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Sample records for serum retinol-binding protein

  1. Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Derebe, Mehabaw G; Zlatkov, Clare M; Gattu, Sureka; Ruhn, Kelly A; Vaishnava, Shipra; Diehl, Gretchen E; MacMillan, John B; Williams, Noelle S; Hooper, Lora V

    2014-01-01

    Retinol plays a vital role in the immune response to infection, yet proteins that mediate retinol transport during infection have not been identified. Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are strongly induced in the liver by systemic infection and in the intestine by bacterial colonization, but their exact functions remain unclear. Here we show that mouse and human SAAs are retinol binding proteins. Mouse and human SAAs bound retinol with nanomolar affinity, were associated with retinol in vivo, and limited the bacterial burden in tissues after acute infection. We determined the crystal structure of mouse SAA3 at a resolution of 2 Å, finding that it forms a tetramer with a hydrophobic binding pocket that can accommodate retinol. Our results thus identify SAAs as a family of microbe-inducible retinol binding proteins, reveal a unique protein architecture involved in retinol binding, and suggest how retinol is circulated during infection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03206.001 PMID:25073702

  2. Identification and Characterization of a Non-retinoid Ligand for Retinol-binding Protein 4 Which Lowers Serum Retinol-binding Protein 4 Levels in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Motani, Alykhan; Wang, Zhulun; Conn, Marion; Siegler, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Qingxiang; Johnstone, Sheree; Xu, Haoda; Thibault, Steve; Wang, Yingcai; Fan, Pingchen; Connors, Richard; Le, Hoa; Xu, Guifen; Walker, Nigel; Shan, Bei; Coward, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) transports retinol from the liver to extrahepatic tissues, and RBP4 lowering is reported to improve insulin sensitivity in mice. We have identified A1120, a high affinity (Ki = 8.3 nm) non-retinoid ligand for RBP4, which disrupts the interaction between RBP4 and its binding partner transthyretin. Analysis of the RBP4-A1120 co-crystal structure reveals that A1120 induces critical conformational changes at the RBP4-transthyretin interface. Administration of A1120 to mice lowers serum RBP4 and retinol levels but, unexpectedly, does not improve insulin sensitivity. In addition, we show that Rpb4-/- mice display normal insulin sensitivity and are not protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. We conclude that lowering RBP4 levels does not improve insulin sensitivity in mice. Therefore, RBP4 lowering may not be an effective strategy for treating diabetes. PMID:19147488

  3. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  8. Liver Retinol Transporter and Receptor for Serum Retinol-binding Protein (RBP4)*

    PubMed Central

    Alapatt, Philomena; Guo, Fangjian; Komanetsky, Susan M.; Wang, Shuping; Cai, Jinjin; Sargsyan, Ashot; Rodríguez Díaz, Eduardo; Bacon, Brandon T.; Aryal, Pratik; Graham, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) is absorbed in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). Circulating retinol may be taken up by extrahepatic tissues or recycled back to liver multiple times before it is finally metabolized or degraded. Liver exhibits high affinity binding sites for RBP4, but specific receptors have not been identified. The only known high affinity receptor for RBP4, Stra6, is not expressed in the liver. Here we report discovery of RBP4 receptor-2 (RBPR2), a novel retinol transporter expressed primarily in liver and intestine and induced in adipose tissue of obese mice. RBPR2 is structurally related to Stra6 and highly conserved in vertebrates, including humans. Expression of RBPR2 in cultured cells confers high affinity RBP4 binding and retinol transport, and RBPR2 knockdown reduces RBP4 binding/retinol transport. RBPR2 expression is suppressed by retinol and retinoic acid and correlates inversely with liver retinol stores in vivo. We conclude that RBPR2 is a novel retinol transporter that potentially regulates retinol homeostasis in liver and other tissues. In addition, expression of RBPR2 in liver and fat suggests a possible role in mediating established metabolic actions of RBP4 in those tissues. PMID:23105095

  9. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Serum Retinol-Binding Protein Develop Progressive Retinal Degeneration through a Retinoid-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mei; Otalora, Laura; Martin, Ashley A.; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Vanlandingham, Phillip; Wang, Qilong; Farjo, Rafal; Yeganeh, Alexander; Quiambao, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol in the blood, but it is also an adipokine with retinol-independent, proinflammatory activity associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, two separate studies reported that patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy have increased serum RBP4 levels compared to patients with mild or no retinopathy, yet the effect of increased levels of RBP4 on the retina has not been studied. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing RBP4 (RBP4-Tg mice) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by photoreceptor ribbon synapse deficiency and subsequent bipolar cell loss. Ocular retinoid and bisretinoid levels are normal in RBP4-Tg mice, demonstrating that a retinoid-independent mechanism underlies retinal degeneration. Increased expression of pro-interleukin-18 (pro-IL-18) mRNA and activated IL-18 protein and early-onset microglia activation in the retina suggest that retinal degeneration is driven by a proinflammatory mechanism. Neither chronic systemic metabolic disease nor other retinal insults are required for RBP4 elevation to promote retinal neurodegeneration, since RBP4-Tg mice do not have coincident retinal vascular pathology, obesity, dyslipidemia, or hyperglycemia. These findings suggest that elevation of serum RBP4 levels could be a risk factor for retinal damage and vision loss in nondiabetic as well as diabetic patients. PMID:26055327

  10. Hepatic uptake of (TH)retinol bound to the serum retinol binding protein involves both parenchymal and perisinusoidal stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blomhoff, R.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.

    1985-11-05

    We have studied the hepatic uptake of retinol bound to the circulating retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex. Labeled complex was obtained from the plasma of donor rats that were fed radioactive retinol. When labeled retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex was injected intravenously into control rats, about 45% of the administered dose was recovered in liver after 56 h. Parenchymal liver cells were responsible for an initial rapid uptake. Perisinusoidal stellate cells initially accumulated radioactivity more slowly than did the parenchymal cells, but after 16 h, these cells contained more radioactivity than the parenchymal cells. After 56 h, about 70% of the radioactivity recovered in liver was present in stellate cells. For the first 2 h after injection, most of the radioactivity in parenchymal cells was recovered as unesterified retinol. The radioactivity in the retinyl ester fraction increased after a lag period of about 2 h, and after 5 h more than 60% of the radioactivity was recovered as retinyl esters. In stellate cells, radioactivity was mostly present as retinyl esters at all time points examined. Uptake of retinol in both parenchymal cells and stellate cells was reduced considerably in vitamin A-deficient rats. Less than 5% of the injected dose of radioactivity was found in liver after 5-6 h (as compared to 25% in control rats), and the radioactivity recovered in liver from these animals was mostly in the unesterified retinol fraction. Studies with separated cells in vitro suggested that both parenchymal and stellate cells isolated from control rats were able to take up retinol from the retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin complex. This uptake was temperature dependent.

  11. Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells comprising the blood-brain barrier of rat and human

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.N.; Ong, D.E. ); Bok, D. )

    1990-06-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requires vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur.

  12. Localization of Cellular Retinol-Binding Protein and Retinol-Binding Protein in Cells Comprising the Blood-Brain Barrier of Rat and Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Paul N.; Bok, Dean; Ong, David E.

    1990-06-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requiries vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature and within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur.

  13. Liver takes up retinol-binding protein from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gjoen, T.; Bjerkelund, T.; Blomhoff, H.K.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.; Blomhoff, R.

    1987-08-15

    Retinol is transported in plasma bound to a specific transport protein, retinol-binding protein. We prepared /sup 125/I-tyramine cellobiose-labeled rat retinol-binding protein and studied its tissue uptake 1, 5, and 24 h after intravenous injection into rats. The liver was the organ containing most radioactivity at all time points studied. After 5 and 24 h, 30 and 22% of the injected dose were recovered in liver, respectively. After separating the liver into parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the 5-h group, we found that both cell fractions contained approximately the same amount of radioactivity (per gram of liver). Most of the retinol-binding protein radioactivity in the nonparenchymal cell fraction was in the stellate cells. The implication of these results for a possible transfer mechanism for retinol between parenchymal and stellate cells is discussed.

  14. Retinol binding protein and vitamin D associations with serum antibody isotypes, serum influenza virus-specific neutralizing activities and airway cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Jones, B G; Oshansky, C M; Bajracharya, R; Tang, L; Sun, Y; Wong, S S; Webby, R; Thomas, P G; Hurwitz, J L

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A supports the induction of immunoglobulin (Ig)A responses at mucosal surfaces in mice, but much less is known about the influence of vitamins on antibody isotype expression in humans. To address this knowledge gap, we examined 46 residual blood samples from adults and children, some of whom were experiencing influenza virus infections of the respiratory tract. Assays were performed for retinol binding protein (RBP, a surrogate for vitamin A), vitamin D (a related vitamin) and antibody isotypes. Results showed that all but two tested samples exhibited RBP and/or vitamin D insufficiencies or deficiencies. Vitamin D correlated with blood IgM and IgG3, while RBP correlated with IgG4 and IgA. RBP also correlated positively with age and with influenza virus-specific antibody neutralization titres. Individuals with low blood RBP levels exhibited the highest frequencies of over-expressed cytokines and growth factors in nasal wash samples, an indication of inflamed mucosal tissues. While cause-effect relationships were not discerned, results support a hypothesis that vitamins directly influence B cell isotype expression in humans, and by so doing may help protect mucosal surfaces from respiratory viral disease. PMID:26425827

  15. GC Gene Polymorphism and Unbound Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Are Related to the Risk of Insulin Resistance in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Martín, Elena; Torrejón, María J; Devesa-Medina, María J; Esguevillas, Gara; Cárdenas, María C; Fernández, Cristina; Carballo, Miguel; Agúndez, José A; Ladero, José M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is found in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) more frequently than in other chronic liver diseases.Prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate a wide multitest panel to identify factors related with IR in CHC and their possible interactions.In 76 patients with CHC we performed a series of routine laboratory analysis as well as specifically designed serum biochemical tests [retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), 25-OH vitamin D, Vitamin E, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cystatin C]. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 GC-DBP (group-specific component-Vitamin D-binding protein), rs738409 PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3), and rs12979860 IL28B (interleukin-28 B) genes were determined. Insulin sensitivity was established with the HOMA-IR and IR was diagnosed when HOMA-IR > 3. Fibrosis staging was assessed with liver biopsy or transient elastography.After backward logistic regression analysis, independent variables associated with IR were Gc1s/Gc1s DBP phenotype, that results from the homozygous carriage of the rs7041G/rs4588C haplotype (P = 0.033); low retinol/RBP4 ratio, reflecting a greater rate of unbound RBP4 (P = 0.005); older age (P = 0.01); high serum tryglicerides (P = 0.026); and advanced (F3-F4) fibrosis stage. The AUROC provided by the multivariate model was 0.950 (95% CI = 0.906-0.993).In addition to previously known ones, the Gc1s/Gc1s phenotype variant of DBP and the unbound fraction of plasma RBP4 may be considered as factors related with the incidence, and possibly the risk, of IR in CHC patients. PMID:26962819

  16. The Crystalline Structure of Escherichia Coli Derived, - and Holo-Rat Cellular Retinol Binding Protein II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Nathan Shoup

    1993-01-01

    Crystal of apo- and holo-rat cellular retinol binding protein II from the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli were grown. X-ray data to about 2A resolution for both crystal forms were collected. The phases for both data sets were determined by the molecular replacement technique using cellular retinol binding protein. The structures were then refined. The electron density from bound retinol was observed in the holo-form. Other than the presence or absence of bound retinol, little difference was noted in the structures of the apo- and holo-protein. The retinol was bound in a interior cavity with the hydroxyl group in the center of the protein, and the ionone ring near the surface. The hydroxyl group of the retinol made a hydrogen bond to glutamine 108, and the amine group of lysine 40 came into Van der Waals contact with the isoprene chain. The structure of cellular retinol binding protein II was then compared with the structures of five other intracellular lipid binding proteins: adipocyte lipid binding protein, cellular retinol binding protein, intestinal fatty acid binding protein, p2 protein from myelin sheaths, and a midgut fatty acid binding protein.

  17. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana . E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

    2005-07-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

  18. Circulating Retinol-Binding Protein-4 Concentration Might Reflect Insulin Resistance–Associated Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Moreno, José María; Ricart, Wifredo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The mechanisms behind the association between retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are not well understood. An interaction between iron and vitamin A status, of which RBP4 is a surrogate, has long been recognized. We hypothesized that iron-associated insulin resistance could be behind the impaired insulin action caused by RBP4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Serum ferritin and RBP4 concentration and insulin resistance were evaluated in a sample of middle-aged men (n = 132) and in a replication independent study. Serum RBP4 was also studied before and after iron depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Finally, the effect of iron on RBP4 release was evaluated in vitro in adipose tissue. RESULTS—A positive correlation between circulating RBP4 and log serum ferritin (r = 0.35 and r = 0.61, respectively; P < 0.0001) was observed in both independent studies. Serum RBP4 concentration was higher in men than women in parallel to increased ferritin levels. On multiple regression analyses to predict serum RBP4, log serum ferritin contributed significantly to RBP4 variance after controlling for BMI, age, and homeostasis model assessment value. Serum RBP4 concentration decreased after iron depletion in type 2 diabetic patients (percent mean difference −13.7 [95% CI −25.4 to −2.04]; P = 0.024). The iron donor lactoferrin led to increased dose-dependent adipose tissue release of RBP4 (2.4-fold, P = 0.005) and increased RBP4 expression, while apotransferrin and deferoxamine led to decreased RBP4 release. CONCLUSIONS—The relationship between circulating RBP4 and iron stores, both cross-sectional and after iron depletion, and in vitro findings suggest that iron could play a role in the RBP4–insulin resistance relationship. PMID:18426863

  19. Retinol binding protein 4 in relation to diet, inflammation, immunity, and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Zabetian-Targhi, Fateme; Mahmoudi, Mohammad J; Rezaei, Nima; Mahmoudi, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), previously called retinol binding protein (RBP), is considered a specific carrier of retinol in the blood. It is also an adipokine that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. RBP4 seems to be correlated with cardiometabolic markers in inflammatory chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It has recently been suggested that inflammation produced by RBP4 induces insulin resistance and CVD. The clinical relevance of this hypothesis is discussed in this review. Knowledge concerning the association of RBP4 with inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and CVDs as well as concerning the role of diet and antioxidants in decreasing RBP4 concentrations are discussed. Special attention is given to methodologies used in previously published studies and covariates that should be controlled when planning new studies on this adipokine. PMID:26567199

  20. Subcellular location for the formation of the retinol/retinol-binding protein complex in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Crumbaugh, L.M.; Green, E.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Retinol complexes with retinol-binding protein (RBP) within the hepatocyte, however the subcellular location where complex formation occurs has not previously been identified. A model similar to that of lipoproteins formation has been hypothesized. The authors have identified the initial site of retinol/RBP complex formation. Furthermore, the authors have elucidated the progression of the complex through the subcellular organelles. Intravenous injections of /sup 3/H-retinol suspended in Tween 40 were administered to vitamin A depleted rats. After intervals of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes the rat livers were removed and fractions enriched in rough and smooth microsomes and Golgi apparatus were prepared. Extracts of these subcellular fractions were chromatographed on Sephadex G-100. Simultaneous elution of /sup 3/H-retinol and immunoreactive RBP indicated the presence of the complex. The retinol/RBP complex was observed in rough microsomes 2 minute after the injection of /sup 3/H-retinal. The complex appeared subsequently in smooth microsomes and Golgi apparatus. The complex was first detected serum around 10 minutes after injection. Based on the data, they believe that the retinol/RBP complex formation occurs in rough microsomes.

  1. Identification of SNPs in Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 1 and Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 3 Genes and Their Associations with Laying Performance Traits in Erlang Mountainous Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xiao, Li-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    CRBP1 (cellular retinol binding protein 1) and CRBP3 (cellular retinol binding protein 3), are important components of the retinoid signaling pathway and take part in vitamin A absorption, transport and metabolism. Based on the role of vitamin A in chicken laying performance, we investigated the polymorphism of CRBP1 and CRBP3 genes in 349 chickens using single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods. Only one polymorphism was identified in the third intron of CRBP1, two polymorphisms were detected in CRBP3; they were located in the second intron and the third intron respectively. The association studies between these three SNPs and laying performance traits were performed in Erlang mountainous chicken. Notably, the SNP g.14604G>T of CRBP1 was shown to be significantly associated with body weight at first egg (BWFE), age at first egg (AFE), weight at first egg (WFE) and total number of eggs with 300 age (EN). The CRBP3 polymorphism g.934C>G was associated with AFE, and the g.1324A>G was associated with AFE and BWFE, but none of these polymorphisms were associated with egg quality traits. Haplotype combinations constructed on these two SNPs of CRBP3 gene were associated with BWFE and AFE. In particular, diplotype H2H2 had positive effect on AFE, BWFE, EN, and average egg-laying interval. We herein describe for the first time basic research on the polymorphism of chicken CRBP1 and CRBP3 genes that is predictive of genetic potential for laying performance in chicken. PMID:25083100

  2. Cellular retinol-binding protein and retinoic acid-binding protein in rat testes: effect of retinol depletion.

    PubMed

    Ong, D E; Tsai, C H; Chytil, F

    1976-02-01

    Testes of rats contain two cellular binding proteins of interest in vitamin A metabolism. One protein binds retinoic acid with high specificity; the other binds retinol with high specificity. When the cellular retinol-binding protein was partially purified from rat testes, it exhibited fluorescence excitation and emission spectra similar to that of all-trans-retinol in hexane. Exposure of this preparation to UV light destroyed this fluorescence but spectra identical to the original were obtained after addition of retinol. Hexane extracts of the binding protein had fluorescence spectra identical to all-trans-retinol, suggesting that this compound is bound to the protein in vivo. Extracts of testes from retinol depleted rats were submitted to gel filtration but failed to show a retinol-like fluorescence at the elution position of retinol binding protein. This fluorescence was observed in the preparations from pair fed control animals. However, after addition of all-trans-retinol to the extracts from the depleted rats, fluorescence at that elution position was observed. This indicates that in testes of retinol depleted rats the cellular retinol binding protein is present but without bound retinol, in contrast to the non-depleted rats where 30-43% of the binding protein had bound retinol. The amounts of cellular retinol binding protein and retinoic acid binding protein in testes, as determined by sucrose gradient centrifugation, were found to be similar for retinol depleted and pair fed control rats. PMID:942996

  3. Retinol Binding Protein-4 and Adiponectin Levels in Thyroid Overt and Subclinical Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, S; Papazoglou, D; Zisimopoulos, A; Papanas, N; Tiaka, E; Antonoglou, C; Maltezos, E

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is accompanied by numerous changes in intermediary metabolism. Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and adiponectin are 2 adipocytokines that have multiple metabolic functions. The aim of our study was to examine serum RBP4 and adiponectin levels in clinical (before and after therapy) and subclinical hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls.150 patients with thyroid dysfunction were recruited (65 hyperthyroid and 85 hypothyroid) while 28 euthyroid subjects served as a control group. We measured anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal (free T4, free T3, TSH, insulin) parameters in all participants. RBP-4 and adiponectin were measured using commercial ELISA kits.Mean baseline levels of RBP-4 were higher in patients with clinical hypothyroidism (29.0±10.2 ng/ml, 25.1±12.6 ng/ml, 38.8±16.5 ng/ml, 31.9±13.2 ng/ml, 20.4±8.2 ng/ml in patients with hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthryrodism, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and controls respectively, F=4.86, P<0.001) and decreased significantly in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after normalization of thyroid hormones' levels (from 29.0±10.2 to 24.9±8.4 ng/ml, p=0.003 and from 38.8±16.5 to 29.0±10.8 ng/ml, p=0.001 respectively). We did not observe analogous changes in adiponectin levels in any of the studied groups.RBP-4 levels are higher in patients with clinical hypothyroidism and exhibit a marked decrease after normalization of thyroid function in both hyper and hypothyroid patients. We suggest that RBP-4 may play a role in the metabolic disturbances which accompany thyroid dysfunction. PMID:26575118

  4. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its potential roles in hypercholesterolemia revealed by proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jugnam-ang, Watcharapong; Pannengpetch, Supitcha; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Patcharee; Thippakorn, Chadinee; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Lawung, Ratana; Prachayasittiku, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of hypercholesterolemia on alterations of serum proteins have not been fully elucidated. Herein, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with LC-MS searching has successfully been carried out to investigate the change of protein expression profiles as consequences of raised blood cholesterol at different levels (normal group: total cholesterol 200 mg/dL; borderline high group: total cholesterol 200-239 mg/dL; and high group: total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL) (n = 45). Results revealed that down-regulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) (-2.26 fold), transthyretin (-1.25 fold) and gelsolin (-1.47 fold) was observed in the high group. Meanwhile, the other proteins such as haptoglobin, complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein were up-regulated upto +3.24, +1.96 and +2.04 fold, respectively. Confirmation by Western blotting revealed a significant reduction of RBP4 (approximately 50 %) in individual samples derived from the high group. Presumptive conclusion can be drawn that down-regulation of RBP4 might be attributable to the inflammation of adipocytes caused by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) from adipose tissues. Moreover, the decrease of transthyretin might also be taken into accounts since it is known that the transthyretin usually forms complex with RBP4 to prevent glomerular filtration and excretion through the kidney. The suppressing effect on RBP4 should be potentiated by the increase of complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein, which rendered the adipose tissues to overwhelm the liberation of RBP4 to blood circulation by metabolic and inflammatory processes. Such inflammation could further modulate the induction of cytokine release (e.g. IL-6 and IL-1β), resulting in the synthesis of acute phase protein, in particular, haptoglobin and C-reactive proteins from hepatocytes. However, the mechanism of gelsolin reduction remains unclear. Among these

