SPIONs' surface. Results were compared to find an alternative as drug carries system. Data showed that binding amount of human serum albumin (HSA), globulin (Glb) and hemoglobin (Hb) found to be as 44, 21.2 and 32.6 μg per 20 mg of GPTS modified SPIONs, respectively. The thermal behavior of the serum protein-Ir interaction on GPTS-SPIONs was also studied by using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) technique and then the kinetic parameters for the thermal decomposition were determined using Horowitz-Metzger method. PMID:25445689

  7. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) contain four developmentally regulated serum thyroid hormone distributor proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Tianna Natalia; Manzon, Richard Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are very lipophilic molecules which require a distribution network for efficient transport in serum. Despite observations that THs function in a wide variety of processes, including aspects of fish development (i.e., flat fish metamorphosis and smoltification), the proteins responsible for TH distribution in fish serum remain poorly studied. We chose to investigate the serum TH distributor proteins (THDPs) in lampreys. As one of only two extant agnathans, data on lamprey THDPs may offer new insights into the evolution of the vertebrate TH distribution network and serum proteins in general. Moreover, lampreys appear to contradict the vertebrate model of an increase in TH concentrations initiating and driving vertebrate metamorphosis. We show for the first time that sea lamprey serum contains at least four THDPs and that their presence in serum is temporally regulated throughout the life cycle. The albumin, glycoprotein AS is the dominant THDP present in the sera of larval and metamorphosing sea lamprey. In stage seven of metamorphosis, three additional THDPs appear, including the albumin, glycoprotein SDS-1; the glycolipoprotein CB-III; and an unidentified low molecular weight protein temporarily named Spot-5. The sera of parasitic and upstream migrant sea lampreys lack AS; their serum THDPs are SDS-1, CB-III, and Spot-5. Our data indicate that despite the change in type and number of THDPs, the overall total TH binding capacity of sea lamprey serum remains fairly stable until stage 7 of metamorphosis when a only modest decrease in total binding capacity is observed. Collectively these data indicate that the decline in serum TH concentrations observed during lamprey metamorphosis is not a consequence of a reduction in the distribution and storage capacity of the serum. PMID:21163261

  8. Food allergy: a clinician's criteria for including sera in a serum bank.

    PubMed

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Fernndez-Rivas, M

    2008-10-01

    Safety assessment for genetically-engineered crop plants includes assessment for allergic responses. To facilitate this assessment, serum banks should contain well-characterised sera from patients with confirmed food allergies. A serum is defined as well-characterised if it is taken from a patient who has a convincing history of allergic responses to a known allergen or an allergen-containing food, a positive skin prick test (or elevated IgE response), and a positive response in a clinical food challenge. PMID:18706467

  9. Candida albicans Shaving to Profile Human Serum Proteins on Hyphal Surface

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Elvira; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Hernández-Haro, Carolina; Hernáez, María L.; Nombela, César; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human opportunistic fungus and it is responsible for a wide variety of infections, either superficial or systemic. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus and its ability to switch between yeast and hyphae is essential for its virulence. Once C. albicans obtains access to the human body, the host serum constitutes a complex environment of interaction with C. albicans cell surface in bloodstream. To draw a comprehensive picture of this relevant step in host-pathogen interaction during invasive candidiasis, we have optimized a gel-free shaving proteomic strategy to identify both, human serum proteins coating C. albicans cells and fungi surface proteins simultaneously. This approach was carried out with normal serum (NS) and heat inactivated serum (HIS). We identified 214 human and 372 C. albicans unique proteins. Proteins identified in C. albicans included 147 which were described as located at the cell surface and 52 that were described as immunogenic. Interestingly, among these C. albicans proteins, we identified 23 GPI-anchored proteins, Gpd2 and Pra1, which are involved in complement system evasion and 7 other proteins that are able to attach plasminogen to C. albicans surface (Adh1, Eno1, Fba1, Pgk1, Tdh3, Tef1, and Tsa1). Furthermore, 12 proteins identified at the C. albicans hyphae surface induced with 10% human serum were not detected in other hypha-induced conditions. The most abundant human proteins identified are involved in complement and coagulation pathways. Remarkably, with this strategy, all main proteins belonging to complement cascades were identified on the C. albicans surface. Moreover, we identified immunoglobulins, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic proteins such as apolipoproteins and others. Additionally, we identified more inhibitors of complement and coagulation pathways, some of them serpin proteins (serine protease inhibitors), in HIS vs. NS. On the other hand, we detected a higher amount of C3 at the C. albicans surface in NS than in HIS, as validated by immunofluorescence. PMID:26696967

  10. Charged Gold Nanoparticles with Essentially Zero Serum Protein Adsorption in Undiluted Fetal Bovine Serum

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Avinash K.; Stover, Robert J.; Hardin, William G.; Schramm, Robert; Nie, Golay D.; Gourisankar, Sai; Truskett, Thomas M.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of even a single serum protein molecule on a gold nanosphere used in biomedical imaging may increase the size too much for renal clearance. Herein, we design charged ~5 nm Au nanospheres coated with binary mixed charge ligand monolayers that do not change in size upon incubation in pure fetal bovine serum (FBS). This lack of protein adsorption is unexpected given the Au surface is moderately charged. The mixed charge monolayers are comprised of anionic citrate ligands modified by place exchange with naturally-occurring amino acids: either cationic lysine or zwitterionic cysteine ligands. The zwitterionic tips of either the lysine or cysteine ligands interact weakly with the proteins and furthermore increase the distance between the buried charges closer to the Au surface and the interacting sites on the protein surface. The ~5 nm nanospheres were assembled into ~20 nm diameter nanoclusters with strong NIR absorbance (of interest in biomedical imaging and therapy) with a biodegradable polymer, PLA(1k)-b-PEG(10k)-b-PLA(1k). Upon biodegradation of the polymer in acidic solution, the nanoclusters dissociated into primary ~5 nm Au nanospheres, which also did not adsorb any detectable serum protein in undiluted FBS. PMID:23565806

  11. Serum thymic hormone activity in protein-energy malnutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K

    1979-01-01

    To characterize the underlying mechanisms of impaired cell-mediated immunity in protein-energy malnutrition, thymic hormone activity was measured in the serum samples of undernourished children and was found to be reduced in the majority. This indicates that the cellular immunological deficit in nutritional deficiency may be due to reduced thymic inductive activity. PMID:118837

  12. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  13. Electrophoretic properties of beta-lactam and serum protein conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zdziarski, P

    2000-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics can easy bind to protein. Available information on the nature of the conjugates is rather poor. In this study, agarose electrophoresis was used to determine and comparison physicochemical properties of the complexes. Benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, imipenem and serum protein were used for free generation drug-protein conjugates. Agarose electrophoresis shows heterogeneous migration of the conjugates. Interestingly-binding of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin exerts an effect on electrophoretic migration of albumin and globulin, but others--only serum albumin. Binding of ampicillin shows down migration of all anionic fractions of plasma protein, benzylpenicillin--anionic and cationic. Otherwise--migration of albumin was accelerate by others. This finding can explain higher frequency of penicillins hypersensitivity than cephalosporins, carbapenems or monobaktams. The commercially available and cheap procedure allows to execute the screening of physicochemical properties, which exert an effect on electrophoretic mobility of protein i.e. electric charge and molecule length (Stockes's diameter). Therefore, the electrophoretic mobility modification probably reflects the transformation of molecular weight, charge and space structure serum proteins by binding of beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:11243245

  14. Serum τ protein as a potential biomarker in the assessment of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JUNWEN; LI, JUN; HAN, LIN; GUO, SONGBO; WANG, LEI; XIONG, ZUOJUN; CHEN, ZHI; CHEN, WEN; LIANG, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disabilities among all trauma cases. Following TBI, damage to axons results in τ protein hyperphosphorylation leading to microtubule instability and τ-mediated neurodegeneration. In addition, τ protein is proteolytically cleaved and is able to access the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum; thus, this protein may serve as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of injury severity and outcome prediction. Although a limited number of studies have investigated the CSF τ protein levels after TBI, the data are divergent and conflicting, and investigations into the serum τ protein levels have yet to be conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the serum τ protein levels in the full spectrum of TBI patients on days 0–14 after TBI, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein levels were compared to the initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E), which are used to represent the injury severity and patient outcome, respectively. In total, 56 patients, including 20 patients with mild TBI (GCS, 13–15), 19 patients with moderate TBI (GCS, 9–12) and 17 patients with severe TBI (GCS, 3–8), were included in the current study. The outcome was assessed 1 year after the injury and patients were classified into the good outcome (40 cases; GOS-E, 5–8) and poor outcome groups (16 cases; GOS-E, 1–4). The results indicated that serum τ protein levels increased soon after TBI and reached a peak value at ~2 days after the injury. The serum τ protein levels were significantly higher in the severe TBI group compared with those in the mild and moderate TBI groups (P<0.0001). Univariate analysis indicated that poor outcome was significantly associated with higher serum τ protein levels on day 2 (P<0.0001). A receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that a τ protein level of >116.04 pg/ml on day 2 resulted in a 93.75% sensitivity and 92.50% specificity for predicting a poor outcome. Furthermore, a τ protein level of >372.1 pg/ml on day 2 yielded 100% sensitivity and 83.33% specificity for 1 year mortality in the severe TBI group. In conclusion, the present study suggests that serum τ protein may serve as a potential biomarker for evaluating the injury severity and predicting the outcome of TBI patients. PMID:26998051

  15. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (?25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by 1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included ?2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin ? and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, ?2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  16. Serum proteins of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Sulkin, S.T.; Henny, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Serum proteins from nine subspecies of Canada Geese (Brunta canadensis) were analyzed through the use of column and slab acrylamide electrophoresis. Variation was minimal within a subspecies, although all the subspecies were closely related. B. c. leucopareia appeared to be the most distinct subspecies, while maxima and moffitti were the most similar. Our preliminary findings suggest that the electrophoresis techniques are sensitive enough to identify some of the subspecies; however, baseline data from breeding ranges of all subspecies are required.

  17. Temperature-Triggered Protein Adsorption on Polymer-Coated Nanoparticles in Serum.

    PubMed

    Koshkina, Olga; Lang, Thomas; Thiermann, Raphael; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Secker, Christian; Schlaad, Helmut; Weidner, Steffen; Mohr, Benjamin; Maskos, Michael; Bertin, Annabelle

    2015-08-18

    The protein corona, which forms on the nanoparticle's surface in most biological media, determines the nanoparticle's physicochemical characteristics. The formation of the protein corona has a significant impact on the biodistribution and clearance of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, the ability to influence the formation of the protein corona is essential to most biomedical applications, including drug delivery and imaging. In this study, we investigate the protein adsorption on nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic radius of 30 nm and a coating of thermoresponsive poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) in serum. Using multiangle dynamic light scattering (DLS) we demonstrate that heating of the nanoparticles above their phase separation temperature induces the formation of agglomerates, with a hydrodynamic radius of 1 ?m. In serum, noticeably stronger agglomeration occurs at lower temperatures compared to serum-free conditions. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) revealed a high packing density of agglomerates when serum was not present. In contrast, in the presence of serum, agglomerated nanoparticles were loosely packed, indicating that proteins are intercalated between them. Moreover, an increase in protein content is observed upon heating, confirming that protein adsorption is induced by the alteration of the surface during phase separation. After cooling and switching the surface back, most of the agglomerates were dissolved and the main fraction returned to the original size of approximately 30 nm as shown by asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF-FFF) and DLS. Furthermore, the amounts of adsorbed proteins are similar before and after heating the nanoparticles to above their phase-separation temperature. Overall, our results demonstrate that the thermoresponsivity of the polymer coating enables turning the corona formation on nanoparticles on and off in situ. As the local heating of body areas can be easily done in vivo, the thermoresponsive coating could potentially be used to induce the agglomeration of nanoparticles and proteins and the accumulation of nanoparticles in a targeted body region. PMID:26209261

  18. Serum protein profile of Crohn's disease treated with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Gazouli, Maria; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Papadopoulou, Aggeliki; Vaiopoulou, Anna; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Theodoropoulos, George E; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Tsangaris, George Th

    2013-11-01

    The infliximab (IFX) has dramatically improved the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). However, the need for predictive factors, indicative of patients' response to IFX, has yet to be met. In the current study, proteomics technologies were employed in order to monitor for differences in protein expression in a cohort of patients following IFX administration, aiming at identifying a panel of candidate protein biomarkers of CD, symptomatic of response to treatment. We enrolled 18 patients, who either had achieved clinical and serological remission (Rm, n=6), or response (Rs, n=6) and/or were PNRs (n=6), to IFX. Serum samples were subjected to two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis. Following evaluation of densitometrical data, protein spots exhibiting differential expression among the groups, were further characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS. Identified proteins where evaluated by immunoblot analysis while functional network association was carried out to asses significance. Proteins apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), apolipoprotein E (APOE), complement C4-B (CO4B), plasminogen (PLMN), serotransferrin (TRFE), beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (APOH), and clusterin (CLUS) were found to be up-regulated in the PNR and Rs groups whereas their levels displayed no changes in the Rm group when compared to baseline samples. Additionally, leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (A2GL), vitamin D-binding protein (VTDB), alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and complement C1r subcomponent (C1R) were significantly increased in the serum of the Rm group. Through the incorporation of proteomics technologies, novel serum marker-molecules demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity are introduced, hence offering an innovative approach regarding the evaluation of CD patients' response to IFX therapy. PMID:23562004

  19. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Kazuyoshi; Hara, Masayasu; Nagasaki, Takaya; Sato, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Mikinori; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6?pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6?pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3?pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence. PMID:26858756

  20. Glass transitions in aqueous solutions of protein (bovine serum albumin).

    PubMed

    Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yamamoto, Wataru; Yokoyama, Ayame; Yoshinari, Takeo; Yagihara, Shin; Kita, Rio; Ngai, K L; Capaccioli, Simone

    2009-10-29

    Measurements by adiabatic calorimetry of heat capacities and enthalpy relaxation rates of a 20% (w/w) aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by Kawai, Suzuki, and Oguni [Biophys. J. 2006, 90, 3732] have found several enthalpy relaxations at long times indicating different processes undergoing glass transitions. In a quenched sample, one enthalpy relaxation at around 110 K and another over a wide temperature range (120-190 K) were observed. In a sample annealed at 200-240 K after quenching, three separated enthalpy relaxations at 110, 135, and above 180 K were observed. Dynamics of processes probed by adiabatic calorimetric data are limited to long times on the order of 10(3) s. A fuller understanding of the processes can be gained by probing the dynamics over a wider time/frequency range. Toward this goal, we performed broadband dielectric measurements of BSA-water mixtures at various BSA concentrations over a wide frequency range of thirteen decades from 2 mHz to 1.8 GHz at temperatures from 80 to 270 K. Three relevant relaxation processes were detected. For relaxation times equal to 100 s, the three processes are centered approximately at 110, 135, and 200 K, in good agreement with those observed by adiabatic calorimetry. We have made the following interpretation of the molecular origins of the three processes. The fastest relaxation process having relaxation time of 100 or 1000 s at ca. 110 K is due to the secondary relaxation of uncrystallized water (UCW) in the hydration shell. The intermediate relaxation process with 100 s relaxation time at ca. 135 K is due to ice. The slowest relaxation process having relaxation time of 100 s at ca. 200 K is interpreted to originate from local chain conformation fluctuations of protein slaved by water. Experimental evidence supporting these interpretations include the change of temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the UCW at approximately T(gBSA) approximately = 200 K, the glass transition temperature of protein in the hydration shell, similar to that found for the secondary relaxation of water in a mixture of myoglobin in glycerol and water [Swenson et al. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2007, 19, 205109; Ngai et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3826]. The data all indicate in hydrated BSA or other proteins that the secondary relaxation of water and the conformation fluctuations of the protein in the hydration shell are inseparable or symbiotic processes. PMID:19799444

  1. Tuning the serum persistence of human serum albumin domain III:diabody fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Kenanova, Vania E; Olafsen, Tove; Salazar, Felix B; Williams, Lawrence E; Knowles, Scott; Wu, Anna M

    2010-10-01

    The long circulation persistence of human serum albumin (HSA) is enabled by its domain III (DIII) interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). A protein scaffold based on HSA DIII was designed. To modify the serum half life of the scaffold, residues H535, H510, and H464 were individually mutated to alanine. HSA DIII wild type (WT) and variants were fused to the anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) T84.66 diabody (Db), radiolabeled with (124)I and injected into xenografted athymic mice for serial PET/CT imaging. All proteins targeted the CEA-positive tumor. The mean residence times (MRT) of the proteins, calculated by quantifying blood activity from the PET images, were: Db-DIII WT (56.7 h), H535A (25 h), H510A (20 h), H464A (17 h), compared with Db (2.9 h). Biodistribution confirmed the order of blood clearance from slow to fast: Db-DIII WT > H535A > H510A > H464A > Db with 4.0, 2.0, 1.8, 1.6 and 0.08 %ID/g of remaining blood activity at 51 h, respectively. This study demonstrates that attenuating the DIII-FcRn interaction provides a way of controlling the pharmacokinetics of the entire Db-DIII fusion protein without compromising tumor targeting. H464 appears to be most crucial for FcRn binding (greatest reduction in MRT), followed by H510 and H535. By mutating the DIII scaffold, we can dial serum kinetics for imaging or therapy applications. PMID:20802234

  2. Interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V.; Velagapudi, R.B.; McLean, A.M.; Wilcox, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins could influence the drug's disposition and pharmacological activities in mammals. Ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis, and ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods have been used to study the reversible binding of apomorphine to bovine, human, rat, and swine plasma proteins. The degree of binding was generally greater than 90%, but variations were noted in some instances on the basis of drug concentrations and pH over the range of 6.8-7.8. Incubation of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine with bovine serum albumin led to retention of radioactivity and a stoichiometrically controlled released of tritium which arose from the reaction of an electrophilic drug oxidation product and protein, producing drug-protein conjugates. In vitro experiments with mouse striatal brain preparations indicated parallel covalent binding reactions. In vivo experiments in mice indicated accumulation of radioactivity in brain regions and other tissues following daily injections of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine for 14 days. The physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with mammalian tissue proteins could be the cause of longer disposition half-lives in mammals than those previously reported. The covalent interactions, in particular, may be important in elucidating the mechanism of apomorphine-induced behavioral effects in mice.

  3. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for bacterial pathogens. PMID:25962917

  4. Unraveling the mysteries of serum albumin—more than just a serum protein

    PubMed Central

    Merlot, Angelica M.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.

    2014-01-01

    Serum albumin is a multi-functional protein that is able to bind and transport numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. The development of albumin drug carriers is gaining increasing importance in the targeted delivery of cancer therapy, particularly as a result of the market approval of the paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticle, Abraxane®. Considering this, there is renewed interest in isolating and characterizing albumin-binding proteins or receptors on the plasma membrane that are responsible for albumin uptake. Initially, the cellular uptake and intracellular localization of albumin was unknown due to the large confinement of the protein within the vascular and interstitial compartment of the body. Studies have since assessed the intracellular localization of albumin in order to understand the mechanisms and pathways responsible for its uptake, distribution and catabolism in multiple tissues, and this is reviewed herein. PMID:25161624

  5. Photo selective protein immobilization using bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Kim, Ansoon; Huh, Chul; Park, Chan Woo; Ah, Chil Seong; Kim, Bong Kyu; Yang, Jong-Heon; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Choi, Yo Han; Hong, Jongcheol; Sung, Gun Yong

    2012-11-01

    A simple and selective technique which immobilizes protein onto a solid substrate by using UV illumination has been developed. In protein immobilization, a Bovine serum albumin (BSA) performed bifunctional role as a cross-linker between substrate and proteins and as a blocker inhibiting a nonspecific protein adsorption. A new photo-induced protein immobilization process has been investigated at each step by fluorescence microscopy, ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. A UV photomask has been used to induce selective protein immobilization on target regions of the surface of the SiO2 substrates under UV illumination with negligible nonspecific binding. The UV illumination also showed improved photostability than the conventional methods which employed bifunctional photo-crosslinker molecules of photo-reactive diazirine. This new UV illumination-based photo-addressable protein immobilization provides a new approach for developing novel protein microarrays for multiplexed sensing as well as other types of bio-immobilization in biomedical devices and biotechnologies.

  6. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate: postulated mechanism of action for management of enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon W; Burnett, Bruce; Shaw, Audrey L; Weaver, Eric M; Klein, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight management, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. This review summarizes data from preclinical and clinical studies with immunoglobulin-containing plasma/serum protein concentrates, with a focus on the postulated mode of action of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate for patients with enteropathy. PMID:24904221

  7. Isotachophoretic Preconcentration of Cardiac Proteins from Human Serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Prashanta; Hossan, Mohammad; Jubery, Talukder; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius

    2011-11-01

    Cationic isotachophoresis (ITP) is used to concentrate and detect a cardiac biomarker, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), spiked into depleted human serum in a cascade poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic channel. PMMA microchannel was formed using solvent imprinting and temperature-assisted bonding. A 100x reduction in cross-sectional area is implemented by gradually decreasing the channel width and height to increase the sensitivity of ITP. The ITP was performed in peak mode with potassium ion as the leading electrolyte and hydronium ions as the terminating electrolyte. The cross-sectional area reductions in combination with ITP allowed visualization of lower concentrations of fluorescently labeled cTnI. Experimental results show that ITP can detect cTnI at initial concentrations as low as 46 ng/mL in the presence of human serum proteins, and ITP can obtain cTnI concentrations factors as high as 10,000. This demonstrates the detection of cTnI in depleted human serum at clinically relevant concentrations without the use of antibodies and relying solely on ITP in a cascade microchip.

  8. Serum opsonic activity in acute protein-energy malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Keusch, Gerald T.; Urrutia, Juan J.; Guerrero, Oscar; Castaneda, Gustavo; Smith, Harry

    1981-01-01

    Phagocytic host defence mechanisms require both normally functioning cells and humoral factors. For example, activated complement components and/or specific immunoglobulin are essential for effective ingestion and killing of bacteria by neutrophils, and complement is especially important early in infection, before specific antibody has been produced. Abnormalities of serum complement have previously been reported in malnutrition, and the present study investigated the levels of serum opsonins in children with proteinenergy malnutrition (PEM). Opsonic activity for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was depressed in acute PEM patients, but recovered to higher levels with treatment. This depression was detected only when low concentrations of serum (10-20 ml/litre) were used. Marked and persistent opsonin deficiencies were associated with poor clinical response. Reduced opsonic activity may adversely affect host defence mechanisms and contribute to morbidity and mortality from pyogenic infections in PEM. Replacement therapy with fresh or fresh frozen plasma might restore opsonic activity in these patients and reduce the risk of septicaemia and its attendant high mortality. PMID:6802507

  9. Posaconazole in human serum: a greater pharmacodynamic effect than predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Lignell, Anders; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Cars, Otto; Chryssanthou, Erja; Sjölin, Jan

    2011-07-01

    It is generally accepted that only the unbound fraction of a drug is pharmacologically active. Posaconazole is an antifungal agent with a protein binding of 98 to 99%. Taking into account the degree of protein binding, plasma levels in patients, and MIC levels of susceptible strains, it can be assumed that the free concentration of posaconazole sometimes will be too low to exert the expected antifungal effect. The aim was therefore to test the activity of posaconazole in serum in comparison with that of the calculated unbound concentrations in protein-free media. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the serum control were found at serum concentrations of posaconazole of 1.0 and 0.10 mg/liter, with calculated free concentrations corresponding to 1× MIC and 0.1× MIC, respectively, against one Candida lusitaniae strain selected for proof of principle. In RPMI 1640, the corresponding calculated unbound concentration of 0.015 mg/liter resulted in a significant effect, whereas that of 0.0015 mg/liter did not. Also, against seven additional Candida strains tested, there was an effect of the low posaconazole concentration in serum, in contrast to the results in RPMI 1640. Fluconazole, a low-grade-protein-bound antifungal, was used for comparison at corresponding concentrations in serum and RPMI 1640. No effect was observed at the serum concentration, resulting in a calculated unbound concentration of 0.1× MIC. In summary, there was a substantially greater pharmacodynamic effect of posaconazole in human serum than could be predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration. A flux from serum protein-bound to fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase-bound posaconazole is suggested. PMID:21502622

  10. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ? 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 ?L serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 0.01%, 18.7 0.01% and 9.6 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  11. Development of Gel-Filter Method for High Enrichment of Low-Molecular Weight Proteins from Serum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  12. Is serum S100B protein an useful biomarker in migraine?

    PubMed

    Celikbilek, Asuman; Sabah, Seda; Tanik, Nermin; Ak, Hakan; Atalay, Tugay; Yilmaz, Neziha

    2014-08-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated a role for S100B protein through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, following trigeminal nerve activation, implicated in the pathology of migraine. We investigated serum levels of S100B protein, as a peripheral glial biomarker, in patients with migraine. In total, 49 migraineurs and 35 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. The migraine diagnosis was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II diagnostic criteria. Serum samples were obtained for the measurement of S100B levels from all participants and were analyzed using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum S100B levels were significantly lower in migraineurs than controls (p < 0.001). S100B levels did not significantly differ in migraineurs with or without aura (p > 0.05). In addition, there was no correlation between serum S100B levels and headache characteristics, including attack severity, frequency and duration, and disease duration (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that serum S100B levels were significantly decreased in migraine patients, but further research is needed to ascertain the contribution of S100B in the clinical evaluation of migraine. PMID:24531979

  13. A Multicenter Trial Defining a Serum Protein Signature Associated with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtsson, Anna S.; Malats, Núria; Säll, Anna; Real, Francisco X.; Porta, Miquel; Skoog, Petter; Persson, Helena; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with rapid tumor progression and poor prognosis. This study was motivated by the lack of sensitive and specific PDAC biomarkers and aimed to identify a diagnostic, serum protein signature for PDAC. Methods. To mimic a real life test situation, a multicenter trial comprising a serum sample cohort, including 338 patients with either PDAC or other pancreatic diseases (OPD) and controls with nonpancreatic conditions (NPC), was analyzed on 293-plex recombinant antibody microarrays targeting immunoregulatory and cancer-associated antigens. Results. Serum samples collected from different hospitals were analyzed and showed that (i) sampling from five different hospitals could not be identified as a preanalytical variable and (ii) a multiplexed biomarker signature could be identified, utilizing up to 10 serum markers that could discriminate PDAC from controls, with sensitivities and specificities in the 91–100% range. The first protein profiles associated with the location of the primary tumor in the pancreas could also be identified. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that robust enough serum signatures could be identified in a multicenter trial, potentially contributing to the development of a multiplexed biomarker immunoassay for improved PDAC diagnosis. PMID:26587286

  14. Serum protein biomarkers relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma and their detection.

    PubMed

    Waidely, Eric; Al-Yuobi, Abdul-Rahman Obaid; Bashammakh, A S; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Leblanc, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most recurrent and lethal cancers worldwide. The low survival rate of this particular strain of carcinoma is largely due to the late stages at which it is diagnosed. Tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is most frequently detected through ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans, however, these methods are poor for detection of early tumor development. This review presents alternative hepatocellular carcinoma detection techniques through the use of protein and enzyme/isozyme biomarkers. The detection methods used to determine the serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), α-l-fucosidase (AFU), des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are presented and each marker's respective validity in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is evaluated. PMID:26606739

  15. Ultrafast hydration dynamics in protein unfolding: Human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, J. K. Amisha; Zhao, Liang; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2004-01-01

    We report studies of unfolding and ultrafast hydration dynamics of the protein human serum albumin. Unique in this study is our ability to examine different domains of the same protein and the intermediate on the way to the unfolded state. With femtosecond resolution and site-selective labeling, we isolate the dynamics of domains I and II of the native protein, domain I of the intermediate at 2 M guanidine hydrochloride, and the unfolded state at 6 M of the denaturant. For studies of unfolding, we used the fluorophores, acrylodan (covalently bound to Cys-34 in domain I) and the intrinsic tryptophan (domain II), whereas for hydration dynamics, we probed acrylodan and prodan; the latter is bound to domain II. From the time-dependent spectra and the correlation functions, we obtained the time scale of dynamically ordered water: 57 ps for the more stable domain I and 32 ps for the less stable domain II, in contrast to ?0.8 ps for labile, bulk-type water. This trend suggests an increased hydrophilic residueswater interaction of domain I, contrary to some packing models. In the intermediate state, which is characterized by essentially intact domain I and unfolded domain II, the dynamics of ordered water around domain I is nearly the same (61 ps) as that of native state (57 ps), whereas that in the unfolded protein is much shorter (13 ps). We discuss the role of this fluidity in the correlation between stability and function of the protein. PMID:15353599

  16. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  17. Serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide activity-modulating proteins during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Juffermans, N P; Verbon, A; van Deventer, S J; Buurman, W A; van Deutekom, H; Speelman, P; van der Poll, T

    1998-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the principal stimulator of host defense against gram-negative bacteria. LPS-binding protein (LBP), bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), and soluble CD14 (sCD14) bind LPS and regulate its toxicity. Lipoarabinomannan, a cell wall component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resembles LPS with respect to induction of inflammatory responses through recognition by LBP and sCD14. LBP, BPI, and sCD14 were measured in serum of 124 patients with tuberculosis in various stages of disease, in persons who had been in close contact with patients with contagious pulmonary tuberculosis, and in healthy controls. Levels of these LPS toxicity-regulating proteins were elevated in patients with active tuberculosis compared with those in contacts and controls and declined during treatment. The levels of LBP and sCD14 were higher in patients with fever and anorexia. LPS-regulating proteins may play a role in host defense during tuberculosis, presumably through interaction with lipoarabinomannan. PMID:9815247

  18. Identification of Protein Carbonyls in serum of the fetal and neonatal pig.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of serum proteins leads to non-reversible carbonyl formation which alters their function and has long been associated with stress-related disease processes. The primary objective of this study was to identify oxidized serum protein biomarkers of metabolic stress in baby pigs. Protein carb...

  19. Use of Composite Protein Database including Search Result Sequences for Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Cell Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Gamin; Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Seoung Taek; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometric (MS) data of human cell secretomes are usually run through the conventional human database for identification. However, the search may result in false identifications due to contamination of the secretome with fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins. To overcome this challenge, here we provide a composite protein database including human as well as 199 FBS protein sequences for MS data search of human cell secretomes. Searching against the human-FBS database returned more reliable results with fewer false-positive and false-negative identifications compared to using either a human only database or a human-bovine database. Furthermore, the improved results validated our strategy without complex experiments like SILAC. We expect our strategy to improve the accuracy of human secreted protein identification and to also add value for general use. PMID:25822838

  20. Dye-promoted precipitation of serum proteins. Mechanism and application.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Kopperschläger, G

    1991-11-01

    Immobilized dyes have been used primarily for purification of nucleotide dependent enzymes and proteins from plasma and other sources. Due to their low costs, high protein binding capacity and resistance to degradation dyes bear the potential as ligand for affinity separation of proteins on a large scale. In this paper dyes have been used for precipitation of proteins. Using albumin, prealbumin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and immunoglobulin G as model proteins we could demonstrate that dye-promoted precipitation depends on several factors which include the structure of the dye, the pH of the solution, the dye/protein molar ratio and the intrinsic properties of the proteins. It revealed that most of the dyes tested were endowed with the precipitating potential. The efficacy of precipitation was found to increase with the complexity of the dye structure. However, the amount of a dye required for total precipitation was found to be different for a given protein. Electrostatic as well as hydrophobic forces are involved in the mechanism of precipitation. It was demonstrated that by optimizing the conditions, mixtures of proteins can be resolved by dye-promoted precipitation. The high sensitivity of the reaction offers the possibility of using this method for rapid concentration of very diluted protein solutions. PMID:1367693

  1. Serum amyloid A protein concentration in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma).

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, S R; Medsger, T A; Skinner, M; Sipe, J D; Rodnan, G P; Cohen, A S

    1984-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) concentrations were determined in 62 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Forty-seven patients had normal or slightly elevated SAA levels (less than 1000 ng/ml = micrograms/l), while 15 patients had moderately to markedly elevated SAA levels, similar to those observed in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (greater than or equal to 1000 ng/ml = micrograms/l). Five patients with PSS had SAA levels corresponding to those observed in amyloidosis secondary to RA. High SAA was associated with more severe skin thickening and diminished cumulative survival at five years. The rarity of amyloidosis secondary to PSS is unlikely to be related to an intrinsic defect in SAA production. PMID:6476917

  2. Comparison of composition and sensory properties of 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2010-05-01

    Milk serum protein concentrates (SPC) are proteins found in cheese whey that are removed directly from milk. Because SPC are not exposed to the cheese-making process, enzymatic or chemical reactions that can lead to off-flavors are reduced. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of 80% protein SPC and whey protein concentrates (WPC). Each pair of 80% SPC and WPC was manufactured from the same lot of milk and this was replicated 3 times. At each replication, spray-dried product from each protein source was collected. Commercial 80% WPC were also collected from several manufacturers for sensory and volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of the rehydrated powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing of acidified 6% protein beverages made with 80% SPC and WPC produced in the pilot plant and with WPC from commercial sources was conducted. The SPC was lower in fat and had a higher pH than the WPC produced in the pilot plant or commercial WPC. Few sensory differences were found between the rehydrated SPC and WPC manufactured in this study, but their flavor profiles were distinct from the flavor of rehydrated commercial WPC. The pilot-plant WPC had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products compared with SPC, which may be related to the higher fat content of WPC. There was a large difference in appearance between 80% SPC and WPC: solutions of SPC were clear and those of WPC were opaque. Concentrations of lipid oxidation products in commercial WPC were generally higher than those in pilot-plant SPC or WPC. Sensory profiles of the peach-flavored protein beverage included cereal, free fatty acid, and soapy flavors and bitter taste in beverages made from pilot-plant products, whereas cardboard flavors were detected in those made with commercial WPC. Consumer liking scores for the beverages made with SPC were ranked highest or equally high with beverages made with WPC for aroma, appearance, and mouthfeel, but the beverages made with SPC had lower flavor and overall liking scores compared with beverages made with 3 of the 4 WPC. PMID:20412896

  3. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Gnter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/?l in serum samples and 126 pg/?l in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/?l, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  4. Prion protein detection in serum using micromechanical resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Madhukar; Waggoner, Philip S; Montagna, Richard A; Craighead, Harold G

    2009-12-15

    Prion proteins that have transformed from their normal cellular counterparts (PrP(c)) into infectious form (PrP(res)) are responsible for causing progressive neurodegenerative diseases in numerous species, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (also known as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Due to a possible link between BSE and CJD it is highly desirable to develop non-invasive and ante mortem tests for the detection of prion proteins in bovine samples. Such ante mortem tests of all cows prior to slaughter will help to prevent the introduction of PrP(res) into the human food supply. Furthermore, detection of PrP(res) in donated blood will also help to prevent the transmission of CJD among humans through blood transfusion. In this study, we have continued development of a micromechanical resonator array that is capable of detecting PrP(c) in bovine blood serum. The sensitivity of the resonators for the detection of PrP(c) is further enhanced by the use of secondary mass labels. A pair of antibodies is used in a sandwich immunoassay format to immobilize PrP(c) on the surface of resonators and attach nanoparticles as secondary mass labels to PrP(c). Secondary mass labeling is optimized in terms of incubation time to maximize the frequency shifts that correspond to the presence of PrP(c) on the surface of resonators. Our results show that a minimum of 200 pg mL(-1) of PrP(c) in blood serum can be detected using micromechanical resonator arrays. PMID:19836525

  5. Discovery and verification of serum differential expression proteins for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; He, Xiao; Li, Hongtao; Zhou, Yi; Zang, Ning; Hu, Shuixiu; Zheng, Yanyan; He, Min

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease and has remained a severe threat to public health. Valuable biomarkers for improving the detection rate are crucial for controlling this disease. The purpose of this study was to discover potential biomarkers in sera from PTB patients compared with pneumonia patients and normal healthy controls. A total of 336 human serum specimens were enrolled in this study. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using iTRAQ method combining with MALDI-TOF-MS. Data was analyzed using relative bioinformatics methods. Potential biomarkers were further validated by IHC, ELISA and Western blot. As a result, 489 non-redundant proteins were identified in the sera, and 159 of which could be quantified by calculating their iTRAQ ratios. Compared to the controls, 26 differentially expressed proteins were recognized among PTB patients, including 16 overexpressed proteins and 10 downregulated proteins. Analysis of their functional interactions revealed that 12 proteins appeared in the center of the functional network. One of these key proteins, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), was found to be significantly elevated among PTB patients as compared with the controls examined by IHC, ELISA and Western blot. This result was consistent with the iTRAQ result. An independent blinded testing set to examine serum SHBG by ELISA achieved an accuracy of 78.74%, sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 91.5% in diagnosing PTB. In summary, iTRAQ in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS technology can efficiently screen differentially expressed proteins in sera from the PTB patients. SHBG is suggested to be a possible and novel serum biomarker for PTB. PMID:26276261

  6. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  7. Adhesion of endothelial cells and adsorption of serum proteins on gas plasma-treated polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Dekker, A; Reitsma, K; Beugeling, T; Bantjes, A; Feijen, J; van Aken, W G

    1991-03-01

    From in vitro experiments it is known that human endothelial cells show poor adhesion to hydrophobic polymers. The hydrophobicity of vascular prostheses manufactured from Teflon or Dacron may be the reason why endothelialization of these grafts does not occur after implantation in humans. We modified films of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) by nitrogen plasma and oxygen plasma treatments to make the surfaces more hydrophilic. Depending on the plasma exposure time, modified polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces showed water-contact angles of 15-58 degrees, versus 96 degrees for unmodified polytetrafluoroethylene. ESCA measurements revealed incorporation of both nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups into the polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces, dependent on the plasma composition and exposure time. The thickness of the modified surface layer was approximately 1 nm. The adhesion of cultured human endothelial cells from 20% human serum-containing culture medium to modified polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces with contact angles of 20-45 degrees led to the formation of a monolayer of cells, which was similar to the one formed on tissue culture polystyrene, the reference surface. This was not the case when endothelial cells were seeded upon unmodified polytetrafluoroethylene. Surface-modified expanded polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis material (GORE TEX soft tissue) also showed adhesion of endothelial cells comparable to cell adhesion to the reference surface. The amounts of serum proteins, including fibronectin, adsorbed from serum-containing medium to modified polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces were larger than those adsorbed to unmodified polytetrafluoroethylene. Moreover, the modified surfaces probably allow the exchange of adsorbed serum proteins with cellular fibronectin. PMID:1878448

  8. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein invitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination. PMID:25922172

  9. Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-07-05

    We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion and the multiplexing potential of this technique. Limits of quantification (LOQs) at low ng/mL levels with a median CV of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum using as little as 2 µL serum. PRISM-SRM provided up to ~1000-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional SRM measurements. Multiplexing capability of PRISM-SRM was also evaluated by two sets of serum samples with 6 and 21 target peptides spiked at the low attomole/µL levels. The results from SRM measurements for pooled or post-concatenated samples were comparable to those obtained from individual peptide fractions in terms of signal-to-noise ratios and SRM peak area ratios of light to heavy peptides. PRISM-SRM was applied to measure several ng/mL-level endogenous plasma proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, in clinical patient sera where correlation coefficients > 0.99 were observed between the results from PRISM-SRM and ELISA assays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can be successfully used for quantification of low-abundance endogenous proteins in highly complex samples. Moderate throughput (50 samples/week) can be achieved by applying the post-concatenation or fraction multiplexing strategies. We anticipate broad applications for targeted PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance cellular proteins in systems biology studies as well as candidate biomarkers in biofluids.

  10. The serum protein fetuin-B is involved in the development of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Seo, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hwan Myung; Park, Eun Seok; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Bokyung

    2015-07-01

    The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is one of the main causes of coronary artery thrombotic occlusion, leading to myocardial infarction. However, the exact mechanism and causal risk factors for plaque rupture remain unclear. To identify a potential molecule that can influence atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we investigated protein expression in serum from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stable angina (SA), using proteomic analysis. The expression of six proteins, including fibrinogen, fetuin-B, keratin 9, proapolipoprotein and fibrinogen, were altered in serum from patients with AMI compared with serum from those with SA. Of these, fetuin-B, proapolipoprotein, fibrinogen ?-B-chain precursors and fibrinogen expression were greater in serum from patients with AMI than from patients with SA. Increased fetuin-B expression in serum from AMI patients was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Treatment with recombinant human fetuin-B increased the migration in monocytes and macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Fetuin-B also affected vascular plaque-stabilizing factors, including lipid deposition and cytokine production in macrophages, the activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in monocytes, and the activation of apoptosis and MMP-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, in vivo administration of fetuin-B decreased the collagen accumulation and smooth muscle cell content and showed an increased number of macrophages in the vascular plaque. From these results, we suggest that fetuin-B may act as a modulator in the development of AMI. This study may provide a therapeutic advantage for patients at high risk of AMI. PMID:25671698

  11. Marsupial and monotreme serum immunoglobulin binding by proteins A, G and L and anti-kangaroo antibody.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Paola K; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-12-01

    Serological studies are often conducted to examine exposure to infectious agents in wildlife populations. However, specific immunological reagents for wildlife species are seldom available and can limit the study of infectious diseases in these animals. This study examined the ability of four commercially available immunoglobulin-binding reagents to bind serum immunoglobulins from 17 species within the Marsupialia and Monotremata. Serum samples were assessed for binding, using immunoblots and ELISAs (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), to three microbially-derived proteins - staphylococcal protein A, streptococcal protein G and peptostreptococcal protein L. Additionally, an anti-kangaroo antibody was included for comparison. The inter- and intra-familial binding patterns of the reagents to serum immunoglobulins varied and evolutionary distance between animal species was not an accurate predictor of the ability of reagents to bind immunoglobulins. Results from this study can be used to inform the selection of appropriate immunological reagents in future serological studies in these clades. PMID:26523413

  12. Serum clara cell protein: a sensitive biomarker of increased lung epithelium permeability caused by ambient ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Broeckaert, F; Arsalane, K; Hermans, C; Bergamaschi, E; Brustolin, A; Mutti, A; Bernard, A

    2000-01-01

    Ozone in ambient air may cause various effects on human health, including decreased lung function, asthma exacerbation, and even premature mortality. These effects have been evidenced using various clinical indicators that, although sensitive, do not specifically evaluate the O(3)-increased lung epithelium permeability. In the present study, we assessed the acute effects of ambient O(3) on the pulmonary epithelium by a new approach relying on the assay in serum of the lung-specific Clara cell protein (CC16 or CC10). We applied this test to cyclists who exercised for 2 hr during episodes of photochemical smog and found that O(3) induces an early leakage of lung Clara cell protein. The protein levels increased significantly into the serum from exposure levels as low as 0.060-0.084 ppm. Our findings, confirmed in mice exposed to the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O(3) (0.08 ppm for 8 hr) indicate that above the present natural background levels, there is almost no safety margin for the effects of ambient O(3) on airway permeability. The assay of CC16 in the serum represents a new sensitive noninvasive test allowing the detection of early effects of ambient O(3) on the lung epithelial barrier. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10856027

  13. Serum levels of progesterone and some of its metabolites including deoxycorticosterone after oral and parenteral administration.

    PubMed

    Ottoson, U B; Carlstrom, K; Damber, J E; von Schoultz, B

    1984-11-01

    Single 100-mg doses of progesterone were given orally and as intramuscular injections to four women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After oral administration serum levels of progesterone increased rapidly to reach luteal phase values (mean maximum level 55.6 nM) within 1-4 h and were still elevated after 12 h. The serum concentrations of 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one showed a similar pattern while there were only minor transient changes in 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations. The serum levels of cortisol and 4-androstene-3,17-dione were unaffected. In comparison, after intramuscular administration values two to three times higher than by the oral route were achieved. A significant increase in serum deoxycorticosterone was recorded in all women. The mean ratio between the change in deoxycorticosterone and progesterone was increased after oral administration. Oral treatment with natural progesterone may develop into an attractive alternative to synthetic progestogens but the conversion of progesterone into a potent mineralocorticoid may be a potential disadvantage. PMID:6498126

  14. Using experimental data designs and multivariate modeling to assess the effect of glycated serum protein concentration on glucose prediction from near-infrared spectra of human serum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Delanghe, Joris; Ramon, Herman; Saeys, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of human blood serum consist of overlapping strong absorption bands of water and serum proteins, which affect the ability of multivariate calibration models to predict glucose. Furthermore, serum proteins such as albumin and globulins undergo a glycation reaction by forming covalent bonds with freely available glucose molecules in the serum. In diabetic individuals with poor glucose control, more and more serum protein molecules react with glucose, resulting in a high glycated protein concentration. The glucose molecules covalently bonded to serum proteins might contribute to the overall glucose signal acquired by NIR spectroscopy. This might affect the prediction ability of multivariate calibration models such as partial least squares regression (PLSR). In this study, we investigated the effect of total protein concentration and the glycated protein concentration in blood serum on the prediction ability of PLSR calibration models. Serum samples were subjected to ultra-filtration, and the PLSR model was built using NIR spectra of filtered serum solutions. Prediction performance was found to improve by 39-42% in absence of serum protein molecules. Various experimental data set designs were generated by carefully varying the glycated serum protein concentration in calibration and test sets of PLSR models. This investigation revealed that the impact of varying glycated protein concentration on the root mean square error of prediction was not drastic. To test the statistical significance of the prediction results, a multiple linear regression model was built. The glycated serum protein concentration was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.86) in predicting glucose concentration. Overall, it was concluded that the glycated serum proteins do not affect the glucose prediction accuracy of PLSR models using NIR spectra of human serum. PMID:24694695

  15. Adsorption and adhesion of common serum proteins to nanotextured gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Lauren E.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Bryan, Isaac; Collazo, Ramón; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules, particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization.As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules, particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures demonstrating the adhesion force magnitude (Fig. S1) and lateral steppe surface topography (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06353h

  16. Effects of plant stanol and sterol esters on serum phytosterols in a family with familial hypercholesterolemia including a homozygous subject.

    PubMed

    Ketomaki, Anna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2004-04-01

    We studied the concentrations and ratios to cholesterol of noncholesterol sterols reflecting absorption (eg, campesterol) or synthesis (eg, lathosterol) of cholesterol off and on plant sterol and stanol ester spreads in serum and in different lipoproteins of a family with familial hypercholesterolemia, including heterozygous parents receiving no treatment and their homozygous offspring undergoing long-term treatment with statins and apheresis. Serum cholesterol levels were similar in the homozygous and heterozygous individuals, but the concentrations of sterols reflecting cholesterol absorption were as much as 10 times greater in the homozygous child than in the heterozygous parents, whereas the respective markers of cholesterol synthesis only tended to be higher. About 70% of squalene in the homozygous individual (60% in the heterozygous family members) and 85% to 90% of noncholesterol sterols (60%-80% in the heterozygous subjects) were transported by low-density lipoprotein. The ratios of absorption sterols to cholesterol were higher in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) than in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), whereas those of synthesis markers and plant stanols were highest in VLDL. The ratios of absorption sterols in serum were mostly lower than those in HDL but higher than in VLDL, whereas the ratios of synthesis sterols in serum were lower than they were in VLDL. Both spreads reduced serum total cholesterol by about 14% in the heterozygous family members and 9% in the homozygous individual. The sterol ester spread increased serum plant sterol concentrations (eg, campesterol in the homozygous family member increased from 5 to 9 mg/dL) and the ratios to cholesterol, but the stanol ester spread decreased them. Plant sterol esters seemed to similarly decrease serum cholesterol in this family with familial hypercholesterolemia, but the clinical role of increased plant sterol concentrations, almost doubled in the LDL of homozygous individuals, is not known. PMID:15085084

  17. Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scaba highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

  18. Serum antibodies to outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli in healthy persons and patients with bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, A Z; Maeland, J A

    1987-01-01

    Antibodies to Escherichia coli outer membrane proteins in sera from healthy persons and from patients bacteremic with various enteric or nonenteric bacteria were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Outer membranes were prepared from E. coli O55. Serum was absorbed with E. coli O55 lipopolysaccharide and diluted 1:100 for immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM and 1:1,000 for IgG antibodies. Paired serum specimens were obtained from the 56 patients included in the study (the first specimen on the day of positive blood culture and the second specimen 8 to 12 days later) and compared with sera from blood donors (n = 50) as controls. On an average, the patients bacteremic with enterobacteria (n = 40) showed increased levels of antibodies of all three immunoglobulin classes in the first serum specimens and significantly higher levels in the second specimens compared with the controls, although with considerable case-to-case variation. Increased levels of IgG antibodies showed the best combination of diagnostic specificity (100%) and sensitivity (53%) for bacteremia caused by enteric bacilli. Mostly, the antibody response was directed against the major E. coli O55 outer membrane proteins at 81,000, 38,500, 33,500, and 7,500 molecular weights as shown by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. Some of the patients bacteremic with nonenteric bacteria showed increased levels of IgA antibodies, but not of IgG or IgM antibodies. Cross-reactivity of the nonenteric blood culture isolates with the E. coli outer membrane preparation was not demonstrated. The cross-reactivity of the E. coli O55 outer membrane proteins with those of enteric bacilli of other genera was examined by absorption experiments. Western blots with serum absorbed with live E. coli O55 provided evidence that the epitopes of the outer membrane protein at 7,500 molecular weight were available for antibody binding at the bacterial surface, and that at least some of the epitopes of the 38,500- and 33,500-molecular -weight proteins were accessible to antibodies. The results suggest that an ELISA for the measurement of antibodies against cross-reactive outer membrane proteins from enteric bacilli may be useful in the diagnosis of serious infections caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and that antibodies to the major outer membrane proteins may have an immunobiological function. Images PMID:3320085

  19. Electrochemical detection of glycan and protein epitopes of glycoproteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Shah, Alok K; Hill, Michelle M; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2014-11-21

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is associated with a range of pathological conditions including cancer and possesses diagnostic importance. Translation of glycoprotein biomarkers will be facilitated by the development of a rapid and sensitive analytical platform that simultaneously interrogates both the glycan and protein epitopes of glycoproteins in body fluids such as serum or saliva. To this end, we developed an electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of a lectin on the gold electrode surface to recognize/capture a target glycan epitope conjugated to glycoproteins, followed by detection of the protein epitope using a target protein-specific antibody. Electrochemical signals are generated by label-free voltammetric or impedimetric interrogation of a ferro/ferricyanide redox couple (e.g. [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) on the sensing surface, where the change in voltammetric current or interfacial electron transfer resistance was measured. The detection system was demonstrated using the model glycoprotein chicken ovalbumin with Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA lectin), and exhibits femtomolar sensitivity in the background of diluted human serum. The results obtained in this proof-of-concept study demonstrate the possibility of using electrochemical detection for developing cheap point-of-care diagnostics with high specificity and sensitivity for blood glycoprotein biomarkers. PMID:25267970

  20. Overcoming inactivation of the lung surfactant by serum proteins: a potential role for fluorocarbons?

    PubMed

    Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2015-08-14

    In many pulmonary conditions serum proteins interfere with the normal adsorption of components of the lung surfactant to the surface of the alveoli, resulting in lung surfactant inactivation, with potentially serious untoward consequences. Here, we review the strategies that have recently been designed in order to counteract the biophysical mechanisms of inactivation of the surfactant. One approach includes protein analogues or peptides that mimic the native proteins responsible for innate resistance to inactivation. Another perspective uses water-soluble additives, such as electrolytes and hydrophilic polymers that are prone to enhance adsorption of phospholipids. An alternative, more recent approach consists of using fluorocarbons, that is, highly hydrophobic inert compounds that were investigated for partial liquid ventilation, that modify interfacial properties and can act as carriers of exogenous lung surfactant. The latter approach that allows fluidisation of phospholipid monolayers while maintaining capacity to reach near-zero surface tension definitely warrants further investigation. PMID:26110877

  1. Correlation between some hematological parameters, acute phase proteins and serum immunoglobulins in experimental caprine besnoitiosis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Namazi, F; Oryan, A; Nazifi, S

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate correlation between some hematological parameters, acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins in the experimentally infected goats with Besnoitia caprae from the time of infection till 360days post infection (DPI). Six male goats, approximately 12-16months old, were inoculated subcutaneously with approximately 1.3נ10(8) bradyzoites of B. caprae and blood samples were collected at weekly intervals from the jugular vein of the goats. Total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte counts were determined. Acute phase proteins (APPs) including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin were undertaken at weekly intervals. We evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (using a somatic antigen of bradyzoite) to detect anti-B. caprae antibodies in caprine sera. Cysts were present in the skin biopsies of the distal parts of the leg of the infected goats from 28 DPI. From 30 to 360 DPI, results showed that the APPs concentrations including SAA, Hp, fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin were enhanced in the serum of infected goats. However, there were some variation in hematological parameters; the differences were not significant with those of the normal values. Some variations were seen in the levels of specific antibodies against this parasite and they had correlation with some hematological parameters and acute-phase proteins. PMID:26063991

  2. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease. PMID:25314816

  3. Muscle-Derived Proteins as Serum Biomarkers for Monitoring Disease Progression in Three Forms of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Richard; Bennett, Donald; Guglieri, Michela; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Lochmller, Hanns; Morris, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying translatable, non-invasive biomarkers of muscular dystrophy that better reflect the disease pathology than those currently available would aid the development of new therapies, the monitoring of disease progression and the response to therapy. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate a panel of serum protein biomarkers with the potential to specifically detect skeletal muscle injury. Method Serum concentrations of skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) and muscle-type creatine kinase (CKM) proteins were measured in 74 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 38 Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and 49 Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) patients and 32 healthy controls. Results All four proteins were significantly elevated in the serum of these three muscular dystrophy patient populations when compared to healthy controls, but, interestingly, displayed different profiles depending on the type of muscular dystrophy. Additionally, the effects of patient age, ambulatory status, cardiac function and treatment status on the serum concentrations of the proteins were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed correlations between the serum concentrations and certain clinical endpoints including forced vital capacity in DMD patients and the time to walk ten meters in LGMD2B patients. Serum concentrations of these proteins were also elevated in two preclinical models of muscular dystrophy, the mdx mouse and the golden-retriever muscular dystrophy dog. Conclusions These proteins, therefore, are potential muscular dystrophy biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response in both preclinical and clinical studies.