  5. Rates of synthesis of prealbumin and retinol-binding protein during acute inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Felding, P; Fex, G

    1985-04-01

    The rates of synthesis of prealbumin (PA), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and other plasma proteins were measured in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes isolated from normal rats and from rats 18 h after induction of an inflammatory reaction by subcutaneous injection of croton oil. The inflammatory pattern of protein synthesis seemed to persist in the isolated hepatocytes for 1-2 days. This pattern included significantly decreased rates of synthesis of PA. The rate of synthesis of RBP was probably also decreased, but significantly less than the rate of PA synthesis. The results support the idea that it is mainly the decreased rate of PA synthesis which is responsible for the decreased plasma concentration of PA, and its ligand RBP and retinol during inflammation. PMID:4039519

  6. Fusion protein of retinol-binding protein and albumin domain III reduces liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hongsik; Jeong, Hyeyeun; Park, Sangeun; Yoo, Wonbaek; Choi, Soyoung; Choi, Kyungmin; Lee, Min-Goo; Lee, Mihwa; Cha, DaeRyong; Kim, Young-Sik; Han, Jeeyoung; Kim, Wonkon; Park, Sun-Hwa; Oh, Junseo

    2015-01-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in liver fibrosis, and inactivating HSCs has been considered a promising therapeutic approach. We previously showed that albumin and its derivative designed for stellate cell-targeting, retinol-binding protein–albumin domain III fusion protein (referred to as R-III), inactivate cultured HSCs. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of albumin/R-III in HSCs and examined the anti-fibrotic potential of R-III in vivo. R-III treatment and albumin expression downregulated retinoic acid (RA) signaling which was involved in HSC activation. RA receptor agonist and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase overexpression abolished the anti-fibrotic effect of R-III and albumin, respectively. R-III uptake into cultured HSCs was significantly decreased by siRNA-STRA6, and injected R-III was localized predominantly in HSCs in liver. Importantly, R-III administration reduced CCl4- and bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis. R-III also exhibited a preventive effect against CCl4-inducd liver fibrosis. These findings suggest that the anti-fibrotic effect of albumin/R-III is, at least in part, mediated by downregulation of RA signaling and that R-III is a good candidate as a novel anti-fibrotic drug. PMID:25864124

  7. Retinol Binding Protein-Albumin Domain III Fusion Protein Deactivates Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangeun; Choi, Soyoung; Lee, Min-Goo; Lim, Chaeseung; Oh, Junseo

    2012-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of extracellular matrix, and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of the fibrotic neomatrix and considered as therapeutic target cells. We previously showed that albumin in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the key cell type for pancreatic fibrogenesis, is directly involved in the formation of vitamin A-containing lipid droplets, inhibiting PSC activation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of both albumin and retinol binding protein-albumin domain III fusion protein (R-III), designed for stellate cell-targeted delivery of albumin III, in rat primary HSCs and investigated the underlying mechanism. Forced expression of albumin or R-III in HSCs after passage 2 (activated HSCs) induced lipid droplet formation and deactivated HSCs, whereas point mutations in high-affinity fatty acid binding sites of albumin domain III abolished their activities. Exogenous R-III, but not albumin, was successfully internalized into and deactivated HSC-P2. When HSCs at day 3 after plating (pre-activated HSCs) were cultured in the presence of purified R-III, spontaneous activation of HSCs was inhibited even after passage 2, suggestive of a potential for preventive effect. Furthermore, treatment of HSCs-P2 with R-III led to a significant reduction in both cytoplasmic levels of all-trans retinoic acid and the subsequent retinoic acid signaling. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin deactivates HSCs with reduced retinoic acid levels and that R-III may have therapeutic and preventive potentials on liver fibrosis. PMID:23161170

  8. Decreased retinol-binding protein 4 in the sera of patients with end-stage renal disease after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W X; Zhou, W; Zhang, Z M; Zhang, Z Q; He, J F; Shi, B Y

    2014-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine that has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have very high serum RBP4 levels. However, whether successful kidney transplantation alleviates these elevated serum RBP4 levels is unclear. The serum RBP4 levels of 24 ESRD patients were determined before transplantation and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after kidney transplantation. The control group included 22 healthy subjects. Serum RBP4 concentrations were measured using a commercial kit via the immunologic turbidimetric method, and were related to biomarkers for renal and liver function. The serum RBP4 level of ESRD patients before kidney transplantation (160.8 ± 29.1 mg/L) was approximately 7-fold higher than that of normal controls (22.6 ± 11.0 mg/L; P = 0.000). The serum RBP4 level before transplantation was significantly higher than that at 1 day (65.3 ± 28.4 mg/L), 1 week (48.3 ± 22.9 mg/L), and 1 month after transplantation (53.1 ± 25.5 mg/L; P = 0.000). However, these values were still higher than those of controls (P = 0.000). Univariate regression analysis showed that the percent changes in serum RBP4 concentration before and after kidney transplantation were positively correlated with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, phosphate, and pre-albumin concentrations and negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate. The serum RBP4 concentration of patients with ESRD decreased significantly after kidney transplantation; therefore, we found that serum RBP4 concentration was related to renal function. PMID:25299197

  9. Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Lipocalin 2 and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    FARAHBAKHSH-FARSI, Payam; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; KOOHDANI, Fariba; ZAREI, Mahnaz; JAVANBAKHT, Mohammad Hassan; DERAKHSHANIAN, Hoda; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum levels of lipocalin 2 (LCN 2) and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP 4), increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We sought to determine whether serum LCN 2 and RBP 4 change after an intervention with omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in diabetic patients. Methods: Forty-five type 2 diabetic patients from Iranian Diabetic Association in Tehran, Iran in 2013 were randomly recruited into two groups: one group received 4 g/d omega-3 for 10 wk; and the control group received placebo. Blood samples, food intake records, anthropometric measurements were obtained from all participants at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Fasting RBP 4 plasma levels significantly changed after 10 wk supplementation (P = 0.01). The LCN 2 concentrations decreased in omega-3 group, but the changes were not statistically significant. Omega-3 supplementation had no noticeable effect on anthropometric factors. Conclusion: These findings provide a rationale for omega-3 supplements aimed at lowering serum RBP 4 levels in T2DM. PMID:27114982

  10. Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Lipocalin 2 and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    FARAHBAKHSH-FARSI, Payam; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; KOOHDANI, Fariba; ZAREI, Mahnaz; JAVANBAKHT, Mohammad Hassan; DERAKHSHANIAN, Hoda; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum levels of lipocalin 2 (LCN 2) and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP 4), increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We sought to determine whether serum LCN 2 and RBP 4 change after an intervention with omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in diabetic patients. Methods: Forty-five type 2 diabetic patients from Iranian Diabetic Association in Tehran, Iran in 2013 were randomly recruited into two groups: one group received 4 g/d omega-3 for 10 wk; and the control group received placebo. Blood samples, food intake records, anthropometric measurements were obtained from all participants at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Fasting RBP 4 plasma levels significantly changed after 10 wk supplementation (P = 0.01). The LCN 2 concentrations decreased in omega-3 group, but the changes were not statistically significant. Omega-3 supplementation had no noticeable effect on anthropometric factors. Conclusions: These findings provide a rationale for omega-3 supplements aimed at lowering serum RBP 4 levels in T2DM. PMID:27057523

  11. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  12. Characterisation of a fatty acid and retinol binding protein orthologue from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Keke C; Vermeire, Jon J; Harrison, Lisa M; Bungiro, Richard D; Grant, Wayne; Husain, Sohail Z; Cappello, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Hookworms, bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes, infect nearly one billion people in resource limited countries and are a leading cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Like other nematodes, hookworms lack the capacity to synthesise essential fatty acids de novo and therefore must acquire those from exogenous sources. The cDNA corresponding to a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1 (AceFAR-1) was amplified from adult hookworm mRNA. Studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR demonstrate that AceFAR-1 transcripts are most abundant in the earliest developmental stages of the parasite, and greater in females than males. Using in vitro assays, the recombinant AceFAR-1 (rAceFAR-1) was shown to bind individual fatty acids with equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The pattern of fatty acid uptake by live adult worms cultured ex vivo was similar to the in vitro binding profile of rAceFAR-1, raising the possibility that the native protein may be involved in acquisition of fatty acids by A. ceylanicum. Animals vaccinated orally with rAceFAR-1 and the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin exhibited a statistically significant (40-47%) reduction in intestinal worm burden compared with controls immunized with antigen or adjuvant alone. Together, these data suggest a potential role for AceFAR-1 in hookworm biology, making it a potentially valuable target for drug and vaccine development. PMID:19591834

  13. Synthesis and secretion of interstitial retinol-binding protein by the human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Fliesler, S.J.; Rayborn, M.E.; Fong, S.L.; Landers, R.A.; Bridges, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) is a soluble glycoprotein present between the retina and pigmented epithelium, which may function to shuttle vitamin A derivatives between these tissues. While previous studies have shown that the retina is solely responsible for IRBP synthesis, the specific retinal cell(s) in which this occurs has not been established. Since the carbohydrate moiety of IRBP contains fucose, the authors have analyzed the sites of incorporation of /sup 3/H-fucose in the human retina in vitro, using autoradiography. Following a 30-min pulse incubation, all retinal layers exhibited incorporation of label; however, the rod photoreceptor inner segments contained one- to two-fold more radioactivity than was present in any other retinal compartment. In autoradiographs of retinas recovered following a 4 hr chase incubation, all retinal layers retained similar levels of radioactivity with the exception of the rod photoreceptors, cone photoreceptors and cells in the inner nuclear layer, which lost 75, 11, and 14 percent, respectively of the radioactivity present immediately following the 30-min pulse. Proteins present in the chase incubation medium were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The principal labeled component in the chase medium was identified as IRBP by immunoprecipitation with antibovine-IRBP immunoglobulins.

  14. The new platinum-based anticancer agent LA-12 induces retinol binding protein 4 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The initial pharmacokinetic study of a new anticancer agent (OC-6-43)-bis(acetato)(1-adamantylamine)amminedichloroplatinum (IV) (LA-12) was complemented by proteomic screening of rat plasma. The objective of the study was to identify new LA-12 target proteins that serve as markers of LA-12 treatment, response and therapy monitoring. Methods Proteomic profiles were measured by surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) in 72 samples of rat plasma randomized according to LA-12 dose and time from administration. Correlation of 92 peak clusters with platinum concentration was evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis. Results We identified Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) whose level correlated with LA-12 level in treated rats. Similar results were observed in randomly selected patients involved in Phase I clinical trials. Conclusions RBP4 induction is in agreement with known RBP4 regulation by amantadine and cisplatin. Since retinol metabolism is disrupted in many cancers and inversely associates with malignancy, these data identify a potential novel mechanism for the action of LA-12 and other similar anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22040120

  15. Urinary Kininogen-1 and Retinol binding protein-4 respond to Acute Kidney Injury: predictors of patient prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Ramos-Barron, Angeles; Ruiz-Criado, Jorge; Maroto, Aroa S.; Ortiz, Alberto; Gomez-Alamillo, Carlos; Arias, Manuel; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of therapy for acute kidney injury (AKI) depends on successful prediction of individual patient prognosis. Clinical markers as serum creatinine (sCr) have limitations in sensitivity and early response. The aim of the study was to identify novel molecules in urine which show altered levels in response to AKI and investigate their value as predictors of recovery. Changes in the urinary proteome were here investigated in a cohort of 88 subjects (55 AKI patients and 33 healthy donors) grouped in discovery and validation independent cohorts. Patients’ urine was collected at three time points: within the first 48 h after diagnosis(T1), at 7 days of follow-up(T2) and at discharge of Nephrology(T3). Differential gel electrophoresis was performed and data were confirmed by Western blot (WB), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and kininogen-1 (KNG1) were found significantly altered following AKI. RBP4 increased at T1, and progressively decreased towards normalization. Maintained decrease was observed for KNG1 from T1. Individual patient response along time revealed RBP4 responds to recovery earlier than sCr. In conclusion, KNG1 and RBP4 respond to AKI. By monitoring RBP4, patient’s recovery can be anticipated pointing to a role of RBP4 in prognosis evaluation. PMID:26792617

  16. High expression of cellular retinol binding protein-1 in lung adenocarcinoma is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Doldo, Elena; Costanza, Gaetana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Pompeo, Eugenio; Agostinelli, Sara; Bellezza, Guido; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Giunta, Alessandro; Sidoni, Angelo; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with a low overall survival (OS) despite increasing attempts to achieve an early diagnosis and accomplish surgical and multimodality treatment strategies. Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) regulates retinol bioavailability and cell differentiation, but its role in lung cancerogenesis remains uncertain. Experimental design CRBP-1 expression, clinical outcome and other prognostic factors were investigated in 167 lung adenocarcinoma patients. CRBP-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray sections, gene copy number analysis and tumor methylation specific PCR. Effects of CRBP-1 expression on proliferation/apoptosis gene array, protein and transcripts were investigated in transfected A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Results CRBP-1High expression was observed in 62.3% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS as an independent prognostic factor. CRBP-1 gene copy gain also associated with tumor CRBP-1High status and dedifferentiation. CRBP-1-transfected (CRBP-1+) A549 grew more than CRBP-1− A549 cells. At >1μM concentrations, all trans-retinoic acid and retinol reduced viability more in CRBP-1+ than in CRBP-1− A549 cells. CRBP-1+ A549 cells showed up-regulated RARα/ RXRα and proliferative and transcriptional genes including pAkt, pEGFR, pErk1/2, creb1 and c-jun, whereas RARβ and p53 were strongly down-regulated; pAkt/pErk/ pEGFR inhibitors counteracted proliferative advantage and increased RARα/RXRα, c-jun and CD44 expression in CRBP-1+ A549 cells. Conclusion CRBP-1High expression in lung adenocarcinoma correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS, likely through increased Akt/Erk/EGFR-mediated cell proliferation and differentiation. CRBP-1High expression can be considered an additional marker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26807202

  17. Cellular retinol binding protein 1 could be a tumor suppressor gene in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Rodriguez, Mónica; Arreola, Hugo; Valdivia, Alejandra; Peralta, Raúl; Serna, Humberto; Villegas, Vanessa; Romero, Pablo; Alvarado-Hernández, Beatriz; Paniagua, Lucero; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Meraz, Marco A; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Cervical Cancer (CC) is one of the most important health problems in women. It frequently presents genetic changes at chromosome region 3q21. This region contains the Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 1 gene (CRBP1) which has been implicated as an important element in the development of other types of cancer. The main goal of the present work was to determine the molecular alterations of CRBP1 and its relationship to CC. Methods: To determine the molecular alterations of CRBP1 gene in CC; twenty-six CC and twenty-six healthy cervix samples were evaluated for: 1) Copy number gain by real-time PCR analysis, 2) expression levels by an immunohistochemistry assay on tissue microarray, and 3) the methylation status of the CRBP1 promoter region. Results: The increase in CRBP1 copy number was observed in 10 out of the 26 CC samples analyzed, while healthy cervices samples showed no changes in the copy number. In addition, there was a lack of expression of the CRBP1 gene in an important number of the CC samples (17/26), and the CRBP1 gene promoter was methylated in 15/26 of the CC samples. Interestingly, there was a significant association between the lack of expression of the CRBP1 gene and its methylation status. Conclusions: The data indicates that, both activating and inactivating changes in the CRBP1 gene could be significant events in the development and progression of CC, and the lack of expression of the CRBP1 protein could be related with to the development of CC. We believe that there is enough evidence to consider to CRBP1 gene as a tumor suppressor gene for CC. PMID:24040446

  18. Immunoassay of urinary retinol binding protein as a putative renal marker in cats.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid; Daminet, Sylvie; Notebaert, Sofie; Janssens, Isabel; Meyer, Evelyne

    2008-01-01

    The presence of low molecular weight retinol binding protein (RBP) in urine reflects tubular damage. Therefore, RBP has been used as a renal marker in humans and dogs. Using an anti-human RBP antibody (Ab), this study first demonstrates feline urinary RBP by Western blot analysis and then evaluates its potential as a renal marker in cats by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine was taken by cystocentesis, centrifuged and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Urinary RBP levels were compared in clinically healthy cats (H), chronic renal failure patients (CRF) and cats with hyperthyroidism (HT). The detection of a band at the same position as the human RBP standard with Western blot analysis, indicated that RBP was present in the urine of CRF and HT patients but minimally present in H cats. The data obtained with ELISA were in accordance with these observations. RBP levels were expressed as RBP:creatinine (RBP:c) ratios following normalisation with urinary creatinine. The functional assay sensitivity was 1.37 microg/l RBP. Parallelism between the trend lines of the human RBP standard curve and the curves obtained from sequentially diluted urine samples indicated that feline RBP was recovered. The mean intra-assay coefficient of variance was 7% and the standardised agreement index revealed satisfactory day-to-day repeatability. The RBP:c ratio in all H cats (n=10) was below the assay sensitivity. The groups of CRF and HT patients had increased mean RBP:c ratios of 1.6+/-0.5x10(-2) microg/mg (mean+/-SEM, n=10) and 1.4+/-0.4x10(-2) microg/mg (n=13), respectively. Both groups showed a large variation in the relative RBP concentrations of individual cats. In conclusion, RBP is demonstrated for the first time in urine from most CRF and HT patients and the validated ELISA allows its evaluation as a putative renal marker in cats. PMID:17996888

  19. Carotenoid and retinoid transport to fish oocytes and eggs: what is the role of retinol binding protein?

    PubMed

    Lubzens, E; Lissauer, L; Levavi-Sivan, B; Avarre, J-C; Sammar, M

    2003-12-01

    Fish eggs contain carotenoids, retinals (retinal and dehydroretinal) and retinols (retinol, dehydroretinol and retinyl-esters) that are utilized during embryonic development, after fertilization. The carotenoids (mainly astaxanthins) are transported in the plasma by the low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, and very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) and were found to be associated also with serum albumin. Retinals were found to be associated vitellogenin (VTG), a component of the plasma VHDL fraction that is internalized by oocytes during vitellogenesis. However, the transport of retinols and retinyl-esters that were located in the oil droplet fraction of homogenized eggs, has yet to be elucidated. Retinols are more abundant in freshwater fish eggs than in eggs of marine fish species. Since retinol is transported in the plasma of vertebrates in association with retinol binding protein (RBP), recent studies on the molecular characterization and expression sites of RBP, could contribute to determining the involvement of RBP in transporting retinol to developing oocytes in vertebrates.Recently, results from our laboratory show that RBP mRNA levels in the liver and RBP plasma levels did not significantly change with the onset and during vitellogenesis in the Rainbow trout. These results were in contrast with a dramatic elevation in the mRNA levels of VTG in the liver and an increase in VTG plasma levels that was observed in the same females. Moreover, 17beta-estradiol treatment of immature fish, resulted in relatively lower mRNA levels of RBP in the liver, concomitantly with an increase in the level of VTG transcripts and the appearance of VTG in the plasma of treated fish. In addition, RBP was localized in the cytosol of ovulated oocytes. These results for Rainbow trout are similar to those reported for the chicken but differ from those of Xenopus, where an increase in RBP mRNA was reported in the liver and higher levels of retinal and retinol were found

  20. Reproducibility of Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Omentin-1 Measurements over a Four Months Period: A Reliability Study in a Cohort of 207 Apparently Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wittenbecher, Clemens; di Giuseppe, Romina; Biemann, Ronald; Menzel, Juliane; Arregui, Maria; Hoffmann, Juliane; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Isermann, Berend; Schulze, Matthias B.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of single time point measurements of the novel adipokines retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in the blood has not been evaluated in large samples yet. The present study aimed to assess the amount of biological variation of these two adipokines within individuals. The study sample comprised 207 participants (124 women and 83 men) from Potsdam (Germany) and surrounding areas, with an average age of 56.5 years (SD 4.2). Blood samples were collected from each participant twice, approximately four months apart. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 were determined in EDTA plasma. As indicators of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated from the repeated biomarker measurements. The ICCs for repeated retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 measurements were 0.77 (95% CI 0.71, 0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78, 0.87), respectively, indicating for both adipokines excellent reliability. ICCs were stable across strata according to sex, age, BMI, and blood pressure. Thus, for epidemiological studies it seems reasonable to rely on concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in samples from a single time point if repeated measurements are not available. PMID:26402656

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Nonretinoid Retinol Binding Protein 4 Antagonists for the Potential Treatment of Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retina is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Lipofuscin bisretinoids (exemplified by N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) seem to mediate lipofuscin toxicity. Synthesis of lipofuscin bisretinoids depends on the influx of retinol from serum to the retina. Compounds antagonizing the retinol-dependent interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin in the serum would reduce serum RBP4 and retinol and inhibit bisretinoid formation. We recently showed that A1120 (3), a potent carboxylic acid based RBP4 antagonist, can significantly reduce lipofuscin bisretinoid formation in the retinas of Abca4–/– mice. As part of the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network project we undertook the in vitro exploration to identify novel conformationally flexible and constrained RBP4 antagonists with improved potency and metabolic stability. We also demonstrate that upon acute and chronic dosing in rats, 43, a potent cyclopentyl fused pyrrolidine antagonist, reduced circulating plasma RBP4 protein levels by approximately 60%. PMID:25210858

  2. Rat cellular retinol-binding protein: cDNA sequence and rapid retinol-dependent accumulation of mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, D R; Lloyd, R S; Chytil, F

    1987-01-01

    Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) may be an important mediator of vitamin A action. We report here the identification of a cDNA clone corresponding to the rat CRBP gene. The cDNA is 695 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame corresponding to a protein of 134 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is identical with that of rat CRBP. The nucleotide sequence shows 90.5% similarity with the human CRBP cDNA sequence. Genomic DNA analysis indicates that CRBP is present in one, or at most two, copies within the rat genome. Analysis of mRNA reveals a single species in every tissue tested and suggests that the isolated cDNA is full-length. Finally, when retinol-deficient rats are fed retinyl acetate for 4 hr, about 4-fold accumulation of CRBP-specific mRNA is observed in the lungs. This rapid effect suggests that the micronutrient retinol may directly influence the expression of its specific intracellular binding protein. Images PMID:3472205

  3. Effects of nutritional and hormonal factors on the metabolism of retinol-binding protein by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.L.; Goodman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore hormonal and nutritional factors that might be involved in the regulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) synthesis and secretion by the liver. The studies employed primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats. When cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium alone, a high rate of RBP secretion was observed initially, which declined and became quite low by 24 hr. Supplementing the medium with amino acids maintained RBP and albumin secretion at moderate (but less than initial) rates for at least 3 days. Further addition of dexamethasone maintained the production and secretion rates of RBP, transthyretin, and albumin close to the initial rates for up to 3-5 days in culture as measured by radioimmunoassay. Hormonally treated hepatocytes produced and secreted RBP, transthyretin, and albumin at both absolute and relative rates similar to physiological values, as estimated from rates reported by others from studies in vivo and with perfused livers. Glucagon addition partially maintained the secretion rates of these 3 proteins, but less effectively than did dexamethasone. A number of other hormones, added singly or in combination, did not affect RBP production or secretion. Addition of retinol to the cultured normal hepatocytes was without effect upon RBP secretion. These studies show that supplementing the culture medium of hepatocytes with amino acids and dexamethasone maintains RBP production and secretion for several days. In normal hepatocytes, with ample supply of retinol available within the cell, addition of exogenous retinol does not appear to influence RBP metabolism or secretion by the cells.

  4. Sitagliptin downregulates retinol-binding protein 4 and upregulates glucose transporter type 4 expression in a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honglin; Xu, Min; Qi, Renjuan; Wang, Youmin; Wang, Changjiang; Liu, Jiongjiong; Luo, Li; Xia, Li; Fang, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sitagliptin on metabolic parameters as well as the expression levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by a combination of a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin. Rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetes group, and diabetes + sitagliptin group. Body weight, glycemic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting insulin (FINS) and serum RBP4 levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Western blotting was used to detect the tissue RBP4 and GLUT4 expression levels. After treatment for 6 weeks, the diabetes + sitagliptin group displayed significantly improve levels of blood sugar, blood grease, and insulin sensitizing functions (P < 0.05) than the diabetes group. Sitagliptin markedly down regulated RBP4 expression levels and up-regulated GLUT4 expression levels in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The results indicate that sitagliptin can modulate the RBP4-GLUT4 system in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Modulation of the RBP4-GLUT4 system may be one of the mechanisms by which sitagliptin ameliorates the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26770384

  5. Bicyclic [3.3.0]-Octahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrolo Antagonists of Retinol Binding Protein 4: Potential Treatment of Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Stargardt Disease.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Racz, Boglarka; Freeman, Emily E; Conlon, Michael P; Chen, Ping; Stafford, Douglas G; Schwarz, Daniel M C; Zhu, Lei; Kitchen, Douglas B; Barnes, Keith D; Dobri, Nicoleta; Michelotti, Enrique; Cywin, Charles L; Martin, William H; Pearson, Paul G; Johnson, Graham; Petrukhin, Konstantin

    2015-08-13

    Antagonists of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) impede ocular uptake of serum all-trans retinol (1) and have been shown to reduce cytotoxic bisretinoid formation in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which is associated with the pathogenesis of both dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease. Thus, these agents show promise as a potential pharmacotherapy by which to stem further neurodegeneration and concomitant vision loss associated with geographic atrophy of the macula. We previously disclosed the discovery of a novel series of nonretinoid RBP4 antagonists, represented by bicyclic [3.3.0]-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrolo analogue 4. We describe herein the utilization of a pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid fragment as a suitable isostere for the anthranilic acid appendage of 4, which led to the discovery of standout antagonist 33. Analogue 33 possesses exquisite in vitro RBP4 binding affinity and favorable drug-like characteristics and was found to reduce circulating plasma RBP4 levels in vivo in a robust manner (>90%). PMID:26181715

  6. Sitagliptin downregulates retinol-binding protein 4 and upregulates glucose transporter type 4 expression in a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honglin; Xu, Min; Qi, Renjuan; Wang, Youmin; Wang, Changjiang; Liu, Jiongjiong; Luo, Li; Xia, Li; Fang, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sitagliptin on metabolic parameters as well as the expression levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by a combination of a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin. Rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetes group, and diabetes + sitagliptin group. Body weight, glycemic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting insulin (FINS) and serum RBP4 levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Western blotting was used to detect the tissue RBP4 and GLUT4 expression levels. After treatment for 6 weeks, the diabetes + sitagliptin group displayed significantly improve levels of blood sugar, blood grease, and insulin sensitizing functions (P < 0.05) than the diabetes group. Sitagliptin markedly down regulated RBP4 expression levels and up-regulated GLUT4 expression levels in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The results indicate that sitagliptin can modulate the RBP4-GLUT4 system in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Modulation of the RBP4-GLUT4 system may be one of the mechanisms by which sitagliptin ameliorates the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26770384

  7. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Induces Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy by Activating TLR4/MyD88 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Yang; Bao, Ji-Zhang; Liu, Zheng-Xia; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Yang, Qin; Lu, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance plays a major role in the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Heart failure in turn promotes insulin resistance and increases the risk for diabetes. The vicious cycle determines significant mortality in patients with heart failure and diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms for the vicious cycle are not fully elucidated. Here we show that circulating levels and adipose expression of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an adipokine that contributes to systemic insulin resistance, were elevated in cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) infusion. Ang-II increased RBP4 expression in adipocytes, which was abolished by losartan, an Ang-II receptor blocker. The elevated RBP4 in cardiac hypertrophy may have pathophysiological consequences because RBP4 increased cell size, enhanced protein synthesis, and elevated the expression of hypertrophic markers including Anp, Bnp, and Myh7 in primary cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, RBP4 induced the expression and activity of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in cardiomyocytes, resulting in enhanced inflammation and reactive oxygen species production. Inhibition or knockdown of the TLR4/MyD88 pathway attenuated inflammatory and hypertrophic responses to RBP4 stimulation. Importantly, RBP4 also reduced the expression of glucose transporter-4 and impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes. This impairment was ameliorated in cardiomyocytes from TLR4 knockout mice. Therefore, RBP4 may be a critical modulator promoting the vicious cycle of insulin resistance and heart failure by activating TLR4/MyD88-mediated inflammatory pathways. Potentially, lowering RBP4 might break the vicious cycle and improve both insulin resistance and cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27100622

  8. Expression of retinol binding protein 4 and nuclear factor-κB in diabetic rats with atherosclerosis and the intervention effect of pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wan; Ye, Shandong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the expression of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in diabetic rats with atherosclerosis, and to evaluate the intervention effect of pioglitazone. A total of 75 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control (NC), diabetic rats (DM1), diabetic rats with atherosclerosis (DM2) and diabetic rats treated with pioglitazone (DM + Pio). The activity of NF-κB, the levels of serum and adipose tissue RBP4, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG) and arteria caudilis systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Percentage of fat mass (PFM), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Compared with the NC and DM + Pio groups, all the parameters mentioned above increased significantly in the DM1 and DM2 groups, with the exception that HDL-c decreased. Pearson analysis showed that RBP4 in serum and adipose tissue were positively associated with TG, LDL-c, FINS, PFM, AIP, HOMA-IR, NF-κB, SBP and negatively associated with HDL-c. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that serum RBP4 and TG were predictors for the presence of diabetic atherosclerosis. In conclusion, RBP4 may be an effective predictor for diabetic atherosclerosis; pioglitazone is able to decrease RBP4 and NF-κB, which may partly contribute to its protective effect against diabetic atherosclerosis. PMID:27446311

  9. Vitamin A, Cancer Treatment and Prevention: The New Role of Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Doldo, Elena; Costanza, Gaetana; Tarquini, Chiara; Arcuri, Gaetano; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Retinol and vitamin A derivatives influence cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis and play an important physiologic role in a wide range of biological processes. Retinol is obtained from foods of animal origin. Retinol derivatives are fundamental for vision, while retinoic acid is essential for skin and bone growth. Intracellular retinoid bioavailability is regulated by the presence of specific cytoplasmic retinol and retinoic acid binding proteins (CRBPs and CRABPs). CRBP-1, the most diffuse CRBP isoform, is a small 15 KDa cytosolic protein widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved in many tissues. CRBP-1 acts as chaperone and regulates the uptake, subsequent esterification, and bioavailability of retinol. CRBP-1 plays a major role in wound healing and arterial tissue remodelling processes. In the last years, the role of CRBP-1-related retinoid signalling during cancer progression became object of several studies. CRBP-1 downregulation associates with a more malignant phenotype in breast, ovarian, and nasopharyngeal cancers. Reexpression of CRBP-1 increased retinol sensitivity and reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Further studies are needed to explore new therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring CRBP-1-mediated intracellular retinol trafficking and the meaning of CRBP-1 expression in cancer patients' screening for a more personalized and efficacy retinoid therapy. PMID:25879031

  10. Ligand Binding Induces Conformational Changes in Human Cellular Retinol-binding Protein 1 (CRBP1) Revealed by Atomic Resolution Crystal Structures.

    PubMed

    Silvaroli, Josie A; Arne, Jason M; Chelstowska, Sylwia; Kiser, Philip D; Banerjee, Surajit; Golczak, Marcin

    2016-04-15

    Important in regulating the uptake, storage, and metabolism of retinoids, cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1) is essential for trafficking vitamin A through the cytoplasm. However, the molecular details of ligand uptake and targeted release by CRBP1 remain unclear. Here we report the first structure of CRBP1 in a ligand-free form as well as ultra-high resolution structures of this protein bound to either all-trans-retinol or retinylamine, the latter a therapeutic retinoid that prevents light-induced retinal degeneration. Superpositioning of human apo- and holo-CRBP1 revealed major differences within segments surrounding the entrance to the retinoid-binding site. These included α-helix II and hairpin turns between β-strands βC-βD and βE-βF as well as several side chains, such as Phe-57, Tyr-60, and Ile-77, that change their orientations to accommodate the ligand. Additionally, we mapped hydrogen bond networks inside the retinoid-binding cavity and demonstrated their significance for the ligand affinity. Analyses of the crystallographic B-factors indicated several regions with higher backbone mobility in the apoprotein that became more rigid upon retinoid binding. This conformational flexibility of human apo-CRBP1 facilitates interaction with the ligands, whereas the more rigid holoprotein structure protects the labile retinoid moiety during vitamin A transport. These findings suggest a mechanism of induced fit upon ligand binding by mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins. PMID:26900151

  11. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling in Adipocytes by Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines in Macrophages through a c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- and Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent and Retinol-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Norseen, Julie; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Hammarstedt, Ann; Yore, Mark M.; Kant, Shashi; Aryal, Pratik; Kiernan, Urban A.; Phillips, David A.; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Kraus, Bettina J.; Usheva, Anny; Davis, Roger J.; Smith, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), the sole retinol transporter in blood, is secreted from adipocytes and liver. Serum RBP4 levels correlate highly with insulin resistance, other metabolic syndrome factors, and cardiovascular disease. Elevated serum RBP4 causes insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that RBP4 induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse and human macrophages and thereby indirectly inhibits insulin signaling in cocultured adipocytes. This occurs through activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways independent of the RBP4 receptor, STRA6. RBP4 effects are markedly attenuated in JNK1−/− JNK2−/− macrophages and TLR4−/− macrophages. Because RBP4 is a retinol-binding protein, we investigated whether these effects are retinol dependent. Unexpectedly, retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4) is as potent as retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) in inducing proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Apo-RBP4 is likely to be physiologically significant since RBP4/retinol ratios are increased in serum of lean and obese insulin-resistant humans compared to ratios in insulin-sensitive humans, indicating that higher apo-RBP4 is associated with insulin resistance independent of obesity. Thus, RBP4 may cause insulin resistance by contributing to the development of an inflammatory state in adipose tissue through activation of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. This process reveals a novel JNK- and TLR4-dependent and retinol- and STRA6-independent mechanism of action for RBP4. PMID:22431523

  12. IRBP-like proteins in the eyes of six cephalopod species--immunochemical relationship to vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) and cephalopod retinal-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Fong, S L; Lee, P G; Ozaki, K; Hara, R; Hara, T; Bridges, C D

    1988-01-01

    SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were used to examine soluble proteins from the eyes of six species of cephalopods i.e. Lolliguncula brevis, Sepia officinalis, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides, Rossia pacifica and Loligo opalescens. All species had a protein ("IRBP") with molecular weight virtually identical with vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) averaging 132,400 +/- 700 (n = 6). "IRBP" reacted on nitrocellulose blot transfers with rabbit antibovine IRBP and rabbit antifrog IRBP antibodies. Unlike vertebrate IRBP, cephalopod "IRBP" (from L. brevis) did not bind exogenous retinol or concanavalin A. The N-terminal amino acid appeared to be blocked in samples electroeluted from SDS gels. The antifrog IRBP antibodies also reacted with a series of proteins with molecular weights between 46,000 and 47,000, identified as retinal-binding protein (RALBP) with anti-RALBP antibodies. Anti-IRBP also reacted with pure RALBP prepared from Todarodes pacificus. Occasionally, anti-RALBP antibodies were seen to react weakly with "IRBP" in some cephalopods. We conclude that RALBP, cephalopod "IRBP" and vertebrate IRBP share a common but distant ancestry, and that a protein resembling IRBP appeared before the vertebrates diverged from the invertebrates. Both RALBP and IRBP appear to have analogous functions in shuttling retinoids between rhodopsin and the corresponding isomerizing system, retinochrome in the cephalopods and retinol isomerase in the vertebrates. The function of cephalopod "IRBP" is unknown. PMID:3195063

  13. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6) years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5) μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01), but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05). Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile). However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10). Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00154180 PMID:22587616

  14. Assessment of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Mohamed H.; Assiri, Adel M.; Mukhtar, Mohammed H.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes. The study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) as biomarkers for early detection of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. The current study was performed on 150 type 2 diabetic patients. These patients were classified into three equal groups according to their albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), including patients with normoalbuminuria (ACR <30 mg/g creatinine), patients with microalbuminuria (ACR = 30–300 mg/g creatinine), and patients with macroalbuminuria (ACR >300 mg/g creatinine). Fifty apparently healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status with diabetic subjects were selected as a control group. The plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, urea, creatinine, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), NGAL, and RBP4 were measured in the studied groups. Significantly elevated NGAL and RBP4 levels were observed in micro- and macroalbuminuric diabetic groups when compared to the control and normoalbuminuric diabetic groups. NGAL and RBP4 were found to correlate positively with duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triacylglycerol, and ACR, but correlate inversely with GFR in DN groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that for early detection of DN, the best cutoff values to discriminate DN and diabetic without nephropathy groups were 91.5 ng/mL for NGAL with 87% sensitivity, 74% specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.881; 24.5 ng/mL for RBP4 with 84% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and AUC = 0.912; and 37.5 mg/g creatinine for ACR with 89% sensitivity, 72% specificity, and AUC = 0.819. RBP4 is more specific (90% specificity) than NGAL (74% specificity) and ACR (72% specificity). Therefore

  15. All-trans retinol and retinol-binding protein from embryonic cerebrospinal fluid exhibit dynamic behaviour during early central nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2008-06-11

    Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) is involved in the regulation of survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of neuroectodermal progenitor cells, as well as in the control of mesencephalic gene expression in collaboration with the isthmic organizer. Recently, we showed the presence of retinol-binding protein (RBP) within the E-CSF proteome. RBP is an all-trans retinol carrier, a molecule that can be metabolized into retinoic acid, a morphogen involved in central nervous system (CNS) morphogenesis and patterning. Here we demonstrate the presence of all-trans retinol within the E-CSF and analyse the dynamics of RBP and all-trans retinol within this fluid, as well as the expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing enzymes during early CNS development. Our results suggest a relationship between the dynamics of these molecules and the early events of CNS patterning. PMID:18520998

  16. High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Mohammed; Ghareeb, Doaa Ahmad; Talat, Heba Allah; Sarhan, Eman Mohammed

    2013-11-01

    This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8μg/Kg/day) for two weeks. HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients. PMID:24191325

  17. Regulation of retinol-binding protein metabolism by glucocorticoid hormones in cultured H/sub 4/II EC/sub 3/ liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, C.; Smith, J.E.; Soprano, D.R.; Goodman, D.S.

    1981-08-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the effects of glucocorticoid hormones on the regulation of the metabolism of retinol-binding protein (RBP) by H/sub 4/II EC/sub 4/ rat hepatoma cells in culture. Cortisol, corticosterone, and the synthetic glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone all induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in the accumulation of RBP. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at concentrations of dexamethasone in the range of 1 to 5 nM. Progesterone in the concentration range of 1 to 10 ..mu..M, inhibited the stimulatory effect of dexamethasone. Progesterone alone in this concentration range had no effect on RBP metabolism. The addition of retinol over a range from 3.5 nM to 3.5 ..mu..M stimulated a dose-dependent secretion of RBP from the cells into the medium. When studied over a wide range of concentrations, retinol and dexamethasone incubated together produced approximately additive increases in the accumulation of RBP. Dexamethasone, moreover, did not affect the retinol-induced secretion of RBP. Thus, retinol and dexamethasone appear to function via different and independent mechanisms to regulate the metabolism of RBP by the liver cell.

  18. Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Gabrielsen, Mads; Franchini, Gisela R; Roe, Andrew J; Griffiths, Kate; Zhan, Bin; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein-ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male. PMID:26318523

  19. Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Gabrielsen, Mads; Franchini, Gisela R.; Roe, Andrew J.; Griffiths, Kate; Zhan, Bin; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein–ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male. PMID:26318523

  20. Cellular retinol-binding protein-1 is transiently expressed in granulation tissue fibroblasts and differentially expressed in fibroblasts cultured from different organs.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G.; Redard, M.; Gabbiani, G.; Neuville, P.