  4. May the Thyroid Gland and Thyroperoxidase Participate in Nitrosylation of Serum Proteins and Sporadic Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Moreno, Jos-Manuel; Martn de Pablos, Angel; Chacn, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (p<0.006), not in advanced disease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (p<0.05), the indicators of nitrosative stress. The thyroidectomized subjects showed very low levels of serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (78% reduction vs. controls) and, among these proteins, the nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein was nearly absent. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum ?-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 21432148. PMID:25125346

  5. Serum vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and lung cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D may prolong cancer survival by inhibiting tumor progression and metastasis, however, there are limited epidemiologic studies regarding the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and lung cancer survival. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and lung cancer specific survival and to evaluate whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP) concentration modified this association. Materials and Methods 25(OH)D and DBP were measured in fasting serum samples from 500 male lung cancer cases in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer related death according to quartiles of season-specific 25(OH)D, DBP, and the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP, a proxy for free circulating 25(OH)D. Results Comparing highest to lowest quartiles, serum 25(OH)D (HR=1.18; 95% CI: 0.89–1.56) and DBP (HR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.71–1.26) were not associated with lung cancer survival and DBP concentration did not modify the association with 25(OH)D (p for interaction=0.56). There was suggestion of an association between higher serum 25(OH)D and better survival from adenocarcinoma (HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.17–2.45) and small cell carcinoma (HR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.21–1.45), but these estimates were based on a relatively small number of cases. Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with overall lung cancer survival regardless of DBP concentration, however, these findings should be examined in other studies that include women and subjects with higher 25(OH)D levels. PMID:25456734

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  7. Intact-protein analysis system for discovery of serum-based disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618-625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009-2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  8. Intact-Protein Analysis System for Discovery of Serum-Based Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:20092018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  9. Altered Phospholipid Transfer Protein Gene Expression and Serum Lipid Profile by Topotecan

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Rudel A.; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Alabanza, Leah; Ravatn, Roald; Kita, Tsunekazu; Kudoh, Kazuya; Oka, Masahiro; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2010-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and its structural analogues including topotecan and irinotecan, are inhibitors of topoisomerase I. These drugs are clinically active against a broad spectrum of cancers. To understand the genesis of chemotherapeutic resistance to the CPT family of anticancer drugs, we examined by gene expression profiling the pharmacological response to topotecan in the human hepatoma HepG2 cells and found a striking induction of the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) gene expression by topotecan. We showed that activation of PLTP gene expression is specific to CPT and its analogues including specific enantiomers that inhibit topoisomerase I. PLTP-mediated lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be important for shuttling and redistribution of lipids between lipoproteins, which are normally returned to the liver for metabolism via the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Hence, we asked whether elevated PLTP levels might increase the transfer of drugs into HDL. We observed that CPT was not accumulated in HDL and other lipoproteins. In addition, topotecan treatment in mice caused a marked reduction in serum HDL that was accompanied by an increase in triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These results showed that PLTP does not mediate the transfer of topoisomerase I inhibitors to serum lipoproteins. However, elevated serum PLTP levels following treatment with topoisomerase I inhibitors in cancer patients may serve as a biomarker for monitoring the development of hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. PMID:20416282

  10. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  11. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  12. Mature Erythrocyte Surface Antigen Protein Identified in the Serum of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Muhi, Jamail; Abdu Sani, Asmahani Azira; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to identify circulating Plasmodium falciparum proteins in patient serum, which may be useful as diagnostic markers. Depletion of highly abundant proteins from each pooled serum sample obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients and healthy individuals was performed using the Proteoseek Antibody-Based Albumin/IgG Removal Kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL). In analysis 1, the depleted serum was analyzed directly by NanoLC-MS/MS. In analysis 2, the depleted serum was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by western blot analysis. Subsequently, the selected band was analyzed by NanoLC-MS/MS. The result of analysis 1 revealed the presence of two mature erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA) proteins and chloroquine resistance transporter protein (PfCRT). In addition, analysis 2 revealed an antigenic 75-kDa band when the membrane was probed with purified IgG from the pooled serum obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients. MS/MS analysis of this protein band revealed fragments of P. falciparum MESA proteins. Thus, in this study, two different analyses revealed the presence of Plasmodium MESA protein in pooled serum from malaria patients; thus, this protein should be further investigated to determine its usefulness as a diagnostic marker. PMID:26392156

  13. Measurements of C-reactive protein in serum and lactate dehydrogenase in serum and synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hurter, K; Spreng, D; Rytz, U; Schawalder, P; Ott-Knüsel, F; Schmökel, H

    2005-03-01

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) is based upon the clinical orthopaedic examination and the radiographic assessment, both of which can be non-specific and insensitive in early joint disease. The aim of our study was to investigate if there is an increase in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in degenerative joint disease (DJD) and if CRP could be used to help diagnose OA. We also wished to investigate whether it was possible to distinguish a joint with clinically and radiographically confirmed OA from a healthy joint by comparing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels within the synovial fluid and the serum. We have shown a difference in synovial LDH levels between diseased and healthy joints (P<0.0001). There was also a significant difference between LDH in arthritic synovial fluid and serum, with no correlation between the values. Despite the fact that the values of our clinical patients tended to be higher than the values of our control group (P=0.05) all measured values were within the normal limits of previous publications. From these data, we conclude that single measurements of serum CRP do not permit detection of OA in clinical patients and that serum LDH is not a reliable marker for osteoarthritis. LDH levels in the synovial fluid could be of diagnostic value for identifying osteoarthritis. PMID:15727922

  14. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)*

    PubMed Central

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Pederson, LeeAnna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. There is high genomic synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. We applied activity-based protein profiling to compare unique or overexpressed activity-based probe-reactive proteins of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 360 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has a significantly greater number of ABP-reactive proteins across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Activity-based protein profiling identified a number of processes that were induced by human serum in A. fumigatus relative to N. fischeri and A. clavatus. These included actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher activity-based probe-protein reaction over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely pathogenic aspergilli. These unique activity-based probe-protein responses to culture condition may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis. PMID:23599423

  15. Serum protein identification and quantification of the corona of 5, 15 and 80 nm gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schffler, Martin; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Sarioglu, Hakan; Takenaka, Shinji; Wenk, Alexander; Schleh, Carsten; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Johnston, Blair D.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

    2013-07-01

    When nanoparticles (NP) enter the body they come into contact with body fluids containing proteins which can adsorb to their surface. These proteins may influence the NP interactions with the biological vicinity, eventually determining their biological fate inside the body. Adsorption of the most abundantly binding proteins was studied after an in vitro 24 hr incubation of monodisperse, negatively charged 5, 15 and 80 nm gold spheres (AuNP) in mouse serum by a two-step analysis: proteomic protein identification and quantitative protein biochemistry. The adsorbed proteins were separated from non-adsorbed proteins by centrifugation and gel electrophoresis and identified using a MALDI-TOF-MS-Proteomics-Analyzer. Quantitative analysis of proteins in gel bands by protein densitometry, required the focus on predominantly binding serum proteins. Numerous proteins adsorbed to the AuNP depending on their size, e.g. apolipoproteins or complement C3. The qualitative and quantitative amount of adsorbed proteins differed between 5, 15 and 80 nm AuNP. Band intensities of adsorbed proteins decreased with increasing AuNP sizes based not only on their mass but also on their surface area. Summarizing, the AuNP surface is covered with serum proteins containing transport and immune related proteins among others. Hence, protein binding depends on the size, surface area and curvature of the AuNP.

  16. Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL(-1), respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (?1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (?2-glu), beta globulin (?-glu) and gamma globulin (?-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of ?2-glu and ?-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

  17. Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    PubMed Central

    Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL-1, respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (α1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (α2-glu), beta globulin (β-glu) and gamma globulin (γ-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, α1-glu and β-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of α2-glu and γ-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, α1-glu and β-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

  18. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hind, C R; Flint, K C; Hudspith, B N; Felmingham, D; Brostoff, J; Johnson, N M

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective study serum C-reactive protein concentrations were measured in nine patients with "active" pulmonary sarcoidosis (as assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte counts, gallium-67 lung scanning, and serial pulmonary function testing), and in five patients with "inactive" disease. Active pulmonary sarcoidosis was associated either with no rise or with only a modest rise in serum C-reactive protein concentrations. In contrast, serum C-reactive protein concentrations in 12 patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis were considerably raised. Serum C-reactive protein may thus provide a valuable test in the differentiation of sarcoidosis from conditions which it may mimic and which are known to induce an acute phase response. PMID:3660286

  19. Characterization of Serum Proteins Associated with IL28B Genotype among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Thompson, J. Will; Patel, Keyur; Clark, Paul J.; Thompson, Alexander; Tillmann, Hans L.; McHutchison, John G.; Moseley, M. Arthur; McCarthy, Jeanette J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Polymorphisms near the IL28B gene (e.g. rs12979860) encoding interferon λ3 have recently been associated with both spontaneous clearance and treatment response to pegIFN/RBV in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. The molecular consequences of this genetic variation are unknown. To gain further insight into IL28B function we assessed the association of rs12979860 with expression of protein quantitative traits (pQTL analysis) generated using open-platform proteomics in serum from patients. Methods 41 patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection from the Duke Liver Clinic were genotyped for rs12979860. Proteomic profiles were generated by LC-MS/MS analysis following immunodepletion of serum with MARS14 columns and trypsin-digestion. Next, a latent factor model was used to classify peptides into metaproteins based on co-expression and using only those peptides with protein identifications. Metaproteins were then analyzed for association with IL28B genotype using one-way analysis of variance. Results There were a total of 4,186 peptides in the data set with positive identifications. These were matched with 253 proteins of which 110 had two or more associated, identified peptides. The IL28B treatment response genotype (rs12979860_CC) was significantly associated with lower serum levels of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG; p = 9.2×10−6), a major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins. Moreover, the CBG metaprotein was associated with treatment response (p = 0.0148), but this association was attenuated when both IL28B genotype and CBG were included in the model, suggesting that the CBG association may be independent of treatment response. Conclusions In this cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients, IL28B polymorphism was associated with serum levels of corticosteroid binding globulin, a major transporter of cortisol, however, CBG does not appear to mediate the association of IL28B with treatment response. Further investigation of this pathway is warranted to determine if it plays a role in other comorbidities of HCV-infection. PMID:21750736

  20. Elevated serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes are associated with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Dan; Cheng, Yuhang; Li, Zhili

    2015-11-30

    Emerging evidence suggests an underlying immune and inflammatory response for a variety of psychiatric disorders. Herein, we employed an optimized native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to isolate psychosis-related serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes (IIRPCs) from 147 patients with schizophrenia (SCH), 158 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 132 patients with other psychosis, and 145 normal controls. All participants could be classified into four categories based on serum IIRPCs, which correspond to 290, 215, 70, and 7 serum samples, correspondingly. For each category, significantly enhanced levels of serum IIRPCs in patients with SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups were observed compared with normal controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that serum IIRPCs have excellent diagnostic performance to differentiate SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups from normal controls, with high sensitivities and specificities of >85%. Total serum amounts of IgG, IgA, and IgM in all patients were significantly decreased compared with normal controls. PMID:26337482

  1. Correlation between Serum Level of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Postoperative Recurrence of Spinal Tuberculosis in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    He, Dan; Zhang, Xiaolu; Gao, Qile; Huang, Rongfu; Deng, Zhansheng; Guo, Chaofeng; Guo, Qiang; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To correlate serum level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population. Methods Patients of Han nationality with newly diagnosed spinal tuberculosis were consecutively included in this study. At different time points postoperatively, serum level of MCP-1 was determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recurrence of spinal tuberculosis after surgery and during the follow-up period was recorded. The correlation between serum MCP-1 level and recurrence of spinal tuberculosis was analyzed. Results A total of 169 patients with spinal tuberculosis were included in the study and followed up for an average of2.21.3 years (range, 15 years). Of these patients, 11 had postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis. The patients serum level of MCP-1 increased significantly after postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis. Once the symptoms of recurrence were cured, the serum level of MCP-1 decreased significantly and it did not differ from patients without disease recurrence. Conclusion Postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis is likely to increase the serum level of MCP-1. PMID:25962150

  2. Serum and urinary human heart fatty acid-binding protein in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Hirota, Y; Sohmiya, K; Nishimura, S; Kawamura, K

    1991-04-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay (C-EIA) was developed for the measurement of serum and urinary levels of human heart fatty acid-binding protein (hh-FABP), and the appearance and time-course changes of hh-FABP levels were evaluated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Control serum and urinary hh-FABP levels, which were determined in 86 serum and 42 urine samples from 86 patients without AMI, were found to range between 0 and 2.8 ng/mL. Serial determinations performed on 11 patients with AMI demonstrated that hh-FABP levels were significantly elevated in the first serum and urine samples obtained within 14 h of the onset of clinical symptoms. Two serum and 2 urine samples obtained only 1.5 h after the onset of symptoms already showed elevated hh-FABP levels, while in the same serum samples the activity of the myocardial-specific isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) was still normal. Maximal serum and urinary hh-FABP levels appeared between 5 and 10 h after symptoms developed, and fell sharply towards normal thereafter. The hh-FABP levels in serum and urine both peaked earlier than the elevation of CK-MB activity in serum. The presence of hh-FABP in serum and/or urine seems to be a marker for myocardial damage and could be used as a useful tool for the early diagnosis of AMI. PMID:2040092

  3. Identification of novel biomarkers in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) by microarray-based serum protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Bal, Gürkan; Futschik, Matthias E; Hartl, Daniela; Ringel, Frauke; Kamhieh-Milz, Julian; Sterzer, Viktor; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Alhamdani, Mohamed S S; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2016-02-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying the development of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are unclear and its diagnosis remains a process of exclusion. Currently, there are no known specific biomarkers for ITP to support differential diagnosis and treatment decisions. Profiling of serum proteins may be valuable for identifying such biomarkers. Sera from 46 patients with primary chronic ITP and 34 healthy blood donors were analysed using a microarray of 755 antibodies. We identified 161 differentially expressed proteins. In addition to oncoproteins and tumour-suppressor proteins, including apoptosis regulator BCL2, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1), Fanconi anaemia complementation group C (FANCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we detected six anti-nuclear autoantibodies in a subset of ITP patients: anti-PCNA, anti-SmD, anti-Ro/SSA60, anti-Ro/SSA52, anti-La/SSB and anti-RNPC antibodies. This finding may provide a rational explanation for the association of ITP with malignancies and other autoimmune diseases. While RUNX1mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients was significantly downregulated, an accumulation of RUNX1 protein was observed in the platelets of ITP patients. This may indicate dysregulation of RUNX1 expression in PBMC and megakaryocytes and may lead to an imbalanced immune response and impaired thrombopoiesis. In conclusion, we provide novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of ITP that warrant further exploration. PMID:26628061

  4. Label-Free Kinetic Studies of Hemostasis-Related Biomarkers Including D-Dimer Using Autologous Serum Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Winterhagen, Anna; Müller, Jens; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pötzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the elimination kinetics of hemostasis-related biomarkers including the prothrombin activation fragment F1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex (PAP), and D-dimer in humans. Autologous serum was used as a biomarker source and infused into 15 healthy volunteers. Serum was prepared from whole blood in the presence of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (final concentration 20 μg/mL) to induce plasmin generation required for PAP and D-dimer formation. Serum transfusions (50 mL/30 min) were well tolerated by all subjects. Endogenous thrombin formation was not induced by serum infusions as measured using a highly sensitive oligonucleotide-based enzyme capture assay. Median peak levels (x-fold increase over baseline) of F1+2, TAT, PAP, and D-dimer of 3.7 nmol/L (28.9), 393 ng/mL (189.6), 3,829 ng/mL (7.0), and 13.4 mg/L (34.2) were achieved at the end of serum infusions. During a 48 h lasting follow-up period all biomarkers showed elimination kinetics of a two-compartment model. Median (interquartile range) terminal half-lives were 1.9 (1.3–3.6) h for F1+2, 0.7 (0.7–2.6) h for TAT, and 10.8 (8.8–11.4) h for PAP. With 15.8 (13.1–23.1) h the D-dimer half-life was about twice as long as previously estimated from radiolabeling studies in animals and small numbers of human subjects. The serum approach presented here allows label-free and simultaneous analysis of the elimination kinetics of various hemostasis-related biomarkers. Based on these data changes in biomarker levels could more precisely used to estimate the activity level of the hemostatic system. PMID:26658824

  5. A Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Identify Significantly Altered Protein Networks in the Serum of Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    PubMed Central

    Banville, Nessa; Burgess, Janette K.; Jaffar, Jade; Tjin, Gavin; Richeldi, Luca; Cerri, Stefania; Persiani, Elisa; Black, Judith L.; Oliver, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare and progressive cystic lung condition affecting approximately 3.47.5/million women, with an average lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of upwards of 4 years. The aim of this work was to identify altered proteins in LAM serum which may be potential biomarkers of disease. Serum from LAM patient volunteers and healthy control volunteers were pooled and analysis carried out using quantitative 4-plex iTRAQ technology. Differentially expressed proteins were validated using ELISAs and pathway analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Fourteen proteins were differentially expressed in LAM serum compared to control serum (p<0.05). Further screening validated the observed differences in extracellular matrix remodelling proteins including fibronectin (30% decrease in LAM, p?=?0.03), von Willebrand Factor (40% reduction in LAM, p?=?0.03) and Kallikrein III (25% increase in LAM, p?=?0.03). Pathway networks elucidated the relationships between the ECM and cell trafficking in LAM. This study was the first to highlight an imbalance in networks important for remodelling in LAM, providing a set of novel potential biomarkers. These understandings may lead to a new effective treatment for LAM in the future. PMID:25133674

  6. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L.; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J.; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K.; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-?52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  7. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-12-15

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-?52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  8. Serum Golgi protein 73 levels and liver pathological grading in cases of chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    XU, ZHENGJU; PAN, XINGNAN; WEI, KAIPENG; DING, HONGBING; WEI, MEIJUAN; YANG, HUANWEN; LIU, QIAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the correlation between serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) and liver pathological grading and staging in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Two hundred and fifty-three patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections were enrolled in the present study. All patients received a serum GP73 test, and 91 CHB patients underwent liver biopsy. GP73 expression in liver tissue was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The results indicated that serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection (r=0.677). There was no significant difference in serum GP73 levels between hepatitis B e antigen-positive and −negative patients (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in serum GP73 levels among specimens with varying HBV DNA contents (P>0.05). Serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with increased liver pathological grading (r=0.737) and staging (r=0.692), and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GP73 protein expression increased concurrently with liver pathological grading and staging. In conclusion, serum GP73 was found to be correlated with liver pathological grading and staging in patients with CHB, and may be an effective indicator for the evaluation of disease progression. However, serum GP73 levels were not associated with HBV replication. PMID:25524053

  9. Serum Golgi protein 73 levels and liver pathological grading in cases of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengju; Pan, Xingnan; Wei, Kaipeng; Ding, Hongbing; Wei, Meijuan; Yang, Huanwen; Liu, Qian

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess the correlation between serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) and liver pathological grading and staging in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Two hundred and fifty‑three patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections were enrolled in the present study. All patients received a serum GP73 test, and 91 CHB patients underwent liver biopsy. GP73 expression in liver tissue was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The results indicated that serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection (r=0.677). There was no significant difference in serum GP73 levels between hepatitis B e antigen‑positive and ‑negative patients (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in serum GP73 levels among specimens with varying HBV DNA contents (P>0.05). Serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with increased liver pathological grading (r=0.737) and staging (r=0.692), and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GP73 protein expression increased concurrently with liver pathological grading and staging. In conclusion, serum GP73 was found to be correlated with liver pathological grading and staging in patients with CHB, and may be an effective indicator for the evaluation of disease progression. However, serum GP73 levels were not associated with HBV replication. PMID:25524053

  10. Clinical efficacy of serum human epididymis protein 4 as a diagnostic biomarker of ovarian cancer: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shin Hye; Lee, Soo Yoon; Ju, Woong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare accuracy of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) levels with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels as biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 94 Korean women, including 32 patients with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer and 62 patients with a diagnosis of benign ovarian tumor. All diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological analysis. Serum HE4 levels were assessed using an HE4 enzyme immunoassay, which were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Serum CA-125 levels were determined using a Modular analytics E170 module. Results The median serum CA-125 and HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer than those with other benign tumors (CA-125, 394.1 U/mL vs. 22.7 U/mL; HE4, 56.7 pM vs. 18.5 pM; P < 0.05 in both). An additional comparison revealed that the patients with endometriosis had greater median serum CA-125 levels than those with other benign ovarian tumors (32.0 U/mL vs. 17.9 U/mL, P = 0.03). Conversely, the median serum HE4 levels were similar among the two benign ovarian tumor groups, with no statistically significant difference observed (19.0 pM vs. 18.2 pM, P = 0.49). The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis for the benign ovarian tumor and ovarian cancer patients showed that HE4 showed a greater area under the curve with borderline significance when compared with CA-125 in both groups (0.93 vs. 0.85). Conclusion Serum HE4 levels may not only allow for the detection of ovarian cancer, but also allow for better differentiation of cases of ovarian cancer versus other benign ovarian tumors compared with serum CA-125. PMID:24328008

  11. Role of Serum Interleukin 6, Albumin and C-Reactive Protein in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emami Ardestani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a non-specific inflammation, which involves the airways, lung parenchyma and pulmonary vessels. The inflammation causes the activation of inflammatory cells and the release of various inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6 and tumor necoris factor alpha (TNF-a). The purpose of the present study was to measure serum IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) (as a positive phase reactant) and albumin level (as a negative phase reactant) in COPD patients (only due to cigarette smoking not bio-mass), non COPD smokers and healthy subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we compared the differences in inflammatory factors among groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 males were enrolled in this study and divided into three equal groups. The first group was 60 smokers who had COPD. The second group included 60 smokers without COPD and the third group consisted of people who were not smokers and did not have COPD; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from all participants and it was collected in a test tube containing anticoagulant and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. Serum was separated and used to measure the amount of IL-6, CRP and albumin. Spirometry was performed according to the criteria set by the American Thoracic Society. Results: The mean serum level of IL-6 was 83.27.5 pg/mL in group I, 54.924.3 pg/mL in group II and 46.910.4 pg/mL in group III. There was a significant difference among the three groups (P<0.001). The mean serum level of CRP was 28.914.9 mg/dL in the first group, 19.98.5 mg/dL in the second group and 4.22.3 mg/dL in the third group (P=0.02). But by controlling the confounding effects of age, this difference was not significant (P=0.49). The mean serum level of albumin was I 4.10.57 mg/dL in group I, 4.30.56 mg/dL in group II and 4.10.53 mg/dL in group III. There was no significant difference among the three groups in this regard (P=0.099).There was a significant inverse relationship between serum levels of IL-6 and FEV 1 (r=?0.341, P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant inverse relationship between serum levels of IL-6 and FEV1/FVC (r=?0.309, P<0.001). Serum albumin level was not different among various stages. Level of CRP and IL6 increased as the stage of COPD got worse in smokers. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of IL-6 predicts development of COPD in smokers with a high sensitivity among all inflammatory factors namely CRP, IL-6, and albumin. PMID:26528368

  12. Interaction of liposomal formulations of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (temoporfin) with serum proteins: protein binding and liposome destruction.

    PubMed

    Reshetov, Vadzim; Zorin, Vladimir; Siupa, Agnieszka; D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Guillemin, Franois; Bezdetnaya, Lina

    2012-01-01

    mTHPC is a non polar photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy. To improve its solubility and pharmacokinetic properties, liposomes were proposed as drug carriers. Binding of liposomal mTHPC to serum proteins and stability of drug carriers in serum are of major importance for PDT efficacy; however, neither was reported before. We studied drug binding to human serum proteins using size-exclusion chromatography. Liposomes destruction in human serum was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Inclusion of mTHPC into conventional (Foslip()) and PEGylated (Fospeg()) liposomes does not affect equilibrium serum protein binding compared with solvent-based mTHPC. At short incubation times the redistribution of mTHPC from Foslip() and Fospeg() proceeds by both drug release and liposomes destruction. At longer incubation times, the drug redistributes only by release. The release of mTHPC from PEGylated vesicles is delayed compared with conventional liposomes, alongside with greatly decreased liposomes destruction. Thus, for long-circulation times the pharmacokinetic behavior of Fospeg() could be influenced by a combination of protein- and liposome-bound drug. The study highlights the modes of interaction of photosensitizer-loaded nanovesicles in serum to predict optimal drug delivery and behavior in vivo in preclinical models, as well as the novel application of NTA to assess the destruction of liposomes. PMID:22607362

  13. Correlation of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, X H; Liu, S Q; Wang, Y L; Jin, Y

    2014-01-01

    Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a sensitive indicator of inflammation, which is closely related with the progress of plaque formation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the inflammatory markers of local coronary plaque and the peripheral blood cycle, promoting the occurrence of atherosclerosis development and plaque rupture. In this study, the correlation of hs-CRP and IL-6 was investigated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty cases of ACS, including 33 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 27 cases of unstable angina pectoris (UAP), 45 cases of stable angina pectoris (SAP), and 45 healthy people (HG) were enrolled in study. The serum hs-CRP and serum IL-6 levels were tested by the immune turbidimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The differences among groups and their correlations were evaluated. Results showed that the serum hs-CRP and IL-6 concentrations of the AMI and UAP groups were significantly higher than those of the SAP and HG groups, respectively (P<0.01), and those of the AMI group were significantly higher than those of the UAP group (P<0.05). The serum hs-CRP and IL-6 levels of the ACS group were positively correlated (r=0.836). The serum hs-CRP and IL-6 levels could be used to determine the stability of plaque, and have some relevance in the ACS process, showing great value in judgments of ACS prognosis. PMID:25036169

  14. Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Cludio; Nunes, Everson Arajo; Trindade, Erasmo Bencio Santos de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24167354

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH SERUM PROTEINS BY USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Hage, David S.; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Barnaby, Omar; Jackson, Abby; Yoo, Michelle J.; Papastavros, Efthimia; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Sobansky, Matt; Tong, Zenghan

    2011-01-01

    The binding of drugs with serum proteins can affect the activity, distribution, rate of excretion, and toxicity of pharmaceutical agents in the body. One tool that can be used to quickly analyze and characterize these interactions is high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). This review shows how HPAC can be used to study drug-protein binding and describes the various applications of this approach when examining drug interactions with serum proteins. Methods for determining binding constants, characterizing binding sites, examining drug-drug interactions, and studying drug-protein dissociation rates will be discussed. Applications that illustrate the use of HPAC with serum binding agents such as human serum albumin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins will be presented. Recent developments will also be examined, such as new methods for immobilizing serum proteins in HPAC columns, the utilization of HPAC as a tool in personalized medicine, and HPAC methods for the high-throughput screening and characterization of drug-protein binding. PMID:21395530

  16. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

  17. Glutathione-Coated Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles: A Surface Ligand for Minimizing Serum Protein Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) are known for their high resistance to serum protein adsorption. Our studies show that these NPs can serve as surface ligands to significantly enhance the physiological stability and lower the serum protein adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), in addition to rendering the NPs the luminescence property. After the incorporation of GS-AuNPs onto the surface of SPIONs to form the hybrid nanoparticles (HBNPs), these SPIONs protein adsorption was about 10-fold lower than those of the pure glutathione-coated SPIONs suggesting that GS-AuNPs are capable of providing a stealth effect against serum proteins. PMID:25029478

  18. Biomarkers of Eosinophil Involvement in Allergic and Eosinophilic Diseases: review of phenotypic and serum markers including a novel assay to quantify levels of soluble Siglec-8

    PubMed Central

    Na, Ho Jeong; Hamilton, Robert G.; Klion, Amy D.

    2012-01-01

    There remains considerable controversy in the management of eosinophilic disorders, mainly due to a paucity of information regarding the clinical interpretation of total blood eosinophil counts versus surface activation markers versus eosinophil-derived or eosinophil-influencing mediator levels. Regrettably, few tests have been validated that define a unique clinical or prognostic phenotype that is more useful than simply monitoring total blood eosinophil counts. In this manuscript, phenotypic (cell surface) markers, along with serum and tissue-based markers that have been examined in the context of disease activity, are reviewed. We also report the development of a novel assay for detecting soluble Siglec-8 (sSiglec-8), a protein likely derived largely from eosinophils, as a potential serum biomarker. The assay consists of a competitive ELISA using a recombinant Siglec-8-Fc fusion protein. The goal of this preliminary study was to determine if sSiglec-8 is a useful biomarker that differentiates among patients with various eosinophil-associated diseases. In the final analysis, it is fair to say that further research is sorely needed to fully understand and validate the utility of various biomarkers, including sSiglec-8, before their use in clinical practice can be recommended with confidence. PMID:22683541

  19. Serum extracellular vesicle protein levels are associated with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Vince C; Schoneveld, Arjan H; Wang, Jiong-Wei; van de Weg, Sander M; Sze, Siu Kwan; van Keulen, J Karlijn; Hoes, Arno W; den Ruijter, Hester M; de Kleijn, Dominique PV; Mosterd, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Biomarkers are essential in the early detection of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Serum extracellular vesicles are small vesicles in the plasma containing protein and RNA and have been shown to be involved in ACS-related processes like apoptosis and coagulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that serum extracellular vesicle protein levels are associated with ACS. Methods and results: Three serum extracellular vesicle proteins potentially associated with ACS were identified with differential Q-proteomics and were evaluated in 471 frozen serum samples of ACS-suspected patients presenting to the emergency department (30% of whom had an ACS). Protein levels were measured after vesicle isolation using ExoQuick. Mean serum extracellular vesicle concentration of the different proteins was compared between ACS and non-ACS patients. Selected proteins were tested in a univariate logistic regression model, as well as in a multivariate model to adjust for cardiovascular risk factors. A separate analysis was performed in men and women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, polygenic immunoglobulin receptor, (pIgR; OR 1.630, p=0.026), cystatin C (OR 1.641, p=0.021), and complement factor C5a (C5a, OR 1.495, p=0.025) were significantly associated with ACS, while total vesicle protein concentration was borderline significant. The association of the individual proteins with ACS was markedly stronger in men. Conclusions: These data show that serum extracellular vesicle pIgR, cystatin C, and C5a concentrations are independently associated with ACS and that there are pronounced gender differences. These observations should be validated in a large, prospective study to assess the potential role of vesicle content in the evaluation of patients suspected of having an ACS. PMID:24062934

  20. Serum differential protein identification of Xinjiang Kazakh esophageal cancer patients based on the two-dimensional liquid-phase chromatography and LTQ MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; Xia, Guo; Jianqing, Zhang; Mei, Yang; Ge, Bai; Li, Zhang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chemo-radiotherapy on serum protein expression of the esophageal cancer patients and discover potential biomarkers by detecting serum proteins mass spectrometry of the healthy Kazakh people in Xinjiang as well as the patients before and after their chemo-radiotherapy. In order to separate and compare the three serum samples (the healthy group's, the patients' before and after chemo-radiotherapy) with two-dimensional protein liquid chromatography system (Proteome LabTM PF-2D), then detect the differential protein spots with linear trap quadruple mass spectrometer (LTQ MS/MS). (1) The Kazakh esophageal cancer patients got 21 expressed protein spots peaks with significant difference after chemo-radiotherapy compared with before; before the treatment there were 10 different expressed protein spots compared with the healthy group, and after it there were four peaks in the expression of protein spots compared with the healthy group. (2) After LTQ mass spectrometric detection, 22 proteins were up-regulated in serum samples of the healthy group, 22 were up-regulated of the patients before medical treatment and 5 were up-regulated after chemo-radiotherapy. (3) 8 proteins including APOA1 can be served as serum markers in Kazakh esophageal cancer diagnosis, and proteins like CLU can be served as serum markers in judging the resistance and sensitivity towards chemo-radiotherapy. (4) The abnormal expressions of APOC2, APOC3, Antithrombin-III in esophageal cancer were discovered for the first time. Specific protein spots related to Xinjiang Kazakh esophageal cancer diagnosis and chemo-radiotherapy can be identified in the serum, which will probably become a maker in Kazakh esophageal cancer diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. PMID:24469726

  1. Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 Predicts 10-Year Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hung-Yuan; Jiang, Yi-Der; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Wei, Jung-Nan; Lin, Mao-Shin; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hung, Chi Sheng; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Smith, David J.; Vanio, Jani; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation and catalyzes the breakdown of amines to produce aldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia. Serum VAP-1 correlates positively with both acute hyperglycemia and diabetes. We conducted a cohort study to evaluate whether serum VAP-1 predicts 10-year survival in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between July 1996 and June 2003, we enrolled 661 type 2 diabetic subjects at National Taiwan University Hospital. Serum VAP-1 in the samples obtained at enrollment was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. The vital status of all subjects was ascertained by linking their data with computerized death certificates in Taiwan. RESULTS The medium follow-up period was 10.4 years. Subjects with serum VAP-1 in the highest tertile had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.19 (95% CI 1.174.11) for all-cause mortality adjusted for age, sex, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, total cholesterol, use of statins, abnormal ankle-brachial index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria. The adjusted HRs for logarithmically transformed serum VAP-1 were 5.83 (95% CI 1.1728.97) for cardiovascular mortality, 6.32 (95% CI 1.2532.00) for mortality from cardiovascular and diabetic causes, and 17.24 (95% CI 4.5765.07) for cancer mortality. There were four variables, including age, serum VAP-1, proteinuria, and eGFR, which could enhance mortality prediction significantly. CONCLUSIONS Serum VAP-1 can predict 10-year all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cancer mortality independently in type 2 diabetic subjects. Serum VAP-1 is a novel biomarker that improves risk prediction over and above established risk factors. PMID:21282368

  2. Comprehensive maternal serum proteomics identifies the cytoskeletal proteins as non-invasive biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lizhu; Gu, Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shan, Liping; Wu, Lina; Wei, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yili; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Cao, Songying; Huang, Tianchu; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common group of major birth defects. Presently there are no clinically used biomarkers for prenatally detecting CHDs. Here, we performed a comprehensive maternal serum proteomics assessment, combined with immunoassays, for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for prenatal diagnosis of CHDs. A total of 370 women were included in this study. An isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic approach was used first to compare protein profiles in pooled serum collected from women who had CHD-possessing or normal fetuses, and 47 proteins displayed significant differential expressions. Targeted verifications were performed on 11 proteins using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), and the resultant candidate biomarkers were then further validated using ELISA analysis. Finally, we identified a biomarker panel composed of 4 cytoskeletal proteins capable of differentiating CHD-pregnancies from normal ones [with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.938, P?protein changes in maternal serum not only could help us in prenatal diagnosis of CHDs, but also may shed new light on CHD embryogenesis studies. PMID:26750556

  3. Comprehensive maternal serum proteomics identifies the cytoskeletal proteins as non-invasive biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhu; Gu, Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shan, Liping; Wu, Lina; Wei, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yili; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Cao, Songying; Huang, Tianchu; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common group of major birth defects. Presently there are no clinically used biomarkers for prenatally detecting CHDs. Here, we performed a comprehensive maternal serum proteomics assessment, combined with immunoassays, for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for prenatal diagnosis of CHDs. A total of 370 women were included in this study. An isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic approach was used first to compare protein profiles in pooled serum collected from women who had CHD-possessing or normal fetuses, and 47 proteins displayed significant differential expressions. Targeted verifications were performed on 11 proteins using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), and the resultant candidate biomarkers were then further validated using ELISA analysis. Finally, we identified a biomarker panel composed of 4 cytoskeletal proteins capable of differentiating CHD-pregnancies from normal ones [with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.938, P?protein changes in maternal serum not only could help us in prenatal diagnosis of CHDs, but also may shed new light on CHD embryogenesis studies. PMID:26750556

  4. The presence of antibodies to oxidative modified proteins in serum from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Palacio, J R; Iborra, A; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Badia, R; Martínez, P

    2006-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Free radicals, as a product of oxidative stress, impair cells and tissue properties related to human fertility. These free radicals, together with the oxidized molecules, may have a cytotoxic or deleterious effects on sperm and oocytes, on early embryo development or on the endometrium. Aldehyde-modified proteins are highly immunogenic and circulating autoantibodies to new epitopes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), may affect the reproductive system. Autoantibodies or elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum are often associated with inflammatory response. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether PCOS women show increased levels of oxidized proteins (protein-MDA) and anti-endometrial antibodies (AEA) in their sera, compared with control patients, and to determine whether AEA specificity is related to oxidized protein derivatives. Sera from 31 women [10 patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 21 women with male factor of infertility (control group)] were chosen from patients attending for infertility. Anti-endometrial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an endometrial cell line (RL-95). Antibodies against MDA modified human serum albumin (HSA-MDA) were also determined by ELISA. Oxidized proteins (protein-MDA) in serum were determined by a colorimetric assay. Patients with PCOS have significantly higher levels of AEA and anti-HSA-MDA, as well as oxidized proteins (protein-MDA) in serum than control patients. For the first time, we describe an autoimmune response in PCOS patients, in terms of AEA. The evidence of protein-MDA in the serum of these patients, together with the increased antibody reactivity to MDA-modified proteins (HSA-MDA) in vitro, supports the conclusion that oxidative stress may be one of the important causes for abnormal endometrial environment with poor embryo receptivity in PCOS patients. PMID:16634794

  5. Probing thyroglobulin in undiluted human serum based on pattern recognition and competitive adsorption of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran; Huang, Shuai; Li, Jing; Chae, Junseok

    2014-10-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive indicator of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin. Detection of Tg in human serum is challenging as bio-receptors, such as anti-Tg, used in immunoassay have relatively weak binding affinity. We engineer sensing surfaces using the competitive adsorption of proteins, termed the Vroman Effect. Coupled with Surface Plasmon Resonance, the "cross-responsive" interactions of Tg on the engineered surfaces produce uniquely distinguishable multiple signature patterns, which are discriminated using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Tg-spiked samples, down to 2 ng/ml Tg in undiluted human serum, are sensitively and selectively discriminated from the control (undiluted human serum).

  6. Coconut kernel protein modifies the effect of coconut oil on serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Padmakumaran Nair, K G; Rajamohan, T; Kurup, P A

    1999-01-01

    Feeding coconut kernel along with coconut oil in human volunteers has been found to reduce serum total and LDL cholesterol when compared to feeding coconut oil alone. This effect of the kernel was also observed in rats. Since many plant proteins have been reported to exert a cholesterol lowering effect, a study was carried out on the effect of isolated kernel protein in rats. Feeding kernel protein resulted in lower levels of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in the serum and most tissues when compared to casein fed animals. Rats fed kernel protein had (1) increased hepatic degradation of cholesterol to bile acids, (2) increased hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, and (3) decreased esterification of free cholesterol. In the intestine, however, cholesterogenesis was decreased. The kernel protein also caused decreased lipogenesis in the liver and intestine. This beneficial effect of the kernel protein is attributed to its very low lysine/arginine ratio 2.13% lysine and 24.5% arginine. PMID:10472790

  7. Eimeria Species and Genetic Background Influence the Serum Protein Profile of Broilers with Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at P<0.05−0.01 (250 spots), P<0.01−0.001 (248 spots), and P<0.001 (314 spots) were excised and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified in 172 spots. A total of 46 different proteins were identified. Of the spots with a corresponding protein identification, 57 showed a main effect of coccidia infection and/or 2-way interaction of coccidia infection×broiler genetic line at P<0.001. Conclusions/Significance Several of the metabolic enzymes identified in this study are potential candidates for early diagnostic markers of E. acervulina infection including malate dehydrogenase 2, NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex 9, and an ATP synthase. These proteins were detected only in Line A birds that were inoculated with E. acervulina. Results from this study provide a basic framework for future research aimed at uncovering the complex biochemical mechanisms involved in host response to Eimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods. PMID:21297942

  8. The role of serum surfactant protein D as a biomarker of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zien Alaabden, Alaa; Mohammad, Yousser; Fahoum, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major factor for the high mortality associated with the disease. There is a paucity in the lung-specific biomarkers which diagnose these exacerbations. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a promising biomarker in predicting clinical outcomes for patients with COPD, is lung-specific and can be detected in serum. However, the profile in which serum concentrations of SP-D change during acute exacerbation is still unclear. This study aims to estimate and compare the concentrations of serum SP-D in patients with stable disease and during the exacerbation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which composed of apparently healthy individuals (n=28), which included 14 smokers and 14 nonsmokers, patients with stable COPD (n=28), and patients experiencing acute exacerbations (n=28). Pulmonary functions were performed for all groups. Serum SP-D concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These concentrations were compared by analysis of variance. Results: Serum SP-D levels were significantly elevated in patients with acute exacerbations (508.733102.813ng/ml) compared to patients with stable COPD (337.91686.265ng/ml) and healthy subjects (177.31346.998ng/ml; p< 0.001). Serum SP-D levels correlated inversely with lung function parameters including FEV1%pred, FVC%pred and FEV1/FVC. Conclusion: Serum SP-D levels are raised early on during acute exacerbations of COPD, which could be a potential early diagnostic biomarker for COPD exacerbations.

  9. The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mrtl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Khler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n=466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n=76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n=13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9mg/l, 79.6mg/l, and 98.6mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0mg/l vs. 55.4mg/l, P=0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:24768783

  10. Serum-Based Protein Biomarkers in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Agoston, Denes V.; Elsayed, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to explosive blast are extremely complex. Serum protein biomarkers in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) can aid in determining injury severity, monitoring progress, and predicting outcome. Exposure to blast results in varying degrees of physical injury. Explosive blast can also induce psychological stress that can contribute to or amplify the extent of physical damage. Given the complexity, scale of injury, and variety of symptoms, bTBI may be best described as a spectrum disorder. In this focused review, we summarize the status of serum protein biomarkers in bTBI in the context of the classification and pathological changes of other forms of TBI. Finally, we recommend specific and easily implementable measures to accelerate serum protein biomarker discovery and validation in bTBI. PMID:22783223

  11. Suppression of severe lesions, myonecrosis and hemorrhage, caused by Protobothrops flavoviridis venom with its serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Chijiwa, Takahito; So, Shuhei; Hattori, Shosaku; Yoshida, Aichi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ohno, Motonori

    2013-12-15

    Protobothrops flavoviridis serum proteins precipitated with ammonium sulfate were chromatographed on a DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column at pH 7.5 with stepwise increase or with linear gradient of NaCl concentration. Peaks 3 and 4 serum proteins, obtained by linear gradient elution and named Fr(de3) and Fr(de4), contained Habu serum factors (HSF) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors (PfPLI), respectively. The serum proteins eluted at 0.2 M NaCl by stepwise elution, named Fr(0.2NaCl), effectively suppressed myonecrosis and hemorrhage caused by P. flavoviridis venom in rat or mouse thigh muscles. The Fr(0.2NaCl) were fractionated by HPLC and the fractions, after SDS-PAGE, underwent far-western blot analysis with PLA2 ([Asp(49)]PLA2) and BPI ([Lys(49)]PLA2) as the probes. Four PfPLIs, namely, PfαPLI-A, PfαPLI-B, PfγPLI-A and PfγPLI-B, were identified together with their selective binding specificities to PLA2 species. In addition, a new 9 kDa protein, which is specifically bound to BPI, was found. Suppression of P. flavoviridis venom-induced severe lesions, such as myonecrosis, hemorrhage and edema, with its serum proteins was histopathologically observed in the present work for the first time. The cooperative use of P. flavoviridis antivenom and its serum proteins as medication for P. flavoviridis snake bites is discussed. PMID:24139850

  12. [Virucidal activity of disinfectants. Influence of the serum protein upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-01

    Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal activity on three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the aldehyde and halogen groups had a virucidal activity on human herpes virus, bovine rhabdo virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human adeno virus, porcine parvo virus, and polio virus. Disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups, and biganide group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups. PMID:11019515

  13. Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Lun; Wu, Yen-Wen; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2), which is mainly expressed from adipose tissue, is demonstrated to be involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Because several adipocytokines are known to be associated with heart failure (HF), here we investigated the association of ANGPTL2 and HF in Taiwanese subjects. Methods and Results A total of 170 symptomatic HF patients and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from clinic. The echocardiography was analyzed in each patient, and stress myocardial perfusion study was performed for clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. Detailed demographic information, medications, and biochemical data were recorded. Circulating adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) and ANGPTL2, were analyzed. Compared with the control group subjects, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were significantly higher in HF group patients. In correlation analyses, ANGPTL2 level was positively correlated to creatinine, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hsCRP, TNF-?, NT-proBNP and A-FABP levels, and negatively correlated with HDL-C and left ventricular ejection fraction. In multiple regression analysis, A-FABP, hsCRP, and HDL-C levels remained as independent predictors for ANGPTL2 level. To determine the association between serum ANGPTL2 concentrations and HF, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with subjects divided into tertiles by ANGPTL2 levels. For the subjects with ANGPTL2 levels in the highest tertile, their risk of HF was about 2.97 fold (95% CI = 1.247.08, P = 0.01) higher than those in the lowest tertile. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a higher circulating ANGPTL2 level in patients with HF, and the upregulating ANGPTL2 levels might be associated with metabolic derangements and inflammation. PMID:26397985

  14. Comparison of Serum Protein Electrophoresis Values in Wild and Captive Whooping Cranes ( Grus americana ).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Cray, Carolyn; Hartup, Barry K

    2015-09-01

    Protein electrophoresis of serum samples from endangered, wild whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) was performed to help assess the health of the only self-sustaining, migratory population in North America. Serum samples from wild adult cranes (n = 22) were taken at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, USA during winter. Wild juvenile cranes (n = 26) were sampled at Wood Buffalo National Park, Northwest Territories, Canada, in midsummer. All captive crane samples were acquired from the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI, USA. Captive adult cranes (n = 30) were sampled during annual examinations, and archived serum samples from captive juvenile cranes (n = 19) were selected to match the estimated age of wild juveniles. Wild juveniles had significantly lower concentrations of all protein fractions than wild adults, except for prealbumin and ? globulins. All protein fraction concentrations for wild juveniles were significantly lower compared with captive juveniles, except for prealbumin and ? globulins, which were higher. Wild adults had significantly greater ? globulin concentrations than captive adults. Captive juveniles had significantly lower prealbumin and albumin concentrations and albumin?:?globulin ratios than captive adults. The higher ? globulin concentrations in wild versus captive cranes are likely because of increased antigenic exposure and immune stimulation. Protein fraction concentrations vary significantly with age and natural history in this species. Reference intervals for serum protein electrophoresis results from captive adult whooping cranes are provided in this study. PMID:26378665

  15. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P < 0.05), with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores (R = 0.43, P < 0.05) and with sebum output levels (R = 0.41, P < 0.01). The sebum output levels correlated with total pore area (R = 0.32, P < 0.05). Our study found that serum levels of IGF-1 are correlated with facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. PMID:20646082

  16. Serum levels of bone Gla-protein in inhabitants exposed to environmental cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Kido, T.; Honda, R.; Tsuritani, I.; Ishizaki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Nakagawa, H.; Nogawa, K.; Dohi, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Serum levels of bone Gla-protein (BGP)--the vitamin K-dependent CA2(+)-binding protein--were evaluated in 76 cadmium (Cd)-exposed subjects with renal tubular dysfunction (32 men, 44 women) and 133 nonexposed subjects (53 men, 80 women). Serum BGP levels were higher in the Cd-exposed subjects than in nonexposed subjects. Significant correlations between BGP and each index measured by bone microdensitometry (MD), serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and Cd in blood and urine were found. For all of the Cd-exposed and nonexposed men and women, BGP showed a significant standard partial regression coefficient (multiple regression analysis) with the metacarpal index (MCI), which was one of the MD indicators. Bone Gla-protein also correlated significantly with urinary beta 2-microglobulin in the men and with serum creatinine in the women. Serum BGP values strongly reflect the degree of bone damage and also reflect, although less strongly, the degree of renal damage induced by exposure to Cd.