    1997-01-01

    We have reported that cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) is transiently expressed by arterial smooth muscle cells during experimental intimal repair (P. Neuville, A. Geinoz, G. Benzonana, M. Redard, F. Gabbiani, P. Ropraz, G. Gabbiani: Am J Pathol 1997, 150:509-521). We have examined here the expression of CRBP-1 during wound healing after a full-thickness rat skin wound. CRBP-1 was transiently expressed by a significant proportion of fibroblastic cells including myofibroblasts. Expression started 4 days after wounding, reached a maximum at 12 days, and persisted up to 30 days when a scar was formed. After wound closure, most CRBP-1-containing fibroblastic cells underwent apoptosis. We have further investigated CRBP-1 expression in rat fibroblasts cultured from different organs. CRBP-1 was abundant in lung and heart fibroblasts and was detected in decreasing amounts in muscle, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and granulation tissue fibroblasts. Dermis fibroblasts contained no detectable levels of CRBP-1. All-trans retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibited cell proliferation and increased CRBP-1 expression in fibroblastic populations except dermis fibroblasts. We demonstrate that during granulation tissue formation a subpopulation of fibroblastic cells express CRBP-1 de novo. We also demonstrate that CRBP-1 expression by fibroblasts is regulated in vitro by retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1. Our results suggest that CRBP-1 and possibly retinoic acid play a role in the evolution of granulation tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9403724

  1. Fatty Acid-and Retinol-Binding Protein, Mj-FAR-1 Induces Tomato Host Susceptibility to Root-Knot Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Iberkleid, Ionit; Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Firester, Kalia; Spiegel, Yitzhak; Horowitz, Sigal Brown

    2013-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes produce at least one structurally unique class of small helix-rich retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins that have no counterparts in their plant hosts. Herein we describe a protein of the plant-parasitic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which is a member of the nematode-specific fatty-acid- and retinol-binding (Mj-FAR-1) family of proteins. The mj-far-1 mRNA was detected through M. javanica pre-parasitic J2s, migratory and sedentary parasitic stages by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunolocalization assays demonstrate that the FAR protein of Meloidogyne is secreted during sedentary stages, as evidenced by the accumulation of FAR at the nematode cuticle surface and along the adjacent host root tissues. Tomato roots constitutively expressing mj-far-1 demonstrated an increased susceptibility to root-knot nematodes infection as observed by accelerated gall induction and expansion, accompanied by a higher percentage of nematodes developing into mature females compared to control roots. RNA interference assays that expressed double-stranded RNA complementary to mj-far-1 in transgenic tomato lines specifically reduced nematode infection levels. Histological analysis of nematode-infested roots indicated that in roots overexpressing mj-far-1, galls contained larger feeding cells and might support a faster nematode development and maturation. Roots overexpressing mj-far-1 suppressed jasmonic acid responsive genes such as the proteinase inhibitor (Pin2) and γ-thionin, illustrating the possible role of Mj-FAR-1 in manipulating the lipid based signaling in planta. This data, suggests that Meloidogyne FAR might have a strategic function during the interaction of the nematode with its plant host. Our study present the first demonstration of an in planta functional characterization and localization of FAR proteins secreted by plant-parasitic nematodes. It provides evidence that Mj-FAR-1 facilitates

  2. ¹H, ¹³C and ¹⁵N chemical shift assignments of Na-FAR-1, a helix-rich fatty acid and retinol binding protein of the parasitic nematode Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Ibañez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O

    2014-04-01

    The fatty acid and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are a family of unusual helix-rich lipid binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes, and are secreted by a range of parasites of humans, animals and plants. Na-FAR-1 is from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus, an intestinal blood-feeding parasite of humans. Sequence-specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments have been obtained for the recombinant 170 amino acid protein, using three-dimensional triple-resonance heteronuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Backbone assignments have been obtained for 99.3% of the non-proline HN/N pairs (146 out of 147). The amide resonance of T45 was not observed, probably due to rapid exchange with solvent water. A total of 96.9% of backbone resonances were identified, while 97.7% assignment of amino acid sidechain protons is complete. All Hα(166), Hβ(250) and Hγ(160) and 98.4% of the Hδ (126 out of 128) atoms were assigned. In addition, 99.4% Cα (154 out of 155) and 99.3% Cβ (143 out of 144) resonances have been assigned. No resonances were observed for the NH(n) groups of R93 NεHε, arginine, N(η1)H2, N(η2)H2, histidine N(δ1)H(δ1), N(ε1)H(ε1) and lysine N(ζ3)H3. Na-FAR-1 has a similar overall arrangement of α-helices to Ce-FAR-7 of the free-living Caeorhabditis elegans, but with an extra C-terminal helix. PMID:23179061

  3. Retinoid Content, Visual Responses, and Ocular Morphology Are Compromised in the Retinas of Mice Lacking the Retinol-Binding Protein Receptor, STRA6

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Alberto; Mark, Manuel; Jacobs, Hugues; Klopfenstein, Muriel; Hu, Jane; Lloyd, Marcia; Habib, Samer; Tosha, Chinatsu; Radu, Roxana A; Ghyselinck, Norbert B; Nusinowitz, Steven; Bok, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We report generation of a mouse model in which the STRA6 gene has been disrupted functionally to facilitate the study of visual responses, changes in ocular morphology, and retinoid processing under STRA6 protein deficiency. Methods. A null mouse line, stra6 −/−, was generated. Western Blot and immunocytochemistry were used to determine expression of STRA6 protein. Visual responses and morphological studies were performed on 6-week, 5-month and 10-month-old mice. The retinoid content of eye tissues was evaluated in dark-adapted mice by high performance liquid chromatography. Results. STRA6 protein was not detectable in stra6 −/− null mice, which had a consistent reduction, but not total ablation of their visual responses. The mice also showed significant depletion of their retinoid content in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neurosensory retina, including a 95% reduction in retinyl esters. At the morphological level, a reduction in thickness of the neurosensory retina due to shortening of the rod outer and inner segments was observed when compared to control litter mates with a commensurate reduction in rod a- and b-wave amplitudes. In addition, there was a reduction in cone photoreceptor cell number and cone b-wave amplitude. A typical hallmark in stra6 −/− null eyes was the presence of a persistent primary hypertrophic vitreous, an optically dense vascularized structure located in the vitreous humor between the posterior surface of the lens and neurosensory retina. Conclusions. Our studies of stra6 −/− null mice established the importance of the STRA6 protein for the uptake, intracellular transport, and processing of retinol by the RPE. In its absence, rod photoreceptor outer and inner segment length was reduced, and cone cell numbers were reduced, as were scotopic and photopic responses. STRA6 also was required for dissolution of the primary vitreous. However, it was clear from these studies that STRA6 is not the only pathway for

  4. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive tract to absorb proteins ( protein-losing enteropathy ) Malnutrition Kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome Scarring of the ... may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone marrow ...

  5. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    Normal value ranges are: Total protein: 6.4 to 8.3 g/dL (grams per deciliter) Albumin: 3.5 to 5.0 g/dL Alpha-1 ... Decreased total protein may indicate: Abnormal loss of protein from the digestive tract or the inability of the digestive tract ...

  6. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  7. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies

  8. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  9. Effects of three liquid diets on nutrition-sensitive plasma proteins of tube-fed elderly men.

    PubMed

    Feller, A G; Caindec, N; Rudman, I W; Rudman, D

    1990-06-01

    The effects on three nutrition-sensitive plasma proteins of isocaloric feedings with three enteral formulas were compared in 10 tube-fed male nursing home residents. The enteral products were Isocal (based on whole protein), Peptamen (based on a mixture of oligopeptides), and Vivonex T.E.N. (based on free amino acids). The nutrition-sensitive plasma proteins were albumin, transferrin, and retinol-binding protein. After observation during four weeks of feeding with Isocal, each subject was then monitored during four weeks of Peptamen and four weeks of Vivonex T.E.N. The latter two products were alternated in a crossover design. The shift of Isocal to Peptamen did not significantly (P greater than .05) influence the serum level of albumin, transferrin, or retinol-binding protein. In contrast, the shift of Isocal to Vivonex T.E.N. or of Peptamen to Vivonex caused a significant (P less than .05) decline in all three plasma proteins, the kinetics of their reductions corresponding to their known half-lives. The behavior of the three nutrition-sensitive plasma proteins suggests that in elderly nursing home men without gastrointestinal disease the nutritional value of the protein component of the three formulas follows the order Isocal = Peptamen greater than Vivonex T.E.N. However, this conclusion will require confirmation by nitrogen balance studies. PMID:2113546

  10. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  11. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  12. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  13. Serum protein electrophoresis in spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticalism.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, A H; Lida, J

    1989-01-01

    The serum protein concentrations of dogs with confirmed spontaneous hyperadrenocorticalism were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis before and during treatment with mitotane. In untreated animals a significant increase was detected in the mean concentration of total protein and the mean concentration and percentage of alpha-2 globulin. The mean concentration and percentage of albumin and gamma-globulin were significantly decreased. In animals on treatment the mean concentration of total proteins and the mean concentration and percentage of beta-2 globulin were significantly reduced. PMID:2466309

  14. Uterocalin, a lipocalin provisioning the preattachment equine conceptus: fatty acid and retinol binding properties, and structural characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Suire, S; Stewart, F; Beauchamp, J; Kennedy, M W

    2001-01-01

    The equine conceptus is surrounded by a fibrous capsule that persists until about day 20 of pregnancy, whereupon the capsule is lost, the conceptus attaches to the endometrium and placentation proceeds. Before attachment, the endometrium secretes in abundance a protein of the lipocalin family, uterocalin. The cessation of secretion coincides with the end of the period during which the conceptus is enclosed in its capsule, suggesting that uterocalin is essential for the support of the embryo before direct contact between maternal and foetal tissues is established. Using recombinant protein and fluorescence-based assays, we show that equine uterocalin binds the fluorescent fatty acids 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid, dansyl-D,L-alpha-amino-octanoic acid and cis-parinaric acid, and, by competition, oleic, palmitic, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, gamma-linolenic, cis-eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids. Uterocalin also binds all-trans-retinol, the binding site for which is coincident or interactive with that for fatty acids. Molecular modelling and intrinsic fluorescence analysis of the wild-type protein and a Trp-->Glu mutant protein indicated that uterocalin has an unusually solvent-exposed Trp side chain projecting from its large helix directly into solvent. This feature is unusual among lipocalins and might relate to binding to, and uptake by, the trophoblast. Uterocalin therefore has the localization and binding activities for the provisioning of the equine conceptus with lipids including those essential for morphogenesis and pattern formation. The possession of a fibrous capsule surrounding the conceptus might be an ancestral condition in mammals; homologues of uterocalin might be essential for early development in marsupials and in eutherians in which there is a prolonged preimplantation period. PMID:11368763

  15. Challenges of measuring monoclonal proteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Keren, David F; Schroeder, Lee

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of monoclonal protein (M-protein) is vital for stratifying risk and following individuals with a variety of monoclonal gammopathies. Direct measurement of the M-protein spike by electrophoresis and immunochemical measurements of specific isotypes or free light chains pairs has provided useful information about the quantity of M-protein. Nonetheless, both traditional electrophoresis and immunochemical methods give poor quantification with M-proteins smaller than 10 g/L (1 g/dL) when in the presence of polyclonal immunoglobulins that co-migrate with the M-protein. In addition, measurements by electrophoresis of M-proteins migrating in the β- and α-regions are contaminated by normal serum proteins in those regions. The most precise electrophoretic method to date for quantification involves exclusion of the polyclonal immunoglobulins by using the tangent skimming method on electropherograms, which provides a 10-fold improvement in precision. So far, however, tangent measurements are limited to γ migrating M-proteins. Another way to improve M-protein measurements is the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE). With CE, one can employ immunosubtraction to select a region of interest in the β region thereby excluding much of the normal proteins from the M-protein measurement. Recent development of an immunochemical method distinguishing heavy/light chain pairs (separately measuring IgGK and IgGL, IgAK and IgAL, and IgMK and IgML) provides measurements that could exclude polyclonal contaminants of the same heavy chain with the uninvolved light chain type. Yet, even heavy/light results contain an immeasurable quantity of polyclonal heavy/light chains of the involved isotype. Finally, use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) looms on the horizon as a means to provide more consistent and sensitive measurements of M-proteins. PMID:26910744

  16. Sertoli cells secrete both testis-specific and serum proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, W W; Musto, N A; Mather, J P; Bardin, C W

    1981-01-01

    The secretions of the Sertoli cell were examined with two polyvalent antisera--one prepared against proteins in rat serum and the other against testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. These antisera detected 12 serum and 9 testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. To determine the origin of these proteins, primary cultures enriched in Sertoli cells were incubated with [35S]methionine, and the radiolabeled proteins in the medium were immunoprecipitated. Gel electrophoresis of the two immunoprecipitates resolved eight serum and nine testis-specific proteins. These two sets of proteins were specifically bound to their respective antiserum and were immunologically distinct. Medium from Sertoli cell cultures contained 10 times more of the testis-specific proteins than did cultures enriched for testicular myoid or interstitial cells. The concentration of the serum proteins in Sertoli cell medium was 5 and 10 times greater, respectively, than in myoid or interstitial cell preparations. The proteins from Sertoli cells were next characterized on two-dimensional gels. Seven of the proteins recognized by antiserum against serum proteins had identical molecular weights and isoelectric points as serum proteins. Three of these proteins were ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and glycoprotein 2. In addition to the proteins immunoprecipitated by the two antisera, more than 60 other proteins were detected on two-dimensional gels of the total secretory proteins. We conclude that the Sertoli cell secretes many proteins, some of which are specific to the testis and others of which are similar to serum proteins. Images PMID:6950398

  17. A Survey of Membrane Proteins in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Nguyen Tien; Van Chi, Phan

    2012-01-01

    Serum and membrane proteins are two of the most attractive targets for proteomic analysis. Previous membrane protein studies tend to focus on tissue sample, while membrane protein studies in serum are still limited. In this study, an analysis of membrane proteins in normal human serum was carried out. Nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) and bioinformatics tools were used to identify membrane proteins. Two hundred and seventeen membrane proteins were detected in the human serum, of which 129 membrane proteins have at least one transmembrane domain (TMD). Further characterizations of identified membrane proteins including their subcellular distributions, molecular weights, post translational modifications, transmembrane domains and average of hydrophobicity, were also implemented. Our results showed the potential of membrane proteins in serum for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. PMID:25288886

  18. Multiplexed microfluidic quantification of proteins in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Nitin; Rajauria, Sukumar; Cleland, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and low cost immunoassays targeting proteins in blood or other bodily fluids are highly sought after for point-of-care devices and early screening of patients. Immunoturbidimetric assays utilize latex particles functionalized with antibodies, with particle aggregation in the presence of the analyte detected by a change in absorbance. Using a high throughput micro-fluidic particle analyzer based solely on electrical signals (resistive pulse sensing), we are able to accurately quantify the degree of aggregation by analyzing the changes in the particle size distribution. Thus we study the aggregation of streptavidin (SAv) coated beads in the presence of biotinylated bovine serum albumin as a proof-of-principle assay and extract the binding capacity of the SAv beads from the dose-response curve. We also use our aggregation measurement platform to characterize a commercial C-reactive protein (CRP) immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP, Diazyme Inc.). We obtain a linear calibration curve as well as a better limit of detection of CRP than that obtained by absorbance measurements. By using different bead sizes functionalized with different antibodies, multiplexed analyte detection is also possible. We demonstrate this by combining the commercial anti-CRP functionalized beads (0.4 microns) with biotin coated beads (1.0 microns), and carry out the simultaneous detection of SAv and CRP in a single sample.

  19. Protein extracts from cultured cells contain nonspecific serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Miyara, Masatsugu; Umeda, Kanae; Ishida, Keishi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Serum is an important component of cell culture media. The present study demonstrates contamination of intracellular protein extract by bovine serum albumin from the culture media and illustrates how this contamination can cause the misinterpretation of western blot results. Preliminary experiments can prevent the misinterpretation of some experimental results, and optimization of the washing process may enable specific protein detection. PMID:26967711

  20. Radioimmunoassay of beta lipoprotein—protein of rat serum

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R. Philip; Kipnis, David M.

    1969-01-01

    A double antibody radioimmunoassay for rat serum beta lipoprotein-protein (beta Lp-protein) is described. The protein was purified by ultracentrifugation, selective heparin-manganous precipitation, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Antiserum was prepared in rabbits by biweekly immunization and absorbed with nonbeta lipoprotein containing rat serum. Iodination with 125I and purification by gel filtration provided a radiolabeled protein which was > 98% displaced by purified beta lipoprotein in the immunoassay. The radioimmunoassay was sensitive to beta Lp-protein concentrations from 0.1 to 1.5 μg. Specificity of the immunoassay for beta Lp-protein was established by comparison of the displacement curves obtained with serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and density (d) > 1.21 fractions and with the beta and alpha migrating lipoproteins eluted from paper electrophoretograms. Suitability of the assay for measuring beta Lp-protein in serum was established by demonstrating 100% recovery of beta lipoprotein added to whole serum and by the absence of immunoreactive beta Lp-protein in serum of orotic acid-treated rats. Examination of sera from six other vertebrates species revealed partial cross-reactivity. Normal rat serum was found to contain 0.25±0.01 mg/ml of beta Lp-protein and hepatic production by an isolated perfused rat liver system was determined as 0.145 mg/hr. Images PMID:4978731

  1. Interpretation of Serum Calcium in Patients with Abnormal Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R. B.; Little, A. J.; Williams, R. B.; Milner, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred consecutive specimens received in this laboratory for “liver function tests” showed a wide range of abnormal protein concentrations. Calcium concentration correlated closely with albumin (r = 0·867) but less closely with total protein (r = 0·682). A simple formula for adjusting calcium concentration was derived from the regression equation of calcium on albumin. Adjusted calcium = calcium - albumin + 4·0, where calcium is in mg/100 ml and albumin in g/100 ml. Low calcium concentrations were found in 49 (24·5%) and raised concentrations in six (3%) of the 200 blood specimens taken for liver function tests. After adjustment, the 95% limits of the observed range were identical with the 95% limits of the normal range determined in this laboratory. Unlike adjustments based on total protein or specific gravity, the adjustment on albumin in 39 specimens which showed hypergammaglobulinaemia on electrophoresis gave normal calcium concentrations. PMID:4758544

  2. RESPONSE OF HEPATIC PROTEINS TO THE LOWERING OF HABITUAL DIETARY PROTEIN TO THE RECOMMENDED SAFE LEVEL OF INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasma concentrations of albumin, HDL apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), retinol-binding protein (RBP), transthyretin (TTR), haptoglobulin, and fibrinogen were measured, and a stable isotope infusion protocol was used to determine the fractional and absolute synthesis rates of RBP, TTR, and fibrinogen i...

  3. Serum screening for oncogene proteins in workers exposed to PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt-Rauf, P W; Niman, H L

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 16 municipal workers engaged in cleaning oil from old transformers was examined for possible health effects from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition to the evaluation of routine clinical parameters (history, physical examination, liver function tests, serum triglycerides, serum PCB values), a new screening technique for the presence of oncogene proteins in serum using monoclonal antibodies was used to ascertain the potential carcinogenic risk from exposure in these workers. Except for one individual, serum PCB concentrations were found to be relatively low in this cohort, probably due to the observance of appropriate protective precautions. The results of liver function test were within normal limits and serum triglyceride concentrations showed no consistent relation to PCB concentrations. Six individuals, all of whom were smokers, showed abnormal banding patterns for fes oncogene related proteins. The individual with the highest serum PCB concentration also exhibited significantly raised levels of the H-ras oncogene related P21 protein in his serum. These oncogene protein findings may be indicative of an increased risk for the development of malignant disease in these individuals. Images PMID:3143397

  4. Interaction of Serum Proteins with Surface of Hemodialysis Fiber Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrin, Rehana; Shirako, Yuji; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Ikai, Atsushi

    2012-08-01

    The poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-covered hydrophilic surface of hollow-fiber membranes (fiber membrane, hereafter) for hemodialysis was mechanically probed using modified tips on an atomic force microscope (AFM) with covalent crosslinkers and several types of serum protein. The retraction part of many of the force extension (F-E) curves obtained with AFM tips coated with serum albumin had a long and smooth extension up to 200-300 nm indicating forced elongation of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) chains. When fibrinogen-coated tips were used, long extension F-E curves up to 500 nm with multiple peaks were obtained in addition to smooth curves most likely reflecting the unfolding of fibrinogen molecules. The results indicated that individual polymer chains had a significant affinity toward serum proteins. The adhesion frequency of tips coated with serum proteins was lower on the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) surface than on the uncoated hydrophobic polysulfone surface.