  17. Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

    2008-07-01

    The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture. PMID:19003183

  18. Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M.; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture. PMID:19003183

  19. Changing optical properties of blood serum proteins in case of oncological diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, G. P.; Petrusevich, Yu. M.; Boiko, A. V.; Ivanov, A. V.; Papish, E. A.; Khlapov, V. P.; Fedorova, K. V.

    2007-03-01

    Molecular methods of diagnostics of widespread diseases including oncological pathology on the base static and dynamic laser light scattering in serum blood solution are testified. Rayleigh - Debye laser light scattering method are used to measure molecular parameters of blood serum. Dynamical parameters of macromolecules can be measured by photon correlation spectroscopy method. We obtained that the parameter of intermolecular interaction B for serum blood solution of oncological patients is considerably less then B for serum blood solution of healthy persons and in a number of cases has even a negative value. The effective mass of scattering particles in serum water solutions for samples of oncology diseases patients increase in comparison to control samples. As follows from our experimental results, there is the difference between dynamic molecular parameters for control samples and ones with oncological pathology.

  20. Serum from human burn victims impairs myogenesis and protein synthesis in primary myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Corrick, Katie L.; Stec, Michael J.; Merritt, Edward K.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Cross, James M.; Bamman, Marcas M.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological response to a severe burn injury involves a robust increase in circulating inflammatory/endocrine factors and a hypermetabolic state, both of which contribute to prolonged skeletal muscle atrophy. In order to characterize the role of circulating factors in muscle atrophy following a burn injury, human skeletal muscle satellite cells were grown in culture and differentiated to myoblasts/myotubes in media containing serum from burn patients or healthy, age, and sex-matched controls. While incubation in burn serum did not affect NF?B signaling, cells incubated in burn serum displayed a transient increase in STAT3 phosphorlyation (Tyr705) after 48 h of treatment with burn serum (? + 70%; P < 0.01), with these levels returning to normal by 96 h. Muscle cells differentiated in burn serum displayed reduced myogenic fusion signaling (phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), ??75%; ADAM12, ?-20%; both P < 0.01), and reduced levels of myogenin (??75%; P < 0.05). Concomitantly, myotubes differentiated in burn serum demonstrated impaired myogenesis (assessed by number of nuclei/myotube). Incubation in burn serum for 96 h did not increase proteolytic signaling (assessed via caspase-3 and ubiquitin levels), but reduced anabolic signaling [p-p70S6k (Ser421/Thr424), ?30%; p-rpS6 (Ser240/244), ?-50%] and impaired protein synthesis (?24%) (P < 0.05). This resulted in a loss of total protein content (?18%) and reduced cell size (?33%) (P < 0.05). Overall, incubation of human muscle cells in serum from burn patients results in impaired myogenesis and reduced myotube size, indicating that circulating factors may play a significant role in muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery following burn injury. PMID:26136691

  1. In-Depth Analysis of a Plasma or Serum Proteome Using a 4D Protein Profiling Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hsin-Yao; Beer, Lynn A.; Speicher, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human plasma or serum has been a major strategy used to identify biomarkers that serve as indicators of disease. However, such in-depth proteomic analyses are challenging due to the complexity and extremely large dynamic range of protein concentrations in plasma. Therefore, reduction in sample complexity through multidimensional pre-fractionation strategies is critical, particularly for the detection of low-abundance proteins that have the potential to be the most specific disease biomarkers. We describe here a 4D protein profiling method that we developed for comprehensive proteomic analyses of both plasma and serum. Our method consists of abundant protein depletion coupled with separation strategies microscale solution isoelectrofocusing and 1D SDS-PAGE followed by reversed-phase separation of tryptic peptides prior to LCMS/MS. Using this profiling strategy, we routinely identify a large number of proteins over nine orders of magnitude, including a substantial number of proteins at the low ng/mL or lower levels from approximately 300 ?L of plasma sample. PMID:21468940

  2. Serum proteins prevent aggregation of Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Mark A.; Abid, Aamir; Kennedy, Ian M.; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media complicates interpretation of in vitro studies of nanoparticlecell interactions. We used dynamic light scattering to investigate the aggregation dynamics of iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Our results show that iron oxide particles aggregate more readily than zinc oxide particles. Pretreatment with serum stabilises iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles against aggregation. Serum-treated iron oxide is stable only in pure water, while zinc oxide is stable in water or cell culture media. These findings, combined with zeta potential measurements and quantification of proteins adsorbed on particle surface, suggest that serum stabilisation of iron oxide particles occurs primarily through protein adsorption and resulting net surface charge. Zinc oxide stabilisation, however, also involves steric hindrance of particle aggregation. Fluid shear at levels used in flow experiments breaks up iron oxide particle aggregates. These results enhance our understanding of nanoparticle aggregation and its consequences for research on the biological effects of nanomaterials. PMID:22149273

  3. A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. II. Test for transferability.

    PubMed

    Doumas, B T; Bayse, D D; Borner, K; Carter, R J; Elevitch, F; Garber, C C; Graby, R A; Hause, L L; Mather, A; Peters, T; Rand, R N; Reeder, D J; Russell, S M; Schaffer, R; Westgard, J O

    1981-10-01

    The transferability of the candidate Reference Method for total serum protein was tested in eight laboratories in the United States and Europe. National Bureau of Standards SRM 927 (bovine serum albumin) was used in each analytical run as the calibration standard. The mean absorptivity value obtained for this material was 0.2983 L g-1 cm-1. Four serum pools prepared at the Centers for Disease Control were analyzed on each of 15 days. Within-run variation of the protein values (expressed as CV) in the eight laboratories ranged from 0.1 to 2.5% and day-to-day (total) variation in six of the laboratories ranged from 0.4 to 1%. PMID:7285315

  4. Serum Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 Contributes to Discriminating Coronary Artery Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Soo; Hong, Oak-Kee; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Chung, Woo Baek; Choi, Yun Seok; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Lee, Man Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP-4) is a known pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokine. Here, we investigated whether the serum BMP-4 level predicts coronary artery disease (CAD) severity in humans. We measured serum BMP-4 concentrations in 1044 consecutive patients who underwent elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. CAD severity was estimated by the number of diseased vessels showing ?50% diameter stenosis. Among males, the serum BMP-4 level was significantly lower in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) compared with those with single-vessel disease (SVD) (16.3??22.6 vs. 22.0??28.4?pg/mL, P?serum BMP-4 level was an independent predictor for a decreased risk of MVD (odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9850.998; P?=?0.01) and patients in the lower tertile were 1.55-fold more likely to have MVD compared with upper tertile patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the serum BMP-4 level had a 54% sensitivity and 54% specificity for predicting MVD (area under the curve [AUC], 56.5%; 95% CI, 51.961.0%; P?Serum BMP-4 improved the predictive capability of risk factors for MVD (AUC with and without BMP-4: 64.9 and 63.6%, respectively). Considering the likelihood ratio and number of parameters, adding the serum BMP-4 level provided a better-fit model for predicting MVD compared with the model consisting of conventional risk factors (likelihood ratio ?2?=?6.20, P?=?0.01). However, an association between serum BMP-4 and CAD was not observed in females. Serum BMP-4 levels are independently associated with CAD severity and contribute to discriminating CAD severity in males. PMID:26426615

  5. Diagnostic value of serum Golgi protein 73 for HBV-related primary hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guosheng; Dong, Feibo; Xu, Xiaozhen; Hu, Airong; Hu, Yaoren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are routinely used for diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic diseases, but it has a limited value. Golgi protein 73 (GP73) has been suggested as a new marker for hepatic diseases. Objective: To explore the clinical value of serum GP73 in different diseases associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Method: Between January 2010 and August 2014, serum samples from 88 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 78 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 194 patients with HBV-related primary hepatic cancer (PHC) were collected. Serum samples from 30 healthy volunteers were used as controls. ELISA and microparticle enzyme immunoassay were used to measure serum GP73 and AFP levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum GP73 and AFP for PHC. Results: For the diagnosis of PHC, GP73 showed a sensitivity of 65.5% and specificity of 66.3%, while AFP levels showed sensitivity of 64.4% and specificity of 76.5%. Serial testing (both tests are positive) could increase the specificity (sensitivity of 45.9% and specificity of 85.5%) while parallel testing (any single positive test result) could increase the sensitivity (sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 57.2%). Serum GP73 and AFP levels were significantly different between Child-Pugh grades (P<0.001 for GP73 and P=0.044 for AFP). Significant differences in serum GP73 and AFP were found between TNM stages (all P<0.001). Conclusion: Serum GP73 had limited diagnostic value for HBV-related PHC. The combined use of serum GP73 and AFP levels improved the diagnostic efficacy. PMID:26617863

  6. Disparate Proteome Responses of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Aspergilli to Human Serum Measured by Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.

  7. Annexin A1 protein regulates the expression of PMVEC cytoskeletal proteins in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by advanced liver disease, hypoxemia and intrapulmonary vascular dilatation (IPVD). The pathogenesis of HPS is not completely understood. Recent findings have established the role of proliferation and phenotype differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in IPVD of HPS; the change in cytoskeletal proteins and their molecular mechanism play an essential role in the proliferation, phenotype modulation and differentiation of PMVECs. However, little is known about the relevance of cytoskeletal protein expression and its molecular mechanism in IPVD of HPS. In addition, ANX A1 protein has been identified as a key regulator in some important signaling pathways, which influences cytoskeletal remodeling in many diseases, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, etc. Methods PMVECs were cultured from the normal rats and then divided into three groups(Ad-ANXA1-transfected group, a non-transfected group, and an adenovirus empty vector group) and incubated by nomal rat serum or hepatopulmonary syndrome rat serum respectively. mRNA level was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assay. Results In this study, we found that the serum from a common bile duct ligation(CBDL) Rat model decreased the expression levels of the ANX A1 mRNA and protein by at least two-fold in human PMVECs. We also found the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) in PMVECs significantly increased. After stimulating ANX A1 over-expression in PMVECs by adenovirus-mediated ANX A1 (Ad-ANXA1) transfection, we found the expression levels of cytoskeletal proteins were significantly suppressed in PMVECs at all time points. Additionally, we report here that serum from a CBDL Rat model increases the proliferation of PMVECs by nearly two-fold and that over-expression of Ad-ANXA1 significantly inhibits HPS-rat-serum-induced PMVEC proliferation (p <0.05). These findings suggest that the ANX A1 down-regulation of PMVEC proliferation in the presence of HPS-rat-serum may be the major cause of aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin) and may, therefore, play a fundamental role in the proliferation and phenotype differentiation of PMVECs in the PVD of HPS. Conclusion Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-ANXA1 results in inhibition of the aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins and proliferation of PMVECs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on PVD of HPS. PMID:23587191

  8. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

  9. Serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration in a dog with a thymoma and persistent hypercalcemia.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, P; Shaw, D; Runyon, C; McConkey, S; Ikede, B

    2000-01-01

    A thymoma was tentatively diagnosed by radiographic and cytologic examination in a dog with hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) concentration. Following surgical excision, the diagnosis of thymoma was confirmed via histopathologic examination, the hypercalcemia resolved, and the PTHrP concentration decreased to below detectable limits. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11126493

  10. Serum protein changes in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with various strains of Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1970-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  11. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins Using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Aebersold, Reudi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible, and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. Here we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these now deglycosylated peptides by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen-induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared with their control littermates.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of bone morphogenetic protein in serum: a tissue-specific parameter of bone metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Urist, M.R.; Hudak, R.T.

    1984-05-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a paracrine agent inducing cartilage and bone cell differentiation, circulates in the blood and is detectable by BMP radioimmunoassay. Serum BMP levels are higher in growing children and patients with Paget's disease than in normal adults. These observations are interpreted as evidence of a BMP function in the physiology of bone in health and disease.

  13. Acute phase protein quantitation in serum samples from healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Hunt, Michael; Clauss, Tonya; Leppert, Lynda L; Roberts, Kevin; McCulloch, Stephen D; Goldstein, Juli D; Gonzalez, Christie; Sweeney, Jay; Stone, Rae; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been studied in many companion and large animals and have been reported to have a differential sensitivity to traditional markers of inflammation. Studies have been performed indicating the conservation of these proteins as well as the application and cross-reactivity of automated assays among different species, but few reports have detailed APPs in marine mammal species. In the present study, automated assays were utilized to generate reference intervals for C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A using 44 serum samples from healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). A total of 25 samples were obtained from dolphins under human care and 19 samples were obtained from free-ranging dolphins. Mild yet statistically significant differences were observed in levels of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A between these groups. The reference intervals from the combined groups were as follows: C-reactive protein 3.1-19.7 mg/l, haptoglobin 0-0.37 mg/ml, and serum amyloid A 17.5-42.9 mg/l. These baseline data should provide an important foundation for future studies of the application of APP quantitation in monitoring the health and stressors of dolphins under human care and with live capture of free-ranging dolphins. PMID:23242666

  14. Iron Dextran treatment does not induce serum protein carbonyls in the newborn pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of serum proteins can lead to carbonyl formation which alters their function and is often associated with stress-related diseases. Since it is recommended that all pigs reared in modern production facilities be given supplemental iron at birth to prevent anemia, and metals can catalyze th...

  15. Novel serum protein biomarker panel revealed by mass spectrometry and its prognostic value in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Serum profiling using proteomic techniques has great potential to detect biomarkers that might improve diagnosis and predict outcome for breast cancer patients (BC). This study used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins in sera from BC and healthy volunteers (HV), with the goal of developing a new prognostic biomarker panel. Methods Training set serum samples from 99 BC and 51HV subjects were applied to four adsorptive chip surfaces (anion-exchange, cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and metal affinity) and analyzed by time-of-flight MS. For validation, 100 independent BC serum samples and 70HV samples were analyzed similarly. Cluster analysis of protein spectra was performed to identify protein patterns related to BC and HV groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to develop a protein panel to distinguish breast cancer sera from healthy sera, and its prognostic potential was evaluated. Results From 51 protein peaks that were significantly up- or downregulated in BC patients by univariate analysis, binary logistic regression yielded five protein peaks that together classified BC and HV with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area-under-the-curve value of 0.961. Validation on an independent patient cohort confirmed the five-protein parameter (ROC value 0.939). The five-protein parameter showed positive association with large tumor size (P?=?0.018) and lymph node involvement (P?=?0.016). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, immunoprecipitation and western blotting the proteins were identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein H (ApoH), ApoCI, complement C3a, transthyretin, and ApoAI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on 181 subjects after median follow-up of >5years demonstrated that the panel significantly predicted disease-free survival (P?=?0.005), its efficacy apparently greater in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (n?=?50, P?=?0.003) compared to ER-positive (n?=?131, P?=?0.161), although the influence of ER status needs to be confirmed after longer follow-up. Conclusions Protein mass profiling by MS has revealed five serum proteins which, in combination, can distinguish between serum from women with breast cancer and healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. The five-protein panel significantly predicts recurrence-free survival in women with ER-negative tumors and may have value in the management of these patients. PMID:24935269

  16. Comparative analysis of serum proteomes: Identification of proteins associated with sciatica due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    XIE, PEIGEN; LIU, BIN; CHEN, RUIQIANG; YANG, BU; DONG, JIANWEN; RONG, LIMIN

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LDH) is one of the most common orthopedic conditions that can cause lower back pain and sciatica. However, the pathogenesis of LDH is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to use proteomic analysis of blood samples to establish whether there are serum proteins associated with LDH, which may be useful in elucidating LDH pathogenesis. The ultimate aim was to develop a simple technique for the diagnosis of LDH based on the blood samples of patients with sciatica. The study used comparative analysis of serum proteomes associated with sciatica due to LDH. A total of 30 LDH patients with sciatica, receiving treatment between August and December 2007, were selected as the experimental group (or LDH group). A total of 2 ml of blood was obtained from each of the 30 patients in the LDH group and from 30 healthy volunteers, who constituted the control group. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of the blood samples was conducted, distinct protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteins associated with LDH were detected. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen for the LDH proteins and was tested on the sera of a second test and control group that included 10 patients with LDH and 10 healthy subjects, respectively. Based on signal intensity, the expression levels of 6 proteins on the dielectrophoretogram were found to be significantly associated with LDH. The identities of the LDH proteins were upregulated apolipoprotein-L1 (APO-L1) and two types of serum albumin precursors, and downregulated apolipoprotein M (APO-M), tetranectin (TN) and immunoglobulin light chain (IGL). Further ELISA experiments confirmed that there were increased serum levels of 4 out of the 6 proteins in patients with sciatica due to LDH, which was statistically different compared to the healthy subjects. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum APO-L1, TN, APO-M and IGL may serve as LDH biomarkers. PMID:25054013

  17. Comparative analysis of serum proteomes: Identification of proteins associated with sciatica due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peigen; Liu, Bin; Chen, Ruiqiang; Yang, Bu; Dong, Jianwen; Rong, Limin

    2014-09-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LDH) is one of the most common orthopedic conditions that can cause lower back pain and sciatica. However, the pathogenesis of LDH is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to use proteomic analysis of blood samples to establish whether there are serum proteins associated with LDH, which may be useful in elucidating LDH pathogenesis. The ultimate aim was to develop a simple technique for the diagnosis of LDH based on the blood samples of patients with sciatica. The study used comparative analysis of serum proteomes associated with sciatica due to LDH. A total of 30 LDH patients with sciatica, receiving treatment between August and December 2007, were selected as the experimental group (or LDH group). A total of 2 ml of blood was obtained from each of the 30 patients in the LDH group and from 30 healthy volunteers, who constituted the control group. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of the blood samples was conducted, distinct protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteins associated with LDH were detected. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen for the LDH proteins and was tested on the sera of a second test and control group that included 10 patients with LDH and 10 healthy subjects, respectively. Based on signal intensity, the expression levels of 6 proteins on the dielectrophoretogram were found to be significantly associated with LDH. The identities of the LDH proteins were upregulated apolipoprotein-L1 (APO-L1) and two types of serum albumin precursors, and downregulated apolipoprotein M (APO-M), tetranectin (TN) and immunoglobulin light chain (IGL). Further ELISA experiments confirmed that there were increased serum levels of 4 out of the 6 proteins in patients with sciatica due to LDH, which was statistically different compared to the healthy subjects. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum APO-L1, TN, APO-M and IGL may serve as LDH biomarkers. PMID:25054013

  18. Tau protein as a serum marker of brain damage in mild traumatic brain injury: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Bulut, M; Koksal, O; Dogan, S; Bolca, N; Ozguc, H; Korfali, E; Ilcol, Y O; Parklak, M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum tau protein in determining the severity of traumatic brain injury in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and high-risk patients. Adult patients who presented to our emergency department (ED) with mTBI over 1 year were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent cranial computed tomography (CT) and were subdivided into high- and low-risk groups, according to the probability of resultant intracranial injury. Serum tau levels of 60 patients and 20 healthy volunteers, who served as a control group, were measured. The mean age of the 60 patients (45 males, 15 females) was 32.5 years (range, 15-66 y). Mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 14+/-0.6. CT scans demonstrated intracranial injury in 11 patients (18.3%) and depressed fracture in 4 patients (6.7%). Serum tau levels of patients (188+/-210 pg/mL), compared with those of controls (86+/-48 pg/mL), were relatively higher; however, differences were not statistically significant (P=.445). Also, serum tau levels of high-risk patients (307+/-246 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those of low-risk patients (77+/-61 pg/mL) (P=.001). A total of 48 patients (80%) were accessible for follow-up after 6 months. Postconcussive syndrome was observed in 8 patients, 5 of whom had serum tau protein levels that were higher than those of the other 3 patients. However, no statistically significant difference was observed (P>.05). Investigators of the present study noted that serum tau levels in patients with mTBI were increased. Therefore, it is believed that this biomarker may prove helpful in identifying high-risk patients with mTBI. However, additional studies are needed to establish the diagnostic value of serum tau in detecting traumatic brain injury in patients with mTBI. PMID:16644603

  19. Discovery and validation of serum protein changes in type 1 diabetes patients using high throughput two dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wenbo; Sharma, Ashok; Purohit, Sharad; Miller, Eric; Bode, Bruce; Anderson, Stephen W; Reed, John Chip; Steed, R Dennis; Steed, Leigh; Hopkins, Diane; She, Jin-Xiong

    2011-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is expected to cause significant changes in the serum proteome; however, few studies have systematically assessed the proteomic profile change associated with the disease. In this study, a semiquantitative spectral counting-based two dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry platform was used to analyze serum samples from T1D patients and controls. In this discovery phase, significant differences were found for 21 serum proteins implicated in inflammation, oxidation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity. To assess the validity of these findings, six candidate proteins including adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, serum amyloid protein A, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and transforming growth factor beta induced were selected for subsequent immune assays for 1139 T1D patients and 848 controls. A series of statistical analyses using cases and controls matched for age, sex, and genetic risk confirmed that T1D patients have significantly higher serum levels for four of the six proteins: adiponectin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, p = 10(-27)), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (OR = 2.02, p < 10(-20)), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.13, p = 0.007), serum amyloid protein A (OR = 1.51, p < 10(-16)); whereas the serum levels were significantly lower in patients than controls for the two other proteins: transforming growth factor beta induced (OR = 0.74, p < 10(-5)) and myeloperoxidase (OR = 0.51, p < 10(-41)). Compared with subjects in the bottom quartile, subjects in the top quartile for adiponectin (OR = 6.29, p < 10(-37)), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (OR = 7.95, p < 10(-46)), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.38, p = 0.025), serum amyloid protein A (OR = 3.36, p < 10(-16)) had the highest risk of T1D, whereas subjects in the top quartile of transforming growth factor beta induced (OR = 0.41, p < 10(-11)) and myeloperoxidase (OR = 0.10, p < 10(-43)) had the lowest risk of T1D. These findings provided valuable information on the proteomic changes in the sera of T1D patients. PMID:21900154

  20. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Braun, Attila; van Kruchten, Roger; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Pircher, Joachim; Baaten, Constance C F M J; Wlling, Manuela; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Khler, Ralf; Poole, Alastair W; Schreiber, Rainer; Vortkamp, Andrea; Collins, Peter W; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kunzelmann, Karl; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2016-02-01

    Scott syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder, characterized by altered Ca(2+)-dependent platelet signaling with defective phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microparticle formation, and is linked to mutations in the ANO6 gene, encoding anoctamin (Ano)6. We investigated how the complex platelet phenotype of this syndrome is linked to defective expression of Anos or other ion channels. Mice were generated with heterozygous of homozygous deficiency in Ano6, Ano1, or Ca(2+)-dependent KCa3.1 Gardos channel. Platelets from these mice were extensively analyzed on molecular functions and compared with platelets from a patient with Scott syndrome. Deficiency in Ano1 or Gardos channel did not reduce platelet responses compared with control mice (P > 0.1). In 2 mouse strains, deficiency in Ano6 resulted in reduced viability with increased bleeding time to 28.6 min (control 6.4 min, P < 0.05). Platelets from the surviving Ano6-deficient mice resembled platelets from patients with Scott syndrome in: 1) normal collagen-induced aggregate formation (P > 0.05) with reduced PS exposure (-65 to 90%); 2) lowered Ca(2+)-dependent swelling (-80%) and membrane blebbing (-90%); 3) reduced calpain-dependent protein cleavage (-60%); and 4) moderately affected apoptosis-dependent PS exposure. In conclusion, mouse deficiency of Ano6 but not of other channels affects viability and phenocopies the complex changes in platelets from hemostatically impaired patients with Scott syndrome.-Mattheij, N. J. A., Braun, A., van Kruchten, R., Castoldi, E., Pircher, J., Baaten, C. C. F. M. J., Wlling, M., Kuijpers, M. J. E., Khler, R., Poole, A. W., Schreiber, R., Vortkamp, A., Collins, P. W., Nieswandt, B., Kunzelmann, K., Cosemans, J. M. E. M., Heemskerk, J. W. M. Survival protein anoctamin-6 controls multiple platelet responses including phospholipid scrambling, swelling, and protein cleavage. PMID:26481309

  1. Binding of labeled thyroxin analog to serum proteins evaluated after radioimmunoassay of free thyroxin

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, G.

    1989-03-01

    In ambulatory patients, assay of free thyroxin (FT4) in serum correlates well with thyroid status and with results obtained by equilibrium dialysis. The validity of FT4 results has been questioned mainly in euthyroid patients with altered concentrations of thyroid hormone-binding proteins, as in nonthyroidal illness, hereditary analbuminemia, familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH), and the presence of iodothyronine-binding antibodies. I present here a study of the binding of (/sup 125/I)T4-derivative to serum proteins in the supernate, which is ordinarily discarded after determination of FT4 by one-step radioimmunoassay with dextran-coated charcoal used to separate the free and bound fractions. The results are expressed as a ratio, with results for a normal serum pool as reference. The average ratio was high in hyperthyroid subjects, 1.26 (SD 0.12, n = 25), and in hypoalbuminemia, 1.20 (SD 0.10, n = 15), and low in FDH, 0.62 (SD 0.11, n = 9), and hypothyroid subjects, 0.90 (SD 0.06, n = 20). In normal individuals it was 0.98 (SD 0.05, n = 30). Determination of the analog-binding rate complements the FT4 result and allows for the recognition of cases with abnormal binding by serum proteins, without recourse to other tests recommended for thyroid-function studies.

  2. A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation.

    PubMed

    Doumas, B T; Bayse, D D; Carter, R J; Peters, T; Schaffer, R

    1981-10-01

    We developed a candidate Reference Method for measuring total serum protein by use of the biuret reaction. The method involves a previously described biuret reagent (Clin. Chem. 21: 1159, 1975) and Standard Reference Material (SRM) 927 bovine albumin (National Bureau of Standards) as the standard. At 25 degrees C, color development for 30 or 60 min provides identical serum protein values. Glucose (up to 10 g/L) and bilirubin (up to 300 mg/L) do not interfere. Hemoglobin, at 3 g/L, increases apparent serum protein by 0.4 g/L. The presence of dextran in serum causes easily detected turbidity, but this interference can be eliminated by centrifuging the reaction mixture. Therapeutic concentrations of ampicillin, carbenicillin, penicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, chloramphenicol, cephalothin, and methicillin in blood do not interfere, nor do triglycerides up to 10 g/L. Within-run and day-to-day standard deviations of the method are 0.1 and 0.4 g/L, respectively. PMID:6169466

  3. Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Iki, Shigeo; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokosawa, Noriko; Nagata, Kyosuke; Fujii, Nobuhiro . E-mail: fujii@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-12-05

    The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection.

  4. Analysis of blood gases, serum fat and serum protein: a new approach to estimate survival chances of stranded Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from the German North Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Facing numerous challenges, such as illness, storms or human disturbance, some harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups lose contact to their dams and are found abandoned along the North Sea coast. In Schleswig-Holstein, pups with the prospect of surviving rehabilitation are admitted to the Seal Center Friedrichskoog. Despite elaborate clinical health assessments on admission, including differential hematology, in 2010, 17% of 108 admitted pups did not survive the first 20 days. The death rate during the years 2006 and 2009 varied between 9 and 19%. To broaden the spectrum of variables which could be predictive for survival, blood gas and serum analyses were performed for 99 pups using venous blood. Variables included total CO2, pH, partial CO2, HCO3–, base excess and anion gap as well as glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride. Moreover, total serum protein and fat (triglyceride) concentrations were measured for all pups on admission. Results Repeated measurements of 12 randomly selected individuals revealed a significant (p = 0.002) positive influence of time in rehabilitation on triglyceride concentrations. This trend probably shows the improvement of the pups’ nutritional status as a consequence of the shift from milk replacer formula to fish. No such positive influence was detected for total protein concentrations though. Hematologic values, including blood gases, were not predictive for survival. Conclusions For the first time blood gas values are reported in this study for a large sample size (N = 99) of seal pups (regardless of their health status). The ranges and medians calculated from the data can serve as a stepping stone towards the establishment of reference values for neonate harbor seals. However, future investigations on the development of blood gases in harbor seals with different health conditions and ages over time are necessary to allow for a better understanding of acid–base regulation in harbor seals. PMID:24490584

  5. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Target for Therapy or Trouble?

    PubMed

    Kraus, Virginia B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2007-01-01

    High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has come into clinical use as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition to a role as a marker of disease, CRP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. Specific small-molecule inhibitors of CRP have recently been developed with the intent of mitigating cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of CRP, both as a risk marker and a disease target are controversial for several reasons. Serum hs-CRP concentrations can be elevated on the basis of genetics, female gender, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. It is not clear, in these contexts, that elevations of hs-CRP have any pathological significance. As a non-specific indicator of inflammation, CRP is also not a specific indicator of a single disease state such as cardiovascular disease but elevated concentrations can be seen in association with other comorbidities including obesity and pulmonary disease. In sharp contrast to the proposed inhibition of CRP for cardiovascular disease treatment, the infusion of CRP has been shown to have profound therapeutic benefits for autoimmune disease and septic shock. The balance between the risks and benefits of these competing views of the role of CRP in disease and disease therapy is reminiscent of the ongoing controversy regarding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for musculoskeletal disease and their cardiovascular side effects. Soon, NSAIDs may not be the only agents about which Rheumatologists and Cardiologists may spar. PMID:19690638

  6. Temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Glynn, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sum-branched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease). PMID:25660070

  7. Inhibition of bacterial aggregation by serum- and blood-derived proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Malamud, D; Brown, C; Goldman, R

    1984-01-01

    Human and animal sera contain potent inhibitors of saliva-mediated aggregation of oral streptococci. The inhibitors consist of a high-molecular-weight heat-labile factor and a lower-molecular-weight heat-activated factor. The latter appears to be serum albumin. Analyses of purified blood-derived proteins indicated that several high-molecular-weight proteins (fibrinogen, fibronectin, and ferritin) were able to inhibit aggregation at low concentrations. These data suggest that high-molecular-weight proteins may modulate the aggregation process. PMID:6690411

  8. Serum Total Sialic Acid and Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein: Prognostic Markers for the Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vandana; Varma, Meena; Varma, Amit; Kumar, Ravindra; Bharosay, Anuradha; Vyas, Savita

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate and establish the role of total sialic acid (TSA) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its correlation with complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-seven patients with T2DM with nephropathy (DN) and 162 patients of T2DM without nephropathy (DM) along with 165 unrelated age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, renal profile, and lipid profile were done as per standard protocol. Serum TSA test levels and hs-CRP level were evaluated using thiobarbituric acid assay and immunoturbidimetric method respectively. Results: We observed a higher concentration of serum TSA (82.67 ± 6.63 mg/dl) and hs-CRP (3.2 ± 1.44 mg/L) in diabetic nephropathy than the diabetes mellitus group (73.83 ± 6.90 mg/dl and 2.07 ± 1.32 mg/L, respectively). Both TSA and hs-CRP levels were found significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, and urine microalbumin levels in both DM and DN groups. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that both TSA and hs-CRP was independently associated with diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: High serum TSA and hs-CRP levels may increase the microangiopathic (diabetic nephropathy) complications of T2DM. PMID:27013809

  9. Ultrasensitive protein detection in blood serum using gold nanoparticle probes by single molecule spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiji; Wang, Chungang; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    A one-step rapid and ultrasensitive immunoassay capable of detecting proteins in blood serum is developed using gold nanoprobes and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In this approach we take advantage of the inherent photoluminescence property of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to develop a fluorophore-free assay to observe binding entities by monitoring the diffusion of bound versus unbound molecules in a limited confocal volume. 40-nm GNPs conjugated separately with rabbit anti-IgG (Fc) and goat anti-IgG (Fab) when incubated in blood serum containing IgG forms a sandwich structure constituting dimers and oligomers that can be differentiated by to detect IgG in blood serum at a limit of detection (LOD) of 5 pg/ml. The novelty of integrating GNPs with FCS to develop a sensitive blood immunoassay brings single molecule methods one step closer to the clinic.

  10. Analysis of protein oxidation in serum of fetal and newborn piglets and the influence of iron dextran on induction of protein carbonyls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods were employed to evaluate serum biomarkers associated with protein oxidative stress and damage, to determine potential sources of metabolic stress in baby pigs. Protein carbonyls in serum were converted to dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives with DNP-hydrazine, precipitated with TCA, extracted i...

  11. Recombinant protein production by the baculovirus-insect cell system in Basal media without serum supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Norikatsu; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki

    2003-11-01

    The production of beta-galactosidase by Sf9 cells infected with recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) was investigated in shake-flask culture using two serum-free basal media: Grace's medium and TNM-FH (Grace's medium supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract). At the time of infection, cells grown in serum-supplemented TNM-FH were transferred into fresh basal media without adaptation. The absence of serum depressed the beta-galactosidase yield considerably in Grace's medium, but to a much lesser extent in TNM-FH, where it reached around 2/3 of the level obtained in TNM-FH supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). While both lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract promoted beta-galactosidase production, their removal by medium replacement on post-infection day 1 gave a beta-galactosidase yield nearly equal to that obtained in their continuous presence. Supplementation of basal media with phosphatidic acid (PA) from egg yolk lecithin, which has been shown to enhance cell growth and recombinant protein production in serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, was also effective in increasing beta-galactosidase yield. Elevating the multiplicity of infection (MOI) from 2 to 10 plaque-forming units per cell (pfu/cell) also resulted in an increase in product yield. These results provide information important to the development of cost-effective serum-free culture technology for use in large-scale production of recombinant proteins by the baculovirus-insect cell system. PMID:19003201

  12. Effect of processed foods on serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein among children with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Jin, Hyun Jung; Noh, Geounwoong

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in school-age children has increased in industrialized countries. As diet is one of the main factors provoking AD, some studies have suggested that food additives in processed foods could function as pseudoallergens, which comprise the non-immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an eosinophil granule protein released during allergic reactions to food allergens in patients with AD. Thus, serum ECP levels may be a useful indicator of ongoing inflammatory processes in patients with AD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming MSG in processed foods on serum ECP levels among children with AD. This study was performed with 13 patients with AD (age, 7-11 years) who had a normal range of total IgE levels (< 300 IU/ml). All participants ate normal diets during the first week. Then, six patients were allocated to a processed food-restricted group (PRDG) and seven patients were in a general diet group (GDG). During the second week, children in the PRDG and their parents were asked to avoid eating all processed foods. On the third week, children in the PRDG were allowed all foods, as were the children in the GDG throughout the 3-week period. The subjects were asked to complete a dietary record during the trial period. Children with AD who received the dietary restriction showed decreased consumption of MSG and decreased serum ECP levels and an improved SCORing score on the atopic dermatitis index (P < 0.05). No differences in serum ECP levels or MSG consumption were observed in the GDG. Serum total IgE levels were not changed in either group. In conclusion, a reduction in MSG intake by restricting processed food consumption may lead to a decrease in serum ECP levels in children with AD and improve AD symptoms. PMID:21779526

  13. Fetal bovine serum xenoproteins modulate human monocyte adhesion and protein release on biomaterials in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, David; Joyce, Evan James; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2010-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages are critical in the host foreign body response to biomaterials and have been studied extensively in various culture conditions in vitro such as medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) or autologous human serum (AHS). Since monocyte maturation into macrophages is highly plastic and may vary considerably depending on the surface, isolation procedures, and in vitro culture conditions, we hypothesize that variations in protein adsorption and serum type will greatly impact monocyte behavior in a surface-dependent manner. The impact of xenoproteins on monocyte-surface interaction is not well studied methodically and the use of AHS rather than FBS for macrophage-biomaterials studies in vitro is far from universal. The commonly used reference materials: tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were employed in this study and we found a 3-fold higher adherent monocyte density on TCPS when AHS was used versus FBS-supplemented medium. On PEG hydrogels, an 8-10 fold higher adhesion density was observed when AHS was employed versus FBS, while on PDMS no difference in adhesion density was observed between the two sera conditions. Additionally, the presence of lipopolysaccharide abrogated the serum-dependent effect on cell adhesion on TCPS. Significant differential variations in protein release were observed between the serum conditions on these surfaces, in particular there was a 100-fold higher concentration of growth-related oncogene for the AHS condition on PDMS even though the adhesion levels were comparable between the two serum conditions. These results emphasize the combined impact of the surface type and FBS xenoproteins in mediating the observed monocyte response to biomaterials in vitro. PMID:20837169

  14. Cytocidal effect of gossypol on cultured murine erythroleukemia cells is prevented by serum protein.

    PubMed

    Haspel, H C; Ren, Y F; Watanabe, K A; Sonenberg, M; Corin, R E

    1984-04-01

    The interaction of gossypol (G) with cultured murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) was studied in vitro. G was cytocidal (inhibited growth greater than 90%) to MELC at greater than 10 microM, but not at less than 5 microM in medium supplemented with 10 and 15% fetal calf serum (FCS). Five micromolar of G was cytocidal in 2 and 5% FCS. Serum albumin (2%) also decreased the effective cytocidal dose of G. This inhibition was reversible if extracellular drug (30 microM) was removed after 1 h but not after 24 h. Uptake of [14C]G by MELC (approximately 10(6) cells/ml) was saturable with half-maximal uptake at 8 microM in the absence of FCS. This uptake was concentrative, i.e., 75-fold relative to the total [14C]G concentration. In the presence of both FCS (approximately 2%) and serum albumin (approximately 0.03%), the accumulation of [14C]G (10 microM) by MELC was decreased approximately 50%. Direct binding of G to albumin, assayed by quenching of intrinsic fluorescence, was stoichiometric with respect to micromolar albumin content suggesting an apparent affinity of approximately 10(-7) M. Visible absorption spectra for G in the presence of serum albumin exhibited batho- and hyperchromic shifts of the maxima at approximately 380 nm. These studies demonstrate that: 1) G, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is cytocidal for MELC; 2) serum protein, e.g., albumin, can reduce both the cytocidal effects of G and the uptake of [14C]G by MELC; and 3) these effects are probably the result of G binding to serum protein, e.g., albumin, which reduces the free effective concentration of the drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6584595

  15. Tandem Mass Spectral Libraries of Peptides in Digests of Individual Proteins: Human Serum Albumin (HSA) *

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Yan, Xinjian; Kilpatrick, Lisa E.; Liang, Yuxue; Mirokhin, Yuri A.; Roth, Jeri S.; Rudnick, Paul A.; Stein, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a method for creating a mass spectral library containing tandem spectra of identifiable peptide ions in the tryptic digestion of a single protein. Human serum albumin (HSA1) was selected for this purpose owing to its ubiquity, high level of characterization and availability of digest data. The underlying experimental data consisted of ?3000 one-dimensional LC-ESI-MS/MS runs with ion-trap fragmentation. In order to generate a wide range of peptides, studies covered a broad set of instrument and digestion conditions using multiple sources of HSA and trypsin. Computer methods were developed to enable the reliable identification and reference spectrum extraction of all peptide ions identifiable by current sequence search methods. This process made use of both MS2 (tandem) spectra and MS1 (electrospray) data. Identified spectra were generated for 2918 different peptide ions, using a variety of manually-validated filters to ensure spectrum quality and identification reliability. The resulting library was composed of 10% conventional tryptic and 29% semitryptic peptide ions, along with 42% tryptic peptide ions with known or unknown modifications, which included both analytical artifacts and post-translational modifications (PTMs) present in the original HSA. The remaining 19% contained unexpected missed-cleavages or were under/over alkylated. The methods described can be extended to create equivalent spectral libraries for any target protein. Such libraries have a number of applications in addition to their known advantages of speed and sensitivity, including the ready re-identification of known PTMs, rejection of artifact spectra and a means of assessing sample and digestion quality. PMID:24889059

  16. Tandem mass spectral libraries of peptides in digests of individual proteins: Human Serum Albumin (HSA).

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Yan, Xinjian; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Liang, Yuxue; Mirokhin, Yuri A; Roth, Jeri S; Rudnick, Paul A; Stein, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    This work presents a method for creating a mass spectral library containing tandem spectra of identifiable peptide ions in the tryptic digestion of a single protein. Human serum albumin (HSA(1)) was selected for this purpose owing to its ubiquity, high level of characterization and availability of digest data. The underlying experimental data consisted of ?3000 one-dimensional LC-ESI-MS/MS runs with ion-trap fragmentation. In order to generate a wide range of peptides, studies covered a broad set of instrument and digestion conditions using multiple sources of HSA and trypsin. Computer methods were developed to enable the reliable identification and reference spectrum extraction of all peptide ions identifiable by current sequence search methods. This process made use of both MS2 (tandem) spectra and MS1 (electrospray) data. Identified spectra were generated for 2918 different peptide ions, using a variety of manually-validated filters to ensure spectrum quality and identification reliability. The resulting library was composed of 10% conventional tryptic and 29% semitryptic peptide ions, along with 42% tryptic peptide ions with known or unknown modifications, which included both analytical artifacts and post-translational modifications (PTMs) present in the original HSA. The remaining 19% contained unexpected missed-cleavages or were under/over alkylated. The methods described can be extended to create equivalent spectral libraries for any target protein. Such libraries have a number of applications in addition to their known advantages of speed and sensitivity, including the ready re-identification of known PTMs, rejection of artifact spectra and a means of assessing sample and digestion quality. PMID:24889059

  17. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  18. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-12-22

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  19. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R.; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K.; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H. Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy–Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases. PMID:26039989

  20. Thermodynamic characterization of the interaction between a peptide-drug complex and serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Sadatmousavi, Parisa; Kovalenko, Eugene; Chen, P

    2014-09-23

    The interaction between a peptide-based drug delivery system and two serum proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), is investigated using fluorescence quenching and calorimetric techniques. An ionic-complementary self/co-assembling peptide, EAR8-II, is employed to encapsulate the hydrophobic anticancer drug pirarubicin (THP) and stabilize it in protein environments. Self/co-assembling properties of the peptide-drug complex (EAR8-II-THP) are shown to be different while interacting with serum proteins compared with the properties of the isolated complex. The results from thermodynamic studies suggest that the drug delivery system has a strong binding affinity (K(SV) 1689 M(-1)), exothermic and enthalpy-driven interaction, with BSA and a relatively weak affinity with IgG (K(SV) 295.2 M(-1)). In the presence of salt ions, the enthalpy and binding affinity remain unchanged, implying other interactions such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions are present that are not affected by reduced polarity. This work forms the basis for further studies of EAR8-II-THP complexes in the presence of important proteins and for further evaluation of the complexes' immune response and anticancer activity. PMID:25166955

  1. Simian virus 40-transformed cells express new species of proteins precipitable by anti-simian virus 40 tumor serum.

    PubMed Central

    Kress, M; May, E; Cassingena, R; May, P

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the virus-coded large-T and small-t antigens, two new classes of proteins were immunoprecipitated by anti-simian virus 40 (SV40) tumor serum from extracts of various SV40-transformed cell lines. These were as follows: (i) proteins (termed "super-T proteins") with an Mr higher than that of large-T antigen (86,000), which were found in many SV40-transformed cell lines derived from mouse and rat cells (super-T proteins and large-T antigen appeared to have closely related structures as judged by the Chromobead elution patterns of their methionine-labeled tryptic peptides); (ii) proteins (termed "55K proteins") with an Mr ranging from 50,000 to 60,000, which were present in all SV40-transformed cell lines examined so far, including those obtained by chromosome-mediated gene transfer. The 55K proteins were not structurally related to large-T antigens, as judged by the Chromobead elution patterns of their methionine-labeled tryptic peptides. Our data are compatible with the assumption that the 55K proteins are largely or totally cell coded. Images PMID:225566

  2. Comprehensive characterisation of pulmonary and serum surfactant protein D in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is considered as a candidate biomarker for the functional integrity of the lung and for disease progression, which can be detected in serum. The origin of SP-D in serum and how serum concentrations are related to pulmonary concentrations under inflammatory conditions is still unclear. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising non-smokers (n = 10), young - (n = 10), elderly smokers (n = 20), and smokers with COPD (n = 20) we simultaneously analysed pulmonary and serum SP-D levels with regard to pulmonary function, exercise, repeatability and its quaternary structure by native gel electrophoresis. Statistical comparisons were conducted by ANOVA and post-hoc testing for multiple comparisons; repeatability was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Results In COPD, median (IQR) pulmonary SP-D levels were lower (129(68) ng/ml) compared to smokers (young: 299(190), elderly: 296(158) ng/ml; p < 0.01) and non-smokers (967(708) ng/ml; p < 0.001). The opposite was observed in serum, with higher concentrations in COPD (140(89) ng/ml) as compared to non-smokers (76(47) ng/ml; p < 0.01). SP-D levels were reproducible and correlated with the degree of airway obstruction in all smokers. In addition, smoking lead to disruption of the quaternary structure. Conclusions Pulmonary and serum SP-D levels are stable markers influenced by smoking and related to airflow obstruction and disease state. Smaller subunits of pulmonary SP-D and the rapid increase of serum SP-D levels in COPD due to exercise support the translocation hypothesis and its use as a COPD biomarker. Trial registration no interventional trial PMID:21396106

  3. Low Serum Level α-Synuclein and Tau Protein in Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Cetin, Ihsan; Tarakçıoğlu, Mahmut Cem; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Kaçar, Selma; Çimen, Behzat

    2015-12-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) and tau proteins are thought to be related with the synaptic loss and cell death underlying several important neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate serum α-syn and tau levels in autism. Serum levels of α-syn and tau were measured, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) severity was assessed at admission using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) total score. The mean CARS score of the autism group on admission was 47.91 points (SD: 5.97). The results indicated that the mean serum α-syn and serum tau levels were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in children with ASD as compared with normal cases (33.01 ± 20.78 and 55.19 ± 15.34 ng/mL and 241.23 ± 290.5 and 509.78 ± 269.25 ng/mL, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between serum α-syn levels and serum levels of tau identified by Pearson correlation analysis (r = 0.922, n = 28, p < 0.001). Synaptic abnormality in autism may result from microglial activity. Furthermore, α-syn and tau aggregation may lead to synaptic dysfunction, and this may contribute to either neuronal or synaptic dysfunction or neurodegeneration. Our preliminary study suggests that low levels of serum α-syn and tau may be implicated in the relationship between synaptic activity and autism. PMID:26479762

  4. Detection of Serum Protein Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhang, Junjie; Gao, Pengfei; Pei, Hang; Wang, Lei; Guo, Fei; Yu, Jiekai; Zheng, Shu; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify serum biomarkers for the detection of hepatoblastoma (HB). Serum samples were collected from 71 HB patients (stage I, n = 19; stage II, n = 19, stage III, n = 19; and stage IV, n = 14) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Differential expression of serum protein markers were screened using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), and the target proteins were isolated and purified using HPLC and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), SEQUEST, and bioinformatics analysis. Differential protein expression was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA). SELDI-TOF-MS screening identified a differentially expressed protein with an m/z of 9348 Da, which was subsequently identified as Apo AI; its expression was significantly lower in the HB group as compared to the normal control group (1546.67 757.81 vs. 3359.21 999.36, respectively; p < 0.01). Although the expression level decreased with increasing disease stage, pair-wise comparison revealed significant differences in Apo AI expression between the normal group and the HB subgroups (p < 0.01). ELISA verified the reduced expression of Apo AI in the HB group. Taken together, these results suggest that Apo AI may represent a serum protein biomarker of HB. Further studies will assess the value of using Apo AI expression for HB diagnosis and staging. PMID:26053398

  5. Mid-Trimester Maternal Serum hCG and Alpha Fetal Protein Levels: Clinical Significance and Prediction of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Gkogkos, Panagiotis; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Context Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Results Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Conclusions Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester. PMID:23825981

  6. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: effect on cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M; Coffey, Paul D; Swann, Marcus J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Welland, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  7. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: Effect on cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Coffey, Paul D.; Swann, Marcus J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Welland, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  8. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  9. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation.

    PubMed

    Odajima, Takeshi; Takanashi, Minoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05-2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55-1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57-1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76-2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45-1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  10. Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 Predicts End-Stage Renal Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Feng-Jung; Wu, Vin-Cent; Jiang, Yi-Der; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lin, Mao-Shin; Wei, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation and catalyzes the deamination of primary amines into aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We have shown that serum VAP-1 is higher in patients with diabetes and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and can predict cardiovascular mortality in subjects with diabetes. In this study, we investigated if serum VAP-1 can predict ESRD in diabetic subjects. Methods In this prospective cohort study, a total of 604 type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled between 1996 to 2003 at National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, and were followed for a median of 12.36 years. The development of ESRD was ascertained by linking our database with the nationally comprehensive Taiwan Society Nephrology registry. Serum VAP-1 concentrations at enrollment were measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Results Subjects with serum VAP-1 in the highest tertile had the highest incidence of ESRD (p<0.001). Every 1-SD increase in serum VAP-1 was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.55 (95%CI 1.12–2.14, p<0.01) for the risk of ESRD, adjusted for smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, hypertension, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, total cholesterol, use of statins, ankle-brachial index, estimated GFR, and proteinuria. We developed a risk score comprising serum VAP-1, HbA1c, estimated GFR, and proteinuria, which could predict ESRD with good performance (area under the ROC curve = 0.9406, 95%CI 0.8871–0.9941, sensitivity = 77.3%, and specificity = 92.8%). We also developed an algorithm based on the stage of CKD and a risk score including serum VAP-1, which can stratify these subjects into 3 categories with an ESRD risk of 0.101%/year, 0.131%/year, and 2.427%/year, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, serum VAP-1 can predict ESRD and is a useful biomarker to improve risk stratification in type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:26845338

  11. Effects of adherence, activation and distinct serum proteins on the in vitro human monocyte maturation process.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Griffith, R; Miller, P; Stevenson, G W; Lund, S; Kanapa, D J; Stevenson, H C

    1988-03-01

    Elutriator-purified human monocytes were cultured in a serum-free (SF) medium, and various serum proteins and functional activating agents were assessed for their effects on the in vitro maturation of human monocytes to macrophages. Following 3 days of suspension culture in Teflon labware, 60% of the monocytes were easily recovered. When varying concentrations of human AB serum (HuAB) were employed, human monocyte maturation progressed rapidly; the kinetics of this maturation process during cell suspension culture were very similar to the pattern observed following adherence culture. In contrast, when SF medium was employed, a marked retardation of the monocyte maturation process was observed; this could not be attributed to any changes in cell recovery and/or viability. Thus, cells could be maintained in their monocytoid form for 3 days when cultured in SF medium. When HuAB was added after 3 days of culture, human monocyte maturation into macrophages proceeded at a normal rate. We attempted to characterize certain of the serum protein(s) found in HuAB which promoted the monocyte maturation process. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found to be the most potent serum protein in increasing 5'-N activity and decreasing peroxidase activity of suspension cultured monocytes. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and albumin (Alb) were shown not to have significant monocyte maturation activity. Heat-treated human gamma globulin and IgG purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were shown to have patterns identical with that of untreated HGG and IgG with regard to promoting monocyte maturation; F(ab')2 was not an active maturation promoter, indicating the need for an intact Fc portion of the IgG molecule. Fibrinogen and fibronectin also had maturation promoting activity. Finally, addition of the potent monocyte functional activators, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidilic acid (Poly I:C), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had no effect on the monocyte maturation process. Thus, neither cell adherence or activation appear to be critical for the monocyte to macrophage maturation process. Instead, we hypothesize that in addition to proper nutritional support, a group of serum proteins (unified mainly by their ability to interact with monocyte membrane receptors) appear to be the principal promoters of this process. PMID:2830357

  12. Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Derebe, Mehabaw G; Zlatkov, Clare M; Gattu, Sureka; Ruhn, Kelly A; Vaishnava, Shipra; Diehl, Gretchen E; MacMillan, John B; Williams, Noelle S; Hooper, Lora V

    2014-01-01

    Retinol plays a vital role in the immune response to infection, yet proteins that mediate retinol transport during infection have not been identified. Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are strongly induced in the liver by systemic infection and in the intestine by bacterial colonization, but their exact functions remain unclear. Here we show that mouse and human SAAs are retinol binding proteins. Mouse and human SAAs bound retinol with nanomolar affinity, were associated with retinol in vivo, and limited the bacterial burden in tissues after acute infection. We determined the crystal structure of mouse SAA3 at a resolution of 2 , finding that it forms a tetramer with a hydrophobic binding pocket that can accommodate retinol. Our results thus identify SAAs as a family of microbe-inducible retinol binding proteins, reveal a unique protein architecture involved in retinol binding, and suggest how retinol is circulated during infection. PMID:25073702

  13. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

  14. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sone, Katsuhito; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2016-02-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  15. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  16. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) subtypes in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Maury, C P; Ehnholm, C; Lukka, M

    1985-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA), a polymorphic high density lipoprotein associated plasma protein, is the putative circulating precursor of tissue AA protein fibrils in reactive (secondary) amyloidosis. In the present study we examined the SAA subtype pattern in various acute and chronic inflammatory states in order to find out whether disease-specific SAA isoform profiles exist. The method used to study the subtype pattern is based on electrofocusing of serum followed by immunoblotting. Our results show that the SAA subtype pattern is similar in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with or without amyloid. In addition, in amyloidotic subjects the SAA subtype response to acute tissue injury (arthroplasty) did not differ from that in patients without amyloidosis. Analysis of patients with acute and chronic infectious diseases and non-rheumatic inflammatory conditions showed similar SAA patterns in all subjects. These results suggest that the SAA subtype response to tissue injury and inflammation is similar irrespective of the initiating stimulus. Images PMID:3931569

  17. Maternal Milk and Serum Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, and Protein Levels in Indian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jathar, V. S.; Kamath, S. A.; Parikh, M. N.; Rege, D. V.; Satoskar, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid activity levels were studied in 47 mothers. The mean serum vitamin B12 value in non-vegetarian mothers was 228 ??g./ml. 389 SE, as compared to mean values 97 ??g./ml. 207 SE in lacto-vegetarians. There was no significant difference in folic acid levels, haemoglobin, and total proteins among the different dietetic groups. Analysis of milk revealed mean vitamin B12 values of 103 ??g./ml. in non-vegetarians as compared to 91 ??g./ml. in lacto-vegetarians; the difference was not statistically significant. Mean total protein and folic acid levels for milk were similar in different dietetic groups. The figures obtained for vitamin B12 content of human milk in these mothers are considerably lower than those reported in similar studies from Western countries. PMID:5419992

  18. Liver Retinol Transporter and Receptor for Serum Retinol-binding Protein (RBP4)*

    PubMed Central

    Alapatt, Philomena; Guo, Fangjian; Komanetsky, Susan M.; Wang, Shuping; Cai, Jinjin; Sargsyan, Ashot; Rodríguez Díaz, Eduardo; Bacon, Brandon T.; Aryal, Pratik; Graham, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) is absorbed in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). Circulating retinol may be taken up by extrahepatic tissues or recycled back to liver multiple times before it is finally metabolized or degraded. Liver exhibits high affinity binding sites for RBP4, but specific receptors have not been identified. The only known high affinity receptor for RBP4, Stra6, is not expressed in the liver. Here we report discovery of RBP4 receptor-2 (RBPR2), a novel retinol transporter expressed primarily in liver and intestine and induced in adipose tissue of obese mice. RBPR2 is structurally related to Stra6 and highly conserved in vertebrates, including humans. Expression of RBPR2 in cultured cells confers high affinity RBP4 binding and retinol transport, and RBPR2 knockdown reduces RBP4 binding/retinol transport. RBPR2 expression is suppressed by retinol and retinoic acid and correlates inversely with liver retinol stores in vivo. We conclude that RBPR2 is a novel retinol transporter that potentially regulates retinol homeostasis in liver and other tissues. In addition, expression of RBPR2 in liver and fat suggests a possible role in mediating established metabolic actions of RBP4 in those tissues. PMID:23105095

  19. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease.« less

  20. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease.

  1. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease. PMID:25282157

  2. Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

  3. Characterization of Granulations of Calcium and Apatite in Serum as Pleomorphic Mineralo-Protein Complexes and as Precursors of Putative Nanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

  4. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Foams generated from bleached SPC80 were more stable than those from unbleached SPC80, and those bleached with HP were lower in yield stress than other SPC80. Overall, HP bleaching destroyed less norbixin and caused more lipid oxidation and subsequent off-flavors than did BP bleaching. However, the heat stability of SPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control treatments or BP bleaching. PMID:23295111

  5. Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Membrane Proteins in Human Serum: A New Concept for Detection of Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Crystal S F; Anderson, Kyle W; Benitez, Kenia Y Villatoro; Soloski, Mark J; Aucott, John N; Phinney, Karen W; Turko, Illarion V

    2015-11-17

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. The low abundance of bacterial proteins in human serum during infection imposes a challenge for early proteomic detection of Lyme disease. To address this challenge, we propose to detect membrane proteins released from bacteria due to disruption of their plasma membrane triggered by the innate immune system. These membrane proteins can be separated from the bulk of serum proteins by high-speed centrifugation causing substantial sample enrichment prior to targeted protein quantification using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. This new approach was first applied to detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins supplemented in human serum. Our results indicated that detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins, which are ?10(7) lower in abundance than major serum proteins, is feasible. Therefore, quantitative analysis was also carried out for serum samples from three patients with acute Lyme disease. We were able to demonstrate the detection of ospA, the major B. burgdorferi lipoprotein at the level of 4.0 fmol of ospA/mg of serum protein. The results confirm the concept and suggest that the proposed approach can be expanded to detect other bacterial infections in humans, particularly where existing diagnostics are unreliable. PMID:26491962

  6. C-Reactive Protein, Sialic Acid and Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Serum and Pleural Fluid from Patients with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Woon; Yang, In Ae; Oh, Eun A; Rhyoo, Young Gun; Jang, Young Ho; Ryang, Dong Wook; Yoo, JooYong

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of pleural fluids is essential to determine underlying diseases. The authors evaluated the clinical significance of C-reactive protein (C-RP), sialic acid (SA), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) determinations in sera and pleural fluids from 37 patients with pleural effusion. (FP12)C-RP and sialic acid levels and ADA activities were higher in exudates than in transudates of pleural fluids. Serum and pleural fluid C-RP levels were high in patients with pyothorax. Determinations of serum sialic acid and the pleural fluid to serum ratio were useful for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and malignancy. ADA activities of pleural fluid and serum are useful for the differentiation of malignancy from tuberculosis and nonspecific pyothorax. C-RP concentrations of pleural fluid correlated to serum levels. However, concentrations of sialic acid and ADA activities were not correlated to serum levels and only correlated to protein concentrations of pleural fluids. PMID:3154188

  7. Association Between Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein and Free Thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Shih, Shyang-Ron; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) has been shown to be a biomarker of body weight change and atherosclerosis. Changes in thyroid function are associated with changes in body weight and risks of cardiovascular diseases. The association between AFABP and thyroid function status has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the serum AFABP concentrations in hyperthyroid patients and those in euthyroid individuals, and to evaluate the associations between serum AFABP and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. For this study, 30 hyperthyroid patients and 30 euthyroid individuals at a referral medical center were recruited. The patients with hyperthyroidism were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated. No medication was given to the euthyroid individuals. The body weight, body mass index, thyroid function, serum levels of AFABP, and biochemical data of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Associations between AFABP and fT4 levels were also analyzed. At the baseline, the hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum AFABP levels than the euthyroid individuals (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.8 [19.4, 30.6] ng/mL vs 18.6 [15.3, 23.2] ng/mL; P?=?0.038). With the antithyroid regimens, the AFABP serum levels of the hyperthyroid patients decreased to 16.6 (15.0, 23.9) ng/mL at the 6th month. No difference in the AFABP level was found between the hyperthyroid and the euthyroid groups at the 6th month. At baseline, sex (female vs male, ?=?7.65, P?=?0.022) and fT4 level (?=?2.51, P?=?0.018) were significantly associated with AFABP levels in the univariate regression analysis. At the 6th month, sex and fT4 level (?=?8.09, P?serum AFABP levels than the individuals with euthyroidism. In the patients with hyperthyroidism, the serum AFABP concentrations decreased after the antithyroid treatment. In this study, the serum AFABP concentrations were positively associated with female sex and the serum fT4 level. PMID:26469926

  8. Differential expression of serum/plasma proteins in various infectious diseases: specific or nonspecific signatures.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandipan; Patel, Sandip K; Kumar, Vipin; Damahe, Jagruti; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2014-02-01

    Apart from direct detection of the infecting organisms or biomarker of the pathogen itself, surrogate host markers are also useful for sensitive and early diagnosis of pathogenic infections. Early detection of pathogenic infections, discrimination among closely related diseases with overlapping clinical manifestations, and monitoring of disease progression can be achieved by analyzing blood biomarkers. Therefore, over the last decade large numbers of proteomics studies have been conducted to identify differentially expressed human serum/plasma proteins in different infectious diseases with the intent of discovering novel potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. However, in-depth review of the literature indicates that many reported biomarkers are altered in the same way in multiple infectious diseases, regardless of the type of infection. This might be a consequence of generic acute phase reactions, while the uniquely modulated candidates in different pathogenic infections could be indicators of some specific responses. In this review article, we will provide a comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed serum/plasma proteins in various infectious diseases and categorize the protein markers associated with generic or specific responses. The challenges associated with the discovery, validation, and translational phases of serum/plasma biomarker establishment are also discussed. PMID:24293340

  9. Association of the SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene rs17579600 polymorphism and serum lipid traits

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Bin, Yuan; Nie, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xia; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene (SPTY2D1) is a candidate gene for dyslipidemia. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs7934205 near SPTY2D1 locus was ethnic- and sex-specific associated with serum lipid levels in our previous study. Whether SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP and several environmental factors are associated with serum lipid profiles is unknown. A total of 712 participants of Han and 689 unrelated individuals of Mulao were included. The genotype and allele frequencies of SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP were different between the Han and Mulao populations (TT, 74.3% vs. 55.7%; TC, 17.6% vs. 31.2%, CC, 8.1% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.028; T, 83.1% vs. 71.3%; C, 16.9% vs. 28.7%, P = 0.044), and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The levels of serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in Han, triglyceride (TG) in Mulao, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1 and ApoB in Mulao males were difference among the genotypes. The C allele carriers had higher ApoA1 in Han, lower TG in Mulao, and lower TC, LDL-C and ApoB and higher ApoA1 in Mulao males than the C allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences suggesting there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP and serum lipid parameters in some ethnic groups. PMID:26722495

  10. Redox chemistry of the molecular interactions between tea catechins and human serum proteins under simulated hyperglycemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Hazal; Luna, Carolina; Estévez, Mario

    2016-03-16

    Carbonylation is an irreversible modification in oxidized proteins that has been directly related to a number of health disorders including Type 2 diabetes. Dietary antioxidants have been proposed to counteract the oxidative stress occurring under hyperglycemic conditions. An understanding of the nature and consequences of the molecular interactions between phytochemicals and human plasma proteins is of utmost scientific interest. Three tea catechins namely epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) were tested for (i) their affinity to bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HH) and (ii) their ability to inhibit tryptophan (Trp) depletion and for the formation of specific protein carbonyls and pentosidine in the aforementioned proteins. Both proteins (20 mg mL(-1)) were allowed to react with postprandial plasmatic concentrations of the catechins (EC: 0.7 μM, EGC: 1.8 μM, and EGCG: 0.7 μM) under simulated hyperglycemic conditions (12 mM glucose/0.2 mM Fe(3+)/37 °C/10 days). The three catechins were able to inhibit Trp oxidation and protein carbonylation in both plasma proteins. Some anti-glycation properties were linked to their binding affinities. The molecular interactions reported in the present study may explain the alleged beneficial effects of tea catechins against the redox impairment linked to hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:26839039

  11. Radial Immunodiffusion of Chicken Serum Proteins I. Standardization of Optimal Test Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. C.; Kramer, T. T.

    1970-01-01

    Optimal conditions were determined for the quantitaion of chicken serum albumin, conalbumin, IgG and IgM by the radial immunodiffusion test. The best diluent was 0.15 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2. The optimal concentration of the rabbit antiserum in the agar plate was inversely related to the molecular weight of the protein under study. The incubation time required for maximum ring formation was directly related to the molecular weight of the proteins under study. The reproducibility of the tests was evaluated using stored and fresh antiserum-agar plates. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 7. PMID:4249097

  12. ?-Cyclodextrin preventing protein aggregation in foam fractionation of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yanji; Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-02-20

    In this work, ?-cyclodextrin was developed to prevent protein aggregation in foam fractionation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The role of ?-cyclodextrin in preventing the aggregation of BSA induced by the gas-liquid interface was studied at the molecular level. The results indicate that by holding the exposed phenylalanine residues in its hydrophobic cavity, ?-cyclodextrin effectively prevented the aggregation of BSA induced by the gas-liquid interface in foam fractionation. Furthermore, ?-cyclodextrin could be effectively separated from BSA in the foamate due to their weak association. PMID:26778542

  13. Human serum amyloid A. Three hepatic mRNAs and the corresponding proteins in one person.

    PubMed Central

    Kluve-Beckerman, B; Dwulet, F E; Benson, M D

    1988-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is a major acute-phase protein in humans and most other mammals. In addition, it is the serum precursor of the major protein constituent of reactive amyloid fibrils. Sequence analyses have identified a number of polymorphic forms of human SAA and amyloid A protein (AA), but the question of the number of genes encoding SAA in the human has not been addressed. In addition, there are insufficient data to predict whether one form of SAA predisposes to amyloid fibril formation. In the present study three separate SAA proteins have been isolated from the plasma of one individual and completely sequenced. While two of the SAA forms (SAA2 alpha and SAA2 beta) differ from each other only at position 71, they differ from the most abundant form (SAA1) at seven and eight other positions, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of cDNAs from a liver library of this individual identified all three mRNs coding for these proteins and proved that: (a) the often-reported absence of arginine at the amino terminus of SAA proteins must result from proteolytic processing of the protein; (b) the polymorphism involving histidine and arginine at position 71 is present at the DNA level and therefore is not due to an event at the translational level; (c) there are at least two genes coding for human SAA. Comparison of these data to published sequences of SAA and AA proteins may help in identifying genetically determined forms of SAA which predispose to reactive amyloid fibril formation. Images PMID:3183061

  14. Prospective evaluation of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a diagnostic marker for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Julia; Spechtmeyer, Sabrina; Mittelbronn, Michel; Hattingen, Elke; Rieger, Johannes; Senft, Christian; Foerch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Although clinical presentation and brain imaging might be suggestive, histopathological evaluation by means of a brain biopsy is routinely performed to establish the diagnosis. A serum marker indicative of GBM may simplify the diagnostic work-up of patients suspected to having a brain tumor. We prospectively examined 113 patients with newly diagnosed single supratentorial or infratentorial space-occupying brain lesions. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels were determined from venous blood samples via a prototype ELISA assay prior to any invasive procedures. Serum levels of GFAP were correlated with histopathological findings and MRI parameters. GFAP values were significantly higher in GBM patients (n=33) compared to all other tumors (p<0.001). A GFAP serum concentration of ?0.01g/L revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 70% for differentiating GBM from other entities. By applying a GFAP cut-off point of 0.20g/L, specificity was maximized (99%), but sensitivity dropped to 27%. In GBM patients, serum GFAP values were significantly correlated with tumor volume. GBM patients with high GFAP levels showed more in vivo GFAP expression as well as more necrosis and perilesional edema compared to GBM patients having low or non-detectable GFAP levels. GFAP serum concentrations differentiated between patients with GBM and patients with cerebral mass lesions of other entities with a moderate diagnostic accuracy. Serum GFAP levels in GBM patients were positively correlated with tumor volume and histopathological tumor characteristics. PMID:26518540

  15. Characterization of protein species and weighted protein co-expression network regulation of Escherichia coli in response to serum killing using a 2-DE based proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Liu, Xian-Jie; Cheng, Zhi-Xue; Liu, Yong-Jin; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuanxian

    2014-03-01

    Posttranslational modifications, providing covalent alterations to extend their functions, show protein species on 2-DE gels, but our knowledge on protein species is still limited. In the present study, characteristics of protein species are determined in Escherichia coli using 2-DE based proteomics. In the E. coli proteome, 691 unique proteins (representing 1096 protein spots) accounting for 15.37% of gene-coding proteins of the bacterium are identified. Out of them, 191 have 596 protein species. Proteins with higher abundance, a higher proportion of Glu, Gly, Lys, and higher pI are more likely to have protein species. Further investigation on bacterial serum resistance indicates that more proteins with protein species are found in the bacterium in response to serum stress. A weighted protein co-expression network shows that protein species are related to topological connection as a result of protein regulation. The node protein IleS is demonstrated to contribute to serum resistance using a gene-deleted mutant. These results have revealed general characteristic features of bacterial species, and also provided novel insights into the biological significance of bacterial protein species, particularly the role in serum resistance. PMID:24366695

  16. Identification of treatment efficacy-related host factors in chronic hepatitis C by ProteinChip serum analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Naoki; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Mukai, Jun; Naito, Yuuji; Ichida, Takafumi; Kaito, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Recent development of proteomic array technology, including protein profiling coupling ProteinChip array with surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS), provides a potentially powerful tool for discovery of new biomarkers by comparison of its profiles according to patient phenotypes. We used this approach to identify the host factors associated with treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving a 48-wk course of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha 2b plus ribavirin (RBV). Protein profiles of pretreatment serum samples from 32 patients with genotype 1b and high viral load were conducted by SELDI-TOF/MS by using the three different ProteinChip arrays (CM10, Q10, IMAC30). Proteins showed significantly different peak intensities between sustained virological responders (SVRs), and non-SVRs were identified by chromatography, SDS-PAGE, TOF/MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay. Eleven peak intensities were significantly different between SVRs and non-SVRs. The three SVR-increased peaks could be identified as two apolipoprotein (Apo) fragments and albumin and, among the eight non-SVR-increased proteins, four peaks identified as two iron-related and two fibrogenesis-related protein fragments, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the serum ferritin and three peak intensity values (Apo A1, hemopexin and transferrin) were independent variables associated with SVRs, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for SVR prediction by using the Apo A1/hemopexin and hemopexin/transferrin were 0.964 and 0.936. In conclusion, pretreatment serum protein profiling by SELDI-TOF/MS is variable for identification of response-related host factors, which are useful for treatment efficacy prediction in CHC receiving PEG-IFN plus RBV. Our data also may help us understand the mechanism for treatment resistance and development of more effective antiviral therapy targeted toward the modulation of lipogenesis or iron homeostasis in CHC patients. PMID:20927485

  17. Structural modification of serum vitamin D3-binding protein and immunosuppression in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Srinivasula, S M

    1995-11-01

    A serum glycoprotein, vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of stimulated B lymphocytes and sialidase of T lymphocytes to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is a precursor for MAF. Treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high-titered MAF (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 46 HIV-infected patients were treated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of plasma Gc protein was low in 16 (35%) of of these patients. Loss of the MAF precursor activity appeared to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase found in the patient blood stream. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Thus, precursor activity of Gc protein and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in patient blood can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices. PMID:8573395

  18. A proteomics approach to identify changes in protein profiles in serum of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis patients.

    PubMed

    Quaresima, Barbara; Crugliano, Telma; Gaspari, Marco; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Cosimo, Paola; Valanzano, Rosa; Genuardi, Maurizio; Cannataro, Mario; Veltri, Pierangelo; Baudi, Francesco; Doldo, Patrizia; Cuda, Giovanni; Venuta, Salvatore; Costanzo, Francesco

    2008-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is one of the most important clinical hereditary forms of inherited susceptibility to colorectal cancer and is characterized by a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity. We used a mass spectrometry driven-proteomic strategy to identify serum molecules differently expressed in FAP patients. The data obtained were subsequently processed by bioinformatic analysis and confirmed by Western blotting. Significant differences were highlighted in the expression of serum proteins of FAP patients. In particular, two proteins (alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein and apoliprotein D) were down-regulated (about 0.5- and 0.7-fold, respectively) in carpeting versus diffuse FAP patients and healthy donors, while alpha-2-antiplasmin was up-regulated (about 1.4-fold). Moreover, mass spectrometry approach enabled us to identify serum biomarkers specific for two distinct clinical form of FAP, i.e. carpeting and diffuse FAP. In particular, vitronectin was up-regulated (more than 1.4-fold) in diffuse FAP patients versus carpeting FAP and versus healthy donors, and two additional proteins (Haptoglobin and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1) were up-regulated in 2 out of 3 carpeting FAP patients. Our study suggests that mass spectrometry combined to a strong bioinformatics analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of quali/quantitative differences in the serum proteome of otherwise indistinguishable FAP phenotypes. Moreover, the definition of a proteomic profile, supported by the supervised classification, is a powerful and highly sensitive approach for the identification molecular signatures that are able to outperform the traditional disease markers and can therefore be efficiently applied for the diagnosis and clinical management of FAP patients. PMID:18667268

  19. Serum proteinogram, acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins in dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii.

    PubMed

    Paim, Francine C; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Paim, Carlos Breno V; Frana, Raqueli T; Costa, Mrcio M; Duarte, Marta M M F; da Silva, Cssia B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M A; Monteiro, Silvia G; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2013-02-18

    The present study aimed to evaluate the serum proteinogram, acute phase proteins (APPs) and immunoglobulins (Igs) of dogs experimentally infected by Rangelia vitalii in the acute phases of the disease. Banked serum samples collected on days 0, 10 and 20 during a previously reported R. vitalii experimental infection were used to analyze the serum proteinogram, APPs (C-reactive protein - CRP and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein - AGP) and Igs (IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE) in the current study. Total protein and albumin level were significantly (P<0.05) decreased at day 10 PI and 20 PI in infected sera compared to the control sera. Alpha-1 globulin (day 10 PI) and gamma globulin (day 20 PI) were increased (P<0.01) in infected sera. Alpha-2 globulin (days 10 and 20 PI) and beta-2 globulin (day 10 PI) were decreased (P<0.05) in infected sera compared to control sera. Beta-1 globulin fraction did not differ statistically between sera. Serum CRP and AGP concentrations were significantly increased (P<0.05) at days 10 and 20 PI in infected sera. IgG was increased at days 10 (P<0.05) and 20 PI (P<0.01) in infected sera. Furthermore, it was also observed an increase (P<0.01) in the levels of IgM, IgA, and IgE in infected sera than control sera. We conclude that R. vitalii infection causes alterations in the proteinogram, and increases in the levels of APPs and Igs. Further studies are essentials to define the causes of these pathological changes in this disease. PMID:23116898

  20. The presence of a novel protein in calf serum that recognizes beta amyloid in the formalin-fixed section.

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Shimada, H.; Ihara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Here we report on a monoclonal antibody, H6-33, that labels various beta-amyloid plaques, including diffuse plaques in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded section from the brain affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD), without formic acid pretreatment. H6-33 also labels some neurofibrillary tangles and all kuru plaques in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. In sharp contrast, H6-33 did not stain beta amyloid in the leptomeningeal vessel. For specific staining, H6-33 required the presence of fetal calf serum and it was necessary for beta amyloid to be formalin fixed. These results suggest that a novel protein in the calf serum, CSX, binds formalin-fixed beta amyloid, followed by H6-33 binding. The detection of beta amyloid by CSX was nullified by formic acid pretreatment of the tissue section. In accordance with this, CSX reacted only with a polymer form of synthetic beta peptide after fixation, but not with native beta-protein or beta-peptide monomer. These observations strongly suggest that 1) meningovascular beta amyloid should have a beta-pleated sheet structure somewhat dissimilar to that of beta-amyloid cores; and 2) most, if not all, of beta-protein immunoreactivities of diffuse plaques in AD sections are presumably derived from small amounts of amyloid fibrils scattered in the normal-looking neurohil. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1698030

  1. Identification of Serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Prolactin as Potential Tumor Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Heah, Charmain; Utama, Andi; Tania, Navessa Padma; Li, Huihua; Tan, Sze Huey; Poo, Desmond; Choo, Su Pin; Chow, Wan Cheng; Tan, Chee Kiat; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio L-Series 507 Antibody Array and found 113 serum markers that were significantly modulated between HCC and control groups. Selected potential biomarkers from this list were quantified using a multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array in an expanded SGH cohort (126 resectable HCC patients and 115 non-HCC chronic HBV carriers (NC group)), confirming that serum prolactin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly upregulated in HCC patients. This finding of serum MCP-1 elevation in HCC patients was validated in a separate cohort of serum samples from the Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Indonesia (98 resectable HCC, 101 chronic hepatitis B patients and 100 asymptomatic HBV/HCV carriers) by sandwich ELISA. MCP-1 and prolactin levels were found to correlate with AFP, while MCP-1 also correlated with disease stage. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of AFP, prolactin and MCP-1 in the SGH cohort and comparing their area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated that neither prolactin nor MCP-1 on their own performed better than AFP. However, the combination of AFP+MCP-1 (AUC, 0.974) had significantly superior discriminative ability than AFP alone (AUC, 0.942; p<0.001). In conclusion, prolactin and MCP-1 are overexpressed in HCC and are conveniently quantifiable in patients sera by ELISA. MCP-1 appears to be a promising complementary biomarker for HCC diagnosis and this MCP-1+AFP model should be further evaluated as potential biomarker on a larger scale in patients at-risk of HCC. PMID:23874805

  2. Identification of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prolactin as potential tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Who-Whong; Ang, Soo Fan; Kumar, Rajneesh; Heah, Charmain; Utama, Andi; Tania, Navessa Padma; Li, Huihua; Tan, Sze Huey; Poo, Desmond; Choo, Su Pin; Chow, Wan Cheng; Tan, Chee Kiat; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio L-Series 507 Antibody Array and found 113 serum markers that were significantly modulated between HCC and control groups. Selected potential biomarkers from this list were quantified using a multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array in an expanded SGH cohort (126 resectable HCC patients and 115 non-HCC chronic HBV carriers (NC group)), confirming that serum prolactin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly upregulated in HCC patients. This finding of serum MCP-1 elevation in HCC patients was validated in a separate cohort of serum samples from the Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Indonesia (98 resectable HCC, 101 chronic hepatitis B patients and 100 asymptomatic HBV/HCV carriers) by sandwich ELISA. MCP-1 and prolactin levels were found to correlate with AFP, while MCP-1 also correlated with disease stage. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of AFP, prolactin and MCP-1 in the SGH cohort and comparing their area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated that neither prolactin nor MCP-1 on their own performed better than AFP. However, the combination of AFP+MCP-1 (AUC, 0.974) had significantly superior discriminative ability than AFP alone (AUC, 0.942; p<0.001). In conclusion, prolactin and MCP-1 are overexpressed in HCC and are conveniently quantifiable in patients' sera by ELISA. MCP-1 appears to be a promising complementary biomarker for HCC diagnosis and this MCP-1+AFP model should be further evaluated as potential biomarker on a larger scale in patients at-risk of HCC. PMID:23874805

  3. The human urinary proteome contains more than 1500 proteins, including a large proportion of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Jun; Kumar, Chanchal; Zhang, Yanling; Olsen, Jesper V; Mann, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Background Urine is a desirable material for the diagnosis and classification of diseases because of the convenience of its collection in large amounts; however, all of the urinary proteome catalogs currently being generated have limitations in their depth and confidence of identification. Our laboratory has developed methods for the in-depth characterization of body fluids; these involve a linear ion trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) mass spectrometer. Here we applied these methods to the analysis of the human urinary proteome. Results We employed one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for protein separation and fractionation. Fractionated proteins were digested in-gel or in-solution, and digests were analyzed with the LTQ-FT and LTQ-Orbitrap at parts per million accuracy and with two consecutive stages of mass spectrometric fragmentation. We identified 1543 proteins in urine obtained from ten healthy donors, while essentially eliminating false-positive identifications. Surprisingly, nearly half of the annotated proteins were membrane proteins according to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Furthermore, extracellular, lysosomal, and plasma membrane proteins were enriched in the urine compared with all GO entries. Plasma membrane proteins are probably present in urine by secretion in exosomes. Conclusion Our analysis provides a high-confidence set of proteins present in human urinary proteome and provides a useful reference for comparing datasets obtained using different methodologies. The urinary proteome is unexpectedly complex and may prove useful in biomarker discovery in the future. PMID:16948836

  4. Association of genetic variants of casein and milk serum proteins with milk, fat, and protein production by dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ng-Kwai-Hang, K F; Hayes, J F; Moxley, J E; Monardes, H G

    1984-04-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods were used to phenotype caseins for 2045 cows and milk serum proteins for 3870 cows distributed in 63 Quebec dairy herds. Frequencies were: alpha s1-casein A .003, alpha s1-casein B .970, alpha s1-casein C .027; beta-casein A1 .561, beta-casein A2 .421, beta-casein A3 .011, beta-casein B .007; kappa-casein A .744, kappa-casein B .256; beta-lactoglobulin A .387, beta-lactoglobulin B .613; alpha-lactalbumin B 1.00. Overall unadjusted means for 305-day production in first lactation were: 5530 +/- 26.6 kg, 197 +/- 1.0 kg, 172 +/- 1.0 kg, 3.58 +/- .009, 3.12 +/- .009 for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage for 1687 cows for casein systems. Similar data for 2906 cows phenotyped for milk serum proteins were: 5412 +/- 20.6 kg, 193 +/- .8 kg, 170 +/- .7 kg, 3.57 +/- .007, and 3.13 +/- 007. Least squares analysis of variance showed that herd location, month of calving, age of cow at first calving, and protein variants had significant effects on production traits. alpha s1-Casein B and beta-casein A phenotypes were associated with higher milk, fat, and protein yields than other variants in the two casein systems. Milk from kappa-casein BB and beta-lactoglobulin AA phenotypes contained .13 and .05% more protein than the AA and BB phenotypes with the AB phenotype intermediate. PMID:6725728

  5. Identification of serum biomarkers for lung cancer using protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Liu, Weixing; Dong, Baowei; Sheng, Lin; Ren, He; Han, Zhiyu; Lu, Tong; Liang, Ping

    2012-09-01

    Prior to pathological changes becoming apparent in any disease, the component and amount of intracellular proteins may undergo alteration. Thus, monitoring of proteins may be used to screen indicators in order to identify prognostic markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of identification of serum biomarkers for lung cancer using protein mass spectrometry. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) and weak cation exchange 2 (WCX2) protein chip array were employed for protein profiling of the sera of 17 healthy rabbits and 23 cancer‑bearing rabbits, of which 15 developed cancer in the lung (cancer group) and 8 developed lung cancer in the follow-up period (pre-cancer group). Data were obtained using a PBSII-C protein chip reader and analyzed using Biomarker Wizard and Proteinchip 3.1 software. Compared with the healthy rabbits, a total of 5 biomarkers were identified to be differentially expressed among 32 proteins screened from the sera in the cancer group and the pre-cancer group (P<0.05): 3 of the 5 biomarkers were upregulated and 2 were downregulated. Protein mass spectro-metry can be used to identify specific molecules closely correlated with the progression of lung cancer and, thus, this method may become an effective tool for the early diagnosis or prediction of lung cancer. PMID:22710637

  6. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein leads to immunosuppression in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Asbell, S O

    1996-06-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor of the macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high titered MAF, Gc-MAF. When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 52 patients bearing various types of cancer were incubated with 100 pg/ml of GcMAF, the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was found to be severely reduced in about 25% of this patient population. About 45% of the patients had moderately reduced MAF precursor activities. Loss of the precursor activity was found to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the patient's bloodstream. The source of the enzyme appeared to be cancerous cells. Radiation therapy decreased plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity with concomitant increase of precursor activity. This implies that radiation therapy decreases the number of cancerous cells capable of secreting alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Both alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and MAF precursor activity of Gc protein in patient bloodstream can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices. PMID:8665521

  7. Isolation of alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin from cow's milk using gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography including evaluation of their antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Tirang R; Djalali, Mahmoud; Pezeshki, Mohamad

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, reproducible, and less expensive method for isolation of alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin from cow's milk while retaining their antigenicity. Whey (lactoserum) was obtained by isolating casein from defatted milk using hydrochloric acid. Globulins were then precipitated from whey by half-saturated ammonium sulfate and beta-lactoglobulin was purified further using Sephadex G-50 gel filtration. The proteins in the supernatant were also fractionated using diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography in which beta-lactoglobulin was separated from alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin. The latter two proteins that co-eluted in anion-exchange chromatography were then gently isolated from each other by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration. Pure beta-lactoglobulin was also obtained by anion-exchange chromatography of the ammonium sulfate-precipitated globulins. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and ELISA inhibition assay, antigenicity of the purified proteins was evaluated. Our results showed high purity and well-preserved antigenicity of alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin thus purified. PMID:12767810

  8. Localization of serum resistance-associated protein in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transgenic Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Vidal, Isabel; Reed, Jennifer; Perez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Cuevas, Laureano; Field, Mark C; Carrington, Mark; Navarro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    African trypanosomes infect a broad range of mammals, but humans and some higher primates are protected by serum trypanosome lytic factors that contain apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1). In the human-infective subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, a gene product derived from the variant surface glycoprotein gene family member, serum resistance-associated protein (SRA protein), protects against ApoL1-mediated lysis. Protection against trypanosome lytic factor requires the direct interaction between SRA protein and ApoL1 within the endocytic apparatus of the trypanosome, but some uncertainty remains as to the precise mechanism and location of this interaction. In order to provide more insight into the mechanism of SRA-mediated resistance to trypanosome lytic factor, we assessed the localization of SRA in T.?b. rhodesiense?EATRO3 using a novel monoclonal antibody raised against SRA together with a set of well-characterized endosomal markers. By three-dimensional deconvolved immunofluorescence single-cell analysis, combined with double-labelling immunoelectron microscopy, we found that ??50% of SRA protein localized to the lysosome, with the remaining population being distributed through the endocytic pathway, but apparently absent from the flagellar pocket membrane. These data suggest that the SRA/trypanolytic factor interaction is intracellular, with the concentration within the endosomes potentially crucial for ensuring a high efficiency. PMID:25924022

  9. Levels of serum superoxide dismutase and high sensitive C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients with lower extremity vascular disease are enhanced by interventional treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yongxu; Yan, Ruiqiang; Hu, Xiaoyan; He, Junfeng; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study is to determine the levels of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in type 2 diabetic patients with lower extremity vascular disease before and after interventional treatment. Methods: A total of 65 patients were enrolled in this study, including 35 mails and 30 females. Another 65 healthy individuals were used as control, including 41 males and 24 females. Lesions and degrees of stenosis were determined by computed tomography angiography. Contralateral iliac artery and proximal femoral artery occlusion were treated by retrograde femoral artery puncture. The levels of serum SOD and hs-CRP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation was analyzed by Pearsons test. Progression-free survival curve was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The levels of serum SOD at 20 min, 24 hr, 7 d, and 14 d after surgery were significantly decreased compared with those before surgery (P < 0.05). The levels of serum hs-CRP at 20 min and 24 hr after surgery were increased compared with those before surgery (P < 0.05). The level of serum hs-CRP at 14 d after surgery was significantly lower than that before surgery (P < 0.05). The correlation between SOD and hs-CRP was positive before surgery (r = 0.03, P < 0.001), but negative at 24 hr after surgery (r = -0.008, P < 0.001). The levels of serum SOD were significantly lower than median value (P < 0.05), while the Levels of serum hs-CRP were significantly higher than median value (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The levels of serum SOD and hs-CRP were significantly different before and after interventional treatment. The levels of serum SOD and hs-CRP can be used as indicators for the efficacy and prognosis of interventional treatment on type 2 diabetic patients with lower extremity vascular disease. PMID:25785170

  10. Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    GUO, TAO; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, JIAN; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; LI, HUI; LIN, WEI-XIONG; YANG, DE-ZHAI

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters. PMID:26004022

  11. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P< 0.001), disease-specific survival (DSS: HR 1.940, 95% CI 1.563 - 2.408, P< 0.001), and disease-free survival (DFS: HR 2.275, 95% CI 1.836 - 2.818, P< 0.001). Publication bias and an influence of different cut-off values were not observed (all P> 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  12. Isolation and characterization of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, F C; Baltz, M L; Munn, E A; Feinstein, A; Taylor, J; Bruton, C; Clamp, J R; Pepys, M B

    1982-01-01

    C-reactive protein (RP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) have been identified for the first time in rat serum and isolated by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography. Rat CRP closely resembled human CRP in its amino acid composition, in having five subunits per molecule and in its electron microscopic appearance as a pentameric annular disc. It differed, however, from all other mammalian CRP's characterised hitherto in being a glycoprotein bearing a single complex oligosaccharide on each polypeptide subunit. Furthermore one pair of tis subunits per molecule was linked by a interchain disulphide bridges whereas in other animals the subunits of both CRP and SAP are all non-covalently associated. The serum concentration of CRP in normal healthy laboratory rats and in specific pathogen-free rats was 300-600 micrograms/ml which is much greater than has been described in any other species and exceeds even maximal acute phase levels of CRP in man. Following injections of casein or croton oil, serum CRP levels rose to a maximum of about 900 micrograms/ml. Rat CRP bound to pneumococcal C-polysaccharide (CPS( but, in marked contrast to the behaviour of CRP from man, rabbit and marine teleost fish, it did not precipitate with CPS solutions, agglutinate CPS-coated sheep erythrocytes or initiate complement activation. Rat SAP, like SAP of other species, was a glycoprotein but unlike them it was composed only of a single pentameric disc not two such discs interacting face-to-face. The normal level of SAP in rat serum was 20-50 micrograms/ml, very similar to the levels seen in man, and it did not behave as an acute phase reactant in response to casein or croton-oil injections. In this respect it resembled human SAP but differed from murine SAP which is a major acute phase reactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7056568

  13. Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles with Serum Proteins Affects Their Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

  14. Myozap Deficiency Promotes Adverse Cardiac Remodeling via Differential Regulation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Serum-response Factor and ?-Catenin/GSK-3? Protein Signaling.

    PubMed

    Rangrez, Ashraf Yusuf; Eden, Matthias; Poyanmehr, Reza; Kuhn, Christian; Stiebeling, Katharina; Dierck, Franziska; Bernt, Alexander; Lllmann-Rauch, Renate; Weiler, Hartmut; Kirchof, Paulus; Frank, Derk; Frey, Norbert

    2016-02-19

    The intercalated disc (ID) is a "hot spot" for heart disease, as several ID proteins have been found mutated in cardiomyopathy. Myozap is a recent addition to the list of ID proteins and has been implicated in serum-response factor signaling. To elucidate the cardiac consequences of targeted deletion of myozap in vivo, we generated myozap-null mutant (Mzp(-/-)) mice. Although Mzp(-/-) mice did not exhibit a baseline phenotype, increased biomechanical stress due to pressure overload led to accelerated cardiac hypertrophy, accompanied by "super"-induction of fetal genes, including natriuretic peptides A and B (Nppa/Nppb). Moreover, Mzp(-/-) mice manifested a severe reduction of contractile function, signs of heart failure, and increased mortality. Expression of other ID proteins like N-cadherin, desmoplakin, connexin-43, and ZO-1 was significantly perturbed upon pressure overload, underscored by disorganization of the IDs in Mzp(-/-) mice. Exploration of the molecular causes of enhanced cardiac hypertrophy revealed significant activation of ?-catenin/GSK-3? signaling, whereas MAPK and MKL1/serum-response factor pathways were inhibited. In summary, myozap is required for proper adaptation to increased biomechanical stress. In broader terms, our data imply an essential function of the ID in cardiac remodeling beyond a mere structural role and emphasize the need for a better understanding of this molecular structure in the context of heart disease. PMID:26719331

  15. Serum C-reactive protein level and prehypertension in two Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Sabanayagam, C; Shankar, A; Lee, J; Wong, T Y; Tai, E S

    2013-04-01

    Few previous studies in Western populations have reported an association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and prehypertension. However, no previous study has examined this association in Asians. We examined individuals who were free of hypertension from two independent population-based studies in Singapore: the Singapore Prospective Study Programme (SP2, n=2843 Chinese, Malay and Indians aged ?24 years) and the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES, n=957 Malays, aged 40-80 years). Prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) 120-139?mm?Hg or diastolic BP 80-89?mm?Hg. CRP was analyzed as categories (<1, 1-3, >3?mg?l(-1)). The prevalence of prehypertension increased with increasing categories of CRP in both cohorts (P for trend <0.05 in both cohorts). After adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index (BMI), smoking and diabetes, persons with higher levels of CRP were more likely to have prehypertension in both SP2 (compared with CRP <1?mg?l(-1), odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.48 for CRP 1-3 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.10 for >3?mg?l(-1)) and SiMES (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.01 and OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.27) respectively. In conclusion, data from two population-based Asian cohorts suggest that elevated serum CRP levels are associated with prehypertension. PMID:22418747

  16. Specific interaction of chalcone-protein: cardamonin binding site II on the human serum albumin molecule.

    PubMed

    He, Wenying; Li, Ying; Liu, Jiaqin; Hu, Zhide; Chen, Xingguo

    2005-09-01

    Cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone), one of the main constituents from the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, belongs to chalcone with its antibacterial, antiinflammatory and other important therapeutic activities of significant potency and low systemic toxicity. In this article, the interaction of cardamonin to human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied for the first time by spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and UV-absorption spectroscopy in combination with fluorescence quenching under physiological conditions with drug concentrations of 0.67-4.0 microM. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the thermodynamic parameters obtained (the enthalpy change DeltaH(0) and the entropy change DeltaS(0) were calculated to be -25.312 and 7.040 J.mol(-1).K(-1) according to the van't Hoff equation) suggest that hydrophobic interaction is the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex, which is also in good agreement with the results of the molecule modeling study. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of cardamonin in aqueous solution were quantitatively calculated by the evidence from CD and FTIR spectroscopes with reductions of alpha-helices of about 20%, decreases of beta-sheet structures of about 14%, and increases of beta-turn structures of about 15%. The quenching mechanism and the number of binding sites (n approximately 1) were obtained by fluorescence titration data. Fluorescent displacement measurements confirmed that cardamonin binds HSA on site II. In addition, the effects of common ions on the constants of the cardamonin-HSA complex were also discussed. PMID:15942949

  17. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. )

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  18. Comparison of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein concentrations in cancer and non-malignant disease.

    PubMed Central

    Raynes, J G; Cooper, E H

    1983-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations correlate well with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. However, SAA is sometimes raised in disease when CRP is normal. This appears to occur more often in certain diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. SAA concentrations did not distinguish between cancer with and without metastases as previously indicated, although mean concentrations were higher in more advanced tumours. Despite the higher sensitivity of SAA over CRP in the inflammatory response, SAA has little advantage over CRP in the assessment of malignant disease. PMID:6863571

  19. BZP, a novel serum-responsive zinc finger protein that inhibits gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, A J; Jetton, T L; Shelton, K D; Magnuson, M A

    1994-01-01

    We report the fortuitous isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel zinc finger DNA-binding protein termed BZP. The protein encoded is 114 kDa and contains eight zinc finger motifs, seven of which are present in two clusters at opposite ends of the molecule. Both finger clusters bound to the 9-bp sequence AAAGGTGCA with apparent Kds of approximately 2.5 nM. Two of the finger motifs within the amino- and carboxy-terminal finger clusters share 63% amino acid identity. BZP inhibited transcription of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter when copies of the 9-bp target motif were linked in cis, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional repressor. BZP mRNA and immunoreactivity were detected in several established cell lines but were most abundant in hamster insulinoma (HIT) cells, the parental source of the cDNAs. In mouse tissues, BZP mRNA and immunoreactivity were identified in cells of the endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, and central nervous system. Interestingly, in HIT cells proliferating in culture, BZP immunoreactivity was predominately nuclear in location, whereas it was usually located in the cytoplasm in most neural and neuroendocrine tissues. Serum deprivation of HIT cells caused BZP immunoreactivity to become predominantly cytoplasmic in location and attenuated its inhibitory effect on transcription, thereby suggesting that the both the subcellular location and the function of this protein are modulated by factors in serum. Images PMID:7935395

  20. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinghuan; Lee, Yi; Johansson, Henrik J.; Mger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Nordin, Joel Z.; Wiklander, Oscar P. B.; Lehti, Janne; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Andaloussi, Samir EL

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in cellcell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM) conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun) conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors), some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs. PMID:26022510

  1. Iris protein antibodies in serum of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D W; Petty, R E; Millar, F

    1993-01-01

    Homogenates of bovine iris were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography, and the column-eluted proteins were probed with pooled sera obtained from patients with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). The serum pool prepared from patients with pauciarticular JRA and a history of anterior uveitis, but not from those without the eye disease, contained IgG antibodies which bound a low molecular weight iris antigen (LMW-IA) as measured by a modified ELISA. LMW-IA was protease-sensitive and contained at least four proteins of approximate molecular weights of 16, 13, 9 and 6.5 kD with no uronic acid or carbohydrate. Analysis of individual patient sera for IgG anti-LMW-IA antibody demonstrated that 1/20 (5%) pediatric non-rheumatic disease controls (NRDC), 1/19 (5.3%) non-uveitic pauciarticular JRA patients and 6/21 (28.6%) uveitic pauciarticular JRA patients were positive by ELISA. Levels of anti-LMW-IA antibody did not correlate with serum IgG concentration, the presence of IgG antibody to soluble retinal S antigen (S antigen) or reactivity to the low molecular weight fraction of bovine choroid (LMW-C). Ten of 21 (47.6%) children with pauciarticular JRA and uveitis had serum antibody that reacted with LMW-IA and/or retinal S antigen as compared to 1/20 (5%) NRDC patients and 3/19 (15.8%) patients with pauciarticular JRA uncomplicated by uveitis. Analysis of patient immunoreactivity to proteins of the anterior uveal tract may provide a greater understanding of pathogenic features related to arthritis-associated eye disease. PMID:8481650

  2. A lack of association between hyperserotonemia and the increased frequency of serum anti-myelin basic protein auto-antibodies in autistic children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent biological findings in autism is the elevated blood serotonin levels. Immune abnormalities, including autoimmunity with production of brain specific auto-antibodies, are also commonly observed in this disorder. Hyperserotonemia may be one of the contributing factors to autoimmunity in some patients with autism through the reduction of T-helper (Th) 1-type cytokines. We are the first to investigate the possible role of hyperserotonemia in the induction of autoimmunity, as indicated by serum anti-myelin-basic protein (anti-MBP) auto-antibodies, in autism. Methods Serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies were measured, by ELISA, in 50 autistic patients, aged between 5 and 12 years, and 30 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly higher serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies than healthy children (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Increased serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies were found in 92% and 80%, respectively of autistic patients. Patients with severe autism had significantly higher serum serotonin levels than children with mild to moderate autism (P < 0.001). Serum serotonin levels had no significant correlations with serum levels of anti-MBP auto-antibodies in autistic patients (P = 0.39). Conclusions Hyperserotonemia may not be one of the contributing factors to the increased frequency of serum anti-MBP auto-antibodies in some autistic children. These data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed. However, inclusion of serum serotonin levels as a correlate may be useful in other future immune studies in autism to help unravel the long-standing mystery of hyperserotonemia and its possible role in the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:21696608

  3. The Association between Preoperative Serum C-Reactive Protein and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection—A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoming; Luo, Jingyu; Li, Bobo; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Daotang

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following curative hepatectomy is usually dismal. Whether preoperative serum C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict the recurrence of HCC in patients with chronic HBV infection is not clear. Total 232 patients with chronic HBV infection were included in this retrospective study. We investigated the association between detailed preoperative serum CRP levels and early (≤ 2 year) and late (> 2 year) HCC recurrence following curative hepatectomy. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a saturation effect for preoperative serum CRP of 2.1 mg/dl existed for early HCC recurrence (ER). The incidence of ER increased with preoperative serum CRP less than 2.1 mg/dl (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6–7.6, P = 0.001), and higher preoperative serum CRP (>2.1 mg/dl) did not increase the incidence of ER (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.2–2.7, P = 0.703). Whereas there is a linear relationship between preoperative serum CRP and late HCC recurrence (LR) (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1- 0.4) (OR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.2–2.5, P = 0.002). In addition, the optimal cutoff point for serum CRP level was 1.5 mg/dl, instead of 1.0 mg/dl, in predicting both ER and LR. Patients with higher preoperative serum CRP level (>1.5 mg/dl) had lower recurrence free survival rates and overall survival rates (P<0.01). These results suggest that preoperative serum CRP played different roles on ER and LR following curative hepatectomy, thus further predictingthe prognosis in patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID:25602444

  4. The association between preoperative serum C-reactive protein and hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoming; Luo, Jingyu; Li, Bobo; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Daotang

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following curative hepatectomy is usually dismal. Whether preoperative serum C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict the recurrence of HCC in patients with chronic HBV infection is not clear. Total 232 patients with chronic HBV infection were included in this retrospective study. We investigated the association between detailed preoperative serum CRP levels and early (≤ 2 year) and late (> 2 year) HCC recurrence following curative hepatectomy. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a saturation effect for preoperative serum CRP of 2.1 mg/dl existed for early HCC recurrence (ER). The incidence of ER increased with preoperative serum CRP less than 2.1 mg/dl (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6, P = 0.001), and higher preoperative serum CRP (>2.1 mg/dl) did not increase the incidence of ER (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.2-2.7, P = 0.703). Whereas there is a linear relationship between preoperative serum CRP and late HCC recurrence (LR) (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1- 0.4) (OR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.2-2.5, P = 0.002). In addition, the optimal cutoff point for serum CRP level was 1.5 mg/dl, instead of 1.0 mg/dl, in predicting both ER and LR. Patients with higher preoperative serum CRP level (>1.5 mg/dl) had lower recurrence free survival rates and overall survival rates (P<0.01). These results suggest that preoperative serum CRP played different roles on ER and LR following curative hepatectomy, thus further predicting the prognosis in patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID:25602444

  5. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

  6. Detection of human serum albumin on protein array using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woochang; Lee, Jin-Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Electrical detection of biological binding events, such as protein-protein interaction and DNA hybridization, has emerged as an alternative method to conventional colorimetric and fluorescence based methods. In this study, we demonstrate an electrical detection technique of protein array which can be simply extended for multifunctional measurements and detection of biological binding events on micro-scale array. Micro-contact technique was used for the fabrication of protein chip. The fabricated protein array on Au substrate was characterized by fluorescence microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The chip was designed to investigate immunocomplexes comprised of our model protein, human serum albumin (HSA), corresponding antibody fragments, and Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates. The peak-like pulse obtained by electrical tunneling current between these complexes and the STM tip varies on the surface density of the bound complexes. Using the electrical detection technique based on STM, 100fg/mL of HSA could be successfully detected by STM. Importantly, the proposed concept of measurement could allow multiple analyses of analytes at nano-scale array, which is difficult to be analyzed by conventional fluorescence based method. PMID:20303216

  7. Serum concentrations of canine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein in healthy dogs after incubation using an autologous serum processing system.