  5. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  6. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  7. Quantitating Metabolites in Protein Precipitated Serum Using NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative NMR-based metabolite profiling is challenged by the deleterious effects of abundant proteins in the intact blood plasma/serum, which underscores the need for alternative approaches. Protein removal by ultrafiltration using low molecular weight cutoff filters thus represents an important step. However, protein precipitation, an alternative and simple approach for protein removal, lacks detailed quantitative assessment for use in NMR based metabolomics. In this study, we have comprehensively evaluated the performance of protein precipitation using methanol, acetonitrile, perchloric acid, and trichloroacetic acid and ultrafiltration approaches using 1D and 2D NMR, based on the identification and absolute quantitation of 44 human blood metabolites, including a few identified for the first time in the NMR spectra of human serum. We also investigated the use of a “smart isotope tag,” 15N-cholamine for further resolution enhancement, which resulted in the detection of a number of additional metabolites. 1H NMR of both protein precipitated and ultrafiltered serum detected all 44 metabolites with comparable reproducibility (average CV, 3.7% for precipitation; 3.6% for filtration). However, nearly half of the quantified metabolites in ultrafiltered serum exhibited 10–74% lower concentrations; specifically, tryptophan, benzoate, and 2-oxoisocaproate showed much lower concentrations compared to protein precipitated serum. These results indicate that protein precipitation using methanol offers a reliable approach for routine NMR-based metabolomics of human blood serum/plasma and should be considered as an alternative to ultrafiltration. Importantly, protein precipitation, which is commonly used by mass spectrometry (MS), promises avenues for direct comparison and correlation of metabolite data obtained from the two analytical platforms to exploit their combined strength in the metabolomics of blood. PMID:24796490

  8. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. PMID:20347821

  9. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  10. Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma☆

    PubMed Central

    Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Mir, Sartaj Ahmad; Renuse, Santosh; Manda, Srikanth S.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Solanki, Hitendra Singh; Manju, H.C.; Syed, Nazia; Sharma, Rakesh; Christopher, Rita; Vijayakumar, M.; Kumar, K.V. Veerendra; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Ramaswamy, Girija; Kumar, Rekha V.; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Blood based biomarkers of gastric cancer have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. Proteins that show altered levels in the circulation of gastric cancer patients could prove useful as putative biomarkers. We used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that show altered levels in the sera of patients with gastric cancer. Our study resulted in identification of 643 proteins, of which 48 proteins showed increased levels and 11 proteins showed decreased levels in serum from gastric cancer patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Proteins that showed increased expression in gastric cancer included inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), Mannose-binding protein C (MBL2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), serum amyloid A protein (SAA1), Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) and extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu–Zn] (SOD3). We used multiple reaction monitoring assays and validated elevated levels of ITIH4 and SAA1 proteins in serum from gastric cancer patients. Biological significance Gastric cancer is a highly aggressive cancer associated with high mortality. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable interest in diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases including cancers. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Pathological diagnosis using biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable importance as they are minimally invasive. In this study, we carried out quantitative proteomic profiling of serum from gastric cancer patients to identify proteins that show altered levels in gastric cancer patients. We identified more than 50 proteins that showed altered levels in gastric cancer patient sera. Validation in a large cohort of well

  11. Identification of diagnostic serum protein profiles of glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Elstner, Anja; Stockhammer, Florian; Nguyen-Dobinsky, Trong-Nghia; Nguyen, Quang Long; Pilgermann, Ingo; Gill, Amanjit; Guhr, Anke; Zhang, Tingguo; von Eckardstein, Kajetan; Picht, Thomas; Veelken, Julian; Martuza, Robert L; von Deimling, Andreas; Kurtz, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Diagnosis of a glioblastoma (GBM) is triggered by the onset of symptoms and is based on cerebral imaging and histological examination. Serum-based biomarkers may support detection of GBM. Here, we explored serum protein concentrations of GBM patients and used data mining to explore profiles of biomarkers and determine whether these are associated with the clinical status of the patients. Gene and protein expression data for astrocytoma and GBM were used to identify secreted proteins differently expressed in tumors and in normal brain tissues. Tumor expression and serum concentrations of 14 candidate proteins were analyzed for 23 GBM patients and nine healthy subjects. Data-mining methods involving all 14 proteins were used as an initial evaluation step to find clinically informative profiles. Data mining identified a serum protein profile formed by BMP2, HSP70, and CXCL10 that enabled correct assignment to the GBM group with specificity and sensitivity of 89 and 96%, respectively (p < 0.0001, Fischer's exact test). Survival for more than 15 months after tumor resection was associated with a profile formed by TSP1, HSP70, and IGFBP3, enabling correct assignment in all cases (p < 0.0001, Fischer's exact test). No correlation was found with tumor size or age of the patient. This study shows that robust serum profiles for GBM may be identified by data mining on the basis of a relatively small study cohort. Profiles of more than one biomarker enable more specific assignment to the GBM and survival group than those based on single proteins, confirming earlier attempts to correlate single markers with cancer. These conceptual findings will be a basis for validation in a larger sample size. PMID:20617365

  12. Serum protein polymorphism in Bali (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Constans, J; Gouaillard, C; Breguet, G

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from Bali, obtained in three different ethnic groups and in one isolated village were tested by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis for Gc, Pi, Tf and Hp subtyping. In addition to the three common alleles Gc1F, Gc1S and Gc2, two variants Gc1A1 and Gc1A8 were observed. In the Pi system, five alleles were present: PiM1, PiM2, PiM3, PiM4 and PiX. The Tf variability was exceptional with the presence of eight alleles: TfB1, TfC1, TfC2, TfC3, TfC4, TfC8, TfD1 and TfDchi. For Hp, there were two common alleles Hp1S and Hp1FS and two rare ones: Hp1F and Hp2SS. As expected, the genetic polymorphism is reduced in the isolated community. The anthropological significance of these genetic data is discussed. PMID:3493727

  13. Chemical labelling of active serum thioester proteins for quantification.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lotta; Ackland, Gareth L; Edwards, Mark R; Breckenridge, Ross A; Sim, Robert B; Offer, John

    2012-02-01

    The complement serum proteins C3 and C4 and the protease inhibitor α-2 macroglobulin are all members of the C3/α-2M thioester protein family, an evolutionarily ancient and conserved family that contains an intrachain thioester bond. The chemistry of the thioester bond is a key to the function of the thioester proteins. All these proteins function by covalently linking to their target by acyl transfer of the protein via the thioester moiety. We show that the signature thioester bond can be targeted with nucleophiles linked to a bioreporter molecule, site-specifically modifying the whole, intact thioester protein. Conditions were optimised to label selectively and efficiently pull-down unprocessed thioester-containing proteins from serum. We demonstrated pull-down of full-length C3, α-2M and C4 from sera in high salt, using a biotinylated nucleophile and streptavidin-coated resin, confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS identification of the gel bands. The potential for the development of a quantitative method for measuring active C3 in serum was investigated in patient sera pre and post operation. Quantifying active C3 in clinical assays using current methods is difficult. Methods based on antibody detection (e.g. nephelometry) do not distinguish between active C3 and inactive breakdown products. C3-specific haemolytic assays can be used, but these require use of relatively unstable reagents. The current work represents a promising robust, enzyme- and antibody-free chemical method for detecting active thioester proteins in blood, plasma or serum. PMID:21852021

  14. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  15. Serum protein-expression profiling using the ProteinChip biomarker system.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kate; Figueredo, Sharel; Meng, Xiao-Ying; Yip, Christine; Fung, Eric T

    2004-01-01

    Protein-expression profiling of serum is a common approach to the discovery of potential diagnostic and therapeutic markers of disease. Like any other proteome, the serum proteome is characterized by protein expression across a large dynamic range. This single facet requires the employment of fractionation procedures prior to detection of protein. The authors use a combination of conventional column chromatography with array-based chromatography to simplify the serum proteome into subproteomes, thus providing a greater representation of the serum proteome. Robotics is employed to increase the throughput of sample processing. These procedures result in large amounts of data that are analyzed through a series of preprocessing and postprocessing steps. A well-designed serum profiling project can therefore result in the discovery of statistically sound, clinically meaningful protein biomarkers. PMID:15020796

  16. Serum proteins are extracted along with monolayer cells in plasticware and interfere with protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xin; Meng, Yuling; Kalkanis, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Washing and lysing monolayer cells directly from cell culture plasticware is a commonly used method for protein extraction. We found that multiple protein bands were enriched in samples with low cell numbers from the 6-well plate cultures. These proteins contributed to the overestimation of cell proteins and led to the uneven protein loading in Western blotting analysis. In Coomassie blue stained SDS-PAGE gels, the main enriched protein band is about 69 kDa and it makes up 13.6% of total protein from 104 U251n cells. Analyzed by mass spectrometry, we identified two of the enriched proteins: bovine serum albumin and bovine serum transferrin. We further observed that serum proteins could be extracted from other cell culture plates, dishes and flasks even after washing the cells 3 times with PBS. A total of 2.3 mg of protein was collected from a single well of the 6-well plate. A trace amount of the protein band was still visible after washing the cells 5 times with PBS. Thus, serum proteins should be considered if extracting proteins from plasticware, especially for samples with low cell numbers.

  17. Manifold significance of serum eosinophil cationic protein in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Zubović, Ivan; Rozmanić, Vojko; Ahel, Vladimir; Banac, Srdan

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is the result of complex interaction between different cells, mediators and nervous system that leads to an inflammatory response accompanied by increased bronchial hyperactivity. Its clinical manifestations include recurrent cough, wheezing and difficult breathing. The purpose of this study was to establish the possibility of diagnosing inflammation in asthmatic patients based on the assessment of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and of following the efficacy of asthmatic treatment by the levels of inflammation mediators. In a prospective study, 134 children aged 1 to 18 (mean 8) years underwent serum ECP assessment. Experimental group included 87 patients with asthma, 56 boys and 31 girls, mean age 9.1 (range 2-17) years. Control group included patients with recurrent non-allergic disorders, 27 boys and 20 girls aged 1-16 (mean 6.1) years. Serum ECP was assessed using the Pharmacia CAP system ECP-FEIA method, i.e. fluoroimmunoassay test for quantitative assessment of serum ECP levels. Serum values of ECP were significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls (p = 0.001). Our results showed that increased levels of serum ECP to significantly correlate with increased eosinophil (p = 0.018) and immunoglobulin E (p = 0.003) levels. Increased ECP levels reflect the degree of inflammation and correlate with the clinical picture severity in asthmatic patients. Assessment of serum ECP levels can reveal eosinophilic activity, and indirectly detect immunologic inflammation in asthmatics. It is possible to follow the dynamics of immunologic inflammation during the course of treatment as well as treatment efficacy. PMID:12596625

  18. Neurospecific proteins in the serum of patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lyubimova, N V; Toms, M G; Popova, E E; Bondarenko, Y V; Krat, V B; Kushlinskii, N E

    2011-04-01

    Neurospecific proteins S-100 and GFAP were measured in the serum of 145 patients with neural tumors and 69 healthy individuals. In patients with glyoblastomas, the concentrations of S-100 and GFAP were significantly higher than in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, benign meningiomas, and brain metastases and in healthy individuals. Serum S-100 concentrations in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, benign meningiomas, and brain metastases were similar; significant difference from the control was found only for patients with cerebral metastases. A specific feature of GFAP was high incidence of its detection in patients with glioblastomas (83%) compared to other groups of patients with neural tumors and healthy volunteers who demonstrated practically zero level of this protein. These findings attest to the possibility of using S-100 as an additional biochemical criterion of brain involvement in tumor patients and GFAP as a glioblastoma marker. PMID:22235430

  19. Serum protein changes in ponies on different parasite control programmes.

    PubMed

    Herd, R P; Kent, J E

    1986-11-01

    Serum protein responses were examined in 52 ponies divided into five groups and subjected to various control strategies that resulted in pasture infectivity ranging from 706 to 18,486 infective third stage, cyathostome and Trichostrongylus axei larvae per kilogram of herbage (L3/kg) by 17 September 1984. Major protein changes occurred only in young ponies (Groups 4 and 5) and were observed before exposure to maximum numbers of pasture larvae (Group 4; 10,210 L3/kg, Group 5: 10,042 L3/kg) on 17 September. It appeared that a primary infection of T axei was a greater stimulus to serum beta-globulin and immunoglobulin (Ig)G(T) responses that provided by continued infection with cyathostome (small strongyle) worms. The large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus and S equinus) were not detected in any larval cultures or on pastures grazed by the young ponies. A fall in beta-globulin and IgG(T) concentrations of Group 5 ponies one month after treatment with ivermectin indicated a larvicidal action against T axei and/or the cyathostomes. A subsequent rise in serum albumin concentrations of Group 5 ponies suggested that a protein-losing gastroenteropathy had been alleviated by the larvicidal action of ivermectin. Mature control ponies (Group 1) showed little beta-globulin response and only a modest IgG(T) response in six of the 10 ponies after exposure to heavily infected lawns (18,486 L3/kg) in September 1984. It was concluded that serum protein and IgG(T) responses were of limited value as an aid to diagnosis of parasitism because of numerous difficulties of interpretation. PMID:3803358

  20. Serum C-reactive protein in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chuan; Hsiao, Huo-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Ling; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Lee, Yen-Pai; Fung, Hang-Poung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactation and health status. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk for 12 mo from 29 randomly selected dairy cattle on 3 farms. At the time the blood samples were collected, the stage of pregnancy, lactation status, breeding records, general health condition, reproductive status, and body condition score were recorded for each cow. Serum CRP was detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western immunoblotting. C-reactive protein levels were measured with a densitometer and expressed as an optimal dose value. C-reactive protein levels were correlated with the body condition score, lactation status, and animal health (P < 0.05), but not with ambient temperature, animal age, or parity. C-reactive protein levels increased with milk production, peaking during high lactation (2 to 4 mo of pregnancy), and decreased when lactation ceased. In addition, the CRP level was highest during naturally occurring infections, such as mastitis and other tissue inflammation. Thus, the CRP level can confirm the presence of inflammation. The stress effect of taking blood samples as measured by the CRP level, was also examined. The CRP level became rapidly elevated 12 h after the blood samples were taken but returned to normal 36 h later. In conclusion, the stresses resulting from overall poor health, heavy lactation, and blood sampling caused the elevation of serum CRP. C-reactive protein is a marker or tool for evaluating the health status of a herd. C-reactive protein should also be considered as a useful criteria to assess the stress levels and may be useful in early surveillance of disease conditions in a dairy herd. PMID:12760474

  1. Relationship between Proinflammatory and Antioxidant Proteins with the Severity of Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    García-Fontana, Beatriz; Morales-Santana, Sonia; Longobardo, Victoria; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; García-Salcedo, José Antonio; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are at significant risk of cardiovascular disease, however, the pathophysiology of these complications is complex and incompletely known in this population. The aim of this study was to compare the serum proteome of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting or not presenting cardiovascular disease with non-diabetic subjects to find essential proteins related to these cardiovascular complications. This cross-sectional study compares the serum proteome by a combination of protein depletion with 2D-DIGE (2-dimension Difference Gel Electrophoresis) methodology. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF (Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and Time-Of-Flight ion detector) or LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass-Mass Spectrometry). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with cardiovascular disease showed higher expression of plasma retinol binding protein and glutathione peroxidase-3 compared to those without cardiovascular disease and non-diabetic controls. These results show that proteins related to the inflammatory and redox state appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular disease in the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:25923078

  2. Interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V.; Velagapudi, R.B.; McLean, A.M.; Wilcox, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with serum and tissue proteins could influence the drug's disposition and pharmacological activities in mammals. Ultrafiltration, equilibrium dialysis, and ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods have been used to study the reversible binding of apomorphine to bovine, human, rat, and swine plasma proteins. The degree of binding was generally greater than 90%, but variations were noted in some instances on the basis of drug concentrations and pH over the range of 6.8-7.8. Incubation of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine with bovine serum albumin led to retention of radioactivity and a stoichiometrically controlled released of tritium which arose from the reaction of an electrophilic drug oxidation product and protein, producing drug-protein conjugates. In vitro experiments with mouse striatal brain preparations indicated parallel covalent binding reactions. In vivo experiments in mice indicated accumulation of radioactivity in brain regions and other tissues following daily injections of (8,9-/sup 3/H2)apomorphine for 14 days. The physical and covalent interactions of apomorphine with mammalian tissue proteins could be the cause of longer disposition half-lives in mammals than those previously reported. The covalent interactions, in particular, may be important in elucidating the mechanism of apomorphine-induced behavioral effects in mice.

  3. Photo selective protein immobilization using bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Kim, Ansoon; Huh, Chul; Park, Chan Woo; Ah, Chil Seong; Kim, Bong Kyu; Yang, Jong-Heon; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Choi, Yo Han; Hong, Jongcheol; Sung, Gun Yong

    2012-11-01

    A simple and selective technique which immobilizes protein onto a solid substrate by using UV illumination has been developed. In protein immobilization, a Bovine serum albumin (BSA) performed bifunctional role as a cross-linker between substrate and proteins and as a blocker inhibiting a nonspecific protein adsorption. A new photo-induced protein immobilization process has been investigated at each step by fluorescence microscopy, ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. A UV photomask has been used to induce selective protein immobilization on target regions of the surface of the SiO2 substrates under UV illumination with negligible nonspecific binding. The UV illumination also showed improved photostability than the conventional methods which employed bifunctional photo-crosslinker molecules of photo-reactive diazirine. This new UV illumination-based photo-addressable protein immobilization provides a new approach for developing novel protein microarrays for multiplexed sensing as well as other types of bio-immobilization in biomedical devices and biotechnologies.

  4. Analysis of serum proteins by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tonack, Sarah; Neoptolemos, John P; Costello, Eithne

    2010-01-01

    Serum contains a vast array of proteins, some of which are specific to blood whilst others are secreted into blood from tissues and organs. The so-called tissue leakage factors reveal information about the tissue from which they originate and are therefore of great potential importance as disease biomarkers. There are already a number of blood-borne biomarkers in routine clinical use that aid in the diagnosis or management of cancer. However, there is a pressing need for additional markers, and new methods to find them are under development. Here we provide a protocol for serum protein profiling using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Included in this procedure, we detail the pre-processing steps of lipid and high-abundance protein removal. These procedures can also be employed up-stream of quantification methods such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Chapter 12 is devoted to the iTRAQ approach for quantifying proteins, and it is therefore not described in this chapter. PMID:20839111

  5. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  6. Preresonance Raman spectroscopic studies on retinoid binding proteins: RBP, CRBP-I and CRALBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Zhongmo

    1997-07-01

    The nature of the binding interactions between retinoid and many retinoid binding proteins is not well understood. Three such proteins: Retinol Binding Protein (RBP), Cellular Retinol Binding Protein-I (CRBP-I) and Cellular Retinaldehyde Bingding Protein (CRALBP) have been isolated, complexed with all-trans and 11-cis retinal respectively, and probed using pre-resonance and difference Raman spectroscopy. In the study of RBP, we have measured the pre-presonance Raman spectra of retinal, retinoic acid and retinol in dilute CCl4 solutions and when bound to bovine-serum RBP. The comparison reveals that the binding interaction does not involve any specific interactions of the terminal group and the polyene chain with a particular protein residue. The data indicate hydrogen bonding of bound retinal's head group oxygen to water, as well as some torsional angle change of its polyene chain upon binding. The pre-resonance Raman spectrum of all-trans retinal complexed with CRBP-I has also been obtained, displaying a spectral shift in the position of the retinal carbonyl band that is typical of hydrogen bonding effects. This carbonyl red shift has been compared to hydrogen bonding interactions between the all-trans retinal carbonyl and a series of phenol derivatives, varying in proton donating ability by FT-IR spectroscopy, allowing quantitation of the hydrogen bond enthalpy. To characterize the bonding between CRALBP and the carbonyl of 11-cis retinal, a difference Raman experiment was performed using protein complexes with native 11-cis retinal and 11-cis retinal isotopically labeled with 13C at the 15 position. The difference spectrum has been compared to solution Raman spectra of 11-cis retinaldehyde, Schiff Base and Protonated Schiff Base in order to evaluate the retinoid CRALBP link. The results point to a possibility either Schiff Base or H-bond as the linkage between CRALBP and 11-cis retinal. Future isotopic labeling study of CRALBP complexed with 18O-edited 11-cis

  7. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. I. Serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Scheffrahn, W; Schmidt, H D; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in three samples of Aromuns (Albania: the village of Andon Poci, province Gjirocaster, Republic of Macedonia: Stip region, Romania: the village Kogalniceanu, province Dobruja) and four reference samples (Albanians: Tirana, Romanians: Constanta and Ploiesti as well as Greeks (Northeastern Greece)). The Aromun samples from Albania and Romania form one separate cluster and the reference samples together with the Aromuns from Macedonia (Stip region) form a second one. PMID:11591047

  8. Posaconazole in Human Serum: a Greater Pharmacodynamic Effect than Predicted by the Non-Protein-Bound Serum Concentration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lignell, Anders; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Cars, Otto; Chryssanthou, Erja; Sjölin, Jan

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that only the unbound fraction of a drug is pharmacologically active. Posaconazole is an antifungal agent with a protein binding of 98 to 99%. Taking into account the degree of protein binding, plasma levels in patients, and MIC levels of susceptible strains, it can be assumed that the free concentration of posaconazole sometimes will be too low to exert the expected antifungal effect. The aim was therefore to test the activity of posaconazole in serum in comparison with that of the calculated unbound concentrations in protein-free media. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the serum control were found at serum concentrations of posaconazole of 1.0 and 0.10 mg/liter, with calculated free concentrations corresponding to 1× MIC and 0.1× MIC, respectively, against one Candida lusitaniae strain selected for proof of principle. In RPMI 1640, the corresponding calculated unbound concentration of 0.015 mg/liter resulted in a significant effect, whereas that of 0.0015 mg/liter did not. Also, against seven additional Candida strains tested, there was an effect of the low posaconazole concentration in serum, in contrast to the results in RPMI 1640. Fluconazole, a low-grade-protein-bound antifungal, was used for comparison at corresponding concentrations in serum and RPMI 1640. No effect was observed at the serum concentration, resulting in a calculated unbound concentration of 0.1× MIC. In summary, there was a substantially greater pharmacodynamic effect of posaconazole in human serum than could be predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration. A flux from serum protein-bound to fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase-bound posaconazole is suggested. PMID:21502622

  9. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  10. Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

  11. [Does bilirubin interfere with capillary electrophoresis of serum proteins?].