    PubMed

    Huggins, S S; Suchodolski, J S; Bearden, R N; Steiner, J M; Saunders, W B

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to optimize and validate a canine IL-1RA ELISA using commercially available reagents and to determine the effect of an autologous serum processing system (IRAP II) on IL-1RA concentrations in canine serum. The clinical detection limit of the optimized ELISA was 188.8 to 39,965.6 pg/mL. The observed-to-expected ratio (O:E) for three serial dilutions for four serum samples ranged from 109.6 to 132.2%. The O:E for four serum samples spiked with four concentrations of canine IL-1 RA ranged from 98.7 to 114.3%. Coefficients of variances for intra- and interassay variability ranged from 1.4 to 3.0 and 6.3 to 9.8, respectively. The ELISA was sensitive, linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible. Mean±SD serum concentration of IL-1RA in 12 healthy dogs was 396.6±208.0 pg/mL. There was a significant increase in IL-1RA when blood was incubated in the IRAP II system (15,955.0±6421.0 pg/mL, P<0.0001). PMID:26267085

  8. Acid gelation in heated and unheated milks: interactions between serum protein complexes and the surfaces of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Donato, Laurence; Alexander, Marcela; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2007-05-16

    The acid-induced interactions between different protein particles in milk (casein micelles and serum protein/kappa-casein complexes) were studied in a series of different mixtures of heated and unheated proteins using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) and small deformation rheology. The measurements were made as functions of pH during acidification by addition of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Heat treatment (85 degrees C, 10 min) affected the composition of the serum and the reactivity of casein micellar surface based on the pH at which the casein micelles aggregated during acidification. It was observed that the gel points as defined by DWS and rheology did not always coincide. The experiments showed that all systems containing heated serum proteins gelled at a higher pH than those containing unheated serum proteins. For systems containing heated micelles, an intermediate network can be formed between heat-induced aggregates of serum proteins and kappa-casein formed at the surfaces of the micelles and dispersed as soluble complexes in the serum. This can explain the observation that DWS measurements detected aggregation of casein micelles at an earlier stage than did rheology. For systems containing unheated micelles and soluble complexes from heated milk, the results appear to be explained only by a direct interaction between soluble serum protein complexes and the casein micelles themselves, once the pH has decreased to below about 5.5. Comparison of the different systems studied gives a more complete description of the possible mechanism of interaction of the different protein materials during the acid-induced coagulation of milk-based systems. PMID:17439142

  9. The influences of ambient temperature and crude protein levels on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q W; Feng, J H; Chao, Z; Chen, Y; Wei, L M; Wang, F; Sun, R P; Zhang, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ambient temperature, crude protein levels and their interaction on performance and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 216 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (108 males and 108 females) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and randomly reared at two temperatures (normal temperature: 23 °C; daily cyclic high temperature: 28-32 °C) and fed on three diets with different crude protein levels (153.3, 183.3 or 213.3 g/kg, with constant essential amino acids) from 28 to 42 days of age. Daily cyclic high ambient temperature decreased final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and serum total protein contents (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008 respectively), but increased feed/gain, mortality, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, serum uric acid contents and serum creatine kinase activity (p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.003 respectively), irrespective of crude protein levels. At the ambient temperature, reducing crude protein levels resulted in an increase in feed/gain (p < 0.001), but a decrease in serum total protein and uric acid contents. Only serum creatine kinase activity in broiler chickens was interacted by daily cyclic high ambient temperature and dietary crude protein levels (p = 0.003). These results indicated that daily cyclic high ambient temperature had a great effect on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens, whereas dietary crude protein levels affected them partially. PMID:26249142

  10. Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of 25(OH)D to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary 25(OH)D transport protein, and whether DBP modified the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk. Methods In a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, controls were 1∶1 matched to 416 colorectal cancer cases based on age and date of blood collection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of 25(OH)D, DBP, and the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP, a proxy for free, unbound circulating 25(OH)D. Results Comparing highest to lowest quartiles, DBP was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.42, p for trend  = 0.58); however, a positive risk association was observed for the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26, p for trend  = 0.04). In stratified analyses, the positive association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer was stronger among men with DBP levels above the median (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.36, p for trend  = 0.01) than below the median (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.68, 2.12, p for trend  = 0.87), although the interaction was not statistically significant (p for interaction  = 0.24). Conclusion Circulating DBP may influence the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer in male smokers, with the suggestion of a stronger positive association in men with higher DBP concentrations. This finding should be examined in other populations, especially those that include women and non-smokers. PMID:25036524

  11. Serum-stable quantum dot--protein hybrid nanocapsules for optical bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Yu; Nam, Dong Heon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Youngsun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jeon, Duk Young; Beum Park, Chan; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-05-01

    We introduce shell cross-linked protein/quantum dot (QD) hybrid nanocapsules as a serum-stable systemic delivery nanocarrier for tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging applications. Highly luminescent, heavy-metal-free Cu0.3InS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core-shell QDs are synthesized and mixed with amine-reactive six-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in dichloromethane. Emulsification in an aqueous solution containing human serum albumin (HSA) results in shell cross-linked nanocapsules incorporating CIS/ZnS QDs, exhibiting high luminescence and excellent dispersion stability in a serum-containing medium. Folic acid is introduced as a tumor-targeting ligand. The feasibility of tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging is demonstrated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of several major organs and tumor tissue after an intravenous tail vein injection of the nanocapsules into nude mice. The cytotoxicity of the QD-loaded HSA-PEG nanocapsules is also examined in several types of cells. Our results show that the cellular uptake of the QDs is critical for cytotoxicity. Moreover, a significantly lower level of cell death is observed in the CIS/ZnS QDs compared to nanocapsules loaded with cadmium-based QDs. This study suggests that the systemic tumor targeting of heavy-metal-free QDs using shell cross-linked HSA-PEG hybrid nanocapsules is a promising route for in vivo tumor diagnosis with reduced non-specific toxicity.

  12. Differential expression profiling of serum proteins and metabolites for biomarker discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sushmita Mimi; Anderle, Markus; Lin, Hua; Becker, Christopher H.

    2004-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomics and metabolomics platform is presented for quantitative differential expression analysis. Proteome profiles obtained from 1.5 [mu]L of human serum show ~5000 de-isotoped and quantifiable molecular ions. Approximately 1500 metabolites are observed from 100 [mu]L of serum. Quantification is based on reproducible sample preparation and linear signal intensity as a function of concentration. The platform is validated using human serum, but is generally applicable to all biological fluids and tissues. The median coefficient of variation (CV) for ~5000 proteomic and ~1500 metabolomic molecular ions is approximately 25%. For the case of C-reactive protein, results agree with quantification by immunoassay. The independent contributions of two sources of variance, namely sample preparation and LC-MS analysis, are respectively quantified as 20.4 and 15.1% for the proteome, and 19.5 and 13.5% for the metabolome, for median CV values. Furthermore, biological diversity for ~20 healthy individuals is estimated by measuring the variance of ~6500 proteomic and metabolomic molecular ions in sera for each sample; the median CV is 22.3% for the proteome and 16.7% for the metabolome. Finally, quantitative differential expression profiling is applied to a clinical study comparing healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

  13. Metformin reduces serum C-reactive protein levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rautio, Katriina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hedberg, Pirjo; Puukka, Matti; Tapanainen, Juha S

    2003-10-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation, reflected in elevated levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), has recently been linked to obesity, insulin resistance syndromes such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because the insulin sensitizer metformin has been shown to improve metabolic disturbances in PCOS, it was of particular interest to examine serum CRP levels during metformin therapy. Twenty nonobese women [body mass index (BMI) /==" BORDER="0"> 27 kg/m(2)) with PCOS were randomized to receive either metformin (500 mg twice daily for 3 months, then 1000 mg twice daily for 3 months) or ethinyl estradiol (35 micro g)-cyproterone acetate (2 mg) oral contraceptive pills. The serum concentrations of CRP were significantly higher in obese than in nonobese subjects at baseline [4.08 +/- 0.53 (SE) vs. 1.31 +/- 0.28 mg/liter; P < 0.001] and correlated to BMI and to a lesser extent waist-hip ratio, suggesting that the elevated CRP levels may be related to obesity and not only to PCOS itself. During metformin treatment, serum CRP levels decreased significantly from 3.08 +/- 0.7 mg/liter to 1.52 +/- 0.26 mg/liter at 6 months in the whole study population (P = 0.006) and especially in obese subjects. In contrast, the treatment with ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate increased serum CRP levels from 2.91 +/- 0.68 mg/liter to 4.58 +/- 0.84 mg/liter (P < 0.001). Whether this effect is related to estrogen action in the liver or whether it reflects increased inflammation process and possible risks for cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The decrease of serum CRP levels during metformin therapy is in accordance with the known beneficial metabolic effects of this drug and suggests that CRP or other inflammation parameters could be used as markers of treatment efficiency in women with PCOS. PMID:14557435

  14. An updated version of NPIDB includes new classifications of DNA–protein complexes and their families

    PubMed Central

    Zanegina, Olga; Kirsanov, Dmitriy; Baulin, Eugene; Karyagina, Anna; Alexeevski, Andrei; Spirin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The recent upgrade of nucleic acid–protein interaction database (NPIDB, http://npidb.belozersky.msu.ru/) includes a newly elaborated classification of complexes of protein domains with double-stranded DNA and a classification of families of related complexes. Our classifications are based on contacting structural elements of both DNA: the major groove, the minor groove and the backbone; and protein: helices, beta-strands and unstructured segments. We took into account both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. The analyzed material contains 1942 structures of protein domains from 748 PDB entries. We have identified 97 interaction modes of individual protein domain–DNA complexes and 17 DNA–protein interaction classes of protein domain families. We analyzed the sources of diversity of DNA–protein interaction modes in different complexes of one protein domain family. The observed interaction mode is sometimes influenced by artifacts of crystallization or diversity in secondary structure assignment. The interaction classes of domain families are more stable and thus possess more biological sense than a classification of single complexes. Integration of the classification into NPIDB allows the user to browse the database according to the interacting structural elements of DNA and protein molecules. For each family, we present average DNA shape parameters in contact zones with domains of the family. PMID:26656949

  15. An updated version of NPIDB includes new classifications of DNA-protein complexes and their families.

    PubMed

    Zanegina, Olga; Kirsanov, Dmitriy; Baulin, Eugene; Karyagina, Anna; Alexeevski, Andrei; Spirin, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The recent upgrade of nucleic acid-protein interaction database (NPIDB, http://npidb.belozersky.msu.ru/) includes a newly elaborated classification of complexes of protein domains with double-stranded DNA and a classification of families of related complexes. Our classifications are based on contacting structural elements of both DNA: the major groove, the minor groove and the backbone; and protein: helices, beta-strands and unstructured segments. We took into account both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. The analyzed material contains 1942 structures of protein domains from 748 PDB entries. We have identified 97 interaction modes of individual protein domain-DNA complexes and 17 DNA-protein interaction classes of protein domain families. We analyzed the sources of diversity of DNA-protein interaction modes in different complexes of one protein domain family. The observed interaction mode is sometimes influenced by artifacts of crystallization or diversity in secondary structure assignment. The interaction classes of domain families are more stable and thus possess more biological sense than a classification of single complexes. Integration of the classification into NPIDB allows the user to browse the database according to the interacting structural elements of DNA and protein molecules. For each family, we present average DNA shape parameters in contact zones with domains of the family. PMID:26656949

  16. Serum protein profile in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis differentiates response versus nonresponse to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miyamae, Takako; Malehorn, David E; Lemster, Bonnie; Mori, Masaaki; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shumpei; Bigbee, William L; Welsh, Manda; Klarskov, Klaus; Nishomoto, Norihiro; Vallejo, Abbe N; Hirsch, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is a disease of unknown etiology with an unpredictable response to treatment. We examined two groups of patients to determine whether there are serum protein profiles reflective of active disease and predictive of response to therapy. The first group (n = 8) responded to conventional therapy. The second group (n = 15) responded to an experimental antibody to the IL-6 receptor (MRA). Paired sera from each patient were analyzed before and after treatment, using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Despite the small number of patients, highly significant and consistent differences were observed before and after response to therapy in all patients. Of 282 spectral peaks identified, 23 had mean signal intensities significantly different (P < 0.001) before treatment and after response to treatment. The majority of these differences were observed regardless of whether patients responded to conventional therapy or to MRA. These peaks represent potential biomarkers of active disease. One such peak was identified as serum amyloid A, a known acute-phase reactant in SJIA, validating the SELDI-TOF MS platform as a useful technology in this context. Finally, profiles from serum samples obtained at the time of active disease were compared between the two patient groups. Nine peaks had mean signal intensities significantly different (P < 0.001) between active disease in patients who responded to conventional therapy and in patients who failed to respond, suggesting a possible profile predictive of response. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of serum proteomic profiles in SJIA that are reflective of active disease and suggest the feasibility of using the SELDI-TOF MS platform used as a tool for proteomic profiling and discovery of novel biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. PMID:15987476

  17. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15–3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  18. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15-3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  19. Identification of a novel serum amyloid A protein in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, M C; Beach, C M; Shedlofsky, S I; de Beer, F C

    1991-01-01

    Four serum amyloid A protein (SAA) genes and two SAA gene products, SAA1 and SAA2, were identified in BALB/c mice. Using analytical isoelectric focusing we have identified a quantitatively significant new member of the SAA family and designated it 'SAA5'. This protein has characteristics never before described for any SAA molecule. In the highly conserved region between amino acids 33 and 44, identical in all SAAs from all species examined, SAA5 had four amino acid substitutions. In addition, the induction of SAA5 by lipopolysaccharide had different kinetics from that of the other mouse SAAs. Our data suggest that the mouse SAA gene family is more complex in composition and regulation than previously surmised. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1741755

  20. Serum amyloid A in marine bivalves: An acute phase and innate immunity protein.

    PubMed

    Rosani, U; Domeneghetti, S; Gerdol, M; Franzoi, M; Pallavicini, A; Venier, P

    2016-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is among the most potent acute phase proteins (APP) in vertebrates. After injury, its early expression can dramatically increase to promote the recruitment of immuno-competent cells, expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and the activation of the innate immune defences. Although APP have been studied in many vertebrates, only recently their search was extended to invertebrates and the finding of SAA-like molecules has opened new questions on the immune-regulatory functions of these soluble proteins in the animal kingdom. Taking advantage of the considerable amount of genomic and transcriptomic data currently available, we retrieved 51 SAA-like proteins in several protostome taxa comprising 21 marine bivalve species and basal metazoans. In addition to vertebrate-like SAAs, we identified a second protein type with peculiar features. In the bivalves Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus galloprovincialis, both digital expression analysis and qPCR data indicated an induction of the classical SAA after bacterial challenge. PMID:26828389

  1. Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Derebe, Mehabaw G; Zlatkov, Clare M; Gattu, Sureka; Ruhn, Kelly A; Vaishnava, Shipra; Diehl, Gretchen E; MacMillan, John B; Williams, Noelle S; Hooper, Lora V

    2014-01-01

    Retinol plays a vital role in the immune response to infection, yet proteins that mediate retinol transport during infection have not been identified. Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are strongly induced in the liver by systemic infection and in the intestine by bacterial colonization, but their exact functions remain unclear. Here we show that mouse and human SAAs are retinol binding proteins. Mouse and human SAAs bound retinol with nanomolar affinity, were associated with retinol in vivo, and limited the bacterial burden in tissues after acute infection. We determined the crystal structure of mouse SAA3 at a resolution of 2 , finding that it forms a tetramer with a hydrophobic binding pocket that can accommodate retinol. Our results thus identify SAAs as a family of microbe-inducible retinol binding proteins, reveal a unique protein architecture involved in retinol binding, and suggest how retinol is circulated during infection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03206.001 PMID:25073702

  2. Mesoporous calcium silicate for controlled release of bovine serum albumin protein.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weichang; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize mesoporous calcium silicate (CS or wollastonite, CaSiO(3)) and evaluate its possible application in protein/drug delivery. First, calcium silicate was synthesized by wet chemical method and then mesoporosity was created by acid modification of the synthesized CS particle using hydrochloric acid at pH 7, 4.5, and 0.5. The results showed that a hydrated silica gel with abundant Si-OH functional group formed on the surface of calcium silicate due to acid modification. This surface layer had mesoporous structure, with pore diameter between 4 and 5 nm. BET specific average surface area increased to 221, 333, and 356 m(2) g(-1) due to acid modification at pH 7, 4.5, and 0.5, respectively, whereas the surface area for unmodified CS particles was 65 m(2) g(-1). Protein adsorption studies indicated that mesoporous CS has higher ability to adsorb bovine serum albumin and lysozyme compared to unmodified particles. The release kinetics showed that proteins on mesoporous CS released sequentially over one week, whereas the proteins on unmodified particle followed burst release kinetics within a few hours. Human osteoblast cell-material interaction study showed that these materials were biocompatible and promoted excellent bone cell proliferation. In summary, this work has demonstrated the potential to produce mesoporous CS as a carrier for protein/drug delivery for bone regeneration and other biomedical applications. PMID:19249262

  3. Validation Processes of Protein Biomarkers in SerumA Cross Platform Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Khler, Katja; Seitz, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Due to insufficient biomarker validation and poor performances in diagnostic assays, the candidate biomarker verification process has to be improved. Multi-analyte immunoassays are the tool of choice for the identification and detailed validation of protein biomarkers in serum. The process of identification and validation of serum biomarkers, as well as their implementation in diagnostic routine requires an application of independent immunoassay platforms with the possibility of high-throughput. This review will focus on three main multi-analyte immunoassay platforms: planar microarrays, multiplex bead systems and, array-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips. Recent developments of each platform will be discussed for application in clinical proteomics, principles, detection methods, and performance strength. The requirements for specific surface functionalization of assay platforms are continuously increasing. The reasons for this increase is the demand for highly sensitive assays, as well as the reduction of non-specific adsorption from complex samples, and with it high signal-to-noise-ratios. To achieve this, different support materials were adapted to the immobilized biomarker/ligand, allowing a high binding capacity and immobilization efficiency. In the case of immunoassays, the immobilized ligands are proteins, antibodies or peptides, which exhibit a diversity of chemical properties (acidic/alkaline; hydrophobic/hydrophilic; secondary or tertiary structure/linear). Consequently it is more challenging to develop immobilization strategies necessary to ensure a homogenous covered surface and reliable assay in comparison to DNA immobilization. New developments concerning material support for each platform are discussed especially with regard to increase the immobilization efficiency and reducing the non-specific adsorption from complex samples like serum and cell lysates. PMID:23112739

  4. Short-term space flight on nitrogenous compounds, lipoproteins, and serum proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Lane, H. W.; Krauhs, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Biochemical variables in blood were measured in venous blood samples from 38 to 72 Space Shuttle astronauts before and immediately after flights of 2 to 11 days. Mean pre- and postflight values were compared using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The largest change in serum enzymes was a 21% increase (P = .0014) in gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, which may have been related to stress. The median value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I decreased from 152 to 127 mg/dL (P < .0001), but the change in apo B (77 to 73 mg/dL) was not statistically significant, and the mean apo A-I/apo B ratio remained well above 1.5. A decrease in dietary fat and cholesterol intake during shuttle missions may have been a cause of the change in apo A-I. Twelve of the 16 nonenzyme serum proteins measured were significantly elevated (P < .05), possibly because of hemoconcentration and increased protein catabolism. The 56% increase in haptoglobin may be related to release of suppressed erythropoiesis at landing.

  5. A Multiplexed Device Based on Tunable Nanoshearing for Specific Detection of Multiple Protein Biomarkers in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; van Leeuwen, Lara Michelle; Rauf, Sakandar; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic flow based multiplexed devices have gained significant promise in detecting biomarkers in complex biological samples. However, to fully exploit their use in bioanalysis, issues such as (i) low sensitivity and (ii) high levels of nonspecific adsorption of non-target species have to be overcome. Herein, we describe a new multiplexed device for the sensitive detection of multiple protein biomarkers in serum by using an alternating current (ac) electrohydrodynamics (ac-EHD) induced surface shear forces based phenomenon referred to as nanoshearing. The tunable nature (via manipulation of ac field) of these nanoshearing forces can alter the capture performance of the device (e.g., improved fluid transport enhances number of sensor-target collisions). This can also selectively displace weakly (nonspecifically) bound molecules from the electrode surface (i.e., fluid shear forces can be tuned to shear away nonspecific species present in biological samples). Using this approach, we achieved sensitive (100 fg mL−1) naked eye detection of multiple protein targets spiked in human serum and a 1000-fold enhancement in comparison to hydrodynamic flow based devices for biomarker detection. We believe that this approach could potentially represent a clinical diagnostic tool that can be integrated into resource-limited settings for sensitive detection of target biomarkers using naked eye. PMID:25978807

  6. Serum Albumin Prevents Protein Aggregation and Amyloid Formation and Retains Chaperone-like Activity in the Presence of Physiological Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Thomas E.; Nunez, Andrea C.; Sunde, Margaret; Easterbrook-Smith, Simon B.

    2012-01-01

    Although serum albumin has an established function as a transport protein, evidence is emerging that serum albumin may also have a role as a molecular chaperone. Using established techniques to characterize chaperone interactions, this study demonstrates that bovine serum albumin: 1) preferentially binds stressed over unstressed client proteins; 2) forms stable, soluble, high molecular weight complexes with stressed client proteins; 3) reduces the aggregation of client proteins when it is present at physiological levels; and 4) inhibits amyloid formation by both WT and L55P transthyretin. Although the antiaggregatory effect of serum albumin is maintained in the presence of physiological levels of Ca2+ and Cu2+, the presence of free fatty acids significantly alters this activity: stabilizing serum albumin at normal levels but diminishing chaperone-like activity at high concentrations. Moreover, here it is shown that depletion of albumin from human plasma leads to a significant increase in aggregation under physiologically relevant heat and shear stresses. This study demonstrates that serum albumin possesses chaperone-like properties and that this activity is maintained under a number of physiologically relevant conditions. PMID:22549788

  7. Tissue and serum IGFBP7 protein as biomarker in high-grade soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Maria Serena; Pazzaglia, Laura; Novello, Chiara; Quattrini, Irene; Pollino, Serena; Magagnoli, Giovanna; Picci, Piero; Conti, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors whose classification and treatment is complicated by molecular heterogeneity within the histological subtypes and by the lack of prognostic/therapeutic biomarkers. This study analyses expression of target proteins involved in insulin-like growth factor pathway (IGF1Rβ, IRS1 S612 and IGFBP7) in high-grade STS to stratify patients with the worst prognosis. Tissue microarray analysis performed on 145 high-grade STS samples revealed a uniform expression of IGF1Rβ and IRS1 S612, while IGFBP7 was more strongly expressed in metastatic than in metastasis-free patients. This was confirmed by multivariate regression analysis that demonstrated the independent poor prognostic role of IGFBP7 overexpression with a significant increase of risk of metastasis (HR = 6.358, 95% CI = 2.946-13.721; P < 0.0005). Given the evidence that circulating protein may generate from tissue tumor cells, in 59/145 patients who had available serum we measured IGFBP7 concentration. The ELISA assay revealed significantly higher levels in tumor patients than in the control with a possible threshold value of 25 ng/ml. Differentiating sera according to primary tumor histotype, significantly higher IGFBP7 concentration was found in synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma than in other STS histotypes. This study revealed that tissue expression of IGFBP7, considered a tumor stroma marker in mesenchymal derived cells, was highly prognostic in poor metastasis-free survival. In parallel, the determination of serum protein levels might contribute to STS diagnosis. Subsequent analyses will be crucial to understand the clinical relevance of IGFBP7 protein in STS. PMID:26807324

  8. Comparison of composition, sensory, and volatile components of thirty-four percent whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of serum and traditional whey protein manufactured from the same lot of milk. At each replication, SPC and WPC were spray dried (SD) and freeze dried (FD) to determine the effect of the heat used in spray drying on sensory properties. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of rehydrated SD or FD powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Whey protein concentrates had higher fat content, calcium, and glycomacropeptide content than SPC. Color differences (Hunter L, a, b) were not evident between SPC and WPC powders, but when rehydrated, SPC solutions were clear, whereas WPC solutions were cloudy. No consistent differences were documented in sensory profiles of SD and FD SPC and WPC. The SD WPC had low but distinct buttery (diacetyl) and cardboard flavors, whereas the SD SPC did not. Sensory profiles of both rehydrated SD products were bland and lower in overall aroma and cardboard flavor compared with the commercial WPC. Twenty-nine aroma impact compounds were identified in the SPC and WPC. Lipid and protein oxidation products were present in both products. The SPC and WPC manufactured in this study had lower total volatiles and lower concentrations of many lipid oxidation compounds when compared with commercial WPC. Our results suggest that when SPC and WPC are manufactured under controlled conditions in a similar manner from the same milk using the same ultrafiltration equipment, there are few sensory differences but distinct compositional and physical property differences that may influence functionality. Furthermore, flavor (sensory and instrumental) properties of both pilot-scale manufactured protein powders were different from commercial powders suggesting the role of other influencing factors (e.g., milk supply, processing equipment, sanitation). PMID:19762792

  9. The Correlation of Serum Myeloid-Related Protein-8/14 and Eosinophil Cationic Protein in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Guo-lian; Wang, Yun-kai; Huang, Zhao-quan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the changes in serum Myeloid-Related Protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) and Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) levels in patients with different types of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and assess the value of MRP8/14 and ECP detection in predicting CAD. Methods. 178 patients were divided into CAD group including unstable angina pectoris (UAP), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and stable angina pectoris (SAP). Thirty-six individuals with normal coronary artery served as the control group. Serum MRP8/14 and ECP were measured by ELISA. The severity of coronary artery stenosis was assessed by the numbers of involved coronary artery branches and the sum of Gensini scores. Results. The MRP8/14 levels were significantly higher in AMI and UAP group than SAP and control group (P < 0.05). The levels of MRP8/14 in AMI group were also obviously higher than UAP group (P < 0.05). The ECP levels were obviously increased in AMI group, but there was no difference between SAP and UAP group (P > 0.05). The ECP was significantly increased in three impaired coronary arteries and obviously correlated with Gensini score (P < 0.01), whereas the MRP8/14 was obviously positively correlated with CRP (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Increased MRP8/14 levels suggest the instability of the atherosclerotic plaque. ECP reflects the severity of coronary arteries stenosis, predicting atherosclerosis burden. They may become the new biomarkers of CAD.

  10. Biophysical Insights into How Surfaces, Including Lipid Membranes, Modulate Protein Aggregation Related to Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Kathleen A.; Yates, Elizabeth A.; Legleiter, Justin

    2013-01-01

    There are a vast number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease (PD), and Huntingtons disease (HD), associated with the rearrangement of specific proteins to non-native conformations that promotes aggregation and deposition within tissues and/or cellular compartments. These diseases are commonly classified as protein-misfolding or amyloid diseases. The interaction of these proteins with liquid/surface interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon with potential implications for protein-misfolding diseases. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that significant conformational changes can be induced in proteins encountering surfaces, which can play a critical role in nucleating aggregate formation or stabilizing specific aggregation states. Surfaces of particular interest in neurodegenerative diseases are cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominately comprised of lipid components. The two-dimensional liquid environments provided by lipid bilayers can profoundly alter protein structure and dynamics by both specific and non-specific interactions. Importantly for misfolding diseases, these bilayer properties can not only modulate protein conformation, but also exert influence on aggregation state. A detailed understanding of the influence of (sub)cellular surfaces in driving protein aggregation and/or stabilizing specific aggregate forms could provide new insights into toxic mechanisms associated with these diseases. Here, we review the influence of surfaces in driving and stabilizing protein aggregation with a specific emphasis on lipid membranes. PMID:23459674

  11. Circulating autoantibodies to the 200,000-dalton protein of neurofilaments in the serum of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, K; Marton, L S; Dieperink, M E; Molnar, G K; Schlaepfer, W W; Helgason, C M

    1985-05-31

    There is substantial evidence that human serum contains antibodies to many autoantigens. For example, all healthy people have autoantibodies (immunoglobulin M) to some undefined brain antigens. In this study immunoblots and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect antibodies to neural tissues in serum samples from 200 healthy people and 200 patients with various neurological diseases. Ninety-nine percent of the 400 subjects had serum immunoglobulin M and 95 percent had immunoglobulin G that bound to a 200-kilodalton protein in homogenates of neural tissues. In most cases there were no antibodies to anything else in the homogenates. The 200-kilodalton protein was the heaviest of the neurofilament triplet proteins. These observations do not support a role for antibodies to the 200-kilodalton protein of neurofilaments in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. PMID:4039466

  12. Integration of binding peptide selection and multifunctional particles as tool-box for capture of soluble proteins in serum

    PubMed Central

    Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Moglie, Raffaella Della; Falco, Nunzia; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Aliberti, Anna; Vecchione, Raffaele; Battista, Edmondo; Marasco, Daniela; Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Rega, Nadia; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a general approach for the detection of a specific tumoural biomarker directly in serum. Such detection is made possible using a protein-binding peptide selected through an improved phage display technique and then conjugated to engineered microparticles (MPs). Protein biomarkers represent an unlimited source of information for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tests; MP-based assays are becoming largely used in manipulation of soluble biomarkers, but their direct use in serum is hampered by the complex biomolecular environment. Our technique overcomes the current limitations as it produces a selective MP—engineered with an antifouling layer—that ‘captures’ the relevant protein staying impervious to the background. Our system succeeds in fishing-out the human tumour necrosis factor alpha directly in serum with a high selectivity degree. Our method could have great impact in soluble protein manipulation and detection for a wide variety of diagnostic applications. PMID:25100324

  13. Integration of binding peptide selection and multifunctional particles as tool-box for capture of soluble proteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Moglie, Raffaella Della; Falco, Nunzia; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Aliberti, Anna; Vecchione, Raffaele; Battista, Edmondo; Marasco, Daniela; Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Rega, Nadia; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we report on a general approach for the detection of a specific tumoural biomarker directly in serum. Such detection is made possible using a protein-binding peptide selected through an improved phage display technique and then conjugated to engineered microparticles (MPs). Protein biomarkers represent an unlimited source of information for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tests; MP-based assays are becoming largely used in manipulation of soluble biomarkers, but their direct use in serum is hampered by the complex biomolecular environment. Our technique overcomes the current limitations as it produces a selective MP--engineered with an antifouling layer--that 'captures' the relevant protein staying impervious to the background. Our system succeeds in fishing-out the human tumour necrosis factor alpha directly in serum with a high selectivity degree. Our method could have great impact in soluble protein manipulation and detection for a wide variety of diagnostic applications. PMID:25100324

  14. Comparison of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein as diagnostic markers of systemic inflammation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Michelle B.; Langhorn, Rebecca; Goddard, Amelia; Andreasen, Eva B.; Moldal, Elena; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Jakobsen, Sabrina; Persson, Frida; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of canine serum amyloid A (SAA) was compared with that of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the detection of systemic inflammation in dogs. Sera from 500 dogs were retrospectively included in the study. C-reactive protein and SAA were measured using validated automated assays. The overlap performance, clinical decision limits, overall diagnostic performance, correlations, and agreement in the clinical classification between these 2 diagnostic markers were compared. Significantly higher concentrations of both proteins were detected in dogs with systemic inflammation (SAA range: 48.75 to > 2700 mg/L; CRP range: 0.4 to 907.4 mg/L) compared to dogs without systemic inflammation (SAA range: 1.06 to 56.4 mg/L; CRP range: 0.07 to 24.7 mg/L). Both proteins were shown to be sensitive and specific markers of systemic inflammation in dogs. Significant correlations and excellent diagnostic agreement were observed between the 2 markers. However, SAA showed a wider range of concentrations and a significantly superior overall diagnostic performance compared with CRP. PMID:24489396

  15. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Comprehensive fourteen year report, 1968-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1982-07-01

    A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free chemically defined media. Media containing proteins from whole egg were superior. No single protein would support growth and development, at least two proteins were required. One protein was a transferrin, the second protein could be either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. To determine the path taken by nutrient proteins from medium to embryo, radioactive ovalbumin was prepared. The results showed that intact ovalbumin was taken up by the extra-embryonic yolk-sac and degraded to constituent amino acids within this structure. This observation was difficult to reconcile with the observed responses of the embryo to nutrient proteins. Consideration was given to yolk-sac function. When isolated yolk-sacs were incubated in Ringer's salt solution, they synthesized and secreted a distinct group of proteins. Yolk-sacs cultured on media containing various protein constituents synthesized serum proteins in relative amounts that were distinct for each medium. This suggested that the embryo responses to various culture media were mediated by changes in the relative synthesis of serum proteins. This hypothesis led to two lines of experimentation: what are the mechanisms regulating the relative synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac; and do serum proteins actually provide signals of developmental significance. The first question led to studies with cultures of endodermal cells while the second question led to work on the development of a test for teratological surveillance. (ERB)

  16. Postmortem serum protein growth arrest-specific 6 levels in sepsis-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Augsburger, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) is widely expressed in leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, and monocytes. It regulates various processes including granulocyte adhesion to the endothelium, cell migration, thrombus stabilization, and cytokine release. In humans, increased plasma Gas6 levels have been described in patients with sepsis and septic shock. In this study, Gas6 concentrations were measured in postmortem serum from femoral blood in a series of sepsis-related fatalities and control cases. The aims were twofold: first, to determine whether Gas6 can be reliably determined in postmortem serum; and second, to assess its diagnostic potential in identifying sepsis-related deaths. Two study groups were prospectively formed, a sepsis-related fatalities group (24 cases) and a control group (24 cases) including cases of deep vein thrombosis and fatal pulmonary embolism, cases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in severe trauma, cases of end-stage renal failure, and cases of hanging (non-septic, non-SIRS, non-end stage renal failure cases). The preliminary results of this study seem to indicate that Gas6 can be effectively measured in postmortem serum. However, Gas6 levels in sepsis-related fatalities do not appear to be clearly distinguishable from concentrations in pulmonary embolism, severe trauma, and end-stage renal failure cases. These findings tend to support previous reports that indicated that Gas6 behaves as an acute phase reactant and can be considered a general marker of inflammation rather than a specific biomarker of sepsis. PMID:26233610

  17. Preadipocyte stimulating factor in rat serum: evidence for a discrete 63 kDa protein that promotes cell differentiation of rat preadipocytes in primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Li, Z H; Lu, Z D; Kirkland, J L; Gregerman, R I

    1989-12-01

    In primary cultures of rat preadipocytes (PA) isolated from epididymal or perirenal depots, rat serum is more effective than other animal sera (fetal calf, newborn calf, human, horse, rabbit, cat, sheep, goat, dog, pig) in promoting adipogenic conversion, biochemical differentiation, and mitogenesis. Only mouse serum is comparable to rat serum. This activity is attributable to a specific growth factor (preadipocyte stimulating factor, PSF). An assay for PSF in rat serum was devised using PA from perirenal fat of 3-month-old Fischer 344 rats grown first to confluence in FCS for 8 days and then for the next 3 days in test serum, followed by measurement of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). Rat serum induces dose-dependent rapid cell division, which coincides with accumulation of TG and increase of GPDH; for routine quantitation, TG is assayed. The biochemical characteristics of PSF in serum are as follows: stable at 4 degrees C for up to 1 year; inactivated at 100 degrees C (80% loss, 30 min) but stable at 56 degrees C for 1 hr; stable at pH 2-12; non-dialyzable; completely resistant to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin but destroyed by pronase and subtilisn; stable to DTT and periodate; and m.w. between 68 kDa (Sephacryl-300) and 58 kDa (Sephacryl-300 in 5 M urea). PSF activity is greater in serum from Wistar than from Fischer 344 rats, while activity of serum from Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats is at least as great as that from Wistar rats and, like serum of rats made obese by feeding a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, is not suppressed. PSF activity is not due to insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), growth hormone, glucocorticoids, or combinations of these hormones. PSF activity was not seen with a number of growth factors including colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1), GM-CSF, interleukins 1, 2, and 3, neuroleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and others. PSF is distinct from the low molecular weight (4-8 kDa) differentiation factor present in rat serum, FCS, and human serum that promotes the adipogenic conversion and cellular differentiation of 3T3-L1, 3T3-F442A, and Ob17 cells. PSF appears to be a new differentiation factor for rat preadipocytes, has properties suggestive of a highly glycosylated protein, and may be highly species specific. PMID:2687298

  18. Acute phase response of serum amyloid A protein and C reactive protein to the common cold and influenza.

    PubMed Central

    Whicher, J T; Chambers, R E; Higginson, J; Nashef, L; Higgins, P G

    1985-01-01

    C reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA) are sensitive and rapid acute phase reactants, and their measurement for monitoring inflammatory disease and assessing the prognosis in secondary amyloidosis is gaining widespread acceptance. The changes in these proteins in eight subjects suffering from natural colds, 15 subjects with experimentally induced colds (rhinoviruses E1, 3, 9, 14, or 31), and eight with experimentally induced influenza (A/Eng/40/83) were studied. SAA concentration increased in 21 of the 23 subjects with natural or experimental rhinovirus colds (mean increase 95 mg/l); CRP concentration increased in 11 (mean increase 11 mg/l). All subjects with influenza showed pronounced increases in SAA concentrations (mean increase 642 mg/l) while six showed increases in CRP concentration (mean increase 22 mg/l). All these increases were highly significant (p less than 0.001). Asymptomatic excretors of both rhinovirus and influenza virus showed significant increases in SAA concentration (p = 0.015 for rhinovirus and p less than 0.001 for influenza virus) but not in CRP concentration. No changes in SAA or CRP values were seen in 12 volunteers after challenge with saline. These observations suggest that caution is required in the interpretation of estimations of SAA concentration and that it may be too sensitive an acute phase protein for clinical use as its concentration may be raised in both trivial and asymptomatic viral infections. PMID:3973057

  19. Development of an ELISA detecting Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 in serum of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Houda; Seillier, Marion; Sandi, Maria José; Peuget, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Dusetti, Nelson J; Iovanna, Juan L; Rocchi, Palma; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1) plays an important role during cell stress response in synergy with the potent "genome-keeper" p53. In human, the gene encoding TP53INP1 is expressed at very high level in some pathological situations, such as inflammation and prostate cancer (PC). TP53INP1 overexpression in PC seems to be a worse prognostic factor, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse, making TP53INP1 a relevant specific target for molecular therapy of Castration Resistant (CR) PC. In that context, detection of TP53INP1 in patient biological fluids is a promising diagnostic avenue. We report here successful development of a new Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detecting TP53INP1, taking advantage of molecular tools (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins) generated in the laboratory during the course of basic functional investigations devoted to TP53INP1. The ELISA principle is based on a sandwich immunoenzymatic system, TP53INP1 protein being trapped by a first specific mAb coated on microplate then recognized by a second specific mAb. This new assay allows specific detection of TP53INP1 in serum of several PC patients. This breakthrough paves the way towards investigation of a large cohort of patients and assessment of clinical applications of TP53INP1 dosage. PMID:24600558

  20. Serum concentration and increased temperature alter Mayaro virus RNA and protein synthesis in Aedes albopictus (mosquito)-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Motta, M C; Fournier, M V; Carvalho, M G

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown the inhibition of Mayaro virus multiplication in Aedes albopictus-infected cells maintained at a supraoptimal temperature for growth (37 degrees C) and a stimulation of virus production in response to high serum concentrations in the incubation medium. In the present study, we addressed the question of how the effect of continuous heat stress and high serum concentration soon after infection interfere with virus macromolecule synthesis. Cells maintained at 28 degrees C in the presence of 2% serum synthesized a viral genomic RNA of 12 kb and a subgenomic RNA of 5.2 kb 6 h postinfection. Analysis of the protein profile showed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein of 34 kDa (P34). However, if infected cells were maintained at 37 degrees C, a smear starting immediately below the 5.2-kb RNA was noticed and the viral P34 was not detected by SDS-PAGE. Addition of 10% serum to the growth medium of infected cells maintained at 37 degrees C results in a viral RNA profile and protein synthesis similar to those observed in cultures kept at 28 degrees C, i.e., the smear was not observed and the P34 protein was detected. The results suggest that the inhibition of virus multiplication by temperature may be related to the inhibition of viral nonstructural protein synthesis early during infection. The presence of high serum levels in the incubation medium protects macromolecule synthesis against heat stress. PMID:7581023

  1. Serum and tissue thiocyanate concentrations in growing pigs fed cassava peel or corn based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1984-11-01

    Thiocyanate concentrations of serum, liver, kidney, spleen and longissimus dorsi were determined in 64 growing Large White x Landrace pigs offered 8 experimental isocaloric diets containing different levels of cassava peel and crude protein. Cassava peel increased serum thiocyanate on day 60 (P less than 0.01) and day 90 (P less than 0.01) of the trial, while the crude protein level increased it (P less than 0.05) on days 30 and 90, respectively. Interaction of the two factors was significant on day 30 (P less than 0.05) and day 90 (P less than 0.05). There was a correlation between cyanide intake and serum thiocyanate level. Coefficient of determination revealed that cyanide alone accounted for 28.5; 60.6 and 48.8% variation in serum thiocyanate on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Liver, spleen and longissimus dorsi thiocyanate were affected by dietary protein intake (P less than 0.05). Thiocyanate concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) on cassava peel diet. Generally, crude protein at 5% reduced organ and muscle thiocyanate concentrations. A diet containing 112.2-117.3 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) affected serum but not organ and muscle thiocyanate in protein-sufficient diets. PMID:6506092

  2. Speciation of trace elements in proteins in human and bovine serum by size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a magnetic sector mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Houk, R S; Dreessen, D; Wiederin, D R

    1999-10-01

    Proteins are separated by size exclusion chromatography while atomic ions from the inorganic elements are detected on-line by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A double focusing mass analyzer provides very high sensitivity, low background, and sufficient spectral resolution to separate the atomic ions of interest from most polyatomic ions at the same nominal m/z value. The chromatograms show the distribution of the elements of interest between protein-bound and free fractions and provide the approximate molecular weights of those protein fractions that contain the elements monitored. The distribution of various elements, including V, Mo, Fe, Co, Mn, and lanthanides, in human or bovine serum samples are shown. Alkali metals and Tl are present primarily as free metal ions and are not bound to proteins. Inorganic elements spiked into the serum samples can be followed into various proteins. EDTA does not remove Fe, Pb, Sn, or Th from the proteins but does extract Mn from some proteins. Procedures for determining the effects of breaking disulfide linkages on the metal binding characteristics of proteins are also described. PMID:10550683

  3. Human serum amyloid A protein. Complete amino acid sequence of a new variant.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, C M; De Beer, M C; Sipe, J D; Loose, L D; De Beer, F C

    1992-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant and apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein, is a polymorphic protein with six reported isoforms. These are the products of three genes, i.e., cDNA pA1, cDNA pSAA82 and genomic DNA SAAg9, the last two being allelic variants at a single locus. We have identified an individual with additional novel SAA isoforms on isoelectric-focusing analysis. By using 3-bromo-3-methyl-2-(2'-nitrophenylsulphenyl)-indolenine (BNPS-skatole) cleavage of the protein at tryptophan residues we obtained the complete amino acid sequence of a novel isoform. Additional cleavage by endoproteinase Asp-N allowed verification of the tryptophan residues and complete amino acid sequence of both isoforms. The suitability of this approach to the rapid sequencing of SAA was demonstrated. Sequence analysis and quantification suggest that these isoforms are the result of the first confirmed allelic variation at the SAA1 locus. We designate the protein products of this allele SAA1 beta (pI 6.1) and SAA1 beta des-Arg (pI 5.6). Images Fig. 1. PMID:1546977

  4. Monte carlo method-based QSAR modeling of penicillins binding to human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Veselinovi?, Jovana B; Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Nikoli?, Goran M; Veselinovi?, Aleksandar M

    2015-01-01

    The binding of penicillins to human serum proteins was modeled with optimal descriptors based on the Simplified Molecular Input-Line Entry System (SMILES). The concentrations of protein-bound drug for 87 penicillins expressed as percentage of the total plasma concentration were used as experimental data. The Monte Carlo method was used as a computational tool to build up the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for penicillins binding to plasma proteins. One random data split into training, test and validation set was examined. The calculated QSAR model had the following statistical parameters: r(2) ?=?0.8760, q(2) ?=?0.8665, s?=?8.94 for the training set and r(2) ?=?0.9812, q(2) ?=?0.9753, s?=?7.31 for the test set. For the validation set, the statistical parameters were r(2) ?=?0.727 and s?=?12.52, but after removing the three worst outliers, the statistical parameters improved to r(2) ?=?0.921 and s?=?7.18. SMILES-based molecular fragments (structural indicators) responsible for the increase and decrease of penicillins binding to plasma proteins were identified. The possibility of using these results for the computer-aided design of new penicillins with desired binding properties is presented. PMID:25408278

  5. Femtosecond studies of proteinligand hydrophobic binding and dynamics: Human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dongping; Douhal, Abderrazzak; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution, we report studies of the nature of the dynamics and hydrophobic binding in proteinligand complexes of human serum albumin with 2-(2?-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyloxazole. With femtosecond time resolution, we examined the orientational motion of the ligand, its intrinsic nuclear motions, and the lifetime changes in the hydrophobic phase. For comparisons, with similar but chemical nanocavities, we also studied the same ligand in micelles and cyclodextrins. The hydrophobic interactions in the binding crevice are much stronger than those observed in cyclodextrins and micelles. The confined geometry restrains the nonradiative decay and significantly lengthens the excited-state lifetime. The observed dynamics over the femtosecond-to-nanosecond time scale indicate that the binding structure is rigid and the local motions of the ligand are nearly frozen in the protein. Another major finding is the elucidation of the directed dynamics by the protein. Proton transfer and intramolecular twisting of 2-(2?-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyloxazole were observed to evolve along two routes: one involves the direct stretching motion in the molecular plane (?200 fs) and is not sensitive to the environment; the second, less dominant, is related to the twisting motion (?3 ps) of the two heterocyclic rings and drastically slows down in the protein hydrophobic pocket. PMID:11106379

  6. First evidence of protein G-binding protein in the most primitive vertebrate: serum lectin from lamprey (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Zhen; Xiao, Rong; Jin, Minli; Han, Yinglun; Su, Peng; Lv, Li; Wang, Jihong; Li, QingWei

    2013-12-01

    The intelectins, a recently identified subgroup of extracellular animal lectins, are glycan-binding receptors that recognize glycan epitopes on foreign pathogens in host systems. Here, we have described NPGBP (novel protein G-binding protein), a novel serum lectin found in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica. RT-PCR yielded a 1005 bp cDNA sequence from the lamprey liver encoding a 334 amino acid secretory protein with homology to mammalian and aquatic organism intelectins. Gene expression analyses showed that the NPGBP gene was expressed in the blood, intestines, kidney, heart, gill, liver, adipose tissue and gonads. NPGBP was isolated by protein G-conjugated agarose immunoprecipitation, and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that NPGBP migrated as a specific band (∼35 and ∼124 kDa under reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively). These results suggested that NPGBP forms monomers and tetramers. NPGBP gene expression was induced by in vivo bacterial stimulation, and NPGBP showed different agglutination activities against pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The induction of NPGBP suggested that it plays an important role in defense against microorganisms in the internal circulation system of the lamprey. When incubated with an unrelated antibody, the specific binding between NPGBP and protein G was competitively inhibited, indicating that NPGBP and the Fc region of Ig bind to the same site on protein G. We thus assume that the tertiary structure of NPGBP is similar to that of the Fc region of Ig. Additionally, NPGBP can effectively promote endothelial cell mitosis. These findings suggest that NPGBP plays a role in the immune defense against microorganisms, and this study represents one of the few examples of the characterization and functional analysis of an aquatic organism intelectin. PMID:23806362

  7. Interaction kinetics of serum proteins with liposomes and their effect on phospholipase-induced liposomal drug release.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Haishima, Yuji; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-11-30

    We used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure the affinity and kinetics of the interaction between serum proteins and both conventional and PEGylated liposomes. The effect of the interactions on secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-induced release of a model drug from liposomes was also assessed. SPR analysis of 12 serum proteins revealed that the mode of interaction between serum proteins and liposomes greatly varies depending on the type of protein. For example, albumin bound to liposomes at slower association/dissociation rates with higher affinity and prevented sPLA2-induced drug release from PEGylated liposomes. Conversely, fibronectin bound at faster association/dissociation rates with lower affinity and demonstrated little impact on the drug release. These results indicate that the effect of serum proteins on sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis varies with the mode of interaction between proteins and liposomes. Understanding how the proteins interact with liposomes and impact sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis should aid the rational design of therapeutic liposomal formulations. PMID:26410758

  8. Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Deng, Qiliang; Tao, Dingyin; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-06-01

    Hierarchical imprinting was developed to prepare the protein imprinted materials, as the artificial antibody, for the selective depletion of HSA from the human serum proteome. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was employed as the dummy template for the fabrication of the recognition sites. To demonstrate the advantages of the hierarchical imprinting, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique (h-MIPs) were compared with those obtained by bulk imprinting (b-MIPs), in terms of the binding capacity, adsorption kinetics, selectivity and synthesis reproducibility. The binding capacity of h-MIPs could reach 12 mg g-1. And saturation binding could be reached in less than 20 min for the h-MIPs. In the protein mixture, h-MIPs exhibit excellent selectivity for PSA, with imprinting factors as about 3.6, much higher than those for non-template proteins. For the proteomic application, the identified protein group number in serum treated by h-MIPs was increased to 422, which is 21% higher than that obtained from the original serum, meanwhile the identified protein group number for the Albumin Removal kit was only 376. The results demonstrate that protein imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique, might become the artificial antibodies for the selective depletion of high abundance proteins in proteome study.

  9. Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiang; Deng, Qiliang; Tao, Dingyin; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical imprinting was developed to prepare the protein imprinted materials, as the artificial antibody, for the selective depletion of HSA from the human serum proteome. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was employed as the dummy template for the fabrication of the recognition sites. To demonstrate the advantages of the hierarchical imprinting, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique (h-MIPs) were compared with those obtained by bulk imprinting (b-MIPs), in terms of the binding capacity, adsorption kinetics, selectivity and synthesis reproducibility. The binding capacity of h-MIPs could reach 12?mg g?1. And saturation binding could be reached in less than 20?min for the h-MIPs. In the protein mixture, h-MIPs exhibit excellent selectivity for PSA, with imprinting factors as about 3.6, much higher than those for non-template proteins. For the proteomic application, the identified protein group number in serum treated by h-MIPs was increased to 422, which is 21% higher than that obtained from the original serum, meanwhile the identified protein group number for the Albumin Removal kit was only 376. The results demonstrate that protein imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique, might become the artificial antibodies for the selective depletion of high abundance proteins in proteome study. PMID:24976158

  10. Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to human serum depends on T and B cell stimulating protein B.

    PubMed

    Mller, Maike G; Moe, Nina E; Richards, Phillip Q; Moe, Gregory R

    2015-04-01

    The ability of the human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis to cause invasive disease depends on survival in the bloodstream via mechanisms to suppress complement activation. In this study, we show that prophage genes coding for T and B cell stimulating protein B (TspB), which is an immunoglobulin-binding protein, are essential for survival of N. meningitidis group B strain H44/76 in normal human serum (NHS). H44/76 carries three genes coding for TspB. Mutants having all tspB genes inactivated did not survive in >5% NHS or IgG-depleted NHS. TspB appeared to inhibit IgM-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, since survival of the tspB triple knockout was the same as that of the parent strain or a complemented mutant when the classical pathway was inactivated by depleting NHS of C1q and was increased in IgM-depleted NHS. A mutant solely carrying tspB gene nmbh4476_0681 was as resistant as the parent strain, while mutants carrying only nmbh4476_0598 or nmbh4476_1698 were killed in ?5% NHS. The phenotype associated with TspB is formation of a matrix containing TspB, IgG, and DNA that envelopes aggregates of bacteria. Recombinant proteins corresponding to particular subdomains of TspB were found to have human IgG Fc?- and/or DNA-binding activity, but only TspB derivatives containing both domains formed large, biofilm-like aggregates when combined with purified IgG and DNA. Recognizing the role of TspB in serum resistance may lead to a better understanding of why strains that carry tspB genes are associated with invasive meningococcal disease. PMID:25583528

  11. Usefulness of measurement of antibodies in serum in diagnosis of sensitivity to cow milk and soy proteins in early childhood.

    PubMed

    May, C D; Remigio, L; Bock, S A

    1980-06-01

    A noteworthy feature of this study is that comparisons were made between specific, sensitive, quantitative measurements of serum antibodies to food proteins and objective appraisal of clinical manifestations by double-blind food challenges. Over 50 children, 4-30 months of age, with suspicious histories of adverse reactions to cow milk or soy products were investigated. Levels of serum antibodies to cow-milk proteins were clearly higher in children with adverse reactions to milk, confirmed by blind challenge; there was no overlap with the lower levels of serum antibodies in children without confirmed reactions. Findings with serial determinations of serum antibodies to cow milk in selected cases are also presented. The levels of serum antibodies evoked by cow milk and soy formulae fed from birth until 4 months of age were similar. The levels of serum antibodies to soy protein in children with and without adverse reactions to soy products were not definitive. The bearing of these data on the comparative "antigenicity" of cow milk and soy products and the distinction between asymptomatic and clinically significant, symptomatic, sensitivity are discussed. PMID:7192498

  12. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Thao; Huth, Teilah; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Immunological dysregulation is present in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), with recent studies also highlighting the importance of examining symptom severity. This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. Participants included healthy controls (n= 22), moderately (n = 22) and severely (n=19) affected CFS/ME patients. The 1994 Fukuda Criteria defined CFS/ME and severity scales confirmed mobile and housebound CFS/ME patients as moderate and severe respectively. IL-1β was significantly reduced in severe compared with moderate CFS/ME patients. IL-6 was significantly decreased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared with healthy controls and severe CFS/ME patients. RANTES was significantly increased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared to severe CFS/ME patients. Serum IL-7 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the severe CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and moderate CFS/ME patients. IFN-γ was significantly increased in severe CFS/ME patients compared with moderately affected patients. This was the first study to show cytokine variation in moderate and severe CFS/ME patients, with significant differences shown between CFS/ME symptom severity groups. This research suggests that distinguishing severity subgroups in CFS/ME research settings may allow for a more stringent analysis of the heterogeneous and otherwise inconsistent illness. PMID:26516304

  13. A specific binding protein for cardiac glycosides exists in bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Antolovic, R; Kost, H; Mohadjerani, M; Linder, D; Linder, M; Schoner, W

    1998-06-26

    Searching for a binding protein in blood, which may be involved in the specific transport of cardiac glycosides to their receptor sites on the sodium pump, we isolated a cardiac glycoside-binding protein (CGBG) of 26 kDa from the globulin fraction of bovine serum by affinity chromatography and on a ouabain-Sepharose 4B column by a purification factor of 5000. The cardiac glycoside-binding globulin was labeled specifically and covalently by the protein-reactive digoxigenin derivative HDMA (N-hydroxysuccimidyldigoxigenin-3-O-methylcarbonyl-epsilon-+ ++aminocapro ate). Even very high concentrations of other steroids, such as estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, and cortisone, did not prevent HDMA-labeling (at 5 and 100 nM) of CGBG, but the cardenolides ouabain and digoxin or the bufadienolide proscillaridin A did so. CGBG is a homodimer of two 26-kDa subunits forming disulfide bonds, since HDMA labeling of a protein of 53 kDa was observed in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis when beta-mercaptoethanol was absent during SDS denaturation. The N-terminal amino acid sequence K-D-V-Y-R-A-P-D-G-T-Q-S-A showed no sequence similarity with proteins recorded in gene and protein sequence data banks. A 90-kDa cytosolic CGBG exists in bovine kidneys and reacts with antibodies against CGBG. Binding of ouabain to the cardiac glycoside-binding globulin was monitored by quenching of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Such studies reveal two negatively cooperative ouabain binding sites with Kd' of 1.52 nM and Kd' = 75 nM and with an interaction factor of 50 using a Koshland-Nmethy-Filmer model. The demonstration of a cardiac glycoside-binding globulin in plasma is consistent with the recent finding of endogenous cardiac glycosides in mammals. PMID:9632685

  14. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Lowered Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoru; Goto, Sae; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Okuno, Tatsuya; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Shibata, Akihide; Fujisawa, Yoshiro; Minato, Tomomi; Okamoto, Akira; Ohno, Kinji; Hirayama, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The intestine is one of the first affected organs in Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD subjects show abnormal staining for Escherichia coli and α-synuclein in the colon. Methods We recruited 52 PD patients and 36 healthy cohabitants. We measured serum markers and quantified the numbers of 19 fecal bacterial groups/genera/species by quantitative RT-PCR of 16S or 23S rRNA. Although the six most predominant bacterial groups/genera/species covered on average 71.3% of total intestinal bacteria, our analysis was not comprehensive compared to metagenome analysis or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results In PD, the number of Lactobacillus was higher, while the sum of analyzed bacteria, Clostridium coccoides group, and Bacteroides fragilis group were lower than controls. Additionally, the sum of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria was lower in PD. A linear regression model to predict disease durations demonstrated that C. coccoides group and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup had the largest negative and positive coefficients, respectively. As a linear regression model to predict stool frequencies showed that these bacteria were not associated with constipation, changes in these bacteria were unlikely to represent worsening of constipation in the course of progression of PD. In PD, the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels were lower than controls, while the levels of serum diamine oxidase, a marker for intestinal mucosal integrity, remained unchanged in PD. Conclusions The permeability to LPS is likely to be increased without compromising the integrity of intestinal mucosa in PD. The increased intestinal permeability in PD may make the patients susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis may lead to the increased intestinal permeability. One or both of the two mechanisms may be operational in development and progression of PD. PMID:26539989

  15. Protein Kinase C? Blocks Immediate-Early Gene Expression in Senescent Cells by Inactivating Serum Response Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, Keith; Riabowol, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Fibroblasts lose the ability to replicate in response to growth factors and become unable to express growth-associated immediate-early genes, including c-fos and egr-1, as they become senescent. The serum response factor (SRF), a major transcriptional activator of immediate-early gene promoters, loses the ability to bind to the serum response element (SRE) and becomes hyperphosphorylated in senescent cells. We identify protein kinase C delta (PKC?) as the kinase responsible for inactivation of SRF both in vitro and endogenously in senescent cells. This is due to a higher level of PKC? activity as cells age, production of the PKC? catalytic fragment, and its nuclear localization in senescent but not in low-passage-number cells. The phosphorylation of T160 of SRF by PKC? in vitro and in vivo led to loss of SRF DNA binding activity. Both the PKC? inhibitor rottlerin and ectopic expression of a dominant negative form of PKC? independently restored SRE-dependent transcription and immediate-early gene expression in senescent cells. Modulation of PKC? activity in vivo with rottlerin or bistratene A altered senescent- and young-cell morphology, respectively. These observations support the idea that the coordinate transcriptional inhibition of several growth-associated genes by PKC? contributes to the senescent phenotype. PMID:15282327

  16. The degradation of serum amyloid A protein by activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes: participation of granulocytic elastase

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, S. L.; Cathcart, E. S.; Skinner, Martha; Cohen, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the role of inflammation in amyloidogenesis, we have studied the degradation of human serum amyloid A (SAA) protein by purified preparations of human blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and monocytes. When both PMN and monocytes were incubated in SAA-containing medium, the concentration of SAA as measured by a competitive anti-AA radioimmunoassay decreased over time. The rate of decrease of SAA was similar for both monocytes and PMN and there were no differences between four patients with amyloidosis and three normal controls. Resting PMN from normal volunteers were able to degrade SAA to smaller acid-soluble peptides within 16 hr while zymosan-activated PMN produced significant degradation within 1 hr (31%–50%). The supernatants from zymosan-treated PMN also caused marked SAA degradation within 1 hr. The following enzyme inhibitors were able to prevent degradation of SAA by PMN supernatants; phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, a serine esterase inhibitor; α1 anti-trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor; and acetyl-ala-ala-pro-val-chloromethyl ketone, an elastase inhibitor. The ability of a neutral lysosomal enzyme to degrade SAA was further confirmed by showing that purified PMN elastase significantly degraded 125I-SAA. We conclude that PMN contain one or more lysosomal enzymes capable of degrading SAA, an apoprotein of HDL3 serum lipoproteins. Alteration in SAA proteolysis by activated PMN may contribute to the deposition of amyloid fibrils in the tissues of patients with chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:6921153

  17. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    PubMed Central

    BRAVO-TOBAR, Ivn Daro; NELLO-PREZ, Carlota; FERNNDEZ, Al; MOGOLLN, Nora; PREZ, Mary Carmen; VERDE, Juan; CONCEPCIN, Juan Luis; RODRIGUEZ-BONFANTE, Claudina; BONFANTE-CABARCAS, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ? 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  18. The relationship between serum and urine metallothionein, renal function, protein excretion patterns and occupational cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, F.Y. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between renal function, metallothionein (MT), protein excretion patterns, and chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure. Two groups (A and B) of Cd-exposed workers were studied.Group A (n = 33) was exposed to Cd fume from silver brazing and Group B (n = 20) was exposed to Cd fume, Cd oxide dust and Cd sulfate mist refining Cd. MT excretion was significantly higher in abnormal renal function subjects in Groups A and B. Serum MT and serum creatinine levels were also significantly higher in abnormal renal function subjects in Group A. The findings suggest that MT is better predictor of dose than Cd of ..beta../sub 2/-M excretion and that MT is related to Cd nephrotoxicity. MT is a potential biological monitor for Cd-exposed humans which may be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. It is not known if MT is a specific indicator for Cd-induced proximal tubule dysfunction. The renal status of Group A subjects was examined since this group had been exposed to Cd fume at and below the current permissible exposure level (PEL) of 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for at least 21 years. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was 21% (7) after adjustment for confounding factors. The findings suggest that the PEL does not protect against renal dysfunction for a working lifetime.

  19. A simple microfluidic aggregation analyzer for the specific, sensitive and multiplexed quantification of proteins in a serum environment.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Nitin K; Rajauria, Sukumar; Ray, Tyler; Pennathur, Sumita; Cleland, Andrew N

    2016-03-15

    Portable and low-cost platforms for protein biomarker detection are highly sought after for point of care applications. We demonstrate a simple microfluidic device for the rapid, electrically-based detection of proteins in serum. Our aggregation analyzer relies on detecting the protein-induced aggregation of sub-micron particles, using a one-step procedure followed by a fast, particle-by-particle measurement with a very high count rate. This enables the rapid and precise quantification of C-Reactive protein levels, within the clinically relevant range, using unprocessed human serum and a disposable microfluidic device; no optics are involved in the implementation. Due to the single particle detection format and the use of microfluidics, only a small volume of serum (~50 nL) is needed to complete the analysis. The method can be easily extended to multiplexed biomarker detection by combining an assay using differently sized particles, each targeting a separate protein. We illustrate this by using two sizes of latex beads and demonstrating the simultaneous detection of two different proteins in a serum environment with minimal cross-interference. This confirms that our aggregation analyzer platform provides a simple and straightforward method for multiplexed biomarker detection in a low cost, portable design. PMID:26556184

  20. Including Food 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Intake Estimates May Reduce the Discrepancy between Dietary and Serum Measures of Vitamin D Status123

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christine L.; Patterson, Kristine Y.; Roseland, Janet M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancy between the commonly used vitamin D status measures—intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations—has been perplexing. Sun exposure increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations and is often used as an explanation for the higher population-based serum concentrations in the face of apparently low vitamin D intake. However, sun exposure may not be the total explanation. 25(OH)D, a metabolite of vitamin D, is known to be present in animal-based foods. It has been measured and reported only sporadically and is not currently factored into U.S. estimates of vitamin D intake. Previously unavailable preliminary USDA data specifying the 25(OH)D content of a subset of foods allowed exploration of the potential change in the reported overall vitamin D content of foods when the presence of 25(OH)D was included. The issue of 25(OH)D potency was addressed, and available commodity intake estimates were used to outline trends in projected vitamin D intake when 25(OH)D in foods was taken into account. Given the data available, there were notable increases in the total vitamin D content of a number of animal-based foods when potency-adjusted 25(OH)D was included, and in turn there was a potentially meaningful increase (1.7–2.9 μg or 15–30% of average requirement) in vitamin D intake estimates. The apparent increase could reduce discrepancies between intake estimates and serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The relevance to dietary interventions is discussed, and the need for continued exploration regarding 25(OH)D measurement is highlighted. PMID:24623845

  1. Characterizing the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Proteome Including Protein Associations with Higher Order Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Pieper, Rembert; Zhang, Quanshun; Clark, David J.; Huang, Shih-Ting; Suh, Moo-Jin; Braisted, John C.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of severe infections with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O104:H4 highlights the need to understand horizontal gene transfer among E. coli strains, identify novel virulence factors and elucidate their pathogenesis. Quantitative shotgun proteomics can contribute to such objectives, allowing insights into the part of the genome translated into proteins and the connectivity of biochemical pathways and higher order assemblies of proteins at the subcellular level. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined protein profiles in cell lysate fractions of STEC strain 86-24 (serotype O157:H7), following growth in cell culture or bacterial isolation from intestines of infected piglets, in the context of functionally and structurally characterized biochemical pathways of E. coli. Protein solubilization in the presence of Triton X-100, EDTA and high salt was followed by size exclusion chromatography into the approximate Mr ranges greater than 280 kDa, 280-80 kDa and 80-10 kDa. Peptide mixtures resulting from these and the insoluble fraction were analyzed by quantitative 2D-LC-nESI-MS/MS. Of the 2521 proteins identified at a 1% false discovery rate, representing 47% of all predicted E. coli O157:H7 gene products, the majority of integral membrane proteins were enriched in the high Mr fraction. Hundreds of proteins were enriched in a Mr range higher than that predicted for a monomer supporting their participation in protein complexes. The insoluble STEC fraction revealed enrichment of aggregation-prone proteins, including many that are part of large structure/function entities such as the ribosome, cytoskeleton and O-antigen biosynthesis cluster. Significance Nearly all E. coli O157:H7 proteins encoded by prophage regions were expressed at low abundance levels or not detected. Comparative quantitative analyses of proteins from distinct cell lysate fractions allowed us to associate uncharacterized proteins with membrane attachment, potential participation in stable protein complexes, and susceptibility to aggregation as part of larger structural assemblies. PMID:22087229

  2. A Comparison of Blood Factor XII Autoactivation in Buffer, Protein Cocktail, Serum, and Plasma Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Pitakjakpipop, Harit; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. The only plausible explanation consistent with current understanding of coagulation-cascade biochemistry is that procoagulant stimulus arising from the activation complex of the intrinsic pathway is dependent on activator surface area. And yet, it is herein shown that activation of the blood zymogen factor XII (Hageman factor, FXII) dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not exhibit activator surface-area dependence. Instead, a highly-variable burst of procoagulant-enzyme yield is measured that exhibits no measurable kinetics, sensitivity to mixing, or solution-temperature dependence. Thus, FXII activation in both buffer and protein-containing solutions does not exhibit characteristics of a biochemical reaction but rather appears to be a mechanochemical reaction induced by FXII molecule interactions with hydrophilic activator particles that do not formally adsorb blood proteins from solution. Results of this study strongly suggest that activator surface-area dependence observed in contact activation of plasma coagulation does not solely arise at the FXII activation step of the intrinsic pathway. PMID:23117212

  3. A microfiltration process to maximize removal of serum proteins from skim milk before cheese making.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2005-05-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a membrane process that can separate casein micelles from milk serum proteins (SP), mainly beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin. Our objective was to develop a multistage MF process to remove a high percentage of SP from skim milk while producing a low concentration factor retentate from microfiltration (RMF) with concentrations of soluble minerals, nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), and lactose similar to the original skim milk. The RMF could be blended with cream to standardize milk for traditional Cheddar cheese making. Permeate from ultrafiltration (PUF) obtained from the ultrafiltration (UF) of permeate from MF (PMF) of skim milk was successfully used as a diafiltrant to remove SP from skim milk before cheese making, while maintaining the concentration of lactose, NPN, and nonmicellar calcium. About 95% of the SP originally in skim milk was removed by combining one 3 x MF stage and two 3 x PUF diafiltration stages. The final 3 x RMF can be diluted with PUF to the desired concentration of casein for traditional cheese making. The PMF from the skim milk was concentrated in a UF system to yield an SP concentrate with protein content similar to a whey protein concentrate, but without residuals from cheese making (i.e., rennet, culture, color, and lactic acid) that can produce undesirable functional and sensory characteristics in whey products. Additional processing steps to this 3-stage MF process for SP removal are discussed to produce an MF skim retentate for a continuous cottage cheese manufacturing process. PMID:15829684

  4. Characteristics of retinol accumulation from serum retinol-binding protein by cultured sertoli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shingleton, J.L.; Skinner, M.K.; Ong, D.E. )

    1989-12-12

    The uptake of retinol was examined in cultured Sertoli cells when retinol was provided as a complex with the transport protein retinol-binding protein (RBP). Sertoil cells accumulated ({sup 3}H)retinol in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The change in rate of retinol accumulation occurred when the cells had accumulated approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol/{mu}g of cellular DNA. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the cell-associated radioactivity yielded retinol and retinyl esters, indicating that a significant proportion of the accumulated retinol was esterified. Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with ({sup 3}H)retinol-RBP for ({sup 3}H)retinol delivery to the cells, indicating that RBP delivery of retinol was a saturable and competable process. However, free ({sup 3}H)retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a noncompetable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 3.0 {mu}M. Neither iodinated nor reductively methylated RBP was accumulated by or tightly bound to Sertoli cells. Competition studies indicated, however, that protein recognition is important in the retinol uptake process. RBP, CRBP, and CRBP(II) competed with ({sup 3}H)retinol-RBP for ({sup 3}H)retinol accumulation, but free retinol, retinol-bovine serum albumin, and retinol-{beta}-lactoglobulin did not. These studies indicated that Sertoli cell uptake of retinol involved recognition of the retinol-RBP complex at the cell surface with subsequent internalization of retinol, but not RBP.

  5. Human serum amyloid A protein. Behaviour in aqueous and urea-containing solutions and antibody production.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, A F; Shephard, E G; Bellstedt, D U; Coetzee, G A; van der Westhuyzen, D R; de Beer, F C

    1989-01-01

    Human serum amyloid A protein (apo-SAA) can be prepared by gel filtration of delipidated acute-phase high-density lipoprotein in the presence of urea. The resultant apo-SAA is soluble (greater than 90% solubility) in a wide range of buffer solutions, with all of the six major isoforms of apo-SAA being equally soluble. In urea-containing solutions the isoforms behave qualitatively differently in various urea concentrations, probably reflecting subtle primary-structure variations. The higher-pI isoforms are only completely unfolded at greater than 7 M-urea. By immunizing with apo-SAA adsorbed to acid-treated bacteria (Salmonella minnesota R595), high-titre antibodies can easily be elicited in rabbits. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2597108

  6. Non-covalent nanodiamondpolymer dispersions and electrostatic immobilization of bovine serum albumin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaltsas, T.; Pispas, S.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-11-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) lack efficient dispersion, not only in solvents but also in aqueous media. The latter is of great importance, considering the inherent biocompatibility of NDs and the plethora of suitable strategies for immobilizing functional biomolecules. In this work, a series of polymers was non-covalently interacted with NDs, forming NDpolymer ensembles, and their dispersibility and stability was examined. Dynamic light scattering gave valuable information regarding the size of the ensembles in liquid phase, while their morphology was further examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. In addition, thermal analysis measurements were applied to collect information on the thermal behavior of NDs and their ensembles and to calculate the amount of polymer interacting with the NDs, as well as the dispersibility values of the NDpolymer ensembles. Finally, the bovine serum albumin protein was electrostatically bound to a NDpolymer ensemble in which the polymeric moiety was carrying quaternized pyridine units.

  7. Molecular interactions between serum albumin proteins and Keggin type polyoxometalates studied using luminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Vincent; Stroobants, Karen; Absillis, Gregory; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2013-11-14

    The interaction between the plenary Keggin H3PW12O40, lacunary Keggin K7PW11O39 and the Eu(III)-substituted Keggin K4EuPW11O39 (Eu-Keggin) type polyoxometalates (POMs), and the proteins human and bovine serum albumin (HSA and BSA) was studied using steady state and time-resolved Eu(III) luminescence and tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation spectrum of the Eu-Keggin POM is dominated by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer band at 291 nm. In the absence of proteins, the number of water molecules coordinated in the first coordination sphere of the Eu(III) center of Eu-Keggin was determined to be 4, indicating that Eu(III) occurs as a 1?:?1 isomer in solution. In the presence of HSA or BSA, the number of coordinated water molecules decreased to 0 and 1, respectively, suggesting interaction between the Eu-Keggin POM and the protein surface. As a result of this interaction, a five-fold increase of the hypersensitive (5)D0 ? (7)F2 transition in the luminescence intensity was observed for the Eu-Keggin-HSA complex. The association constants were calculated to be 1.5 10(2) M(-1) and 2.0 10(3) M(-1) for the Eu-Keggin-HSA and Eu-Keggin-BSA complexes, respectively. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching studies were performed and the quenching constants were calculated using a Stern-Volmer analysis. The obtained values of the quenching constants were 6.1 10(4) M(-1) and 2.0 10(6) M(-1) for the Eu-Keggin-HSA and Eu-Keggin-BSA complexes, respectively. The surface map of both proteins shows that the cavity containing the tryptophan has a positive surface potential, providing a specific binding site at the surface of albumin proteins for the negatively charged POM. PMID:24064593

  8. High level of serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein in active hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Kenichi; Nagano, Tomohisa; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Tomita, Yoichi; Aida, Yuta; Sugita, Tomonori; Itagaki, Munenori; Sutoh, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the significance of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in lipoprotein abnormalities in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We evaluated the significance of the serum concentration of CETP in 110 Japanese patients with chronic HCV infection. Fifty-five patients had active HCV infection, and HCV eradication had been achieved in 55. The role of CETP in serum lipoprotein abnormalities, specifically, in triglyceride (TG) concentrations in the four major classes of lipoproteins, was investigated using Pearson correlations in conjunction with multiple regression analysis and compared them between those with active HCV infection and those in whom eradication had been achieved. RESULTS: The serum CETP levels of patients with active HCV infection were significantly higher than those of patients in whom HCV eradication was achieved (mean ± SD, 2.84 ± 0.69 μg/mL vs 2.40 ± 1.00 μg/mL, P = 0.008). In multiple regression analysis, HCV infection status (active or eradicated) was an independent factor significantly associated with the serum CETP level. TG concentrations in low-density lipoprotein (mean ± SD, 36.25 ± 15.28 μg/mL vs 28.14 ± 9.94 μg/mL, P = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (mean ± SD, 25.9 ± 7.34 μg/mL vs 17.17 ± 4.82 μg/mL, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with active HCV infection than in those in whom HCV eradication was achieved. The CETP level was strongly correlated with HDL-TG in patients with active HCV infection (R = 0.557, P < 0.001), whereas CETP was not correlated with HDL-TG in patients in whom HCV eradication was achieved (R = -0.079, P = 0.56). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CETP plays a role in abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:26925203

  9. Cx43 increases serum induced filopodia formation via activation of p21-activated protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Kameritsch, Petra; Kiemer, Felizitas; Beck, Heike; Pohl, Ulrich; Pogoda, Kristin

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study we could show that connexin 43 (Cx43) expression increased the migration of cells in a channel-independent manner involving the MAPK p38. We analyzed here the mechanism by which Cx43 enhanced p38 activation and migration related changes of the actin cytoskeleton. HeLa cells were used as a model system for the controlled expression of Cx43 and truncated Cx43 proteins. The expression of Cx43 altered the actin cytoskeleton organization in response to serum stimulation. Cx43 expressing HeLa cells had significantly more filopodial protrusions per cell than empty-vector transfected control cells. The expression of the channel incompetent carboxyl tail of Cx43 was sufficient to enhance the filopodia formation whereas the N-terminal, channel-building part, had no such effect. The enhanced filopodia formation was p38 dependent since the p38 blocker SB203580 significantly diminished it. Immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction of the upstream regulator of p38, p21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1), with Cx43 resulting in an enhanced phosphorylation of PAK1. Moreover, p38 activation, filopodia formation and cell migration were significantly reduced by blocking the PAK1 activity with its pharmacological inhibitor, IPA-3. The p38 target Hsp27, which favors the actin polymerization in its phosphorylated form, was significantly more phosphorylated characterizing it as a potential candidate molecule to enhance the serum-induced actin polymerization in Cx43 expressing cells. Our results provide a novel mechanism by which Cx43 can modify actin cytoskeletal dynamics and may thereby enhance cell migration. PMID:26255026

  10. Muscle enzyme and fiber type-specific sarcomere protein increases in serum after inertial concentric-eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G; Guerrero, M; Cussó, R; Padullés, J M; Moras, G; Lloret, M; Bedini, J L; Cadefau, J A

    2015-12-01

    Muscle damage induced by inertial exercise performed on a flywheel device was assessed through the serum evolution of muscle enzymes, interleukin 6, and fiber type-specific sarcomere proteins such as fast myosin (FM) and slow myosin (SM). We hypothesized that a model of muscle damage could be constructed by measuring the evolution of serum concentration of muscle proteins following inertial exercise, according to their molecular weight and the fiber compartment in which they are located. Moreover, by measuring FM and SM, the type of fibers that are affected could be assessed. Serum profiles were registered before and 24, 48, and 144 h after exercise in 10 healthy and recreationally active young men. Creatine kinase (CK) and CK-myocardial band isoenzyme increased in serum early (24 h) and returned to baseline values after 48 h. FM increased in serum late (48 h) and remained elevated 144 h post-exercise. The increase in serum muscle enzymes suggests increased membrane permeability of both fast and slow fibers, and the increase in FM reveals sarcomere disruption as well as increased membrane permeability of fast fibers. Consequently, FM could be adopted as a fiber type-specific biomarker of muscle damage. PMID:25441613

  11. Seasonal influence on biochemical profile and serum protein electrophoresis for Boa constrictor amarali in captivity.

    PubMed

    Silva, L F N; Riani-Costa, C C M; Ramos, P R R; Takahira, R K

    2011-05-01

    Similarly to other reptiles, snakes are ectothermic animals and depend exclusively on the environment for the maintenance of their physiological, biochemical and immunological processes. Thus, changes in biochemical values can be expected due to seasonal influence. Twenty-two adult specimens of Boa constrictor amarali kept in captivity were used. Blood collections were done in two different seasons: winter (July 2004) and summer (January 2005) for the following assays: uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, cholesterol, total protein, and serum protein electrophoresis. The mean biochemical results found in summer and winter, respectively, were: 6.3 ± 3.4 and 11.3 ± 6.2 mg/dL for uric acid; 28.7 ± 12.4 and 20.7 ± 16.2 UI/L for AST; 26.3 ± 17 and 17.4 ± 6.8 mg/dL for glucose; 67.3 ± 30.2 and 69.7 ± 38.5 mg/dL for cholesterol; and 5.9 ± 1.6 and 5.9 ± 1.4 g/dL for total protein. Results regarding electrophoresis in summer and winter, respectively, were: 1.9 ± 0.7 and 2.4 ± 0.6 g/dL for albumin; 0.7 ± 0.2 and 0.5 ± 0.2 g/dL for α-globulin; 1.5 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.6 g/dL for β-globulin; and 1.8 ± 0.5 and 1.5 ± 0.5 g/dL for γ-globulin. In the summer, there was a significant increase in AST and a decrease in uric acid (p < 0.05). Serum protein electrophoresis showed a significant increase in α-globulin fraction (p < 0.05) in the same season. There were not significant differences between seasons for the remaining variables. Based on these results, the period of the year must be considered in the interpretation of some biochemical values for these animals. PMID:21755171

  12. Serum S100B Protein Levels in Patients with Panic Disorder: Effect of Treatment with Selective Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Karadag, Hasan; Oner, Ozgur; Kart, Aysegul; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered serum S100B protein levels have been shown in several psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to investigate whether plasma S100B is different in patients with panic disorder (PD) when compared with controls. Our second aim was to investigate whether treatment with SSRIs have an effect on S100B levels in patients with PD. Methods The sample included 32 patients diagnosed with PD (21 women, 11 men) per DSM-IV criteria and 21 healthy controls (11 women, 10 men). S100B levels were measured with BioVendor Human S100B ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit. Results 14 patients were not on drug treatment (43.8%) while 18 patients were taking various SSRIs. Median S100B value was 151.7 pg/mL (minimum-maximum: 120.4-164.7 pg/mL) in the control group, 147.4 pg/mL (minimum-maximum: 138.8-154.1 pg/mL) in the drug free group and 153.0 pg/mL (minimum-maximum: 137.9-164.7 pg/mL) in the treatment group. Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant diffrerence among the three groups (z=9.9, df=2, p=0.007). Follow up Mann-Whitney-U tests indicated that while the control and the patients with treatment were not significantly different (z=-0.05, p=0.96), there were significant differences between the control group and untreated patients (z=-2.6, p=0.009) and treated and untreated patients (z=-3.0, p=0.003). Conclusion Our results suggested that, serum S100B protein level might be decreased in untreated PD patients and that patients who were treated with SSRIs had similar S100B level to healthy controls. PMID:25866528

  13. Effects of vitamin D binding protein phenotypes and vitamin D supplementation on serum total 25(OH)D and directly measured free 25(OH)D

    PubMed Central

    Sollid, Stina T; Hutchinson, Moira Y S; Berg, Vivian; Fuskevåg, Ole M; Figenschau, Yngve; Thorsby, Per M; Jorde, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), directly measured free 25(OH)D and calculated free 25(OH)D with regard to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) phenotypes, sex, BMI, age and season, and their interrelationship to vitamin D supplementation. Design, patients and interventions A randomized controlled trial with 20 000 IU of vitamin D3 per week or placebo for 12 months was designed. A total of 472 subjects, 236 in each of the intervention groups, were included in the analyses. Main outcome measures Baseline serum concentrations and increases in serum total 25(OH)D, directly measured free 25(OH)D, calculated free 25(OH)D and DBP. Results Serum total 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with the phenotype Gc2/Gc2 compared to phenotypes with the Gc1S allele, and lower in males compared to females. When using directly measured free 25(OH)D, the differences related to DBP phenotypes and sexes were clearly diminished. All calculated free 25(OH)D concentrations were overestimated compared to the directly measured free 25(OH)D. Serum parathyroid hormone showed an inverse correlation with all vitamin D parameters analyzed. The increases after 12 months of vitamin D supplementation were not significantly different for any of the vitamin D parameters regardless of DBP phenotype, sex or age. Supplementation with vitamin D did not affect serum DBP. Conclusion Direct measurements of free 25(OH)D reduce the differences seen in total 25(OH)D between DBP phenotype groups and sexes, probably caused by differences in DBP concentrations. With conditions affecting serum DBP concentrations, direct measurements of free 25(OH)D should be considered. PMID:26733479

  14. Nitric oxide protects neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation through cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Elisabetta; Guidi, Sandra; Della Valle, Giuliano; Perini, Giovanni; Bartesaghi, Renata; Contestabile, Antonio

    2002-12-20

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mediates survival in many cells, including neurons. Recently, death of cerebellar granule neurons due to nitric oxide (NO) deprivation was shown to be accompanied by down-regulation of CREB activity (). We now provide evidence that overproduction of endogenous NO or supplementation with exogenous NO renders SK-N-BE human neuroblastoma cells more resistant to apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Parental cells underwent apoptosis after 24 h of serum deprivation, an outcome largely absent in clones overexpressing human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This protective effect was reversed by the inhibition of NOS itself or soluble guanylyl cyclase, pointing at cGMP as an intermediate effector of NO-mediated rescue. A slow-releasing NO donor protected parental cells to a significant extent, thus confirming the survival effect of NO. The impaired viability of serum-deprived parental cells was accompanied by a strong decrease of CREB phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, effects significantly attenuated in nNOS-overexpressing clones. To confirm the role of CREB in survival, the ectopic expression of CREB and/or protein kinase A largely counteracted serum deprivation-induced cell death of SK-N-BE cells, whereas transfection with a CREB negative mutant was ineffective. These experiments indicate that CREB activity is an important step for NO-mediated survival in neuronal cells. PMID:12368293

  15. A closer look at evolution: Variants (SNPs) of genes involved in skin pigmentation, including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, are associated with 25(OH)D serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Saternus, Roman; Pilz, Stefan; Grber, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; Mrz, Winfried; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jrg

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Caucasian population and is associated with increased incidence and unfavorable outcome of many diseases, including various types of cancer, infectious, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. Individual factors that predispose for a person's vitamin D status, such as skin type, have been identified, but limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. We have tested the hypothesis that variants of genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) involved in skin pigmentation are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Serum 25(OH)D and SNPs (n = 960) related to genes with relevance for skin pigmentation (tyrosinase [TYR], TYR-related protein 1 [TYRP1], dopachrome tautomerase [DCT], oculocutaneous albinism II [OCA2], two pore segment channel 2 [TPCN2], solute carrier family 24 A4 [SLC24A4], solute carrier family 45 A2 [SLC45A2], agouti signalling peptide [ASIP], cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor [ATF1], microphthalmia-associated transcription factor [MITF], proopiomelanocortin [POMC], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [PRKACB], cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit gamma [PRKACG], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR1A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit [PRKAR2A], cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit [PRKAR2B], tubulin beta-3 chain/melanocortin receptor 1 [TUBB3/MC1R], Cadherin-1 [CDH1], catenin beta 1 [CTNNB1], Endothelin 1 [EDN1], endothelin 3 [EDN3], endothelin receptor type B [EDNRB], fibroblast growth factor 2 [FGF2], KIT, KIT ligand [KITLG], nerve growth factor [NGF], interferon regulatory factor 4 [IRF4], exocyst complex component 2 [EXOC2], and tumor protein 53 [TP53]) were analyzed in a cohort of participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 2970). A total of 46 SNPs were associated (P <.05) with lower or higher serum 25(OH)D levels as compared with the total cohort (median, 15.5 ng/mL). Although 1 SNP in the EXOC2 gene reached the aimed significance level after correction for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate) and was associated with a ?25(OH)D value more than 5.00 ng/mL, 11 SNPs located in the TYR (n = 4), PRKACG (n = 1), EDN1 (n = 3), TYRP1 (n = 1), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (n = 2) genes reached the aimed significance level after false discovery rate correction but were not associated with ?25(OH)D value more than 5.00 ng/mL. We conclude that variants of genes involved in skin pigmentation are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels in the Caucasian population. Our data indicate that out of the variants in 29 different genes analyzed, variants of 11 genes, including EXOC2, TYR, and TYRP1, have the highest impact on vitamin D status. Our results have a fundamental importance to understand the role of sunlight, skin pigmentation, and vitamin D for the human evolution. PMID:25396269

  16. Effect of interfacial serum proteins on melanoma cell adhesion to biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres coated with hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Takuya; Fukasawa, Tomonori; Fujii, Syuji; Maeda, Hayata; Okada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the interaction forces between a murine melanoma cell and a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere coated with/without hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (i.e., an HAp/PLLA or a bare PLLA microsphere) in a serum-free culture medium, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with colloid probe technique, in order to investigate how the HAp-nanoparticle coating as well as interfacial serum proteins influence the cell-microsphere adhesion. The cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA microspheres was 1.4-fold stronger than that of the bare PLLA microspheres. When the microspheres were pretreated with a culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, the cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA microspheres was increased by a factor of 2.1; in contrast, no change was observed in the cell adhesion force of the bare PLLA microspheres before/after the pretreatment. Indeed, the cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA was 2.8-fold larger than that of the bare PLLA after the pretreatment. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of interfacial serum proteins on the zeta potentials of these microspheres. On the basis of the obtained results, possible mechanism of cell adhesion to the HAp/PLLA and bare PLLA microspheres in the presence/absence of the interfacial serum proteins is discussed. PMID:23524077

  17. Mass-Selected Site-Specific Core-Fucosylation of Serum Proteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haidi; Tan, Zhijing; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jianhui; Shedden, Kerby A; Marrero, Jorge; Lubman, David M

    2015-11-01

    A mass spectrometry-based methodology has been developed to screen for changes in site-specific core-fucosylation (CF) of serum proteins in early stage HCC with different etiologies. The methods involve depletion of high-abundance proteins, trypsin digestion of medium-to-low-abundance proteins into peptides, iTRAQ labeling, and Lens culinaris Agglutinin (LCA) enrichment of CF peptides, followed by endoglycosidase F3 digestion before mass spectrometry analysis. 1300 CF peptides from 613 CF proteins were identified from patients sera, where 20 CF peptides were differentially expressed in alcohol (ALC)-related HCC samples compared with ALC-related cirrhosis samples and 26 CF peptides changed in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC samples compared with HCV-related cirrhosis samples. Among these, we found three CF peptides from fibronectin upregulated in ALC-related HCC samples compared with ALC-related cirrhosis samples with an AUC (area under the curve) value of 0.89 at site 1007 with a specificity of 85.7% at a sensitivity of 92.9% (generated with 10-fold cross-validation). When combined with the AFP index, the AUC value reached to 0.92 with a specificity of 92.9% at a sensitivity of 100%, significantly improved compared to that with AFP alone (LR test p < 0.001). In HCV-related samples, the CF level of cadherin-5 at site 61 showed the best AUC value of 0.75 but was not as promising as that of fibronectin site 1007 for ALC-related samples. The CF peptides of fibronectin may serve as potential biomarkers for early stage HCC screening in ALC-related cirrhosis patients. PMID:26403951

  18. Orosomucoid Serum Concentrations and Fat Depot-Specific mRNA and Protein Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Assim A; Fatma, Sumbul; Chishti, M Azhar; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Elawad, Ruba; Mendoza, Carmen Deanna O; Jo, Hyunsun; Lee, Yun Sok

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to systemic metabolic irregularities and obesity-linked metabolic disorders. Orosomucoid (ORM), an acute phase reactant protein, was shown to be produced in response to metabolic and inflammatory signals in the adipose tissue of obese mice, which protects them from severe inflammation and subsequent metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we examined whether there are site-specific differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) ORM gene and protein expression from individuals with a wide range of obesity and the relationship between expressed and circulating ORM levels and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers and adipokines. The level of circulating ORM correlated positively with BMI, body fat mass, and serum leptin. It also correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR values and C-reactive protein in men. There were no site-specific differences in ORM mRNA and protein expression between VAT and SAT, nor did we find a relationship between circulating ORM levels and its mRNA expression in either fat depot. We found that ORM mRNA expression correlated with mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and adiponectin in VAT, and with TNF-α and adiponectin in SAT. These observations are the first description linking adipose tissue ORM and pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in humans. The close links of ORM and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation in humans reinforce previous experimental data and warrant further studies to explore a possible role of ORM in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements. PMID:22134720

  19. Abundant expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells accompanies serum-induced proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, T; Kupfer, J; Enomoto, H; Sharifi, B; Giannella-Neto, D; Forrester, J S; Singer, F R; Goltzman, D; Hendy, G N; Pirola, C

    1991-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which is responsible for producing hypercalcemia in patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, has recently been identified in several normal tissues. Because PTHrP, like parathyroid hormone (PTH), is known to exhibit vasodilatory properties, we investigated the expression and regulation of PTHrP mRNA in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC). We report here that PTHrP mRNA is expressed in SMC and is markedly induced by serum in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Addition of 10% fetal calf serum to serum-deprived, confluent cells, resulted in a marked induction of PTHrP mRNA by 2 h with a peak at 4-6 h. PTHrP was detected in SMC by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay of conditioned medium, and was shown to be up-regulated within 24 h after the addition of serum. The serum induction of PTHrP mRNA was blocked by actinomycin D and by cycloheximide indicating the need for protein synthesis to evoke the serum effect on PTHrP gene transcription. In addition, treatment with dexamethasone, which has been previously shown to reduce the constitutive expression of PTHrP in human cancer cells, also blunted the serum induction of PTHrP mRNA in SMC. Treatment of quiescent cells with the serum mitogens platelet-derived growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-I had no effect on PTHrP, whereas the vasoactive peptides endothelin, norepinephrine and thrombin stimulated PTHrP expression. Exogenous addition of recombinant PTHrP-(1-141) had no significant effect on SMC DNA synthesis as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. In summary, the abundance of PTHrP mRNA and the characteristics of its regulation in SMC suggest a major role for PTHrP as a local modulator in vascular smooth muscle. Images PMID:1752945

  20. Weak cation magnetic separation technology and MALDI-TOF-MS in screening serum protein markers in primary type I osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26634492

  1. Benefits and Limitations of Protein Hydrolysates as Components of Serum-Free Media for Animal Cell Culture Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo-Alfonso, Juliet; Price, Paul; Jayme, David

    Increased understanding of influential factors for the cultivation of animal cells, combined with heightened regulatory concern over potential transmission of adventitious contaminants associated with serum and other animal-derived components, has elevated interest in using protein hydrolysates as serum replacements or nutrient supplements. This paper reviews the chemistry and biology of various hydrolysates derived from animal, plant and microbial sources. It provides specific examples of a beneficial selection of plant and yeast hydrolysates as ingredients of serum-free nutrient formulations for bioproduction applications of cultured mammalian and insect cells. Strategies for customizing and optimizing nutrients for specialized applications and general benefits and limitations of protein hydrolysates for biopharmaceutical production are also discussed.

  2. Serum C-reactive protein in asthma and its ability in predicting asthma control, a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Monadi, Mahmoud; Firouzjahi, Alireza; Hosseini, Amin; Javadian, Yahya; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Heidari, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in asthma and its association with disease severity has been investigated in many studies. This study aimed to determine serum hs-CRP status in asthma versus healthy controls and to examine its ability in predicting asthma control. Methods: Serum CRP was measured by ELISA method using a high sensitive CRP kit. Severity of asthma was determined using Asthma Control Test. Spearman and chi square tests were used for association and correlation respectively. The predictive ability was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Accuracy was determined by determination of area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: A total of 120 patients and 115 controls were studied. Median serum hs-CRP in asthma was higher than control (P=0.001. In well controlled asthma the hs-CRP decreased significantly compared with poorly controlled (P=0.024) but still was higher than control (P=0.017). Serum hs-CRP at cutoff level of 1.45 mg/L differentiated the patients and controls with accuracy of 63.5 % (AUC= 0.635±0.037, P=0.001). Serum hs-CRP ≤ 2.15 mg/L predicted well controlled asthma with accuracy of 62.5% (AUC= 0.625±0.056, p=0.025). After adjusting for age, sex, weight and smoking, there was an independent association between serum hs-CRP >1.45 mg/L and asthma by adjusted OR=2.49, p=0.018). Conclusion: These findings indicate that serum hs-CRP in asthma is higher than healthy control and increases with severity of asthma and decreases with. Thus, serum hs-CRP measurement can be helpful in predicting asthma control and treatment response. PMID:26958331

  3. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaslkov, Nikola Slepi?kov; Slepi?ka, Petr; Kolsk, Zde?ka; Hoda?ov, Petra; Ku?kov, t?pnka; vor?k, Vclav

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. JG Teeguarden1 and HA Barton2. 1ENVIRON International, Ruston LA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Pharmacokinetics Branch, RTP, NC.

    One measure of th...

  5. Serum levels of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) increase temporarily after physical exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria LE; Thorstensson, Carina A; Roos, Ewa M; Petersson, Ingemar F; Heinegrd, Dick; Saxne, Tore

    2006-01-01

    Background COMP (Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) is a matrix protein, which is currently studied as a potential serum marker for cartilage processes in osteoarthritis (OA). The influence of physical exercise on serum COMP is not fully elucidated. The objective of the present study was to monitor serum levels of COMP during a randomised controlled trial of physical exercise vs. standardised rest in individuals with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA. Methods Blood samples were collected from 58 individuals at predefined time points before and after exercise or rest, one training group and one control group. The physical exercise consisted of a one-hour supervised session twice a week and daily home exercises. In a second supplementary study 7 individuals were subjected to the same exercise program and sampling of blood was performed at fixed intervals before, immediately after, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session and then with 60 minutes interval for another five hours after exercise to monitor the short-term changes of serum COMP. COMP was quantified with a sandwich-ELISA (AnaMar Medical, Lund, Sweden). Results Before exercise or rest no significant differences in COMP levels were seen between the groups. After 60 minutes exercise serum COMP levels increased (p < 0.001). After 60 minutes of rest the serum levels decreased (p = 0.003). Median serum COMP values in samples obtained prior to exercise or rest at baseline and after 24 weeks did not change between start and end of the study. In the second study serum COMP was increased immediately after exercise (p = 0.018) and had decreased to baseline levels after 30 minutes. Conclusion Serum COMP levels increased during exercise in individuals with knee OA, whereas levels decreased during rest. The increased serum COMP levels were normalized 30 minutes after exercise session, therefore we suggest that samples of blood for analysis of serum COMP should be drawn after at least 30 minutes rest in a seated position. No increase was seen after a six-week exercise program indicating that any effect of individualized supervised exercise on cartilage turnover is transient. PMID:17156423

  6. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial?,??