    PubMed

    Hellara, Ilhem; Fekih, Ons; Triki, Sonia; Elmay, Ahlem; Neffati, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2014-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis of serum proteins is a fast, reliable and simple technique, but many interference exist. The objective of our work is to study the interference of bilirubin on this technique; 70 icteric sera were analysed on Capillarys ™ (Sebia). A second electrophoresis was performed on 40 samples after bilirubin photodegradation. The bilirubin and serum proteins were determinated respectively by Jendrassik and Grof and biuret methods on Konélab 20i ™ (Thermo Electron Corporation). We found abnormal spreading of the albumin fraction of the anode side wich constitute sometimes an isolated fraction in the traditional area of pre-albumin migration. This fraction varies from 2.0 ± 2.0% (0.0 to 7.3%) or 0.98 ± 1.53 g/L (0 to 5.3 g/L) and it seems to be related to the direct bilirubin since, following overloading sera with a solution of bilirubin, no further fraction was recovered. An average decrease of bilirubin after photodegradation of 58 ± 17% (26-89%) is followed by a decrease in the same order 64 ± 38% (10-100%) of the additional fraction. Acetate cellulose electrophoresis of the same samples showed no variation. The high bilirubin levels seem modify slightly the electrophoretic profile. However the impact of the interference on the interpretation of electrophoretic trace is negligible. PMID:24492101

  12. [The behavior of serum total protein and protein fractions during the use of various hormonal contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Scheler, R; Tarnick, M; Krause, G; Hesse, A; Carol, W

    1977-01-01

    Total protein fractions in the serum were measured in 213 women who used various contraceptive preparations (53 used Gravistat, 56 Non-Ovlon, 37 Ovosiston, 67 Deposiston). Blood samples were taken before the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 24th cycles of use and 4 weeks after discontinuing preparation use. Serum protein concentrations decreased through the first 18 cycles of contraceptive use, after which a continual increase was observed. Serum albumin concentrations deceased during the first 3 cycles of use, after which increases were observed, which in the case of Non-Ovlon and Gravistat exceeded original values. Serum alpha 1 and alpha 2 globulin concentrations showed relative increases during the first 3 cycles, after which a decrease was observed. Serum beta globulin increased in the first 3 cycles of use; a decrease was observed between the 12th and 18 cycles, followed by another increase. Serum gamma globulin levels increased during the first 6 cycles, followed by a marked decrease, which extended partially into the post-treatment period. The changes are comparable to those observed during an undisturbed pregnancy. Deposiston caused the most marked changes in the parameters; this is attributed to the estrogenic nature of the preparation. PMID:73442

  13. Identification of Protein Carbonyls in serum of the fetal and neonatal pig.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of serum proteins leads to non-reversible carbonyl formation which alters their function and has long been associated with stress-related disease processes. The primary objective of this study was to identify oxidized serum protein biomarkers of metabolic stress in baby pigs. Protein carb...

  14. Moving towards harmonized reporting of serum and urine protein electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade, surveys by questionnaire in Canada, Australia and New Zealand revealed wide variation in reporting practices by laboratories and individual practitioners in the interpretation of serum and urine protein electrophoresis (PE). Such variation has potential to adversely impact patient outcomes if report structure is inconsistent or if the messaging is incorrectly perceived by the receiving physician. Concerted efforts have been initiated to promote harmonization in the use of interpretative comments. The primary goal is to add value through clear communication with requesting physicians in the interest of quality patient care. Resistance to a harmonized approach largely reflects longstanding personal reporting habits and preferences but change can be more readily embraced if the new system is intuitive, easy to use and saves time in reporting. PMID:26824981

  15. Prion protein detection in serum using micromechanical resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Madhukar; Waggoner, Philip S; Montagna, Richard A; Craighead, Harold G

    2009-12-15

    Prion proteins that have transformed from their normal cellular counterparts (PrP(c)) into infectious form (PrP(res)) are responsible for causing progressive neurodegenerative diseases in numerous species, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (also known as mad cow disease), scrapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Due to a possible link between BSE and CJD it is highly desirable to develop non-invasive and ante mortem tests for the detection of prion proteins in bovine samples. Such ante mortem tests of all cows prior to slaughter will help to prevent the introduction of PrP(res) into the human food supply. Furthermore, detection of PrP(res) in donated blood will also help to prevent the transmission of CJD among humans through blood transfusion. In this study, we have continued development of a micromechanical resonator array that is capable of detecting PrP(c) in bovine blood serum. The sensitivity of the resonators for the detection of PrP(c) is further enhanced by the use of secondary mass labels. A pair of antibodies is used in a sandwich immunoassay format to immobilize PrP(c) on the surface of resonators and attach nanoparticles as secondary mass labels to PrP(c). Secondary mass labeling is optimized in terms of incubation time to maximize the frequency shifts that correspond to the presence of PrP(c) on the surface of resonators. Our results show that a minimum of 200 pg mL(-1) of PrP(c) in blood serum can be detected using micromechanical resonator arrays. PMID:19836525

  16. Effects of regular exercise on obesity and type 2 diabete mellitus in Korean children: improvements glycemic control and serum adipokines level

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Soo; Kang, Sunghwun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to clarify the effects of regular exercise on lipid profiles and serum adipokines in Korean children. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were divided into controls (n=10), children who were obese (n=10), and children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=10). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, lipid profiles, glucagon, insulin and adipokines (leptin, resistin, visfatin and retinol binding protein 4) were measured before to and after a 12-week exercise program. [Results] Body weight, body mass index, and percentage body fat were significantly higher in the obese and diabetes groups compared with the control group. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemic control levels were significantly decreased after the exercise program in the obese and diabetes groups, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased. Adipokines were higher in the obese and diabetes groups compared with the control group prior to the exercise program, and were significantly lower following completion. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular exercise has positive effects on obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean children by improving glycemic control and reducing body weight, thereby lowering cardiovascular risk factors and adipokine levels. PMID:26180345

  17. Study of the effect of total serum protein and albumin concentrations on canine fructosamine concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Loste, A; Marca, M C

    1999-01-01

    The relationship among serum fructosamine concentration and total serum protein and albumin concentrations were evaluated in healthy and sick dogs (diabetics and dogs with insulinoma were not included). Fructosamine was determined using a commercial colorimetric nitroblue tetrazolium method applied to the Technicon RA-500 (Bayer). Serum fructosamine concentration was not correlated to total protein in normoproteinemic (r = 0.03) and hyperproteinemic dogs (r = 0.29), but there was a high correlation (r = 0.73) in hypoproteinemic dogs. Similar comparison between serum fructosamine and albumin concentrations showed middle correlation (r = 0.49) in normoalbuminemic dogs and high degree of correlation (r = 0.67) in hypoalbuminemic dogs. These results showed the importance of recognizing serum glucose concentration as well as total serum protein and albumin concentrations in the assay of canine serum fructosamine concentration. PMID:10369572

  18. Prostate cancer serum biomarker discovery through proteomic analysis of alpha-2 macroglobulin protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Earle F.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Tabb, David L.; Billheimer, Dean; Roth, Bruce J.; Chang, Sam S.; Cookson, Michael S.; Hinton, Timothy J.; Cheek, Kristin L.; Hill, Salisha; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) functions as a universal protease inhibitor in serum and is capable of binding various cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we investigated if immunoaffinity enrichment and proteomic analysis of A2M protein complexes from human serum could improve detection of biologically relevant and novel candidate protein biomarkers in prostate cancer. Serum samples from six patients with androgen-independent, metastatic prostate cancer and six control patients without malignancy were analyzed by immunoaffinity enrichment of A2M protein complexes and MS identification of associated proteins. Known A2M substrates were reproducibly identified from patient serum in both cohorts, as well as proteins previously undetected in human serum. One example is heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α), which was identified only in the serum of cancer patients in this study. Using an ELISA, the presence of HSP90α in human serum was validated on expanded test cohorts and found to exist in higher median serum concentrations in prostate cancer (n = 18) relative to control (n = 13) patients (median concentrations 50.7 versus 27.6 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.001). Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach and support the analysis of A2M protein complexes for proteomic-based serum biomarker discovery. PMID:20107526

  19. Serum stimulation of plasma protein synthesis in culture is selective and rapidly reversible.

    PubMed

    Plant, P W; Liang, T J; Pindyck, J; Grieninger, G

    1981-10-27

    Primary hepatocyte monolayers, derived from chick embryos, can be cultured from the onset in a completely chemically defined medium, free of added hormones. The liver cells synthesize and secrete a wide spectrum of plasma proteins for several days in this serum-free environment. Addition of fetal bovine serum elicits a 3-5-fold increase in the production of certain plasma proteins: fibrinogen, albumin, and the alpha1-globulin M. This effect of serum is selective; transferrin and plasminogen syntheses are enhanced less than 1.5-fold. Significant stimulation is observed with 0.1% fetal bovine serum, and half-maximal values for individual plasma proteins are obtained with concentrations ranging between 0.4 and 1%. The stimulatory activity of serum shows no developmental or species specificity. Plasma is active as serum derived from the same blood sample. The hepatocytes respond rapidly to serum, significant changes in albumin synthesis occurring less than 1 h after serum addition or removal. The effect of short exposure is fully reversible. These results establish the capacity of low concentrations of serum to stimulate plasma protein synthesis and underscore the importance of studying the effects of hormones and other factors under serum-free conditions. The findings suggest that, in addition to the classical hormones, ubiquitous but as yet uncharacterized serum components play a role in controlling this major hepatic function. PMID:7284395

  20. Serum Proteins Alteration in Association with Body Mass Index in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Madhuvanthi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Serum proteins are an important indicator of the nutritional status in an individual. There is a worldwide prevalence of both undernourishment and obesity. It has been suggested that low Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with a decrease in serum protein levels predisposing them to other illnesses. Overweight and obese individuals carry risk for various other non-communicable diseases. Aim To compare the serum protein levels in underweight, overweight and obese individuals with that of normal body mass index individuals. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted in subjects who attended the master health checkup clinic of PSG hospitals. Subjects in the age group of 20-50 years were selected. Their serum proteins and BMI was measured. Twenty subjects each of underweight, normal, overweight and obese individuals were selected, categorized and compared. Results The serum protein level of normal individuals (Group I) was compared with underweight (Group II), overweight (Group III) and obese subjects (Group IV) by one-way ANOVA analysis. The mean serum total proteins in gm/dl in group I controls was 7.555±0.37 compared to Group II (underweight) which was 7.295±0.419. Low BMI was found to be associated with a decrease in serum protein level which was not statistically significant. Elevated BMI as in overweight and obese subjects showed no significant alterations in serum protein levels with p >0.05 and the changes were found to be independent of the body mass index. Conclusion Underweight individuals showed a decrease in serum protein levels whereas there were no significant changes in the serum protein levels in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:27504281

  1. Glass transitions in aqueous solutions of protein (bovine serum albumin).

    PubMed

    Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yamamoto, Wataru; Yokoyama, Ayame; Yoshinari, Takeo; Yagihara, Shin; Kita, Rio; Ngai, K L; Capaccioli, Simone

    2009-10-29

    Measurements by adiabatic calorimetry of heat capacities and enthalpy relaxation rates of a 20% (w/w) aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by Kawai, Suzuki, and Oguni [Biophys. J. 2006, 90, 3732] have found several enthalpy relaxations at long times indicating different processes undergoing glass transitions. In a quenched sample, one enthalpy relaxation at around 110 K and another over a wide temperature range (120-190 K) were observed. In a sample annealed at 200-240 K after quenching, three separated enthalpy relaxations at 110, 135, and above 180 K were observed. Dynamics of processes probed by adiabatic calorimetric data are limited to long times on the order of 10(3) s. A fuller understanding of the processes can be gained by probing the dynamics over a wider time/frequency range. Toward this goal, we performed broadband dielectric measurements of BSA-water mixtures at various BSA concentrations over a wide frequency range of thirteen decades from 2 mHz to 1.8 GHz at temperatures from 80 to 270 K. Three relevant relaxation processes were detected. For relaxation times equal to 100 s, the three processes are centered approximately at 110, 135, and 200 K, in good agreement with those observed by adiabatic calorimetry. We have made the following interpretation of the molecular origins of the three processes. The fastest relaxation process having relaxation time of 100 or 1000 s at ca. 110 K is due to the secondary relaxation of uncrystallized water (UCW) in the hydration shell. The intermediate relaxation process with 100 s relaxation time at ca. 135 K is due to ice. The slowest relaxation process having relaxation time of 100 s at ca. 200 K is interpreted to originate from local chain conformation fluctuations of protein slaved by water. Experimental evidence supporting these interpretations include the change of temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the UCW at approximately T(gBSA) approximately = 200 K, the glass transition temperature of

  2. HPLC-DAD protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dziadosz, Marek; Lessig, Rüdiger; Bartels, Heidemarie

    2012-04-15

    We here describe an HPLC-DAD method to analyse different protein kinase inhibitors. Potential applications of this method are pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring. Optimised chromatography conditions resulted in a very good separation of seven inhibitors (vatalanib, bosutinib, canertinib, tandutinib, pazopanib, dasatinib - internal standard and erlotinib). The good sensitivity makes this method competitive with LC/MS/MS. The separation was performed with a Lichrospher 100-5 RP8, 250 mm × 4 mm column maintained at 30 ± 1 °C, and with a mobile phase of 0.05 M H(3)PO(4)/KH(2)PO(4) (pH=2.3)-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. A simple and fast sample preparation sequence with liquid-liquid extraction led to good recoveries (73-90%) of all analytes. The recovery hardly reached 50% only for pazopanib. This method can also be used for targeted protein kinase inhibitor quantification. A perfect linearity in the validated range (20-10,000 ng/mL) and an LOQ of 20 ng/mL were achieved. The relative standard deviations and accuracies of all examined drug concentrations gave values much lower than 15% both for between- and within-batch calculations. All analysed PKIs were stable for 6 months in a 1mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide stock solution. Vatalanib, bosutinib and erlotinib were also stable in human serum in the whole examined concentration range. PMID:22425385

  3. Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

  4. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease. PMID:25314816

  5. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins.

  6. May the Thyroid Gland and Thyroperoxidase Participate in Nitrosylation of Serum Proteins and Sporadic Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (p<0.006), not in advanced disease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (p<0.05), the indicators of nitrosative stress. The thyroidectomized subjects showed very low levels of serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (78% reduction vs. controls) and, among these proteins, the nitrosylated serum α-synuclein was nearly absent. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2143–2148. PMID:25125346

  7. May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-11-20

    The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (p<0.006), not in advanced disease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (p<0.05), the indicators of nitrosative stress. The thyroidectomized subjects showed very low levels of serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (78% reduction vs. controls) and, among these proteins, the nitrosylated serum α-synuclein was nearly absent. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor. PMID:25125346

  8. Intact-Protein Analysis System for Discovery of Serum-Based Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618–625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009–2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  9. Intact-protein analysis system for discovery of serum-based disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618-625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009-2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  10. Clinical impact of serum proteins on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Felix; Elsadek, Bakheet

    2012-07-20

    Among serum proteins albumin and transferrin have attracted the most interest as drug carriers in the past two decades. Prior to that, their potential use was overshadowed by the advent of monoclonal antibodies that was initiated by Milstein and Koehler in 1975. Meanwhile intensive pursuit of exploiting transferrin, but above all albumin as an exogenous or endogenous carrier protein for treating various diseases, primarily cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and hepatitis has resulted in several marketed products and numerous clinical trials. While the use of transferrin has clinically been primarily restricted to immunotoxins, albumin-based drug delivery systems ranging from albumin drug nanoparticles, albumin fusion protein, prodrugs and peptide derivatives that bind covalently to albumin as well as physically binding antibody fragments and therapeutically active peptides are in advanced clinical trials or approved products. For treating diabetes, Levemir and Victoza that are myristic acid derivatives of human insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) act as long-acting peptides by binding to the fatty acid binding sites on circulating albumin to control glucose levels. Levemir from Novo Nordisk has already developed into a blockbuster since its market approval in 2004. Abraxane, an albumin paclitaxel nanoparticle as a water-soluble galenic formulation avoiding the use of cremophor/ethanol, transports paclitaxel through passive targeting as an albumin paclitaxel complex to the tumor site and is superior to conventional Taxol against metastatic breast cancer. INNO-206, an albumin-binding doxorubicin prodrug that also accumulates in solid tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect but releases the parent drug through acid cleavage, either intra- or extracellularly, is entering phase II studies against sarcoma. An expanding field is the use of albumin-binding antibody moieties which do not contain the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion

  11. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  12. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  13. Differences in the serum binding determinants of isradipine and darodipine--consequences for serum protein binding in various diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Pinquier, J L; Urien, S; Chaumet-Riffaud, P; Tillement, J P

    1989-01-01

    1. Serum protein binding of isradipine and darodipine, and serum concentrations of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), albumin (HSA) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured in three groups of patients, I: healthy subjects (n = 20); II: patients with inflammatory disorders (n = 15) and III: patients with hepatic insufficiency (n = 17). 2. AAG was increased significantly in group II patients (P less than 0.001) and decreased in group III patients (P less than 0.001); HSA was decreased significantly in group II and group III patients (P less than 0.001). 3. The free percentage of isradipine was decreased significantly in group II patients (P less than 0.05) and increased in group III patients (P less than 0.05) and multivariate analysis showed that these variations were inversely related to changes in AAG concentration. 4. The free percentage of darodipine was increased significantly in group II and III patients (P less than 0.05) due to a decrease in HSA concentration, as shown by multivariate analysis. 5. The changes in free serum percentages of isradipine and darodipine were inversely related to concomitant changes in the concentration of the serum protein for which they showed the highest affinity, AAG for isradipine and HSA for darodipine, respectively. 6. The unexplained variability in the binding data was greater when AAG was the major determinant of binding (isradipine). PMID:2531607

  14. iTRAQ technology-based identification of human peripheral serum proteins associated with depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Su, X; Jiang, X; Dong, X; Fan, Y; Zhang, J; Yu, C; Gao, W; Shi, S; Jiang, J; Jiang, W; Wei, T

    2016-08-25

    Clinical depression is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric disorders and contributes to increased risks of disability and suicide. Differentially expressed serum proteins may serve as biomarkers for diagnosing depression. In this study, samples from depressed patients are aggregated into a pool (22×100μL serum was used) and samples from healthy volunteers are aggregated into the other pool (20×100μL serum was used). Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology and tandem mass spectrometry were employed to screen for differentially expressed serum protein in two separate pools. We identified 472 proteins in the serum samples, and 154 of these presented differences in abundance between the depression and control groups. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was employed to identify the highest scoring proteins in signaling pathway networks. Finally, four differentially expressed proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). Proteomic studies revealed that levels of c-reaction protein (CRP), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) and angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) were substantially increased in depressed patients compared with the healthy control group. Therefore, these differentially expressed proteins may represent potential markers for the clinical diagnosis of depression. PMID:27268281

  15. Serum protein identification and quantification of the corona of 5, 15 and 80 nm gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffler, Martin; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Sarioglu, Hakan; Takenaka, Shinji; Wenk, Alexander; Schleh, Carsten; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Johnston, Blair D.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

    2013-07-01

    When nanoparticles (NP) enter the body they come into contact with body fluids containing proteins which can adsorb to their surface. These proteins may influence the NP interactions with the biological vicinity, eventually determining their biological fate inside the body. Adsorption of the most abundantly binding proteins was studied after an in vitro 24 hr incubation of monodisperse, negatively charged 5, 15 and 80 nm gold spheres (AuNP) in mouse serum by a two-step analysis: proteomic protein identification and quantitative protein biochemistry. The adsorbed proteins were separated from non-adsorbed proteins by centrifugation and gel electrophoresis and identified using a MALDI-TOF-MS-Proteomics-Analyzer. Quantitative analysis of proteins in gel bands by protein densitometry, required the focus on predominantly binding serum proteins. Numerous proteins adsorbed to the AuNP depending on their size, e.g. apolipoproteins or complement C3. The qualitative and quantitative amount of adsorbed proteins differed between 5, 15 and 80 nm AuNP. Band intensities of adsorbed proteins decreased with increasing AuNP sizes based not only on their mass but also on their surface area. Summarizing, the AuNP surface is covered with serum proteins containing transport and immune related proteins among others. Hence, protein binding depends on the size, surface area and curvature of the AuNP.

  16. [Genetic linkage of blood group, egg and serum protein and plumage color loci in chickens].

    PubMed

    Gintovt, V E; Novik, I E; Moiseeva, I G; Tolokoniikova, E V

    1976-01-01

    Genetic relationship of six blood group (A, B, C, D, E, x5), three egg (G2, G3, Ov) and one serum (Alb) protein loci and two plumage colour (I-dominant white, E-extended black) loci were investigated. 3250 gametes have been analysed for 21 loci combinations, 11 from them have never been studied on linkage. Blood group loci A, B, C, D, E, x5 segregated independently on egg protein loci G2, G3, and Ov, serum protein locus Alb and plumage colour locus E. No linkage was observed between blood group locus B and dominant white locus I. Close linkage for two egg protein loci G3 and Ov is confirmed. Independent segregation of investigated blood group, egg and serum protein loci suggests their localization on different autosomes in the chicken genome. The recent literature and the authors' data on genetic relationship between blood group, polymorphic protein loci and morphological traits are reviewed. PMID:1010323

  17. Nearly 200 X-ray crystal structures of transthyretin: what do they tell us about this protein and the design of drugs for TTR amyloidoses?