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L.; Kenny, Anne M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Abourizk, Robin H.; Bruno, Richard S.; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M.; Kerstetter, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (?5.9%, P = .02; ?7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  7. Serum S100B Protein is Specifically Related to White Matter Changes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Milleit, Berko; Smesny, Stefan; Rothermundt, Matthias; Preul, Christoph; Schroeter, Matthias L.; von Eiff, Christof; Ponath, Gerald; Milleit, Christine; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia can be conceptualized as a form of dysconnectivity between brain regions.To investigate the neurobiological foundation of dysconnectivity, one approach is to analyze white matter structures, such as the pathology of fiber tracks. S100B is considered a marker protein for glial cells, in particular oligodendrocytes and astroglia, that passes the blood brain barrier and is detectable in peripheral blood. Earlier Studies have consistently reported increased S100B levels in schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to investigate associations between S100B and structural white matter abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed data of 17 unmedicated schizophrenic patients (first and recurrent episode) and 22 controls. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect group differences of white matter structures as obtained from T1-weighted MR-images and considered S100B serum levels as a regressor in an age-corrected interaction analysis. Results: S100B was increased in both patient subgroups. Using VBM, we found clusters indicating significant differences of the association between S100B concentration and white matter. Involved anatomical structures are the posterior cingulate bundle and temporal white matter structures assigned to the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusions: S100B-associated alterations of white matter are shown to be existent already at time of first manifestation of psychosis and are distinct from findings in recurrent episode patients. This suggests involvement of S100B in an ongoing and dynamic process associated with structural brain changes in schizophrenia. However, it remains elusive whether increased S100B serum concentrations in psychotic patients represent a protective response to a continuous pathogenic process or if elevated S100B levels are actively involved in promoting structural brain damage. PMID:27013967

  8. Identification of serum sirtuins as novel noninvasive protein markers for frailty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul; Mohan, Navinath; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Singh, Amrendra Pratap; Sahu, Vishal; Dwivedi, Sadanand; Dey, Aparajit B; Dey, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    Frailty has emerged as a major health issue among older patients. A consensus on definition and diagnosis is yet to be achieved. Various biochemical abnormalities have been reported in frailty. Activation of sirtuins, a conserved family of NAD-dependent proteins, is one of the many mimics of calorie restriction which improves lifespan and health in experimental animals. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the circulating sirtuin levels in 119 (59.5%) nonfrail and 81 (40.5%) frail individuals, diagnosed by Fried's criteria. Serum SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3 were estimated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Western blot. Serum sirtuins level in mean+SD; SIRT1 (nonfrail 4.670.48ng/?L; frail 3.720.48ng/?L; P<0.0001), SIRT2 (nonfrail 15.18 2.94ng/?L; frail 14.192.66ng/?L; P=0.016), and SIRT3 (nonfrail-7.721.84ng/?L; frail 6.120.97ng/?L; P<0.0001) levels were significantly lower among frail patients compared with the nonfrail. In multivariable regression analysis, lower sirtuins level were significantly associated with frailty after adjusting age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination scores) and number of comorbidities. For detecting the optimum diagnostic cutoff value a ROC analysis was carried out. The area under curve for SIRT1 was 0.9037 (cutoff 4.29ng/?L; sensitivity 81.48%; specificity 79.83%) and SIRT3 was 0.7988 (cutoff 6.61ng/?L; sensitivity 70.37%; specificity 70.59%). This study shows that lower circulating SIRT1 and SIRT3 levels can be distinctive marker of frailty. PMID:25100619

  9. TEMED-enhanced photoluminescent imaging of human serum proteins by quantum dots after PAGE.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) has been one of the most powerful and widely used separation techniques for complex biological samples, whose traditional detection methods include organic dye or silver staining. As a simple, convenient, and ultrasensitive detection of proteins for PAGE, a novel enhanced photoluminescent (PL) imaging method was developed. Thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and the enhanced reagent of tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) are introduced, achieving the direct detection of various proteins in native 1-DE, 2-DE, and SDS gels. Here, we describe the general protocol of TEMED-enhanced PL imaging by QDs, including materials, practical procedures, as well as some notes. PMID:22585516

  10. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips.

    PubMed

    Jara, Roco F; Seplveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S; Samuel, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP 4Dx Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease. PMID:25574804

  11. Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Predicts Tissue Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Break-Down Products and Therapeutic Efficacy after Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Angela M; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Johnson, David; Tortella, Frank C; Dave, Jitendra R; Shear, Deborah A; Schmid, Kara E

    2016-01-01

    Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neurological dysfunction, changes in brain proteins, and increased serum biomarkers. However, the relationship between these brain proteins and serum biomarkers, and the ability of these serum biomarkers to indicate a neuroprotective/therapeutic response, remains elusive. Penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) was used to systematically analyze several key TBI biomarkers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its break-down products (BDPs)-ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), α-II spectrin, and α-II spectrin BDPs (SBDPs)-in brain tissues and serum during an extended acute-subacute time-frame. In addition, neurological improvement and serum GFAP theranostic value was evaluated after neuroprotective treatment. In brain tissues, total GFAP increased more than three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI. However, this change was primarily due to GFAP-BDPs which increased to 2.7-4.8 arbitrary units (AU). Alpha-II spectrin was nearly ablated 3 d after PBBI, but somewhat recovered after 7 d. In conjunction with α-II spectrin loss, SBDP-145/150 increased approximately three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI (vs. sham, p<0.05). UCH-L1 protein levels were slightly decreased 7 d after PBBI but otherwise were unaffected. Serum GFAP was elevated by 3.2- to 8.8-fold at 2 to 4 h (vs. sham; p<0.05) and the 4 h increase was strongly correlated to 3 d GFAP-BDP abundance (r=0.66; p<0.05). Serum GFAP showed such a strong injury effect that it also was evaluated after therapeutic intervention with cyclosporin A (CsA). Administration of 2.5 mg/kg CsA significantly reduced serum GFAP elevation by 22.4-fold 2 h after PBBI (vs. PBBI+vehicle; p<0.05) and improved neurological function 1 d post-injury. Serum biomarkers, particularly GFAP, may be correlative tools of brain protein changes and feasible theranostic markers of TBI progression and recovery. PMID:25789543

  12. Correlation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Levels in Serum and Synovial Fluid with Disease Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Ruizhi; Yin, Ruofeng; Yin, Weitian

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to exam its correlation with radiographic and symptomatic severity of the disease. Material/Methods A total of 37 knee OA patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Knee OA radiographic grading was performed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system by evaluating X-ray changes observed in anteroposterior knee radiography. Symptomatic severity of the disease was evaluated according to the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. BMP-2 levels in serum and SF were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum BMP-2 level in patients with knee OA was higher than that in healthy controls. Knee OA patients with KL grade 4 showed significantly elevated BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF compared with those with KL grade 2 and 3. Knee OA patients with KL grade 3 had significant higher SF levels of BMP-2 than those with KL grade 2. BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were both positively correlated with KL grades and WOMAC scores. Conclusions BMP2 levels in serum and SF were closely related to the radiographic and symptomatic severity of knee OA and may serve as an alternative biochemical parameter to determine disease severity of primary knee OA. PMID:25644704

  13. Serum Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Chronic HBV Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengju; Liu, Liguan; Pan, Xingnan; Wei, Kaipeng; Wei, Meijuan; Liu, Lifei; Yang, Huanwen; Liu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most commonly used marker of liver injury, but normal ALT levels are seen in a proportion of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with severe liver injury. Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a promising alternative marker of liver injury. This study assessed the relation between GP73 levels and liver disease severity, monitored the kinetic changes in GP73 levels in chronic HBV patients receiving entecavir (ETV) therapy, and investigated the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of serum GP73 as a new liver injury biomarker in chronic HBV infections. This study enrolled 1150 patients with chronic HBV infections, 200 of whom were retrospectively enrolled in this study after receiving 1 year of ETV treatment. GP73 expression in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. GP73 levels in single or serial serum samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GP73 protein expression in the liver increased progressively with pathologic progression from nonexistent or mild hepatitis to severe hepatitis and cirrhosis during chronic HBV infection. Serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with the disease severity of chronic HBV infections (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). In patients with normal ALT levels, serum GP73 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with prominent hepatic inflammatory injury and fibrosis than in patients without hepatic inflammatory injury or fibrosis. Serum GP73 concentrations and GP73 protein expression were decreased in the liver tissues of patients whose ALT levels normalized after 1 year of ETV antiviral therapy. Changes in serum GP73 levels were closely associated with changes in liver injury severity, and, therefore, GP73 may be an effective new liver inflammatory injury biomarker, and could be useful for monitoring the prognosis of chronic HBV infectious patients with normal ALT levels. PMID:25816035

  14. Serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a diagnostic and prognostic marker of chronic HBV liver disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengju; Liu, Liguan; Pan, Xingnan; Wei, Kaipeng; Wei, Meijuan; Liu, Lifei; Yang, Huanwen; Liu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most commonly used marker of liver injury, but normal ALT levels are seen in a proportion of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with severe liver injury. Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a promising alternative marker of liver injury. This study assessed the relation between GP73 levels and liver disease severity, monitored the kinetic changes in GP73 levels in chronic HBV patients receiving entecavir (ETV) therapy, and investigated the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of serum GP73 as a new liver injury biomarker in chronic HBV infections. This study enrolled 1150 patients with chronic HBV infections, 200 of whom were retrospectively enrolled in this study after receiving 1 year of ETV treatment. GP73 expression in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. GP73 levels in single or serial serum samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GP73 protein expression in the liver increased progressively with pathologic progression from nonexistent or mild hepatitis to severe hepatitis and cirrhosis during chronic HBV infection. Serum GP73 levels were positively correlated with the disease severity of chronic HBV infections (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). In patients with normal ALT levels, serum GP73 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with prominent hepatic inflammatory injury and fibrosis than in patients without hepatic inflammatory injury or fibrosis. Serum GP73 concentrations and GP73 protein expression were decreased in the liver tissues of patients whose ALT levels normalized after 1 year of ETV antiviral therapy. Changes in serum GP73 levels were closely associated with changes in liver injury severity, and, therefore, GP73 may be an effective new liver inflammatory injury biomarker, and could be useful for monitoring the prognosis of chronic HBV infectious patients with normal ALT levels. PMID:25816035

  15. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    PubMed

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3β-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250 μl serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100 pg/ml for DHEA, 50 pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30 pg/ml for T, 10 pg/ml for 3β-diol and DHT, 5 pg/ml for E1, and 1 pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks. PMID:26254607

  16. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Michael A.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G.; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sayers, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17×10−7), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04×10−12). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPAR's effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.—Portelli, M. A., Siedlinski, M., Stewart, C. E., Postma, D. S., Nieuwenhuis, M. A., Vonk, J. M., Nurnberg, P., Altmuller, J., Moffatt, M. F., Wardlaw, A. J., Parker, S. G., Connolly, M. J., Koppelman, G. H., Sayers, I. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels. PMID:24249636

  17. Characterization of the comparative drug binding to intra- (liver fatty acid binding protein) and extra- (human serum albumin) cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew; Hallifax, David; Nussio, Matthew R; Shapter, Joseph G; Mackenzie, Peter I; Brian Houston, J; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-01-01

    1. This study compared the extent, affinity, and kinetics of drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) using ultrafiltration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 2. Binding of basic and neutral drugs to both HSA and LFABP was typically negligible. Binding of acidic drugs ranged from minor (fu?>?0.8) to extensive (fu?

  18. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl? treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  19. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  20. Rat tissues express serum amyloid A protein-related mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Meek, R L; Benditt, E P

    1989-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a small (12 kDa) acute-phase apoprotein of high density lipoprotein found in mammals. It is also the precursor to amyloid protein A, the main protein constituent of fibrils found in amyloidosis secondary to chronic or recurrent inflammation--e.g., rheumatoid arthritis. However, rats do not develop amyloidosis and SAA is not an apoprotein of rat high density lipoprotein; thus rats appear to be an exception in regard to expression of SAA genes. We report here that rats do have representatives of the SAA gene family and express two distinct SAA mRNAs. Moreover, the pattern of genes expressed among tissues, and their induction by inflammatory agents, is similar to that of related mouse genes. RNA from various tissues of normal and injured rats was examined by RNA blot hybridization with SAA cDNA and complementary RNA probes for the three murine SAA genes. A SAA mRNA of approximately 400 nucleotides related to mouse SAA1 and SAA2 mRNAs reached a high level in liver 24 hr after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. No extra-hepatic tissues were found to express the SAA1/SAA2-related mRNA. Turpentine induced two hepatic SAA1/SAA2-related mRNAs of approximately 400 and approximately 500 nucleotides in length. Liver SAA1/SAA2-related mRNA hybrid selected and translated in a wheat germ protein-synthesizing system, from lipopolysaccharide- and turpentine-injected rats, produced a single protein with an estimated molecular mass of 8 kDa. This rat liver SAA-related mRNA appears to lack a highly conserved coding region for portions of two amphipathic helical domains and the joining sequence. An mRNA related to mouse SAA3 was found expressed at a high level in lung after lipopolysaccharide but not following turpentine injection. This mRNA was also expressed at high levels in ileum and large intestine of control rats and was not found in the liver of control or challenged rats. These observations show that the SAA gene family is present and expressed in rats and that its expression is found under situations similar to those found in mice. This lends support for the importance of the SAA gene family in the response to injury by vertebrates. Images PMID:2928311

  1. Microfiltration: Effect of channel diameter on limiting flux and serum protein removal.

    PubMed

    Hurt, E E; Adams, M C; Barbano, D M

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the limiting flux and serum protein (SP) removal at 8, 9 and 10% true protein (TP) in the retentate recirculation loop using 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability (GP) microfiltration (MF) membranes with 3mm channel diameters (CD). An additional objective was to compare the limiting flux and SP removal between 0.1-µm ceramic GP membranes with 3mm CD and previous research using 4-mm CD membranes. The MF system was operated at 50°C, using a diluted milk protein concentrate with 85% protein on a total solids basis (MPC85) as the MF feed. The limiting flux for the MF of diluted MPC85 was determined at 8, 9, and 10% TP concentration in the recirculation loop. The experiment using the 3-mm CD membranes was replicated 3 times for a total of 9 runs. On the morning of each run MPC85 was diluted with reverse osmosis water to a MF feed TP concentration of 5.4%. In all runs the starting flux was 55 kg/m2 per hour, the flux was then increased in steps until the limiting flux was reached. For the 3-mm CD membranes, the limiting flux was 128±0.3, 109±4, and 97±0.5 kg/m2 per hour at recirculation loop TP concentrations of 8.1±0.07, 9.2±0.04, and 10.2±0.03%, respectively. For the 3-mm CD membranes, increasing the flux from the starting to the limiting flux decreased the SP removal factor from 0.72±0.02 to 0.67±0.01; however, no difference in SP removal factor among the target recirculation loop TP concentrations was detected. The limiting flux at each recirculation loop target TP concentration was lower for the 3- compared with the 4-mm CD membranes. The differences in limiting fluxes between the 3- and 4-mm CD membranes were explained in part by the difference in cross-flow velocity (5.5±0.03 and 7.0±0.03 m/s for the 3- and 4-mm CD membranes, respectively). The SP removal factor was also lower for the 3- compared with the 4-mm CD membranes, indicating that more membrane fouling may have occurred in the 3- versus 4-mm CD membranes. PMID:25892692

  2. Exposure to wireless phone emissions and serum beta-trace protein.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2010-08-01

    The lipocalin type of prostaglandin D synthase or beta-trace protein is synthesized in the choroid plexus, lepto-meninges and oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system and is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. beta-trace protein is the key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandin D2, an endogenous sleep-promoting neurohormone in the brain. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the radio frequency (RF) range have in some studies been associated with disturbed sleep. We studied the concentration of beta-trace protein in blood in relation to emissions from wireless phones. This study included 62 persons aged 18-30 years. The concentration of beta-trace protein decreased with increasing number of years of use of a wireless phone yielding a negative beta coefficient = -0.32, 95% confidence interval -0.60 to -0.04. Also cumulative use in hours gave a negative beta coefficient, although not statistically significant. Of the 62 persons, 40 participated in an experimental study with 30 min exposure to an 890-MHz GSM signal. No statistically significant change of beta-trace protein was found. In a similar study of the remaining 22 participitants with no exposure, beta-trace protein increased significantly over time, probably due to a relaxed situation. EMF emissions may down-regulate the synthesis of beta-trace protein. This mechanism might be involved in sleep disturbances reported in persons exposed to RF fields. The results must be interpreted with caution since use of mobile and cordless phones were self-reported. Awareness of exposure condition in the experimental study may have influenced beta-trace protein concentrations. PMID:20596612

  3. Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: is There a Repeated Bout Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Johannes; Kilian, Yvonne; McCourt, Molly; Liphardt, Anna-Maria; Mester, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years) performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval) carried out at a 3 week interval. After each intervention, sCOMP and muscle soreness were assessed on 8 and 6 occasions respectively. Muscle soreness was determined via a visual analog scale with a maximum pain score of 10. sComp levels did not show a blunted response after the second bout (Bout 1: 12.2±3.3 U/L−1; Bout 2: 13.1±4.0 U/L−1; P>0.05). Remarkably, sCOMP increased from baseline levels by 16% after bout 1 and 15% after bout 2. Muscle soreness was blunted following the second intervention (Bout 1: 5.0±1.8; Bout 2: 1.6±0.8). Unlike the known repeated bout effect for muscle damage markers, sCOMP levels do not show a blunted response after two similar loading interventions. This information on biomarker behavior is essential to clinicians attempting to use this marker as an indicator of cartilage damage associated with the development or progression of osteoarthritis. PMID:25317315

  4. Serum protein profiling for diagnosis of breast cancer using SELDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Gast, Marie-Christine W; Van Gils, Carla H; Wessels, Lodewijk F A; Harris, Nathan; Bonfrer, Johannes M G; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2009-07-01

    In search for novel markers for breast cancer, we aimed to identify and validate novel serum protein profiles specific for breast cancer, and assess the influence of clinical (subjects age) and pre-analytical (sample storage duration) variables on the constructed classifiers. To this end, sera of breast cancer patients (n=152) and healthy controls (n=129), randomly divided into a training and test set, were analysed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). In the training set, 14 peak clusters were found to differ significantly in expression between cases and controls. None of the peak clusters were influenced by subjects age and sample storage duration. Ten peak clusters were also found significantly discriminative in the test set. Peak clusters were structurally identified as C3a des-arginine anaphylatoxin, (tentative) inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 fragments and a fibrinogen fragment. Logistic regression analyses on the training set yielded a classification model with a moderate performance on the test set, corresponding to those reported in previously performed validation studies. Most likely originating from the highly heterogeneous nature of breast cancer, selection of breast cancer subgroups for comparison with healthy controls is expected to improve results of future diagnostic SELDI-TOF MS studies. PMID:19513525

  5. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. PMID:26153407

  6. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling; Hu, Fangdi; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40min incubation time and in the pH5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5mM FeSO4, 50mM H2O2). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy)3(3+). The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin>kaempferol>apigenin>naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. PMID:26952415

  7. Serum levels of hypersensitive-C-reactive protein in moderate and severe acne

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, M. R.; Parhizkar, A. R.; Jowkar, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been reported to occur in psoriasis, urticaria, acne, rosacea and many other dermatological and nondermatological conditions. Chronic systemic inflammation has been implicated in the development of neuropsychiatric/degenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and even carcinogenesis. The present study is designed to determine whether the level of inflammation created by acne vulgaris could be high enough to raise the serum levels of high-sensitive CRP. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris were enrolled, along with 44 age and sex matched healthy blood donors as controls. Hypersensitive-CRP (Hs-CRP) was measured in both groups. Results: Hypersensitive-C-reactive protein levels in the case group varied between 0 and 28.1 ?g/ml with an average of 2.24 4.87 ?g/ml (mean standard deviation) and a median of 0.6 ?g/ml (interquartile range [IQR] =0.3, 1.4 ?g/ml). Hs-CRP levels of the control group varied between 0 and 14 ?g/ml with an average of 3.12 3.67 ?g/ml and a median of 1.5 ?g/ml (IQR = 0.55, 5.0 ?g/ml). No significant difference of Hs-CRP level between the two groups was seen (t = 0.961, 95% confidence interval: Lower = 2.6942, upper = 0.9377; P = 0.339). Additionally, no significant difference in the level of Hs-CRP was noted between the moderate and severe acne groups (95% confidence interval: Lower = 5.2495, upper = 1.6711; P = 0.165). Conclusion: Acne vulgaris, even in its severe grades (excluding acne fulminans and acne conglobata), does not induce significant inflammation at the systemic level. PMID:26225329

  8. Multiplexed Activity-based Protein Profiling of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Reveals Large Functional Changes upon Exposure to Human Serum*

    PubMed Central

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Pederson, LeeAnna M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fortuin, Suereta; Chauvign-Hines, Lacie M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Ansong, Charles; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adaptability is critical for survival of the fungal human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus in the immunocompromised host lung. We hypothesized that exposure of the fungal pathogen to human serum would lead to significant alterations to the organism's physiology, including metabolic activity and stress response. Shifts in functional pathway and corresponding enzyme reactivity of A. fumigatus upon exposure to the human host may represent much needed prognostic indicators of fungal infection. To address this, we employed a multiplexed activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach coupled to quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to measure broad enzyme reactivity of the fungus cultured with and without human serum. ABPP showed a shift from aerobic respiration to ethanol fermentation and utilization over time in the presence of human serum, which was not observed in serum-free culture. Our approach provides direct insight into this pathogen's ability to survive, adapt, and proliferate. Additionally, our multiplexed ABPP approach captured a broad swath of enzyme reactivity and functional pathways and provides a method for rapid assessment of the A. fumigatus response to external stimuli. PMID:22865858

  9. Serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein levels in patients with critical illness are associated with insulin resistance and predict mortality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are commonplace in critical illness, especially in patients with sepsis. Recently, several hormones secreted by adipose tissue have been determined to be involved in overall insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome-related conditions, including adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (A-FABP). However, little is known about their roles in critical illness. On the other hand, there is evidence that several adipose tissue gene expressions change in critically ill patients. Methods A total of 120 patients (72 with sepsis, 48 without sepsis) were studied prospectively on admission to a medical ICU and compared with 45 healthy volunteers as controls. Various laboratory parameters and metabolic and inflammatory profiles were assessed within 48 hours after admission. Clinical data were collected from medical records. Results Compared with healthy controls, serum A-FABP concentrations were higher in all critically ill patients, and there was a trend of higher A-FABP in patients with sepsis. In multivariate correlation analysis in all critically ill patients, the serum A-FABP concentrations were independently related to serum creatinine, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, TNF-alpha, albumin, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. In survival analysis, higher A-FABP levels (> 40 ng/ml) were associated with an unfavorable overall survival outcome, especially in sepsis patients. Conclusions Critically ill patients have higher serum A-FABP concentrations. Moreover, A-FABP may potentially serve as a prognostic biomarker in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:23375099

  10. Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Dhakar, Nidhi; Astekar, Madhusudan; Jain, Mahesh; Saawarn, Swati; Saawarn, Nisheeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, non-invasive methods like analysis of serum and saliva may provide cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Tumor markers are a major part of secondary prevention and thus, the detection of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sialic acid (TSA), total protein and total sugar (TS) in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and controls to assess their role as a diagnostic marker. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva and sera were collected from 40 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 controls. Serum and salivary TSA, total protein and TS estimation was carried out. This was correlated with clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Chi-square test, ANOVA and Student's t-test with SPSS statistical software. Results: A highly significant rise in the salivary sialic acid, serum sialic acid and serum protein was noted in OSCC subjects compared to controls. Salivary protein, serum and salivary sugar did not show any significance. Furthermore, serum and salivary sialic acid levels were found to be significantly increased with increasing level of histopathological grading. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. PMID:24019802

  11. Ultrasensitive microfluidic array for serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein to assess oral mucositis risk in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krause, Colleen E; Otieno, Brunah A; Bishop, Gregory W; Phadke, Gayatri; Choquette, Linda; Lalla, Rajesh V; Peterson, Douglas E; Rusling, James F

    2015-09-01

    In addition to disease diagnostics, there is a need for biomarkers to predict severity of cancer therapy side effects such as oral mucositis. Oral mucositis is an inflammatory lesion of oral mucosa caused by high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation that is especially prevalent during oral cancer treatment. We describe here a semi-automated, modular microfluidic immunoarray optimized for ultrasensitive detection of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in pathobiology of oral mucositis. Our goal is to methodologically identify risk of mucositis early in oral cancer treatment, before the onset of lesions. Biomarkers include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Protein analytes were captured from serum in a capture chamber by 1-μm magnetic beads coated with antibodies and enzyme labels. Beads are then transported downstream to a detection chamber containing an eight-sensor array coated with glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNP) and a second set of antibodies to capture the beads with analyte proteins. In this first application of the immunoarray to four-protein multiplexed measurements, ultralow detection limits of 10-40 fg mL(-1) in 5 μL serum were achieved for simultaneous detection in 30 min. Mass detection limits were 2.5-10 zmol, as few as 1500 molecules. Accuracy and diagnostic utility of the arrays were demonstrated by correlation of levels of the four biomarker proteins in serum from head and neck cancer patients with results from standard ELISA. This approach may lead to rapid, low-cost estimates of projected risk for severity of oral mucositis in cancer patients to enable improved therapeutic management. PMID:26143063

  12. Online 2D-LC-MS/MS assay to quantify therapeutic protein in human serum in the presence of pre-existing antidrug antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yinghua; Zhang, Guodong; Yang, Jinsong; Qiu, Yongchang; McCauley, Thomas; Pan, Luying; Wu, Jiang

    2015-08-18

    The formation of antidrug antibodies (ADA) can interfere with the accurate quantitation of therapeutic proteins, leading to significantly underestimated drug concentrations and confounded pharmacokinetic (PK) data interpretation. Although highly desirable, development of ADA-tolerant bioanalytical methods enabling unbiased measurement of both free and ADA-bound drug presents a considerable challenge. We report herein the development and validation of a robust LC-MS assay capable of quantifying therapeutic protein immunoglobulin A1 protease (IgAP) in human serum in the presence of pre-existing anti-IgAP antibodies. The procedure included sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denaturation and chemical reduction of serum proteins to dissociate ADA-drug bindings, followed by tryptic digestion of protein pellets and subsequent LC-MS analysis of the surrogate IgAP peptide using stable isotope labeled peptide internal standard. Substantial enhancements in the sensitivity and selectivity were achieved by the combination of online two-dimensional reversed-phase LC (2D-LC) operated in high and low pH buffers, respectively, for efficient enrichment and quantitation of the surrogate peptide by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Unlike ligand-binding assay, our method is not prone to interferences from ADA, allowing accurate and precise measurement of the IgAP in the range of 0.05 to 10 ?g/mL in 25 ?L of human serum with a wide range of anti-IgAP antibody levels. The intra- and inter-run precision (coefficient of variation (CV%)) was within 11.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and the bias was within 7.1% for all quality control (QC) concentrations. With little modification, the described method can readily be applicable to the quantitation of other biotherapeutic proteins in the ADA-positive clinical matrices. PMID:26237058

  13. In vitro and in vivo interactions of selected nanoparticles with rodent serum proteins and their consequences in biokinetics.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Fertsch-Gapp, Stefanie; Schffler, Martin; Johnston, Blair D; Haberl, Nadine; Pfeiffer, Christian; Diendorf, Jrg; Schleh, Carsten; Hirn, Stephanie; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Epple, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2014-01-01

    When particles incorporated within a mammalian organism come into contact with body fluids they will bind to soluble proteins or those within cellular membranes forming what is called a protein corona. This binding process is very complex and highly dynamic due to the plethora of proteins with different affinities and fractions in different body fluids and the large variation of compounds and structures of the particle surface. Interestingly, in the case of nanoparticles (NP) this protein corona is well suited to provide a guiding vehicle of translocation within body fluids and across membranes. This NP translocation may subsequently lead to accumulation in various organs and tissues and their respective cell types that are not expected to accumulate such tiny foreign bodies. Because of this unprecedented NP accumulation, potentially adverse biological responses in tissues and cells cannot be neglected a priori but require thorough investigations. Therefore, we studied the interactions and protein binding kinetics of blood serum proteins with a number of engineered NP as a function of their physicochemical properties. Here we show by in vitro incubation tests that the binding capacity of different engineered NP (polystyrene, elemental carbon) for selected serum proteins depends strongly on the NP size and the properties of engineered surface modifications. In the following attempt, we studied systematically the effect of the size (5, 15, 80 nm) of gold spheres (AuNP), surface-modified with the same ionic ligand; as well as 5 nm AuNP with five different surface modifications on the binding to serum proteins by using proteomics analyses. We found that the binding of numerous serum proteins depended strongly on the physicochemical properties of the AuNP. These in vitro results helped us substantially in the interpretation of our numerous in vivo biokinetics studies performed in rodents using the same NP. These had shown that not only the physicochemical properties determined the AuNP translocation from the organ of intake towards blood circulation and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues but also the the transport across organ membranes depended on the route of AuNP application. Our in vitro protein binding studies support the notion that the observed differences in in vivo biokinetics are mediated by the NP protein corona and its dynamical change during AuNP translocation in fluids and across membranes within the organism. PMID:25383281

  14. In vitro and in vivo interactions of selected nanoparticles with rodent serum proteins and their consequences in biokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Fertsch-Gapp, Stefanie; Schffler, Martin; Johnston, Blair D; Haberl, Nadine; Pfeiffer, Christian; Diendorf, Jrg; Schleh, Carsten; Hirn, Stephanie; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Epple, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2014-01-01

    Summary When particles incorporated within a mammalian organism come into contact with body fluids they will bind to soluble proteins or those within cellular membranes forming what is called a protein corona. This binding process is very complex and highly dynamic due to the plethora of proteins with different affinities and fractions in different body fluids and the large variation of compounds and structures of the particle surface. Interestingly, in the case of nanoparticles (NP) this protein corona is well suited to provide a guiding vehicle of translocation within body fluids and across membranes. This NP translocation may subsequently lead to accumulation in various organs and tissues and their respective cell types that are not expected to accumulate such tiny foreign bodies. Because of this unprecedented NP accumulation, potentially adverse biological responses in tissues and cells cannot be neglected a priori but require thorough investigations. Therefore, we studied the interactions and protein binding kinetics of blood serum proteins with a number of engineered NP as a function of their physicochemical properties. Here we show by in vitro incubation tests that the binding capacity of different engineered NP (polystyrene, elemental carbon) for selected serum proteins depends strongly on the NP size and the properties of engineered surface modifications. In the following attempt, we studied systematically the effect of the size (5, 15, 80 nm) of gold spheres (AuNP), surface-modified with the same ionic ligand; as well as 5 nm AuNP with five different surface modifications on the binding to serum proteins by using proteomics analyses. We found that the binding of numerous serum proteins depended strongly on the physicochemical properties of the AuNP. These in vitro results helped us substantially in the interpretation of our numerous in vivo biokinetics studies performed in rodents using the same NP. These had shown that not only the physicochemical properties determined the AuNP translocation from the organ of intake towards blood circulation and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues but also the the transport across organ membranes depended on the route of AuNP application. Our in vitro protein binding studies support the notion that the observed differences in in vivo biokinetics are mediated by the NP protein corona and its dynamical change during AuNP translocation in fluids and across membranes within the organism. PMID:25383281

  15. Chelating Surfaces for Native State Proteins Patterning: The Human Serum Albumin Case.

    PubMed

    Giamblanco, Nicoletta; Tuccitto, Nunzio; Zappal, Gabriella; Sfuncia, Gianfranco; Licciardello, Antonino; Marletta, Giovanni

    2015-10-21

    The paper reports a new "soft" surface functionalization strategy, based on a highly selective ion metal chelation process. The proposed stepwise methodology implies at first the construction of a monolayer of terpyridine-based thiol (Tpy), whose highly packed structuring has been followed in situ by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) measurements, showing that the monolayers consist of about 2.7 10(14) Tpy/cm(2). Then, the tridentate sites of the each Tpy moiety are employed to partially chelate divalent metal ions, providing an effective platform to anchoring proteins by completing the metal ion coordination with an available site on the protein of interest. We report the case study of the application of the process to the HSA immobilization onto various surfaces, including Tpy-Fe(II) and Tpy-Cu(II) complexes, as well as hydrophilic bare gold substrates and hydrophobic self-assembled Tpy-based monolayers. It is shown that the chelation interaction between Tpy-Cu(II) complexes and HSA produces the highest and most robust HSA immobilization, with an adsorbed mass at the steady state of ?800 ng/cm(2), with respect to an average adsorption of ?350 ng/cm(2) for the other surfaces. Furthermore, Cu(II)-chelated surfaces seem to promote a sort of protein "soft" landing, preventing the ubiquitous surface-induced major unfolding and transmitting an orientation information to the protein, owing to the highly specific symmetry coordination of the Tpy-Cu(II)-protein complex. Indeed, the interaction with a specific monoclonal antiboby (anti-HSA) indicated the lack of a significant protein denaturation, while a massive reorientation/denaturation process was found for all the remaining surfaces, including the Tpy-Fe(II) complex. Finally, the metal-ion-dependent HSA immobilization selectivity has been exploited to obtain micropatterned surfaces, based on the strikingly different strength of interaction and stability observed for Fe(II) and Cu(II) complexes. PMID:26425809

  16. A calcium-binding protein with similarity to serum albumin localized to the ER-Golgi network and cell walls of spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Lait, Cameron G.; Zwiazek, Janusz J.

    2001-08-01

    Using polyclonal antibodies raised against human serum albumin (HSA), a 70-kDa microsomal protein with an isoelectric point of approximately 6.5 was detected in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The protein was purified by selective ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange HPLC. The protein shared 100% identity with the first 15 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of HSA, including the X-X-H amino acid region, which was identified in HSA as being responsible for binding of copper, zinc, indole derivatives and calcium. Blue staining of the protein with the cationic carbocyanine dye 'Stains-all' and 45Ca overlay following SDS-PAGE also suggest that the 70-kDa plant protein binds calcium. The protein reacted positively with carbohydrate specific thymol stain, and the carbohydrates associated with the protein were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as galactose and galacturonic acid. The 70-kDa plant protein was present in the detergent-poor phase following Triton X-114 extraction of the microsomal proteins. Cell fractionation using continuous sucrose gradients showed that the protein is present in membrane fractions with high activity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi marker enzymes. Using nitrocellulose tissue prints probed with anti-HSA antibodies, we demonstrated that the protein is present in the apoplastic space of petioles, suggesting that the protein is secreted to the apoplast of cortex cells in plants. Localization and binding properties suggest that the plant protein identified in the present study may participate in secretion processes, possibly involved with the transport of precursors required for cell-wall synthesis. PMID:11473705

  17. Effects of soybean protein and very low dietary cholesterol on serum lipids, biliary lipids, and fecal sterols in humans.

    PubMed

    Duane, W C

    1999-04-01

    Soy-base texturized vegetable protein (TVP; Archer Daniels Midland, Decatur, IL) has been used to decrease serum cholesterol and as a substitute for animal protein to achieve very low levels of dietary cholesterol. The effect of very low dietary cholesterol and of TVP on biliary lipids and fecal sterols is unclear. The study objective was to determine the effects of very low intake of dietary cholesterol, as well as TVP itself, on serum lipids, biliary lipids, and fecal sterols. We studied eight normal subjects living on a metabolic ward during three randomly ordered 6- to 7-week periods: (1) standard cholesterol diet (190 to 550 mg/d), (2) TVP-low-cholesterol diet (17 to 30 mg/d), and (3) TVP-standard cholesterol diet. By analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), reducing dietary cholesterol to these very low levels significantly decreased serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P=.048) but did not affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or triglyceride. TVP resulted in a borderline significant reduction in LDL cholesterol (P=.058) with a highly significant reduction in HDL cholesterol (P=.004) and an increase in serum triglyceride (P=.010). During TVP ingestion, there was a highly significant increase in the output of fecal neutral sterols (P=.005) and a tendency for a higher output of fecal acidic sterols (P=.100). Fecal sterol balance was significantly more negative (indicating increased cholesterol synthesis) during TVP ingestion (P=.016). Neither TVP nor the very-low-cholesterol diet appreciably affected the gallbladder bile molar percent cholesterol or saturation index. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that to the extent TVP decreases serum LDL cholesterol (an effect of borderline significance in this study), the effect occurs via a reduction in the absorption of cholesterol and perhaps bile acid. However, the potential benefit of decreasing LDL cholesterol in this way seems to be at least partially offset by a concomitant reduction in HDL cholesterol and an increase in serum triglycerides. PMID:10206443

  18. Circadian rhythms of osteocalcin in equine serum. Correlation with alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate and total protein levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, O M; DesCteaux, L; Marcoux, M; Tremblay, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether there were circadian variations in serum osteocalcin in normal horses and to determine whether it was important to regulate the time of blood sampling in clinical investigations. Osteocalcin or bone Gla-protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase, total calcium, phosphate and total protein were studied over a 24 h period. Blood samples were taken every 60 min from nine adult Standardbred horses. There was a correlation between serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.3, p less than 0.01), phosphate (r = 0.42, p less than 0.01) and serum osteocalcin levels. There was a very marked individual effect on serum levels of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (p less than 0.01). This effect was present for phosphate levels but not significant for total calcium. The individual effect was lower and time effect was higher for serum osteocalcin if the subjects were divided into two age groups, one of horses of five years or less (n = 4) and a second group older than five years (n = 5). In both groups a circadian rhythmicity was observed. Serum osteocalcin showed a biphasic pattern. Levels were constant during daytime (light period) and underwent significant variations during the night (dark period), going through a nadir at 2000 h and through a maximum peak at 0500 h. It was concluded that in normal horses the blood osteocalcin level follows a circadian variation. Also daytime (light period) seems to be the more appropriate period for blood sampling. PMID:1884284

  19. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2016-03-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A (-97delG) allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs. PMID:26585380

  20. A mutation affecting expression of a major outer membrane protein of Moraxella catarrhalis alters serum resistance and survival in vivo.

    PubMed

    Helminen, M E; Maciver, I; Paris, M; Latimer, J L; Lumbley, S L; Cope, L D; McCracken, G H; Hansen, E J

    1993-11-01

    A major outer membrane protein (CopB) of Moraxella catarrhalis is a target for antibodies that enhance clearance of this organism from the lungs of mice. A mini-Tn10kan transposon was inserted into the cloned copB gene from M. catarrhalis O35E, and an isogenic mutant unable to express the CopB protein was constructed by transforming this mutated gene into the wild-type strain. The mutant grew at the same rate as the wild-type parent strain in broth. Unlike the serum-resistant parent strain, this mutant was sensitive to killing by normal human serum, and its ability to survive and grow in the lungs of animals was impaired. Genetic restoration of CopB protein expression resulted in the simultaneous acquisition of wild-type levels of serum resistance and the ability to resist pulmonary clearance in vivo. Thus, the CopB protein of M. catarrhalis may be important in the interaction between this organism and the defense mechanisms of the respiratory tract. PMID:8228353

  1. Direct detection of C-reactive proteins in human serum using nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.-Y.; Tsang, K. Y.; Hu, W. P.; Hsu, H.-Y.; Chiou, A.; Chang, G.-L.; Chen, S.-J.

    2006-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) produced by the liver is one of the most characteristic acute-phase proteins. It has been suggested that the level of CRP in human serum may be a significant tool of detecting risks of developing cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Here we propose an advanced plasmonic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bioassay with Au nanoparticles embedded in the dielectric film that demonstrates a 10X improvement in resolution compared to the conventional SPR biosensor. The co-sputtered film was modified with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane to sequentially immobilize protein G, monoclonal anti-CRP antibody (C8), and human serum albumins (HSA). After blocked by ethanolamine, the sensor was used to detect CRP. Using this extremely sensitive biochip, the lowest reliable concentration of CRP without any exterior labeling is simplified to human physiological level. The novel assay has the latent capability of not only eliminating the disturbances coming from serum proteins resulting in false signals, but is also able to be applied in rapid and label-free clinical detections of CRP with large improved sensitivity.

  2. Changes in Serum Levels of Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 and Inflammatory Cytokines after Bariatric Surgery in Severely Obese Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Jang, Eun-Hee; Hong, Oak-Kee; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoo, Soon-Jib; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Wook; Kim, Eung Kook; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Serum bone morphogenic protein- (BMP-) 4 levels are associated with human adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of BMP-4 and inflammatory cytokines after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Fifty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes underwent RYGB. Serum levels of BMP-4 and various inflammatory markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free fatty acids (FFAs), and plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI-) 1, were measured before and 12 months after RYGB. Remission was defined as glycated hemoglobin <6.5% for at least 1 year in the absence of medications. Levels of PAI-1, hsCRP, and FFAs were significantly decreased at 1 year after RYGB. BMP-4 levels were also significantly lower at 1 year after RYGB than at baseline (P = 0.024). Of the 57 patients, 40 (70%) had diabetes remission at 1 year after surgery (remission group). Compared with patients in the nonremission group, patients in the remission group had lower PAI-1 levels and smaller visceral fat areas at baseline. There was a difference in the change in the BMP-4 level according to remission status. Our data demonstrate a significant beneficial effect of bariatric surgery on established cardiovascular risk factors and a reduction in chronic nonspecific inflammation after surgery. PMID:24170999

  3. The discrepancy between plasma clearance tests of indocyanine green (ICG) and sulfobromophthalein (BSP): --report of cases and a study of ICG-binding pattern of serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Y; Yamamoto, T; Onishi, S; Tanaka, S; Wakisaka, G

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of Gilbert's syndrome and three cases of other diseases showed abnormally low plasma indocyanine green (ICG) clearance as contrated with normal or nearly normal plasma sulfobromphthalein (BSP) clearance. To evaluate the role of serum proteins in pathogenesis of these cases, ICG-binding patterns of serum proteins of the patients were compared with that of normal persons by the method of Sephadex G200 column chromatography. No qualitative differences in binding patterns were observed between serum proteins of the patients and normal persons. From these results, serum proteins were thought to be minor determinants of the hepatic ICG uptake mechanism. Because of normal or nearly normal plasma BSP clearance in these patients, the contents of hepatic organic anion-binding proteins, Y and Z, were thought to be sufficient. Possible qualitative abnormalities of the Y and/or Z proteins were also discussed. PMID:976692

  4. The molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed serum proteins to endothelial cells adhesion and growth on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dayun; L, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2013-07-01

    To explore molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth on biomaterials, this study examined endothelial cell adhesion, morphology and viability on bare and titanium nitride (TiN) coated nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys and chitosan film firstly, and then identified the type and amount of serum proteins adsorbed on the three surfaces by proteomic technology. Subsequently, the mediation role of the identified proteins to cell adhesion and growth was investigated with bioinformatics analyses, and further confirmed by a series of cellular and molecular biological experiments. Results showed that the type and amount of adsorbed serum proteins associated with cell adhesion and growth was obviously higher on the alloys than on the chitosan film, and these proteins mediated endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the alloys via four ways. First, proteins such as adiponectin in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface receptors to generate signal transduction, which activated cell surface integrins through increasing intracellular calcium level. Another way, thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer promoted TGF-? signaling pathway activation and enhanced integrins expression. The third, RGD sequence containing proteins such as fibronectin 1, vitronectin and thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with activated integrins to activate focal adhesion pathway, increased focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton organization and mediated cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, the activated focal adhesion pathway promoted the expression of cell growth related genes and resulted in cell proliferation. The fourth route, coagulation factor II (F2) and fibronectin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface F2 receptor and integrin, activated regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway and regulated actin cytoskeleton organization. PMID:23660250

  5. Influence of serum proteins on the accumulation of aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX in cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, M. M.; Vernon, David I.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1995-03-01

    Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) induced porphyrin biosynthesis and the resulting in vitro phototoxicity have been determined in both SV40 transformed Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and PtK2 epithelial cells. Both cell lines respond to the addition of exogenous ALA, producing porphyrin linearly with ALA concentrations up to 0.3 mM. Notably the only accumulating porphyrin detected by HPLC was PpIX. Although the levels of PpIX are both dependent on the time and concentration used, the final intracellular porphyrin concentration is dictated by the presence of serum. When ALA is added in medium containing 10% new born calf serum, 90 - 95% of the induced porphyrin appears in the incubation medium. In the absence of serum, the intracellular PpIX levels are maintained and only under these conditions can successful in vitro PDT be performed. Gel permeation chromatography has indicated that the afflux of PpIX is promoted by the low density and high density lipoproteins, with an unknown protein (mw < 66000) contributing significantly to the effect seen. It appears that this protein is present at very low concentrations in both foetal and new born calf serum.

  6. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (?250M) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125M; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-?-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50M, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl. PMID:26057938

  7. Serum protein profile study of clinical samples using high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence: case of cervical and oral cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karemore, Gopal; Sujatha, .; Rai, Lavanya; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh C., .

    2009-02-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for establishing the ability of HPLC-LIF protein profiling technique for discrimination, using hard clustering and Fuzzy clustering methods. The clustering algorithms have quite successfully classified the profiles as belonging to normal, cancer of cervix, and oral cancer conditions.

  8. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3?-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  9. An alternative method for serum protein depletion/enrichment by precipitation at mildly acidic pH values and low ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Henning, Ann-Kristin; Albrecht, Dirk; Riedel, Katharina; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Karger, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Serum proteome analysis is severely hampered by the extreme dynamic range of protein concentrations, but tools for the specific depletion of highly abundant serum proteins lack for most farm and companion animals. A well-established alternative strategy to reduce the dynamic range of plasma protein concentrations, treatment with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL), is generally applicable but requires large amounts of sample. Therefore, additional depletion/enrichment protocols for plasma and serum samples from animals are desirable. In this respect, we have tested a protein precipitate that formed after withdrawal of salt from human, bovine, or porcine serum at pH 4.2. The bovine sample was composed of over 300 proteins making it a potential source for biomarker discovery. Precipitation was highly reproducible and the concentrations of albumin and other highly abundant serum proteins were strongly reduced. In comparison to the CPLL treatment, precipitation did not introduce any selection bias based on hydrophathy or pI. However, the composition of both preparations was partially complementary. Salt withdrawal at pH 4.2 is suggested as additional depletion/enrichment strategy for serum samples. Also, we point out that the removal of precipitates from serum samples under the described conditions bears the risk of losing a valuable protein fraction. PMID:25644273

  10. Serum heat shock protein 27 levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Gabriella; Carucci, Patrizia; Lolli, Valentina; Cosso, Loretta; Dellavalle, Erika; Rolle, Emanuela; Cantamessa, Alessandro; Pinach, Silvia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Campra, Donata; Brunello, Franco; Bruno, Graziella; Rizzetto, Mario; Perin, Paolo Cavallo

    2013-03-01

    Levels of serum heat shock protein 27 (sHsp27) have been studied in numerous cancer types, but their potential relevance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is undetermined. Our aim was to compare sHsp27 levels in patients with HCC and HCC-free controls. Specifically, we recruited 71 patients with HCC (80% with early tumour), 80 patients with chronic liver disease (59 with liver cirrhosis and 21 with chronic active hepatitis) and 42 healthy subjects. sHsp27 was measured by immunoenzymatic assay. Results showed that sHsp27 levels were significantly (p?

  11. Serum protein electrophoresis under effective control of HIV-1 disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Adebayo Lawrence; Adenikinju, Rufus Omotayo; Ajele, Joshua Olufemi; Olawoye, Theophilus Ladapo

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we compared the serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) patterns in a subset of HIV-1-infected subjects who did not progress to AIDS without antiretroviral treatment with those in whose control of disease progression was achieved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). SPE and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed on Helena Electrophoresis System according to manufacturers instructions. The percentage of SPE abnormalities, resembling chronic inflammation, was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected subject without HAART compared with those under HAART (p = 0.001). The majority of individuals under HAART showed evidence of oligoclonal bands on the ?-band against a polyclonal background compared with those without HAART but -?-band bridging was more evident. Immunofixation pattern was consistent with oligoclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia of IgG kappa type, which was found to be more intense in group without HAART. HIV clinical status did not show appreciable effect on the SPE pattern in subjects without HAART. However, under effective HAART, subjects with better CD4 T-cell count were associated with higher ?-globulin band. In group without HAART, acute infection was found to be associated the higher ?-globulin fraction compared with chronic infection. The opposite was the case under effective HAART. HIV infected subjects that did not progress to AIDS were associated with markedly abnormal SPE pattern. Overall results reflect the host ability compensate defective cellular immunity in HIV-1 infection with humoral immune responses. These findings underscore the usefulness of SPE monitoring HIV disease management and identifying individuals that may not progress to full-blown AIDS in the absence of treatment. PMID:26417299

  12. Maternal Serum C-Reactive Protein in Women with Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Martin; Cobo, Teresa; Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Methods This study was a prospective observational cohort study of 386 women. Maternal serum CRP concentrations were evaluated, and amniotic fluid samples were obtained via transabdominal amniocentesis at the time of admission. Placentas underwent histopathological examination after delivery. MIAC was defined based on a positive PCR for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis and/or positive 16S rRNA gene amplification. HCA was defined based on the Salafia classification. Results Maternal CRP was significantly higher in women with MIAC and HCA (median 9.0 mg/l) than in women with HCA alone (median 6.9 mg/l), MIAC alone (median 7.4 mg/l) and without MIAC or HCA (median 4.5 mg/l) (p<0.0001). CRP was a weak predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Only the 95th percentile of CRP and PPROM before 32 weeks exhibited a false-positive rate of 1%, a positive predictive value of 90% and a positive likelihood ratio of 13.2 to predict MIAC and HCA. However, the low sensitivity of 15% limits the clinical utility of this detection. Conclusion CRP is a poor predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA, even at early gestational ages. PMID:26942752

  13. Screening and identification of five serum proteins as novel potential biomarkers for cured pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Wei, Li-Liang; Shi, Li-Ying; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Yu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Tian-Yu; Liu, Chang-Ming; Ping, Ze-Peng; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Zhong-Liang; Mao, Lian-Gen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods for the determination of cured tuberculosis (TB) are lacking. A total of 85 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) analysis (fold change >1.50 or <0.60, P < 0.05). We validated albumin (ALB), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (ARHGDIB), complement 3 (C3), ficolin-2 (FCN2), and apolipoprotein (a) (LPA) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Significantly increased ALB and LPA levels (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012, respectively) and significantly reduced ARHGDIB, C3, and FCN2 levels (P < 0.001, P = 0.035, and P = 0.018, respectively) were observed in cured TB patients compared with untreated TB patients. In addition, changes in ALB and FCN2 levels occurred after 2 months of treatment (P < 0.001 and P = 0.030, respectively). We established a cured TB model with 87.10% sensitivity, 79.49% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.876. The results indicated that ALB, ARHGDIB, C3, FCN2, and LPA levels might serve as potential biomarkers for cured TB. Our study provides experimental data for establishing objective indicators of cured TB and also proposes potential markers for evaluating the efficacy of anti-TB drugs. PMID:26499913

  14. Some hereditary blood factors of the Bengali Muslim of Bangladesh (red cell enzymes, haemoglobins, and serum proteins).