    PubMed

    Palaninathan, S K

    2012-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR), a β-strand rich tetrameric protein present in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid is involved in the transport of thyroxine and retinol binding protein:retinol complex (holo-RBP). TTR forms two T4 binding sites at the center of the dimer-dimer interface and contains holo-RBP binding sites on both faces of the tetramer. Dissociation of TTR tetramers followed by misfolding and misassembly results in amyloid fibril formation, the causative agent of four neurodegenerative diseases. Misfolding of wild type TTR in humans over 60 years of age is linked to a sporadic amyloid disease called senile systemic amyloidosis. Single point mutations enhance the amyloidogenicity of TTR, causing familial amyloid cardiomyopathy, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and central nervous system selective amyloidosis. To date, nearly 200 X-ray crystal structures of TTR and their complexes have been solved. They have provided potential insights into its structure-function relationships with molecular partners, and its interactions with small molecule ligands that inhibit tetramer destabilization and amyloid formation. This review will focus on the key findings of the structural studies of TTR that provided atomic level description of its architecture, the mechanistic role of structural components involved in its function and misfolding, and the progress and limitations towards the design of selective inhibitors for TTR amyloidoses. PMID:22471981

  18. Accuracy of serum IgM and IgA monoclonal protein measurements by densitometry.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C Howard; Chang, Chin-Yung; Liu, Kevin S; Liu, Frank J

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that proper dilution of sera that contain IgG monoclonal proteins (M-proteins) is necessary for accurate quantitation of serum albumin and M-protein concentrations separated by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) using the Beckman PARAGON agarose electrophoresis system. We now report the significance of pre-electrophoretic serum dilution for M-protein quantitation of sera from patients with IgA and IgM monoclonal gammopathy. We measured M-proteins by SPE in 82 serum samples from 29 patients with IgA and 72 samples from 23 patients with IgM monodonal gammopathy. The serum M-protein concentrations (mean +/- SD) at 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20 dilutions (v/v) for all samples of both types were 49.7 +/- 12.9, 49.1 +/- 13.1, and 47.8 +/- 13.0 g/L, respectively. Thirty-two (20.8%) of 154 sera showed varying degrees of increase in M-protein concentrations with serum dilutions higher than 1:5; only 8 (5.2%) showed an increase 3 SDs. By SPE, the M-protein concentration (mean +/- SD) of these 8 sera at 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20 dilutions were 52.6 +/- 7.8, 57.1 +/- 7.2, and 57.6 +/- 7.1 g/L, respectively; the albumin concentrations (mean +/- SD) were 41.4 +/- 4.4, 37.9 +/- 3.8, and 37.1 +/- 2.9 g/L, respectively. The corresponding albumin concentration (mean +/- SD) was 36.8 +/- 3.7 g/L, assayed by the bromcresol green dye-binding method. These 8 samples were obtained from 3 patients, 2 with IgM kappa and 1 with IgA lambda monoclonal gammopathy. On the electrophoresis membranes, the M-protein bands of these 8 samples were narrow, thin, and dense; upon scanning, they appeared taller and thinner than the corresponding albumin bands. The samples of this subset contained relatively high concentrations of M-protein and total serum protein. We conclude that a pre-electrophoretic dilution of 1:5 (v/v) is adequate for most sera with IgA or IgM M-proteins. However, 1:10 or 1:20 dilution is occasionally required for a subset of sera with IgA or IgM M-proteins that show an

  19. Candida albicans Shaving to Profile Human Serum Proteins on Hyphal Surface

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Elvira; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Hernández-Haro, Carolina; Hernáez, María L.; Nombela, César; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human opportunistic fungus and it is responsible for a wide variety of infections, either superficial or systemic. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus and its ability to switch between yeast and hyphae is essential for its virulence. Once C. albicans obtains access to the human body, the host serum constitutes a complex environment of interaction with C. albicans cell surface in bloodstream. To draw a comprehensive picture of this relevant step in host-pathogen interaction during invasive candidiasis, we have optimized a gel-free shaving proteomic strategy to identify both, human serum proteins coating C. albicans cells and fungi surface proteins simultaneously. This approach was carried out with normal serum (NS) and heat inactivated serum (HIS). We identified 214 human and 372 C. albicans unique proteins. Proteins identified in C. albicans included 147 which were described as located at the cell surface and 52 that were described as immunogenic. Interestingly, among these C. albicans proteins, we identified 23 GPI-anchored proteins, Gpd2 and Pra1, which are involved in complement system evasion and 7 other proteins that are able to attach plasminogen to C. albicans surface (Adh1, Eno1, Fba1, Pgk1, Tdh3, Tef1, and Tsa1). Furthermore, 12 proteins identified at the C. albicans hyphae surface induced with 10% human serum were not detected in other hypha-induced conditions. The most abundant human proteins identified are involved in complement and coagulation pathways. Remarkably, with this strategy, all main proteins belonging to complement cascades were identified on the C. albicans surface. Moreover, we identified immunoglobulins, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic proteins such as apolipoproteins and others. Additionally, we identified more inhibitors of complement and coagulation pathways, some of them serpin proteins (serine protease inhibitors), in HIS vs. NS. On the other hand, we detected a higher amount of C3 at the C. albicans surface in

  20. Contribution of protein fractionation to depth of analysis of the serum and plasma proteomes.

    PubMed

    Faca, Vitor; Pitteri, Sharon J; Newcomb, Lisa; Glukhova, Veronika; Phanstiel, Doug; Krasnoselsky, Alexei; Zhang, Qing; Struthers, Jason; Wang, Hong; Eng, Jimmy; Fitzgibbon, Matt; McIntosh, Martin; Hanash, Samir

    2007-09-01

    In-depth analysis of the serum and plasma proteomes by mass spectrometry is challenged by the vast dynamic range of protein abundance and substantial complexity. There is merit in reducing complexity through fractionation to facilitate mass spectrometry analysis of low-abundance proteins. However, fractionation reduces throughput and has the potential of diluting individual proteins or inducing their loss. Here, we have investigated the contribution of extensive fractionation of intact proteins to depth of analysis. Pooled serum depleted of abundant proteins was fractionated by an orthogonal two-dimensional system consisting of anion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. The resulting protein fractions were aliquotted; one aliquot was analyzed by shotgun LC-MS/MS, and another was further resolved into protein bands in a third dimension using SDS-PAGE. Individual gel bands were excised and subjected to in situ digestion and mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that increased fractionation results in increased depth of analysis based on total number of proteins identified in serum and based on representation in individual fractions of specific proteins identified in gel bands following a third-dimension SDS gel analysis. An intact protein analysis system (IPAS) based on a two-dimensional plasma fractionation schema was implemented that resulted in identification of 1662 proteins with high confidence with representation of protein isoforms that differed in their chromatographic mobility. Further increase in depth of analysis was accomplished by repeat analysis of aliquots from the same set of two-dimensional fractions resulting in overall identification of 2254 proteins. We conclude that substantial depth of analysis of proteins from milliliter quantities of serum or plasma and detection of isoforms are achieved with depletion of abundant proteins followed by two-dimensional protein fractionation and MS analysis of individual fractions. PMID:17696519

  1. The effects of Hespan on serum and lymphatic albumin, globulin, and coagulant protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E; Denis, R; Ledgerwood, A M; Grabow, D

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hydroxyethyl starch (Hespan) resuscitation on serum and lymphatic proteins following hemorrhagic shock were studied in 34 splenectomized dogs. Following shock, five randomly assigned treatment groups received the shed blood plus 50 mL/kg of salt solution (RL) or RL with varying concentrations (0.22-1.5 gm/kg) of Hespan. Each dog received 50 ml/kg/d of the test solution for three days after shock. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, and coagulant protein activity of fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factor VIII were measured before shock, at the end of shock, following resuscitation, and on day 3; thoracic duct lymph values were obtained on day 3. Hespan-supplemented resuscitation lowered all serum proteins including albumin, globulin and coagulant proteins; concomitantly, the lymph protein rose after Hespan resuscitation. This decrease in serum proteins and rise in lymph proteins parallels similar results after albumin resuscitation in man and animals and suggests that Hespan induces an oncotically controlled extravascular protein relocation. Further studies on the significance of these findings need to be conducted. PMID:2451485

  2. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) decreases in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab or etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Crnkic, Meliha; Månsson, Bengt; Larsson, Lotta; Geborek, Pierre; Heinegård, Dick; Saxne, Tore

    2003-01-01

    Changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were studied during a 6-month period from initiation of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients with either infliximab or etanercept, to elucidate whether the favourable results of tissue protection reported in clinical trials are corroborated by changing levels of circulating COMP. Rheumatoid arthritis patients commencing treatment with infliximab (N = 32) or etanercept (N = 17) were monitored in accordance with a structured protocol. Only patients who were not receiving glucocorticoids or who were on a stable dose of oral prednisolone (<10 mg daily) were included. Serum COMP was measured by a sandwich immunoassay based on two monoclonal antibodies against human COMP in samples obtained at treatment initiation and at 3 and 6 months. Serum COMP decreased at 3 months in both infliximab- and etanercept-treated patients (P < 0.001 and <0.005, respectively) and remained low at 6 months. There was no significant correlation between changes in or concentrations of serum COMP and serum C-reactive protein at any time point. A decrease in serum COMP was seen both in ACR20 responders (patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20% improvement) and in nonresponders. The pattern of changes of serum COMP, a marker for cartilage turnover, in these patient groups supports the interpretation that infliximab and etanercept have a joint protective effect. Serum COMP has potential as a useful marker for evaluating tissue effects of novel treatment modalities in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12823852

  3. Tetranectin-like protein in vertebrate serum: a comparative immunochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Thougaard, A V; Jaliashvili, I; Christiansen, M

    2001-04-01

    The glycoprotein tetranectin (TN) found in human serum is a 90-kDa homotrimeric C-type lectin binding Ca2+, heparin and plasminogen kringle 4. TN is suggested as being implicated in tissue remodelling. The antigenic reactivity of putative TN was examined in serum from 14 different animal species using three sandwich enzyme immunoassays for human TN. Crab-eating macaque serum showed the strongest reaction, followed by horse and cat. Serum from cow, goat, pig, mouse and chicken reacted weakly, while dog, trout, and the amphibian and the reptile species did not react. The TN-like protein from macaque, horse and cat serum bound heparin and showed the same dependence on Ca2+ for interaction with the monoclonal antibodies as human TN. Gel filtration of sera from the three animal species showed that the TN-like protein eluted as single peaks with a M(r) of 70-90 kDa. Western blotting of horse and cat TN-like protein electrophoresed under reducing conditions showed that the antibodies against human TN reacted with a single band with an approximate M(r) of 30 kDa, indicating that the TN-like protein is also a homotrimer. Horse and cat TN-like protein interacted with human kringle 4-sepharose. Most likely, the reacting protein represents crab-eating macaque, horse and cat homologues of human TN. PMID:11290444

  4. Inflammatory Serum Protein Profiling of Patients with Lumbar Radicular Pain One Year after Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Moen, Aurora; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Røe, Cecilie; Gjerstad, Johannes; Gordh, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies suggest that lumbar radicular pain following disc herniation may be associated with a local or systemic inflammatory process. In the present study, we investigated the serum inflammatory protein profile of such patients. All 45 patients were recruited from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during the period 2007-2009. The new multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) technology was used to analyze the levels of 92 proteins. Interestingly, the present data showed that patients with radicular pain 12 months after disc herniation may be different from other patients with regard to many measurable serum cytokines. Given a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.10 and 0.05, we identified 41 and 13 proteins, respectively, which were significantly upregulated in the patients with severe pain one year after disc herniation. On the top of the list ranked by estimated increase we found C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCM5; 217% increase), epidermal growth factor (EGF; 142% increase), and monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4; 70% increase). Moreover, a clear overall difference in the serum cytokine profile between the chronic and the recovered patients was demonstrated. Thus, the present results may be important for future protein serum profiling of lumbar radicular pain patients with regard to prognosis and choice of treatment. We conclude that serum proteins may be measurable molecular markers of persistent pain after disc herniation. PMID:27293953

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH SERUM PROTEINS BY USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Hage, David S.; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Barnaby, Omar; Jackson, Abby; Yoo, Michelle J.; Papastavros, Efthimia; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Sobansky, Matt; Tong, Zenghan

    2011-01-01

    The binding of drugs with serum proteins can affect the activity, distribution, rate of excretion, and toxicity of pharmaceutical agents in the body. One tool that can be used to quickly analyze and characterize these interactions is high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). This review shows how HPAC can be used to study drug-protein binding and describes the various applications of this approach when examining drug interactions with serum proteins. Methods for determining binding constants, characterizing binding sites, examining drug-drug interactions, and studying drug-protein dissociation rates will be discussed. Applications that illustrate the use of HPAC with serum binding agents such as human serum albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins will be presented. Recent developments will also be examined, such as new methods for immobilizing serum proteins in HPAC columns, the utilization of HPAC as a tool in personalized medicine, and HPAC methods for the high-throughput screening and characterization of drug-protein binding. PMID:21395530

  6. Inflammatory Serum Protein Profiling of Patients with Lumbar Radicular Pain One Year after Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Aurora; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Røe, Cecilie; Gordh, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies suggest that lumbar radicular pain following disc herniation may be associated with a local or systemic inflammatory process. In the present study, we investigated the serum inflammatory protein profile of such patients. All 45 patients were recruited from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during the period 2007–2009. The new multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) technology was used to analyze the levels of 92 proteins. Interestingly, the present data showed that patients with radicular pain 12 months after disc herniation may be different from other patients with regard to many measurable serum cytokines. Given a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.10 and 0.05, we identified 41 and 13 proteins, respectively, which were significantly upregulated in the patients with severe pain one year after disc herniation. On the top of the list ranked by estimated increase we found C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCM5; 217% increase), epidermal growth factor (EGF; 142% increase), and monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4; 70% increase). Moreover, a clear overall difference in the serum cytokine profile between the chronic and the recovered patients was demonstrated. Thus, the present results may be important for future protein serum profiling of lumbar radicular pain patients with regard to prognosis and choice of treatment. We conclude that serum proteins may be measurable molecular markers of persistent pain after disc herniation. PMID:27293953

  7. Dye-promoted precipitation of serum proteins. Mechanism and application.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Kopperschläger, G

    1991-11-01

    Immobilized dyes have been used primarily for purification of nucleotide dependent enzymes and proteins from plasma and other sources. Due to their low costs, high protein binding capacity and resistance to degradation dyes bear the potential as ligand for affinity separation of proteins on a large scale. In this paper dyes have been used for precipitation of proteins. Using albumin, prealbumin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and immunoglobulin G as model proteins we could demonstrate that dye-promoted precipitation depends on several factors which include the structure of the dye, the pH of the solution, the dye/protein molar ratio and the intrinsic properties of the proteins. It revealed that most of the dyes tested were endowed with the precipitating potential. The efficacy of precipitation was found to increase with the complexity of the dye structure. However, the amount of a dye required for total precipitation was found to be different for a given protein. Electrostatic as well as hydrophobic forces are involved in the mechanism of precipitation. It was demonstrated that by optimizing the conditions, mixtures of proteins can be resolved by dye-promoted precipitation. The high sensitivity of the reaction offers the possibility of using this method for rapid concentration of very diluted protein solutions. PMID:1367693

  8. The relation between the results of determination of fructosamine and glycosylated proteins of blood serum.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, A; Szafran, Z; Opyrchał, G

    1991-01-01

    Fructosamine concentration (measured by NBT reduction method) and the concentration of glycosylated proteins (measured by a direct UV spectrophotometry upon separation from nonglycosylated proteins by means of affinity chromatography, have been determined simultaneously in 52 samples of blood serum obtained from 42 children with diabetes mellitus and 10 children without metabolic disorders. A highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.96, p < 0.001) was found between the two parameters. It was concluded that fructosamine determination by NBT reduction test reflects the true concentration of glycosylated proteins of blood serum, provided that the proper correction factor derived from the equation of linear regression is used as shown in the following equation: Concentration of glycosylated proteins of blood serum in milligram = 2.78 x (fructosamine concentration in mmol/l + 1.26). PMID:1364501

  9. A flow injection sampling resonance light scattering system for total protein determination in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lijun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yaheng; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2007-04-01

    A novel flow injection method with resonance light scattering detection was developed for the determination of total protein concentrations. This method is based on the enhancement of RLS signals from Methyl Blue (MB) by protein. The enhanced RLS intensities at 333 nm, in a pH 4.1 acidic aqueous solution, were proportional to the protein concentration over the range 2.0-37.3 and 1.0-36.0 μg ml -1 for human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. The corresponding limits of detection (3 σ) of 45 ng ml -1 for HSA and 80 ng ml -1 for BSA were attained. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of total proteins in human serum samples, the maximum relative error is less than 1% and the recovery is between 98% and 102%. The sample throughput was 60 h -1.

  10. Glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles: a surface ligand for minimizing serum protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vinluan, Rodrigo D; Liu, Jinbin; Zhou, Chen; Yu, Mengxiao; Yang, Shengyang; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Shasha; Dean, Andrew; Sun, Xiankai; Zheng, Jie

    2014-08-13

    Ultrasmall glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) are known for their high resistance to serum protein adsorption. Our studies show that these NPs can serve as surface ligands to significantly enhance the physiological stability and lower the serum protein adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), in addition to rendering the NPs the luminescence property. After the incorporation of GS-AuNPs onto the surface of SPIONs to form the hybrid nanoparticles (HBNPs), these SPIONs' protein adsorption was about 10-fold lower than those of the pure glutathione-coated SPIONs suggesting that GS-AuNPs are capable of providing a stealth effect against serum proteins. PMID:25029478

  11. Glutathione-Coated Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles: A Surface Ligand for Minimizing Serum Protein Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) are known for their high resistance to serum protein adsorption. Our studies show that these NPs can serve as surface ligands to significantly enhance the physiological stability and lower the serum protein adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), in addition to rendering the NPs the luminescence property. After the incorporation of GS-AuNPs onto the surface of SPIONs to form the hybrid nanoparticles (HBNPs), these SPIONs’ protein adsorption was about 10-fold lower than those of the pure glutathione-coated SPIONs suggesting that GS-AuNPs are capable of providing a stealth effect against serum proteins. PMID:25029478

  12. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100 μL/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: β2-microglobulin (β2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum β2M to as low as 13 ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay

  13. Elevation of serum heat-shock protein levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Hineno, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Chinatsu; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to examine whether the serum levels of HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) are altered in patients with ALS. We included 58 patients diagnosed with ALS and 85 control individuals. Serum HSP levels of patients and controls were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly higher in patients than in controls. In contrast, serum levels of HSP27 did not differ significantly between the patient and control groups. Moreover, serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 in patients remained high throughout the duration of the disease. Taken together, our findings suggest that HSPs might have a role in ALS progression throughout the course of the disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27112486

  14. The effect of volume replacement on serum protein concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kmiecik, S A; Stammers, A H; Petterson, C M; Liu, J L; Nichols, J D; Kohtz, R J; Mills, N J; Zheng, H; Hock, L M

    2001-12-01

    Although controversy exists concerning the optimal total protein and colloid osmotic pressure that should be maintained during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the primary volume expanders remain albumin and 6% hetastarch. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of adding boluses of volume replacement agents under various conditions to total serum protein values during CPB. A standard CPB circuit was utilized in eight 45-kg swine that had a priming volume (physiologic saline solution) of 2309 +/- 245 mL. Volumetric alterations occurred throughout the CPB period by the addition of combinations of physiologic saline solution, 6% hetastarch or 5% swine albumin. Pre- and postadministration samples were assayed for total serum protein, total protein, and albumin throughout the CPB period and at pre- and postvolume administration times. There was a significant decline in total serum protein with the initiation of CPB (6.14 +/- 0.49 g/dL vs. 3.40 +/- 0.43 g/dL, p < .0001). Addition of 12.5 g of swine albumin (N = 5) to two different swine increased total serum protein significantly when compared to adding 500 mL of 6% hetastarch (N = 6) (swine albumin 12.4 +/- 6.3% vs. hetastarch 3.3 +/- 2.1%, p < .005). A reduction in total serum protein occurred after hemodilution with varying amount of physiologic saline solution: 250-450 mL (7.4 +/- 4.5%), 451-650 mL (9.6 +/- 5.6%), and 651-1050 mL (19.4 +/- 4.0%). In summary, knowledge of total serum protein concentration and estimated circulating blood volume can be used to guide albumin and hetastarch administration following hemodilution. PMID:11806434