    PubMed

    Papiha, S S; Roberts, D F; Ali, S G; Islam, M M

    1975-08-25

    In a sample of Bengali Muslems from Dacca, haptoglobin, group-specific component, haemoglobin, adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, acid phosphatase and several other red cell enzyme types were studied. For most serum protein and red cell enzyme systems the gene frequencies are similar to those in other populations to the west of Bangladesh, but others suggest affinity with populations to the east. PMID:51817

  15. MATERNAL SERUM INTERLEUKIN-6, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, AND MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9 CONCENTRATIONS AS RISK FACTORS FOR PRETERM BIRTH < 32 WEEKS AND ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Yoram; Romero, Roberto; Mele, Lisa; Wapner, Ronald J.; Iams, Jay D.; Dudley, Donald J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Harper, Margaret; Caritis, Steve N.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sibai, Baha

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Elevated concentrations of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in fetal and neonatal compartments have been associated with an increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and/or neonatal morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 in women at risk for preterm birth (PTB) who are not in labor, and have intact membranes, are associated with an increased risk for preterm birth < 32 weeks and/or neonatal morbidity. STUDY DESIGN Maternal serum samples collected from 475 patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of single versus weekly corticosteroids for women at increased risk for preterm delivery were assayed. Serum was collected at randomization (24-32 weeks gestation). Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 were subsequently determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP and MMP-9, and preterm birth < 32 weeks, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Chronic Lung Disease (CLD), Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH), Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) and Any Sepsis (S). RESULTS Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, above the 90th percentile, at the time of randomization, were associated with preterm birth < 32 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between RDS and NEC and the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, or MMP-9 (univariate analysis). The development of CLD was associated with a high (above 90th percentile) IL-6 and CRP in maternal serum, even after adjustment for gestational age (GA) at randomization, and treatment group. However, when GA at delivery was added to the model, this finding was non-significant. Neonatal sepsis was more frequent in neonates born to mothers with a high maternal serum concentration of CRP (above >90th percentile). However, there was no significant association after adjustment for GA at randomization, and treatment group. Logistic regression analysis for each analyte indicated that high maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, were associated with an increased risk of IVH (O.R. 4.60, 95% C.I. 1.86-10.68; O.R. 4.07, 95% C.I. 1.63-9.50), after adjusting for GA at randomization and treatment group. Most babies (25/30) had grade I IVH. When GA at delivery was included, elevated IL-6 remained significantly associated with IVH (O.R. 2.77, 95% C.I. 1.02-7.09). CONCLUSION An elevated maternal serum concentration of IL-6 and CRP are risk factors for preterm birth < 32 weeks and subsequent development of neonatal IVH. An elevated maternal serum IL-6 appears to confer additional risk for IVH even after adjusting for gestational age at delivery. PMID:20195952

  16. Photoactivable analogs for labeling 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum binding protein and for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutner, A.; Link, R. P.; Schnoes, H. K.; DeLuca, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    3-Azidobenzoates and 3-azidonitrobenzoates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as well as 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 3-deoxy-3-azido-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared as photoaffinity labels for vitamin D serum binding protein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein. The compounds prepared were easily activated by short- or long-wavelength uv light, as monitored by uv and ir spectrometry. The efficacy of the compounds to compete with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the binding site of serum binding protein and receptor, respectively, was studied to evaluate the vitamin D label with the highest affinity for the protein. The presence of an azidobenzoate or azidonitrobenzoate substituent at the C-3 position of 25-OH-D3 significantly decreased (10(4)- to 10(6)-fold) the binding activity. However, the labels containing the azido substituent attached directly to the vitamin D skeleton at the C-3 position showed a high affinity, only 20- to 150-fold lower than that of the parent compounds with their respective proteins. Therefore, 3-deoxy-3-azidovitamins present potential ligands for photolabeling of vitamin D proteins and for studying the structures of the protein active sites.

  17. Centromere protein F includes two sites that couple efficiently to depolymerizing microtubules.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vladimir A; Grissom, Paula M; Arzhanik, Vladimir K; Zaytsev, Anatoly V; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Old, William M; Ahn, Natalie; McIntosh, J Richard

    2015-06-22

    Firm attachments between kinetochores and dynamic spindle microtubules (MTs) are important for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere protein F (CENP-F) has been shown to include two MT-binding domains, so it may participate in this key mitotic process. Here, we show that the N-terminal MT-binding domain of CENP-F prefers curled oligomers of tubulin relative to MT walls by approximately fivefold, suggesting that it may contribute to the firm bonds between kinetochores and the flared plus ends of dynamic MTs. A polypeptide from CENP-F's C terminus also bound MTs, and either protein fragment diffused on a stable MT wall. They also followed the ends of dynamic MTs as they shortened. When either fragment was coupled to a microbead, the force it could transduce from a shortening MT averaged 3-5 pN but could exceed 10 pN, identifying CENP-F as a highly effective coupler to shortening MTs. PMID:26101217

  18. Centromere protein F includes two sites that couple efficiently to depolymerizing microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Grissom, Paula M.; Arzhanik, Vladimir K.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Firm attachments between kinetochores and dynamic spindle microtubules (MTs) are important for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere protein F (CENP-F) has been shown to include two MT-binding domains, so it may participate in this key mitotic process. Here, we show that the N-terminal MT-binding domain of CENP-F prefers curled oligomers of tubulin relative to MT walls by approximately fivefold, suggesting that it may contribute to the firm bonds between kinetochores and the flared plus ends of dynamic MTs. A polypeptide from CENP-F’s C terminus also bound MTs, and either protein fragment diffused on a stable MT wall. They also followed the ends of dynamic MTs as they shortened. When either fragment was coupled to a microbead, the force it could transduce from a shortening MT averaged 3–5 pN but could exceed 10 pN, identifying CENP-F as a highly effective coupler to shortening MTs. PMID:26101217

  19. Binding of complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein contributes to serum resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis1

    PubMed Central

    Potempa, Michal; Potempa, Jan; Okroj, Marcin; Popadiak, Katarzyna; Eick, Sigrun; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M.

    2008-01-01

    The periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, is highly resistant to the bactericidal activity of human complement, which is present in the gingival crevicular fluid at 70% of serum concentration. All thirteen clinical and laboratory P. gingivalis strains tested were able to capture the human complement inhibitor, C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which may contribute to their serum resistance. Accordingly, in serum deficient of C4BP, it was found that significantly more terminal complement component C9 was deposited on P. gingivalis. Moreover, using purified proteins and various isogenic mutants, we found that the cysteine protease gingipain HRgpA is a crucial C4BP ligand on the bacterial surface. Binding of C4BP to P. gingivalis appears to be localized to two binding sites: on the complement control protein (CCP) 1 domain and CCP 67 domains of the ?-chains. Furthermore, the bacterial binding of C4BP was found to increase with time of culture and a particularly strong binding was observed for large aggregates of bacteria that formed during culture on solid blood agar medium. Taken together, gingipains appeared to be a very significant virulence factor not only destroying complement due to proteolytic degradation as we have shown previously but was also inhibiting complement activation due to their ability to bind complement inhibitor C4BP. PMID:18832711

  20. Integrative proteomics and tissue microarray profiling indicate the association between overexpressed serum proteins and non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansheng; Luo, Xiaoyang; Hu, Haichuan; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yihua; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinically, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by the early detection and risk screening among population. To meet this need, here we describe the application of extensive peptide level fractionation coupled with label free quantitative proteomics for the discovery of potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer, and the usage of Tissue microarray analysis (TMA) and Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assays for the following up validations in the verification phase. Using these state-of-art, currently available clinical proteomic approaches, in the discovery phase we confidently identified 647 serum proteins, and 101 proteins showed a statistically significant association with NSCLC in our 18 discovery samples. This serum proteomic dataset allowed us to discern the differential patterns and abnormal biological processes in the lung cancer blood. Of these proteins, Alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), two plasma glycoproteins with previously unknown function were selected as examples for which TMA and MRM verification were performed in a large sample set consisting about 100 patients. We revealed that A1BG and LRG1 were overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases. PMID:23284758

  1. Purification, characterization and binding interactions of the Chinese-cobra (Naja naja atra) serum antitoxic protein CSAP.

    PubMed Central

    Shao, J; Shen, H; Havsteen, B

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of the single-chain protein in Chinese-cobra (Naja naja atra) blood serum, which yields strong specific protection against the venom of the same snake, is reported. The protein, CSAP (cobra serum antitoxic protein), was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Over the pH range 5-9 it formed stable complexes with the neuro- and the cardio-toxin of the snake. The molecular size of the CSAP was estimated to be 70.3 +/- 0.3 kDa. Tryptic hydrolysis of CSAP yielded several peptides that were able to bind to the toxin. The native CSAP maximally bound 8 +/- 1 toxin molecules/molecule. Six tryptic fragments, containing 5-39 residues, were sequenced. The longest of these displayed sequence similarity to rat serum albumin. The protective effect of the CSAP was demonstrated in vivo on mice and in vitro by measurement of the rate of haemolysis. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the binding interactions of the neurotoxin and the CSAP were determined from the rates of displacement of 125I-labelled toxin from its complexes with the CSAP by unlabelled toxin by using a DEAE-cellulose filter assay for CSAP-toxin complexes. The toxin molecules rapidly dissociated from one type of site and slowly from a second. The binding capacity and concentration of the CSAP suffice to explain the protective effect of the latter against the toxin. Images Figure 6 PMID:8343135

  2. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Serum Retinol-Binding Protein Develop Progressive Retinal Degeneration through a Retinoid-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mei; Otalora, Laura; Martin, Ashley A.; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Vanlandingham, Phillip; Wang, Qilong; Farjo, Rafal; Yeganeh, Alexander; Quiambao, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol in the blood, but it is also an adipokine with retinol-independent, proinflammatory activity associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, two separate studies reported that patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy have increased serum RBP4 levels compared to patients with mild or no retinopathy, yet the effect of increased levels of RBP4 on the retina has not been studied. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing RBP4 (RBP4-Tg mice) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by photoreceptor ribbon synapse deficiency and subsequent bipolar cell loss. Ocular retinoid and bisretinoid levels are normal in RBP4-Tg mice, demonstrating that a retinoid-independent mechanism underlies retinal degeneration. Increased expression of pro-interleukin-18 (pro-IL-18) mRNA and activated IL-18 protein and early-onset microglia activation in the retina suggest that retinal degeneration is driven by a proinflammatory mechanism. Neither chronic systemic metabolic disease nor other retinal insults are required for RBP4 elevation to promote retinal neurodegeneration, since RBP4-Tg mice do not have coincident retinal vascular pathology, obesity, dyslipidemia, or hyperglycemia. These findings suggest that elevation of serum RBP4 levels could be a risk factor for retinal damage and vision loss in nondiabetic as well as diabetic patients. PMID:26055327

  3. Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with artificial neural network distinguishes glioma from healthy population or brain benign tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zheng, Shu; Yu, Jie-kai; Zhang, Jian-min; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    To screen and evaluate protein biomarkers for the detection of gliomas (Astrocytoma grade I-IV) from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors by using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. SELDI-TOF-MS protein fingerprinting of serum from 105 brain tumor patients and healthy individuals, included 28 patients with glioma (Astrocytoma I-IV), 37 patients with brain benign tumor, and 40 age-matched healthy individuals. Two thirds of the total samples of every compared pair as training set were used to set up discriminating patterns, and one third of total samples of every compared pair as test set were used to cross-validate; simultaneously, discriminate-cluster analysis derived SPSS 10.0 software was used to compare Astrocytoma grade I-II with grade III-IV ones. An accuracy of 95.7%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% were obtained in a blinded test set comparing gliomas patients with healthy individuals; an accuracy of 86.4%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 84.6%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 85.7% were obtained when patient's gliomas was compared with benign brain tumor. Total accuracy of 85.7%, accuracy of grade I-II Astrocytoma was 86.7%, accuracy of III-IV Astrocytoma was 84.6% were obtained when grade I-II Astrocytoma was compared with grade III-IV ones (discriminant analysis). SELDI-TOF-MS combined with bioinformatics tools, could greatly facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers. The high sensitivity and specificity achieved by the use of selected biomarkers showed great potential application for the discrimination of gliomas patients from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors. PMID:15593384

  4. The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    A scaffoldin gene cluster was identified in the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. The previously described scaffoldin gene, cipV, encodes an N-terminal family 9 glycoside hydrolase, a family 3b cellulose-binding domain, seven cohesin domains, and a C-terminal dockerin. The gene immediately downstream of cipV was sequenced and designated scaB. The protein encoded by this gene has 942 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 100,358 and includes an N-terminal signal peptide, four type II cohesions, and a C-terminal dockerin. ScaB cohesins 1 and 2 are very closely linked. Similar, but not identical, 39-residue Thr-rich linker segments separate cohesin 2 from cohesin 3 and cohesin 3 from cohesin 4, and an 84-residue Thr-rich linker connects the fourth cohesin to a C-terminal dockerin. The scaC gene downstream of scaB codes for a 1,237-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. A long, ca. 550-residue linker separates the third cohesin and the SLH module of ScaC and is characterized by an 18-residue Pro-Thr-Ala-Ser-rich segment that is repeated 27 times. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaC polypeptide (excluding the signal peptide) is 124,162. The presence of the cohesins and the conserved SLH module implies that ScaC acts as an anchoring protein. The ScaC cohesins are on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree that is close to, but distinct from, the type I cohesins. Affinity blotting with representative recombinant probes revealed the following specific intermodular interactions: (i) an expressed CipV cohesin binds selectively to an enzyme-borne dockerin, (ii) a representative ScaB cohesin binds to the CipV band of the cell-free supernatant fraction, and (iii) a ScaC cohesin binds to the ScaB dockerin. The experimental evidence thus indicates that CipV acts as a primary (enzyme-recognizing) scaffoldin, and the protein was also designated ScaA. In addition, ScaB is thought to assume the role of an adaptor protein, which connects the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) to the cohesin-containing anchoring scaffoldin (ScaC). The cellulosome system of A. cellulolyticus thus appears to exhibit a special type of organization that reflects the function of the ScaB adaptor protein. The intercalation of three multiple cohesin-containing scaffoldins results in marked amplification of the number of enzyme subunits per cellulosome unit. At least 96 enzymes can apparently be incorporated into an individual A. cellulolyticus cellulosome. The role of such amplified enzyme incorporation and the resultant proximity of the enzymes within the cellulosome complex presumably contribute to the enhanced synergistic action and overall efficient digestion of recalcitrant forms of cellulose. Comparison of the emerging organization of the A. cellulolyticus cellulosome with the organizations in other cellulolytic bacteria revealed the diversity of the supramolecular architecture. PMID:12867464

  5. Zeptomole Detection of C-Reactive Protein in Serum by a Nanoparticle Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Aptasensor

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Stephen A.; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers (i.e. proteins) are often in low abundance in bodily fluids presenting many challenges for their detection. In order to extend the application of SPRi systems in detecting biomarkers at ultralow levels, we combine the advantage of aptamer technology with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. By implementing a sandwich assay through the introduction of aptamer-modified quantum dots (QDs), it was possible to measure 7 zeptomole (at 5?fg/mL) of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively in spiked human serum. It is expected that the proposed platform will provide new direction in designing ultrasensitive SPRi biosensors with multiplexing capabilities. PMID:24875139

  6. Altered serum and salivary C-reactive protein levels in patients with oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Metgud, R; Bajaj, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein synthesized primarily in the liver, is a marker for inflammation and for the progression of many cancers. We compared serum and salivary CRP levels in 20 normal individuals, 20 patients with oral premalignant lesions and 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to assess its efficacy as a prognostic indicator for OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for CRP levels. Mean CRP levels were higher in patients with oral premalignant lesions compared to controls. CRP levels in OSCC patients were elevated and were associated with advanced tumor stages. PMID:26529498

  7. Zeptomole Detection of C-Reactive Protein in Serum by a Nanoparticle Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Aptasensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Stephen A.; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2014-05-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers (i.e. proteins) are often in low abundance in bodily fluids presenting many challenges for their detection. In order to extend the application of SPRi systems in detecting biomarkers at ultralow levels, we combine the advantage of aptamer technology with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. By implementing a sandwich assay through the introduction of aptamer-modified quantum dots (QDs), it was possible to measure 7 zeptomole (at 5 fg/mL) of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively in spiked human serum. It is expected that the proposed platform will provide new direction in designing ultrasensitive SPRi biosensors with multiplexing capabilities.

  8. Implant debris particle size affects serum protein adsorption which may contribute to particle size-based bioreactivity differences

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anand; Caicedo, Marco; Samelko, Lauryn; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    Biologic reactivity to orthopedic implant debris mediates long-term clinical performance of total joint arthroplasty implants. However, why some facets of implant debris are more pro-inflammatory remains controversial such as particle size, shape, base material etc. This precludes accurate prediction and optimal design of modern total joint replacements. We hypothesized that debris particle size can influence adsorbed protein film composition and affect subsequent bioreactivity. We measured size-dependent protein film-adsorption, and adsorbed protein film-dependent cytokine release using equal surface areas of different sized cobalt-chromium-alloy (CoCr-alloy) particle and in vitro challenge of human macrophages (THP-1 and human primary). Smaller 5μm vs 70μm sized particles preferentially adsorbed more serum protein in general (p<0.03), where higher molecular weight serum proteins consistent with IgG were identified. Additionally, 5μm CoCr-alloy particles pre-coated with different protein biofilms (IgG vs albumin) resulted in differential cytokine expression where albumin-coated particles induced more TNF-α and IgG-coated particles induced more IL-1β release from human monocyte/macrophages. In these preliminary in vitro studies we demonstrated the capability of equal surface areas of different particle sizes to influence adsorbed protein composition and that adsorbed protein differences on identical particles can translate into complex differences in bioreactivity. Together this suggests adsorbed protein differences on different sized particles of the same material may be a contributing mechanism by which different sized particles induce differences in reactivity. PMID:24941408

  9. Serum protein and casein concentration: effect on pH and freezing point of milk with added CO2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protein concentration and protein type [i.e., casein (CN) and serum protein (SP)] on pH (0 degree C) and freezing point (FP) of skim milk upon CO2 injection at 0 degree C. CN-free skim milks with increasing SP content (0, 3, and 6%) and skim milks with the same SP content (0.6%) but increasing CN content (2.4, 4.8, and 7.2%) were prepared using a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. CO2 was injected into milks at 0 degree C using a continuous flow carbonation unit (230 ml/min). Increasing SP or CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. At the same CO2 concentration at 0 degree C, a milk with a higher SP or a higher CN concentration had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease. The buffering capacity provided by an increase of CN was contributed by both the CN itself and the colloidal salts solublized into the serum phase from CN upon carbonation. Skim milks with the same true protein content (3%), one with 2.4% CN plus 0.6% SP and one with 3% SP, were compared. At the same true protein content (3%), increasing the proportion of CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. Milk with a higher proportion of CN had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease at the same carbonation level at 0 degree C. Once CO2 was dissolved in the skim portion of a milk, the extent of pH reduction and FP depression depended on protein concentration and protein type (i.e., CN and SP). PMID:12778569

  10. Calcium dobesilate reduces endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein serum levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Javadzadeh, Alireza; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Adl, Farzad Hami; Andalib, Dima; Khojasteh-Jafari, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the benefits of calcium dobesilate (CaD) administration on endothelial function and inflammatory status in patients with diabetic retinopathy through measurement of serum levels of endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with either severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy and with blood glucose level of 120200 mg/dl were randomly allocated to treatment with either CaD tablets (500 mg daily) or placebo for 3 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular status were performed before the study. The serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP were evaluated in both groups before and at the third month of the trial. Results The median serum level of hsCRP significantly differed between the groups 3 months following the CaD or placebo administration (2.2 mg/l in the CaD group versus 3.7 mg/l in the placebo group, p=0.01). The mean endothelin-1 serum level was 0.690.32 pg/ml in the CaD group and 0.860.30 pg/ml in the placebo group (p=0.01). Furthermore, in the CaD group, the serum levels of both endothelin-1 and hsCRP were significantly decreased 3 months after administration of CaD (p<0.001). Conclusions Administration of the CaD in the patients with diabetic retinopathy may reduce the serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP. This might imply amelioration of the endothelial function and inflammatory status following CaD therapy in these patients. PMID:23335852

  11. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the authors research into teratogenesis of blood serum of patients on medication or rats injected with drugs is presented. In addition studies concerning the role of methionine in the developing fetus is given. 68 refs.

  12. Isolation of protein-associated circular DNA from healthy cattle serum.

    PubMed

    Funk, Mathis; Gunst, Karin; Lucansky, Vincent; Mller, Hermann; Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-01-01

    Three replication-competent single-stranded DNA molecules sharing nucleotide similarity to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 2.36 were isolated from healthy bovine serum. PMID:25169856

  13. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M. L.; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A.; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F.; Gait, Michael J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Roberts, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P < 0.001, q < 0.01) in mdx mice. Additionally, systemic treatment with a peptide-antisense oligonucleotide conjugate designed to induce Dmd exon skipping and recover dystrophin protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients. PMID:26594036

  14. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics.

    PubMed

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F; Gait, Michael J; Lochmller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J A; Roberts, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P?protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients. PMID:26594036

  15. Comparison of Measured GFR, Serum Creatinine, Cystatin C, and Beta-Trace Protein to Predict ESRD in African Americans With Hypertensive CKD

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Nrupen A.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Contreras, Gabriel; Bakris, George; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are at highest risk to progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) is necessary to reduce the burden of kidney failure. The relative utility of traditional markers of kidney function, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine, and emerging markers of kidney function, including cystatin C and beta-trace protein (BTP), to predict ESRD and mortality has yet to be established. Study Design Randomized clinical trial followed by an observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 865 African American individuals with hypertensive CKD enrolled in a clinical trial of two levels of blood pressure control and three different antihypertensive drugs as initial therapy and subsequently followed by an observational cohort study. Predictors Quintile of measured GFR (mGFR) by iothalamate clearance, serum creatinine, serum creatinine-based estimated GFR (eGFRSCr), cystatin C, and BTP. Outcomes and Measurements Incidence of ESRD and mortality. Results A total of 246 participants reached ESRD over a median follow-up of 102 months. The incidence rate of ESRD was higher with higher quintiles of each marker. The association between higher BTP and ESRD was stronger than those for the other markers, including mGFR. All the markers remained significantly associated with ESRD after adjustment for mGFR and relevant covariates (all p<0.05), with BTP retaining the strongest association (HR for highest versus lowest quintile, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.2-14.9). Associations with the combined endpoint of ESRD or mortality (n=390) were weaker, but remained significant for cystatin C (p=0.05) and BTP (p=0.004). Limitations The ability of these markers to predict ESRD and mortality in other racial and ethnic groups and among individuals with CKD due to other causes is unknown. Conclusions Plasma BTP and cystatin C may be useful adjuncts to serum creatinine and mGFR in evaluating risk for progression of kidney disease. PMID:21944667

  16. Reactivity of anticancer metallodrugs with serum proteins: new insights from size exclusion chromatography-ICP-MS and ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Michael; Terenghi, Mattia; Casini, Angela; Elviri, Lisa; Lobinski, Ryszard; Dyson, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on the coupling of high resolution size-exclusion liquid chromatography using a polymer stationary phase with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed to study the interactions of two metallodrugs cisplatin and RAPTA-T with the serum proteins albumin and transferrin. In contrast to previous approaches, the technique allowed the total recovery of the metals from the column and was able to discriminate between the different species of the metallodrugs and their complexes with the proteins at femtomolar detection levels. Metal binding was found to be dependent on the protein concentration and on the incubation time of the sample. Cisplatin was found to bind the serum proteins to the same extent, whereas RAPTA-T showed marked preference for transferrin. The affinity of the ruthenium complex for holo-transferrin was higher than for the apo-form suggesting a cooperative iron-mediated metal binding mechanism. RAPTA-T binding to holo-transferrin was further investigated by electrospray mass spectrometry using both the intact protein and a model peptide mimicking the iron-binding pocket. PMID:21151827

  17. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC–MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465.

  18. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  19. The Effect of Simulated Microgravity Environment of RWV Bioreactors on Surface Reactions and Adsorption of Serum Proteins on Bone-bioactive Microcarriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radin, Shula; Ducheyne, P.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    Biomimetically modified bioactive materials with bone-like surface properties are attractive candidates for use as microcarriers for 3-D bone-like tissue engineering under simulated microgravity conditions of NASA designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors. The simulated microgravity environment is attainable under suitable parametric conditions of the RWV bioreactors. Ca-P containing bioactive glass (BG), whose stimulatory effect on bone cell function had been previously demonstrated, was used in the present study. BG surface modification via reactions in solution, resulting formation of bone-like minerals at the surface and adsorption of serum proteins is critical for obtaining the stimulatory effect. In this paper, we report on the major effects of simulated microgravity conditions of the RWV on the BG reactions surface reactions and protein adsorption in physiological solutions. Control tests at normal gravity were conducted at static and dynamic conditions. The study revealed that simulated microgravity remarkably enhanced reactions involved in the BG surface modification, including BG dissolution, formation of bone-like minerals at the surface and adsorption of serum proteins. Simultaneously, numerical models were developed to simulate the mass transport of chemical species to and from the BG surface under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions. The numerical results showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data at both testing conditions.

  20. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  1. Simple and rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone, using the protein A of Staphylococcus aureus as immunoadsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jungers, J.; Delogne-Desnoeck, J.; Robyn, C.

    1981-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive radioimmunoassay method for serum progesterone is described, which uses a solid-phase technique for separation of antibody-bound from antibody-free progesterone. Rabbit antiprogesterone immunoglobulins are adsorbed on the protein A of formaldehyde- and heat-treated Staphylococcus aureus cells (Pansorbin; Calbiochem-Behring Corp., La Jolla, California). The suspension of antibody-coated Pansorbin retains all its binding activity of 1-2-H(N)-progesterone when kept at + 4/sup 0/ or at -25/sup 0/C for at least 4 months. Dose-response curves obtained with ether-serum extracts and with the progesterone standard do not deviate significantly from parallelism. The progesterone standard gives identical dose-response curves whether diluted in the assay buffer or in a progesterone-free ether-serum extract. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.02 ng/assay tube. The intra-assay variation coefficient is 16%, and the routine interassay variation coefficient is 17%. The mean serum progesterone concentrations were 0.55 ng/ml during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and 12.5 ng/ml during the luteal phase. The average blank value for distilled water was 0.02 ng/assay tube.

  2. Fluctuations of Serum Neuron Specific Enolase and Protein S-100B Concentrations in Relation to the Use of Shunt during Carotid Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dragas, Marko; Koncar, Igor; Opacic, Dragan; Ilic, Nikola; Maksimovic, Zivan; Markovic, Miroslav; Ercegovac, Marko; Simic, Tatjana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Davidovic, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in serum neuron specific enolase and protein S-100B, after carotid endarterectomy performed using the conventional technique with routine shunting and patch closure, or eversion technique without the use of shunt. Materials and Methods Prospective non-randomized study included 43 patients with severe (>80%) carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy in regional anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups: conventional endarterectomy with routine use of shunt and Dacron patch (csCEA group) and eversion endarterectomy without the use of shunt (eCEA group). Protein S-100B and NSE concentrations were measured from peripheral blood before carotid clamping, after declamping and 24 hours after surgery. Results Neurologic examination and brain CT findings on the first postoperative day did not differ from preoperative controls in any patients. In csCEA group, NSE concentrations decreased after declamping (P<0.01), and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.01), while in the eCEA group NSE values slightly increased (P=ns), accounting for a significant difference between groups on the first postoperative day (P=0.006). In both groups S-100B concentrations significantly increased after declamping (P<0.05), returning to near pre-clamp values 24 hours after surgery (P=ns). Sub-group analysis revealed significant decline of serum NSE concentrations in asymptomatic patients shunted during surgery after declamping (P<0.05) and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.01), while no significant changes were noted in non-shunted patients (P=ns). Decrease of NSE serum levels was also found in symptomatic patients operated with the use of shunt on the first postoperative day (P<0.05). Significant increase in NSE serum levels was recorded in non-shunted symptomatic patients 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion Variations of NSE concentrations seemed to be influenced by cerebral perfusion alterations, while protein S-100B values were unaffected by shunting strategy. Routine shunting during surgery for symptomatic carotid stenosis may have the potential to prevent postoperative increase of serum NSE levels, a potential marker of brain injury. PMID:25859683

  3. Intuitive, but not simple: including explicit water molecules in protein-protein docking simulations improves model quality.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Hardik I; Kellogg, Glen E

    2014-06-01

    Characterizing the nature of interaction between proteins that have not been experimentally cocrystallized requires a computational docking approach that can successfully predict the spatial conformation adopted in the complex. In this work, the Hydropathic INTeractions (HINT) force field model was used for scoring docked models in a data set of 30 high-resolution crystallographically characterized "dry" protein-protein complexes and was shown to reliably identify native-like models. However, most current protein-protein docking algorithms fail to explicitly account for water molecules involved in bridging interactions that mediate and stabilize the association of the protein partners, so we used HINT to illuminate the physical and chemical properties of bridging waters and account for their energetic stabilizing contributions. The HINT water Relevance metric identified the "truly" bridging waters at the 30 protein-protein interfaces and we utilized them in "solvated" docking by manually inserting them into the input files for the rigid body ZDOCK program. By accounting for these interfacial waters, a statistically significant improvement of ?24% in the average hit-count within the top-10 predictions the protein-protein dataset was seen, compared to standard "dry" docking. The results also show scoring improvement, with medium and high accuracy models ranking much better than incorrect ones. These improvements can be attributed to the physical presence of water molecules that alter surface properties and better represent native shape and hydropathic complementarity between interacting partners, with concomitantly more accurate native-like structure predictions. PMID:24214407

  4. Multiplexing of miniaturized planar antibody arrays for serum protein profiling--a biomarker discovery in SLE nephritis.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Linn; Dexlin-Mellby, Linda; Bengtsson, Anders A; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Wingren, Christer

    2014-06-01

    In the quest to decipher disease-associated biomarkers, miniaturized and multiplexed antibody arrays may play a central role in generating protein expression profiles, or protein maps, of crude serum samples. In this conceptual study, we explored a novel, 4-times larger pen design, enabling us to, in a unique manner, simultaneously print 48 different reagents (antibodies) as individual 78.5 μm(2) (10 μm in diameter) sized spots at a density of 38,000 spots cm(-2) using dip-pen nanolithography technology. The antibody array set-up was interfaced with a high-resolution fluorescent-based scanner for sensitive sensing. The performance and applicability of this novel 48-plex recombinant antibody array platform design was demonstrated in a first clinical application targeting SLE nephritis, a severe chronic autoimmune connective tissue disorder, as the model disease. To this end, crude, directly biotinylated serum samples were targeted. The results showed that the miniaturized and multiplexed array platform displayed adequate performance, and that SLE-associated serum biomarker panels reflecting the disease process could be deciphered, outlining the use of miniaturized antibody arrays for disease proteomics and biomarker discovery. PMID:24763547

  5. DECREASED HEART RATE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBAMATE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY SERUM PROTEINS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that chlorpyrifos (CHP), an irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, induces hypertension in rats. Concomitant with hypertension, we found an increase in C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 , monocyte chemotactic protein-5 and interfer...

  6. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1981-09-01

    The hypothesis that the responses of cultured rat embryos to a medium consisting of serum were indicative of the teratogenic activity of the serum as well as of the teratological risk to the organism donating the serum has been investigated. This hypothesis appeared reasonable because, first, only a whole embryo undergoing rapid growth and development might possess all those events that have the potential of sensitivity to a teratogen. Second, maternal serum has generally been considered a close representation of those substances which might reach the developing embryo. The procedures developed by New (1978) and his associates were used for the isolation of head fold stage (9 1/2 days) rat embryos (with Reichert's membrane removed but yolk sac and ectoplacental cone left intact) and for the preparation of serum as a culture medium (immediate centrifugation and heat inactivation). In addition, we used their recommended 30 rpm culture bottle rotation and their changes of O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ levels. All experiments have lasted 48 hours as embryo viability was reduced after this period. The general objective has been to evaluate and to demonstrate possible applications of the cultured rat embryo teratogenic activity test.

  7. Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Protein 27 is Increased by Cast Immobilization and by Serum-free Starvation in Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Cast immobilization- and cell starvation-induced loss of muscle mass are closely associated with a dramatic reduction in the structural muscle proteins. Heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that are constitutively expressed in several eukaryotic cells and have been shown to protect against various stressors. However, the changes in the phosphorylation of atrophy-related heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) are still poorly understood in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examine whether or not phosphorylation of HSP27 is changed in the skeletal muscles after cast immobilization and serum-free starvation with low glucose in a time-dependent manner. [Methods] We undertook a HSP27 expression and high-resolution differential proteomic analysis in skeletal muscles. Furthermore, we used western blotting to examine protein expression and phosphorylation of HSP27 in atrophied gastrocnemius muscle strips and L6 myoblasts. [Results] Cast immobilization and starvation significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of HSP27 in a time-dependent manner, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that cast immobilization- and serum-free starvation-induced atrophy may be in part related to changes in the phosphorylation of HSP27 in rat skeletal muscles. PMID:25540511

  8. Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Protein 27 is Increased by Cast Immobilization and by Serum-free Starvation in Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] Cast immobilization- and cell starvation-induced loss of muscle mass are closely associated with a dramatic reduction in the structural muscle proteins. Heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that are constitutively expressed in several eukaryotic cells and have been shown to protect against various stressors. However, the changes in the phosphorylation of atrophy-related heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) are still poorly understood in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examine whether or not phosphorylation of HSP27 is changed in the skeletal muscles after cast immobilization and serum-free starvation with low glucose in a time-dependent manner. [Methods] We undertook a HSP27 expression and high-resolution differential proteomic analysis in skeletal muscles. Furthermore, we used western blotting to examine protein expression and phosphorylation of HSP27 in atrophied gastrocnemius muscle strips and L6 myoblasts. [Results] Cast immobilization and starvation significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of HSP27 in a time-dependent manner, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that cast immobilization- and serum-free starvation-induced atrophy may be in part related to changes in the phosphorylation of HSP27 in rat skeletal muscles. PMID:25540511

  9. Complementary mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of the protein corona: a case study on gold nanoparticles and human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Iglesias, Nerea; Bettmer, Jrg

    2015-09-14

    Once nanoparticles enter a biological system, it is known that their surface is instantly covered by the biomolecules present with preference to proteins. This protein corona has been a subject of numerous studies in order to reveal its composition. Besides that, growing interest exists in its quantitative determination in order to gain a deeper insight into the nature of these nanoparticle-protein bioconjugates. Only a few analytical methods are available nowadays, so the aim of this study is to provide a reliable and alternative methodology for the quantification of the protein corona. The suggested approach is based on the assumption that the total protein content within the corona can be correlated to its sulfur concentration due to the presence of cysteine and methionine as sulfur-containing amino acids. Once the most abundant proteins had been identified with the use of gel electrophoresis with subsequent peptide analysis by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the isolated nanoparticle-protein conjugates were subjected to total analysis of sulfur and the corresponding metal being present in the nanoparticles by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concept is exemplarily demonstrated on citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) incubated with human serum. Two different purification procedures were tested in order to isolate the sought bioconjugates. 26 most abundant proteins could be identified and an average of approximately 40 S atoms per protein was calculated and used for further studies. ICP-MS analyses of S/Au ratios served for the quantification of the protein corona revealing an absolute number of proteins bound to the incubated GNPs. Two main results could be obtained for this specific system under the chosen experimental conditions: the number of proteins per GNP decreased with their size from 10 nm to 60 nm and the obtained values suggested that the protein corona in this specific case was theoretically formed either as a monolayer (60 nm GNPs) or as a multilayer (5-7 protein layers per 10 nm GNP). Studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein showed similar results. PMID:26243030

  10. Ceruloplasmin and Iron Proteins in the Serum of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torsdottir, Gudlaug; Kristinsson, Jakob; Snaedal, Jón; Jóhannesson, Torkell

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims The oxidative activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) in serum has been found to be lowered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether changes in CP were reflected by altered iron parameters in AD patients. Methods Iron parameters, and CP concentration, activity and specific activity were determined in the serum of 41 AD patients and controls. Results CP activity and specific activity were significantly lower in the AD patients. CP concentration and activity were negatively correlated with the ferritin concentration in both groups. CP concentration was positively correlated with age in the control group but not in the patients group. Conclusion The lowered CP activity in the serum of AD patients was not reflected by the iron parameters. As CP concentration only rises with age in the controls, this may indicate failing adaption to age-related alterations in iron metabolism in AD patients. PMID:22187543

  11. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  12. A novel multiplex-protein array for serum diagnostics of colon cancer: a casecontrol study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 1.2 million new cases of colorectal cancer are reported each year worldwide. Despite actual screening programs, about 50% of the patients are diagnosed at advanced tumor stages presenting poor prognosis. Innovative screening tools could aid the detection at early stages and allow curative treatment interventions. Methods A nine target multiplex serum protein biochip was generated and evaluated using a training- and validation-set of 317 highly standardized, liquid nitrogen preserved serum samples comprising controls, adenomas, and colon cancers. Results Serum levels of CEA, IL-8, VEGF, S100A11, MCSF, C3adesArg, CD26, and CRP showed significant differences between cases and controls. The largest areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve were observed for CEA, IL-8, and CRP. At threshold levels yielding 90% specificity, sensitivities for CEA, IL-8 and CRP were 26%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. The most promising marker combinations were CEA?+?IL-8 reaching 37% sensitivity at 83% specificity and CEA?+?CRP with 35% sensitivity at 81% specificity. In an independent validation set CEA?+?IL-8 reached 47% sensitivity at 86% specificity while CEA?+?CRP obtained 39% sensitivity at 86% specificity. Early carcinomas were detected with 33% sensitivity for CEA?+?IL-8 and 28% for CEA?+?CRP. Conclusions Apart from CEA, IL-8, and CRP, the screening value of additional blood markers and the potential advantage of combining serum biochip testing with fecal occult blood testing needs to be studied. Multiplex biochip array technology utilizing serum samples offers an innovative approach to colorectal cancer screening. PMID:22954206

  13. Rapid and serum-insensitive endocytotic delivery of proteins using biotinylated polymers attached via multivalent hydrophobic anchors.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Kyohei; Li, Cuicui; Takeo, Masafumi; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Niidome, Takuro; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2014-03-10

    We have designed biotinylated polymers as synthetic receptors that have multiple alkyl groups for endocytotic delivery of target proteins. The polymers were stably attached to a cell surface via multivalent anchoring. The presented biotin was bound to streptavidin (SA) on the cell surface, and, via an endocytotic pathway, the cell rapidly internalized the biotinylated polymer/SA complex. The cell's uptake of the complex was not inhibited by the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum, and its efficacy for the uptake of SA was the highest when compared with commercial reagents and single-anchored-type synthetic receptors. The synthetic receptor-mediated endocytosis can be used generally for other kind of protein by using SA as an adaptor molecule between a target protein and the cell-surface presented biotin. PMID:24389131

  14. Interaction study on bovine serum albumin physically binding to silver nanoparticles: Evolution from discrete conjugates to protein coronas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Zhong, Ruibo; Li, Wanrong; Liu, Yushuang; Bai, Zhijun; Yin, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Gong, Pei; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The nanostructures formed by inorganic nanoparticles together with organic molecules especially biomolecules have attracted increasing attention from both industries and researching fields due to their unique hybrid properties. In this paper, we systemically studied the interactions between amphiphilic polymer coated silver nanoparticles and bovine serum albumins by employing the fluorescence quenching approach in combination with the Stern-Volmer and Hill equations. The binding affinity was determined to 1.30 107 M-1 and the interaction was spontaneously driven by mainly the van der Waals force and hydrogen-bond mediated interactions, and negatively cooperative from the point of view of thermodynamics. With the non-uniform coating of amphiphilic polymer, the silver nanoparticles can form protein coronas which can become discrete protein-nanoparticle conjugates when controlling their molar ratios of mixing. The protein's conformational changes upon binding nanoparticles was also studied by using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  15. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. Methods The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Results Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R?=?0.20, p?serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are more susceptible to respiratory infections. Atopy may be an additional factor modifying susceptibility to infections in subjects performing regular high-load exercise. PMID:24735334

  16. Gene-Specific DNA Methylation Association with Serum Levels of C-Reactive Protein in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan V.; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A.; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.

    2013-01-01

    A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications. PMID:23977389

  17. Gene-specific DNA methylation association with serum levels of C-reactive protein in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2013-01-01

    A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications. PMID:23977389

  18. Adaptation and cultivation of permanent fish cell line CCO in serum-free medium and influence of protein hydrolysates on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Radoevi?, Kristina; Duki?, Bogdanka; Andlar, Martina; Slivac, Igor; Gaurina Sr?ek, Vinja

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe the adaptation of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line to commercially available Ultra Culture serum-free medium by gradual reduction of serum concentration from 10 to 0%. With this approach we obtained CCO cells fully adapted to serum-free conditions in 32days. Growth, nutritional and morphological characteristics of these cells remained unchanged when compared to the control group kept in the presence of serum. Additionally, three commercially available protein hydrolysates were tested for the effects on growth performance of the newly serum-free adapted CCO cells. Supplementation with wheat gluten hydrolysate resulted in growth similar to serum free medium solely, while yeast and soy hydrolysates showed inhibitory effects on the cell growth. Taken together, the successful adaptation of CCO cells to serum-free conditions indicates their potential to be used in cytotoxicity assays when serum omission is demanded or for developing serum free bioprocesses using CCO cells. However, a more extended study on nutrient supplementation is still required to further boost the cell growth in a serum free culture. PMID:24993608

  19. Serum Proteins and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, M. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Six 4- to 37-year-old patients with tuberosis sclerosis (a chronic condition characterized by siezures, intercranial calcification, a reddish-yellow sebaceous glandular mass on the face, and frequent crises in early years), did not exhibit an elevation of the (alpha + beta) globulin fraction in their serum. (Author/MC)

  20. A probiotic mixture including galactooligosaccharides decreases fecal ?-glucosidase activity but does not affect serum enterolactone concentration in men during a two-week intervention.

    PubMed

    Kekkonen, Riina A; Holma, Reetta; Hatakka, Katja; Suomalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2011-05-01

    A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 10(10) CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8-26.4)] by probiotics alone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P = 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal ?-glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased ?-glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and with probiotics alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal ?-glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal ?-glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone. PMID:21411613

  1. Serum Level of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) Before and After Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure in Children.

    PubMed

    Zoair, Amr; Mawlana, Wegdan; Abo-Elenin, Amany; Korrat, Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Remodeling of the heart following injury affects the morbidity and mortality in children presented with heart failure (HF). Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel biomarker that could be of help to predict the prognosis and risk stratification in those children. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of H-FABP in children with heart failure before and after treatment. The study was conducted as a prospective cohort study. It included 30 children with HF as a patient group and 20 healthy children matched for age and sex as a control group. Echocardiographic assessment of the heart was done using conventional Doppler echocardiography. Serum levels of (H-FABP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment of HF. All patients were observed during follow-up period of 3months. There was a significant difference in the serum level of H-FABP in our patients before treatment (5.2783.253ng/ml) compared with after treatment (2.0890.160ng/ml) with significant difference compared with the control group. There was a significant increase in the serum level of H-FABP with increase in the severity of heart failure according to Ross classification. Significant increase in the H-FABP was associated with adverse outcome. Serum levels of H-FABP strongly correlated with clinical and echocardiographic assessment of LV performance of children with HF, and its levels significantly increased in children with adverse outcome suggesting its value as a useful diagnostic and prognostic predictor (with high sensitivity and specificity). PMID:26123812

  2. Control of cell cycle regulatory protein expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemic cells cultured in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Laud, K; Hsieh, T; Wu, J

    1997-11-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (herein referred to as vitamin D-3), the natural vitamin D-3 formed by successive hydroxylation of cholecalciferol at the 25 and 1 alpha position, and numerous vitamin D-3 analogs, have been reported to decrease proliferation and promote terminal differentiation from several types of human malignant cells, including the human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemic cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what extent the cell culture conditions affect the sensitivity of the HL-60 cells to vitamin D-3, both in terms of cell growth, differentiation, and changes in expression of specific proteins. Addition of 10 nM and 100 nM vitamin D-3 to HL-60 cells cultured in the serum-free, chemically defined medium of insulin/transferrin/selenium (ITS) effected cell growth differently than cells maintained in a fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. In addition to the greater degree of growth suppression by 100 nM vitamin D-3, cells maintained in serum-free medium also displayed significantly higher levels of monocytic differentiation. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that a pronounced arrest of cell cycling at the G(1)-to-S-phase transition, concomitant with a corresponding 36% down-regulation of cyclin D1 and, in parallel, a similar decreased hyperphosphorylation of pRb, was elicited by 100 nM vitamin D-3. These results indicate that the sensitivity of HL-60 cells to vitamin D-3 is dependent on the availability of serum. PMID:21528312

  3. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  4. Testicular androgen-binding protein (ABP): comparison of ABP in rabbit testis and epididymis with a similar androgen-binding protein (TeBG) in rabbit serum.

    PubMed

    Hansson, V; Ritzen, M E; French, F S; Weddington, S C; Nayfeh, S N

    1975-07-01

    Testicular androgen-binding proteins (ABP) in rabbit testis, caput epididymis and efferent duct fluid (EDF) were compared to a similar androgen-binding protein TeBg) in rabbit serum. The affinity of these proteins for 5alpha-dihydrotesterone (DHT) at 0 degrees C (KaABP = 1.6 X 10(9) M-1 and KaTeBG = 1.9 X 10(9) M-1) and their steroid specificities were similar (DHT greater than androstanediol greater than progesterone and androstenedione). ABP and TeBG had also almost identical Stokes radii (42.8 +/- 1.2 and 43.9 +- 0.8 A, respectively), sedimentation coefficients (4.7 +/- 0.2 S and 4.4 +/- 0.2 S, respectively) and electrophoretic mobility (Rf = 0.4 in 6 1/2% polyacrylamide gels). Calculation of molecular weights from Stokes radii and sedimentation rates indicated a molecular weight of 74,000 (69,000-78,000) for TeBG and 76,000 (71,000-82,000) for ABP. The corresponding frictional ratios were 1.61 for TeBG and 1.55 for ABP assuming a partial specific volume (v) of 0.70 cm3/g. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at different gel concentrations gave a mean molecular radius of 2.74 nm, also indicating a molecular weight of about 75,000 (v = 0.70 cm3/g. ABP and TeBG could not be separated by PAGE; however, partial separation of ABP and TeBG was achieved by isoelectric focusing and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. TeBG focused at pH 5.4, whereas ABP formed a distinct peak of bound radioactivity at pH 4.7. Also by ionexchange chromatography, ABP in both testis and epididymal supernatants was shown to have an apparently higher surface charge than TeBG in rabbit serum. The concentration of ABP in efferent duct fluid (2 X 10(-7) M = 60 pmol/mg protien) was much higher than TeBG in male rabbit serum (5.2 X 10(-8) M = 0.7 pmol/mg protein). These findings ruled against the possibility that ABP in the testis and epididymis could have been derived directly from serum. It is concluded that ABP and TeBG are very similar if not identical proteins both serving as transport and carrier proteins in their respective compartments. PMID:168102

  5. Collectin in a non-mammalian species: isolation and characterization of mannan-binding protein (MBP) from chicken serum.

    PubMed

    Laursen, S B; Hedemand, J E; Thiel, S; Willis, A C; Skriver, E; Madsen, P S; Jensenius, J C

    1995-09-01

    A chicken serum lectin was isolated by affinity chromatography on TSK-75 beads derivatized with the monosaccharide N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Serum was applied to the column in a Ca(2+)-containing buffer and proteins were eluted with EDTA. After recalcification, the eluate was passed through a new ManNAc-derivatized column. Bound proteins were eluted with 50 mM ManNAc. Anti-carbohydrate antibodies present in the eluate were removed by passage through a rabbit anti-chicken immunoglobulin derivatized column, and the lectin was further purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The purified chicken lectin shows an overall structure similar to mammalian mannan-binding protein (MBP). SDS-PAGE revealed two polypeptides of M(r) 33 and 34 kDa (reduced) with identical sequence for the first 30 NH2-terminal residues. The NH2-terminal sequence shows 43% identity with the human MBP. Like mammalian MBP, the polypeptides of the chicken lectin are degraded by treatment with collagenase. Residues 26-30 (G-L-P(OH)-G-D) are likely to represent the beginning of the collagenous region. Mobilities on SDS-PAGE of the COOH-terminal collagenase-resistant fragment under reduced and non-reduced conditions indicate the presence of intrachain disulphide bonds, as are also found in mammalian MBP. Gel chromatography showed an intact mol. wt of 750 kDa. Binding of the chicken MBP to mannan was inhibited by monosaccharides in the following order of potency: ManNAc > L-fucose > mannose > N-acetylglucosamine. Other monosaccharides inhibited poorly or not at all. Chicken MBP, bound to mannan, activated the classical complement pathway in human serum. Electron micrographs show structures and dimensions resembling human MBP. Overall, the results show that the purified lectin is the chicken homologue to mammalian MBP and indicate the presence of a MBP-like clearance system outside mammals. PMID:8563142

  6. Investigation of serum protein profiles in scrapie infected sheep by means of SELDI-TOF-MS and multivariate data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical scrapie in sheep is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with the conversion PrPC to PrPSc. Much is known about genetic susceptibility, uptake and dissemination of PrPSc in the body, but many aspects of prion diseases are still unknown. Different proteomic techniques have been used during the last decade to investigate differences in protein profiles between affected animals and healthy controls. We have investigated the protein profiles in serum of sheep with scrapie and healthy controls by SELDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS. Latent Variable methods such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis and Target Projection methods were used to describe the MS data. Results The serum proteomic profiles showed variable differences between the groups both throughout the incubation period and at the clinical end stage of scrapie. At the end stage, the target projection model separated the two groups with a sensitivity of 97.8%, and serum amyloid A was identified as one of the protein peaks that differed significantly between the groups. Conclusions At the clinical end stage of classical scrapie, ten SELDI peaks significantly discriminated the scrapie group from the healthy controls. During the non-clinical incubation period, individual SELDI peaks were differently expressed between the groups at different time points. Investigations of differences in -omic profiles can contribute to new insights into the underlying disease processes and pathways, and advance our understanding of prion diseases, but comparison and validation across laboratories is difficult and challenging. PMID:24229425

  7. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2014-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. PMID:25086369

  8. Validation of virus inactivation and removal for the manufacturing procedure of two immunoglobulins and a 5% serum protein solution treated with beta-propiolactone.

    PubMed

    Dichtelmller, H; Rudnick, D; Breuer, B; Gnshirt, K H

    1993-09-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulins and serum protein solutions are manufactured from human plasma pools of healthy, screened donors. A step-by-step validation of virus removal and/or inactivation was performed for the manufacturing process, which includes cold ethanol fractionation, beta-propiolactone (beta-PL) treatment, UV irradiation, thermal inactivation and other chemical and physical purification steps. The total viral clearance factors achieved for the entire manufacturing process were by several magnitudes greater than the potential virus load of current plasma pools. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infectivity was reduced by > 13.4 log for 7S immunoglobulin, > 15.3 log for IGM enriched immunoglobulin and > 16 log for a 5% serum protein solution. In addition, high clearance rate for a broad spectrum of model viruses was demonstrated for all three blood derivatives being > 23.2 to > 27.8 log for pseudo rabies virus (PSR), > 12.3 to > 22.6 log for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and 6.9-10.6 log for simian virus 40 (SV40). For the beta-propiolactone inactivation step Hepatitis C model viruses, e.g. equine arteritis virus (EAV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) were also investigated. PMID:8117439

  9. Complementary mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of the protein corona: a case study on gold nanoparticles and human serum proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez-Iglesias, Nerea; Bettmer, Jrg

    2015-08-01

    Once nanoparticles enter a biological system, it is known that their surface is instantly covered by the biomolecules present with preference to proteins. This protein corona has been a subject of numerous studies in order to reveal its composition. Besides that, growing interest exists in its quantitative determinati