  15. In vitro induction and proteomics characterisation of a uranyl-protein interaction network in bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Szyrwiel, Łukasz; Liauchuk, Viktoryia; Chavatte, Laurent; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl ions (UO2(2+)) were shown to interact with a number of foetal serum proteins, leading to the formation of a complex that could be isolated by ultracentrifugation. The molecular weight of the complex was estimated based on size-exclusion chromatography as 650 000 Da. Online ICP AES detection indicated that UO2(2+) in the complex co-eluted with minor amounts of calcium and phosphorous, but not with magnesium. A 1D gel electrophoresis of the U-complex produced more than 10 bands of similar intensity compared with only 2-3 intense bands corresponding to the main serum proteins in the control serum, indicative of the specific interaction of UO2(2+) with minor proteins. A proteomics approach allowed for the identification of 74 proteins in the complex. Analysis of the protein-protein interaction network in the UO2(2+) complex identified 32 proteins responsible for protein-protein complex formation and 34 with demonstrated ion-binding function, suggesting that UO2(2+) stimulates the formation of protein functional networks rather than using a particular molecule as its target. PMID:26506398

  16. With or without you - Proteomics with or without major plasma/serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Gianazza, Elisabetta; Miller, Ingrid; Palazzolo, Luca; Parravicini, Chiara; Eberini, Ivano

    2016-05-17

    The first sections of this review compile and discuss strategies and protocols for managing plasma/serum as a source of biomarkers relevant to human disease. In many such cases, depletion of abundant protein(s) is a crucial preliminary step to the procedure; specific conceptual and technical approaches, however, make it possible to effectively use to this purpose whole plasma/serum. The final sections focus instead on the complexity associated with each of the major serum/plasma proteins in terms of both, multiple molecular structures (existence of a number of protein species) and of multiple molecular functions (behavior as multifunctional/multitasking/moonlighting proteins). Reviewing evidence in these and some related fields (regulation of the synthetic pattern by proteins and non-protein compounds and its connection with health and disease) prompts the suggestion/recommendation that information on the abundant components of plasma/serum proteome is routinely obtained and processed/mined as a valuable contribution to the characterization of any non-physiological condition and to the understanding of its mechanisms and of its implications/sequels. PMID:27072114

  17. Comparative studies of serum and synovial fluid C reactive protein concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, I F; Sheldon, J; Riches, P G; Keat, A C

    1987-01-01

    The relation between serum and synovial fluid (SF) C reactive protein (CRP) concentrations was investigated in a variety of arthritides, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis. SF CRP levels were significantly reduced compared with serum levels in the inflammatory arthritides, but there was good correlation between serum and SF values. SF CRP values were all at the lower limit of the detectable range in osteoarthritis. In patients with RA or psoriatic arthritis followed up serially through an exacerbation of arthritis, changes in SF CRP reflected closely changes in serum CRP. In patients with RA SF/serum ratios of proteins of different molecular weight were used to derive a regression equation between SF/serum ratio and molecular mass. SF/serum values for CRP were significantly less than predicted from its molecular weight, suggesting that CRP is either being selectively bound in synovium or specifically consumed in SF and may be playing an important part in the inflammatory process in RA. PMID:3120655

  18. Probing thyroglobulin in undiluted human serum based on pattern recognition and competitive adsorption of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran; Huang, Shuai; Li, Jing; Chae, Junseok

    2014-10-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a sensitive indicator of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin. Detection of Tg in human serum is challenging as bio-receptors, such as anti-Tg, used in immunoassay have relatively weak binding affinity. We engineer sensing surfaces using the competitive adsorption of proteins, termed the Vroman Effect. Coupled with Surface Plasmon Resonance, the "cross-responsive" interactions of Tg on the engineered surfaces produce uniquely distinguishable multiple signature patterns, which are discriminated using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Tg-spiked samples, down to 2 ng/ml Tg in undiluted human serum, are sensitively and selectively discriminated from the control (undiluted human serum).

  19. Redox Proteomic Profiling of Specifically Carbonylated Proteins in the Serum of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liming; Chen, Youjiao; Yang, Aochu; Chen, Cheng; Liao, Liping; Li, Shuiming; Ying, Ming; Tian, Jing; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a key event in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the role of oxidative stress in AD and to search for potential biomarkers in peripheral blood, serums were collected in this study from the 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old triple transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice) and the age- and sex-matched non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates. The serum oxidized proteins were quantified by slot-blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate the total levels of serum protein carbonyl groups. Western blotting, in conjunction with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-Oxyblot), was employed to identify and quantify the specifically-carbonylated proteins in the serum of 3×Tg-AD mice. The results showed that the levels of serum protein carbonyls were increased in the three month old 3×Tg-AD mice compared with the non-Tg control mice, whereas no significant differences were observed in the six and 12 months old AD mice, suggesting that oxidative stress is an early event in AD progression. With the application of 2D-Oxyblot analysis, (immunoglobin) Ig gamma-2B chain C region (IGH-3), Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2), Ig kappa chain C region (IGKC), and Ig kappa chain V-V region HP R16.7 were identified as significantly oxidized proteins compared with the control. Among them IGH-3 and IGKC were validated via immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Identification of oxidized proteins in the serums of 3×Tg-AD mice can not only reveal potential roles of those proteins in the pathogenesis of AD but also provide potential biomarkers of AD at the early stage. PMID:27077851

  20. Correlations between serum proteins modified by acetaldehyde and biochemical variables in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasinghe, S N; Marjot, D H; Rosalki, S B; Fink, R S

    1989-01-01

    A strong and highly significant correlation was observed between serum aspartate transaminase (AST) activity and an index of the cytotoxic activity associated with serum proteins modified by acetaldehyde in a group of 24 heavy drinkers. A weaker but significant correlation (R = 0.564, p = 0.008) was found between total serum creatine kinase activity and this index of serum cytotoxicity. As it is likely that the concentration of circulating modified protein was largely determined by the quantity of free acetaldehyde generated in the liver and that the AST activity was mainly derived from damaged hepatocytes, the data indicate a correlation between hepatic acetaldehyde generation and hepatocyte damage. This correlation may indicate either that increased quantities of acetaldehyde are released by damaged hepatocytes or that acetaldehyde is hepatotoxic in vivo. As only the creatine kinase isoenzyme present in skeletal muscle (CK-MM) was demonstrable in the serum in all but one of our patients, the data also suggest that circulating modified serum proteins may be toxic towards skeletal muscle cells. PMID:2703546

  1. Surfactant protein D in serum from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Krane, M; Griese, M

    2003-10-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) interacts with Aspergillus fumigatus and is strongly increased in the lavage from animals with acute allergic reactions to the fungus, suggesting a central role for SP-D. As the course of cystic fibrosis (CF) is often complicated by an allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), the authors hypothesised that SP-D may also be increased in serum during an ABPA, potentially assisting in its diagnosis and follow-up. In 22 patients with CF (11 with ABPA, 11 matched without ABPA) and 19 control patients without a pulmonary disease, SP-D concentrations in serum were assessed by an enzyme immunoassay. Serum SP-D in CF patients (130 +/- 16 ng x mL(-1) (mean +/- SEM)) was significantly higher than in the controls without lung disease (66 +/- 8 ng x mL(-1)). During the whole ABPA-episode, SP-D level did not change significantly, despite large changes of total serum immunoglobulin E. There was a clear negative correlation between SP-D concentration and overall lung function, i.e. forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity. Serum level of surfactant protein D may be of value to follow pulmonary function and lung injury in cystic fibrosis patients. Surfactant protein D serum levels are not helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of an allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis episode, contrary to what was expected from animal experiments. PMID:14582909

  2. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  3. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m(2); all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  4. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    SciTech Connect

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound /sup 125/I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

  5. Identification of Host-Immune Response Protein Candidates in the Sera of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yeng; Azman, Siti Nuraishah; Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Chen, Yu Nieng; Wong, Yin-Ling; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common cancers worldwide is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is associated with a significant death rate and has been linked to several risk factors. Notably, failure to detect these neoplasms at an early stage represents a fundamental barrier to improving the survival and quality of life of OSCC patients. In the present study, serum samples from OSCC patients (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25) were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining in order to identify biomarkers that might allow early diagnosis. In this regard, 2-DE spots corresponding to various up- and down-regulated proteins were sequenced via high-resolution MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analyzed using the MASCOT database. We identified the following differentially expressed host-specific proteins within sera from OSCC patients: leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG), alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (ABG), clusterin (CLU), PRO2044, haptoglobin (HAP), complement C3c (C3), proapolipoprotein A1 (proapo-A1), and retinol-binding protein 4 precursor (RBP4). Moreover, five non-host factors were detected, including bacterial antigens from Acinetobacter lwoffii, Burkholderia multivorans, Myxococcus xanthus, Laribacter hongkongensis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Subsequently, we analyzed the immunogenicity of these proteins using pooled sera from OSCC patients. In this regard, five of these candidate biomarkers were found to be immunoreactive: CLU, HAP, C3, proapo-A1 and RBP4. Taken together, our immunoproteomics approach has identified various serum biomarkers that could facilitate the development of early diagnostic tools for OSCC. PMID:25272005

  6. Temperature-Triggered Protein Adsorption on Polymer-Coated Nanoparticles in Serum.

    PubMed

    Koshkina, Olga; Lang, Thomas; Thiermann, Raphael; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Secker, Christian; Schlaad, Helmut; Weidner, Steffen; Mohr, Benjamin; Maskos, Michael; Bertin, Annabelle

    2015-08-18

    The protein corona, which forms on the nanoparticle's surface in most biological media, determines the nanoparticle's physicochemical characteristics. The formation of the protein corona has a significant impact on the biodistribution and clearance of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, the ability to influence the formation of the protein corona is essential to most biomedical applications, including drug delivery and imaging. In this study, we investigate the protein adsorption on nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic radius of 30 nm and a coating of thermoresponsive poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) in serum. Using multiangle dynamic light scattering (DLS) we demonstrate that heating of the nanoparticles above their phase separation temperature induces the formation of agglomerates, with a hydrodynamic radius of 1 μm. In serum, noticeably stronger agglomeration occurs at lower temperatures compared to serum-free conditions. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) revealed a high packing density of agglomerates when serum was not present. In contrast, in the presence of serum, agglomerated nanoparticles were loosely packed, indicating that proteins are intercalated between them. Moreover, an increase in protein content is observed upon heating, confirming that protein adsorption is induced by the alteration of the surface during phase separation. After cooling and switching the surface back, most of the agglomerates were dissolved and the main fraction returned to the original size of approximately 30 nm as shown by asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF-FFF) and DLS. Furthermore, the amounts of adsorbed proteins are similar before and after heating the nanoparticles to above their phase-separation temperature. Overall, our results demonstrate that the thermoresponsivity of the polymer coating enables turning the corona formation on nanoparticles on and off in situ. As the local heating of body areas can be easily done in vivo, the thermoresponsive

  7. Serum Albumin Stimulates Protein Kinase G-dependent Microneme Secretion in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kevin M; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L David

    2016-04-29

    Microneme secretion is essential for motility, invasion, and egress in apicomplexan parasites. Although previous studies indicate that Ca(2+) and cGMP control microneme secretion, little is known about how these pathways are naturally activated. Here we have developed genetically encoded indicators for Ca(2+) and microneme secretion to better define the signaling pathways that regulate these processes in Toxoplasma gondii We found that microneme secretion was triggered in vitro by exposure to a single host protein, serum albumin. The natural agonist serum albumin induced microneme secretion in a protein kinase G-dependent manner that correlated with increased cGMP levels. Surprisingly, serum albumin acted independently of elevated Ca(2+) and yet it was augmented by artificial agonists that raise Ca(2+), such as ethanol. Furthermore, although ethanol elevated intracellular Ca(2+), it alone was unable to trigger secretion without the presence of serum or serum albumin. This dichotomy was recapitulated by zaprinast, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that elevated cGMP and separately increased Ca(2+) in a protein kinase G-independent manner leading to microneme secretion. Taken together, these findings reveal that microneme secretion is centrally controlled by protein kinase G and that this pathway is further augmented by elevation of intracellular Ca(2.) PMID:26933037

  8. Suppression of severe lesions, myonecrosis and hemorrhage, caused by Protobothrops flavoviridis venom with its serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Chijiwa, Takahito; So, Shuhei; Hattori, Shosaku; Yoshida, Aichi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ohno, Motonori

    2013-12-15

    Protobothrops flavoviridis serum proteins precipitated with ammonium sulfate were chromatographed on a DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column at pH 7.5 with stepwise increase or with linear gradient of NaCl concentration. Peaks 3 and 4 serum proteins, obtained by linear gradient elution and named Fr(de3) and Fr(de4), contained Habu serum factors (HSF) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors (PfPLI), respectively. The serum proteins eluted at 0.2 M NaCl by stepwise elution, named Fr(0.2NaCl), effectively suppressed myonecrosis and hemorrhage caused by P. flavoviridis venom in rat or mouse thigh muscles. The Fr(0.2NaCl) were fractionated by HPLC and the fractions, after SDS-PAGE, underwent far-western blot analysis with PLA2 ([Asp(49)]PLA2) and BPI ([Lys(49)]PLA2) as the probes. Four PfPLIs, namely, PfαPLI-A, PfαPLI-B, PfγPLI-A and PfγPLI-B, were identified together with their selective binding specificities to PLA2 species. In addition, a new 9 kDa protein, which is specifically bound to BPI, was found. Suppression of P. flavoviridis venom-induced severe lesions, such as myonecrosis, hemorrhage and edema, with its serum proteins was histopathologically observed in the present work for the first time. The cooperative use of P. flavoviridis antivenom and its serum proteins as medication for P. flavoviridis snake bites is discussed. PMID:24139850

  9. Discovery and fine mapping of serum protein loci through transethnic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J A; Prins, Bram P; Feitosa, Mary F; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H; Folsom, Aaron R; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P; Lopez, Lorna M; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V; Winkler, Cheryl A; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y D; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J; Frayling, Timothy M; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hicks, Andrew A; Koenig, Wolfgang; O' Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S; North, Kari E; Felix, Janine F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Cupples, L Adrienne; Perry, John R B; Morris, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10(-8)) for serum albumin (HPN-SCN1B, GCKR-FNDC4, SERPINF2-WDR81, TNFRSF11A-ZCCHC2, FRMD5-WDR76, and RPS11-FCGRT, in up to 53,190 European-ancestry and 9,380 Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease. PMID:23022100

  10. Discovery and Fine Mapping of Serum Protein Loci through Transethnic Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Prins, Bram P.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S.; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A.; Del Greco M., Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L.; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y.D.; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J. Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J.; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R.; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S.; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Koenig, Wolfgang; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Fox, Caroline S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wright, Alan F.; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S.; North, Kari E.; Felix, Janine F.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Perry, John R.B.; Morris, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10−8) for serum albumin (HPN-SCN1B, GCKR-FNDC4, SERPINF2-WDR81, TNFRSF11A-ZCCHC2, FRMD5-WDR76, and RPS11-FCGRT, in up to 53,190 European-ancestry and 9,380 Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease. PMID:23022100

  11. Inclusion of a non-immunoglobulin binding protein in two-site ELISA for quantification of human serum proteins without interference by heterophilic serum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mårten; Rönnmark, Jenny; Areström, Iréne; Nygren, Per Ake; Ahlborg, Niklas

    2003-12-01

    Measurement of human serum molecules with two-site ELISA can be biased by the presence of human heterophilic anti-animal immunoglobulin antibodies (HAIA) that cause false-positive signals by cross-linking the monoclonal (mAb) and/or polyclonal antibodies (pAb) used for the pre- (capture) and post-analyte steps (detection). To evaluate a novel ELISA format designed to avoid interference by HAIA, a target-specific non-immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity protein (affibody) was used to replace one of the antibodies. First, a human IgA-binding affibody (Z(IgA)) selected by phage display technology from a combinatorial library of a single Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain was used. The detection range of IgA standard using an ELISA based on Z(IgA) for capture and goat pAb against IgA (pAb(IgA)) for detection was comparable with that of using pAb(IgA) for both capture and detection. Secondly, another affibody (Z(Apo)) was combined with mAb and used to detect recombinant human apolipoprotein A-1. The affibody/antibody ELISAs were also used to quantify human serum levels of IgA and apolipoprotein A1. To verify that human serum did not cause false-positive signals in the affibody/antibody ELISA format, the ability of human serum to cross-link affibodies, mAb (mouse or rat) and/or pAb (goat) displaying non-matched specificities was assessed; affibodies and antibodies were not cross-linked whereas all combinations of mAb and/or pAb were cross-linked. The combination of affibodies and antibodies for analysis of human serum molecules represents a novel two-site ELISA format which precludes false-positive signals caused by HAIA. PMID:14659914

  12. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet. PMID:20668250

  13. [Virucidal activity of disinfectants. Influence of the serum protein upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-01

    Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal activity on three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the aldehyde and halogen groups had a virucidal activity on human herpes virus, bovine rhabdo virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human adeno virus, porcine parvo virus, and polio virus. Disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups, and biganide group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal activity of disinfectants of the invert and amphoteric soap groups. PMID:11019515

  14. Phenotype and allele frequencies of some serum protein polymorphisms in populations of the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D; Efremovska, L; Mikerezi, I; Huckenbeck, W

    2004-12-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in two samples of Aromuns and one reference sample (Musequiar-Aromuns from Dukasi in Albania, Moskopolian-Aromuns from Krusevo, Republic of Macedonia, and Macedonians from Skopje). The neighbor joining tree as well as the principal component analysis show results which do not correspond well to the geographic and historic background. This indicates that in the present case the serum protein polymorphisms give no clearly defined information about the relationships between the Balkan populations and to the origin of Aromuns. PMID:15648851

  15. The role of serum proteins in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to ethylene glycol coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Swen; Yu, Wenqi; Nega, Mulugeta; Chu, Ya-Yun; Zorn, Stefan; Zhang, Fajun; Götz, Friedrich; Schreiber, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial adhesion on implants is a first step in the development of chronic foreign body associated infections. Finding strategies to minimize bacterial adhesion may contribute to minimize such infections. It is known that surfaces with oligo-ethylene-glycol (EG3OMe) or poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG2k) terminations decrease unspecific protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion. However, little is known about the influence of serum and its components on bacterial adhesion. We therefore prepared two coatings on gold surface with HS-(CH2)11EG3OMe (EG3OMe) and PEG2k-thiol and studied the role of bovine serum albumin (BSA), γ-globulins, and serum on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion. While BSA and lysozyme showed no adherence even when applied at very high concentrations (100 mg/ml), γ-globulins adsorbed already from 10 mg/ml on. The adsorption of γ-globulins was, however, significantly decreased when it was mixed with BSA in a ratio of 3:1, as it is in the serum. Pretreatment of EG3OMe and PEG2k coatings with γ-globulins or serum strongly promoted adherence of S. aureus when resuspended in buffer, suggesting that γ-globulins play a pivotal role in promoting S. aureus adhesion by its IgG binding proteins; the finding that a spa-deletion mutant, lacking the IgG binding protein A, showed decreased adherence corroborated this. Similarly, when S. aureus was pretreated with serum or γ-globulins its adherence was also significantly decreased. Our findings show that particularly γ-globulins bind to the coated surfaces thus mediating adherence of S. aureus via its protein A. As pretreatment of S. aureus with serum or γ-globulins significantly decreased adherence, treatment of patients with γ-globulins before implant surgery might lower the risk of implant-associated infections. PMID:24980510

  16. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  17. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Donahue, Seth W; Vaughan, Michael R; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  18. Comparison of Serum Protein Electrophoresis Values in Wild and Captive Whooping Cranes ( Grus americana ).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Cray, Carolyn; Hartup, Barry K

    2015-09-01

    Protein electrophoresis of serum samples from endangered, wild whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) was performed to help assess the health of the only self-sustaining, migratory population in North America. Serum samples from wild adult cranes (n = 22) were taken at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, USA during winter. Wild juvenile cranes (n = 26) were sampled at Wood Buffalo National Park, Northwest Territories, Canada, in midsummer. All captive crane samples were acquired from the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI, USA. Captive adult cranes (n = 30) were sampled during annual examinations, and archived serum samples from captive juvenile cranes (n = 19) were selected to match the estimated age of wild juveniles. Wild juveniles had significantly lower concentrations of all protein fractions than wild adults, except for prealbumin and γ globulins. All protein fraction concentrations for wild juveniles were significantly lower compared with captive juveniles, except for prealbumin and γ globulins, which were higher. Wild adults had significantly greater γ globulin concentrations than captive adults. Captive juveniles had significantly lower prealbumin and albumin concentrations and albumin : globulin ratios than captive adults. The higher γ globulin concentrations in wild versus captive cranes are likely because of increased antigenic exposure and immune stimulation. Protein fraction concentrations vary significantly with age and natural history in this species. Reference intervals for serum protein electrophoresis results from captive adult whooping cranes are provided in this study. PMID:26378665

  19. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for

  20. Fluorescent protein-based detection of unconjugated bilirubin in newborn serum

    PubMed Central

    Iwatani, Sota; Nakamura, Hajime; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Koda, Tsubasa; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin are associated with the development of brain damage in newborns. In current clinical settings, there are no methods for directly determining serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin. UnaG, a fluorescent protein from Japanese eel muscle that specifically binds to unconjugated bilirubin was used in this study. Linear regression analysis was carried out to compare unconjugated bilirubin levels measured by UnaG and conventional bilirubin oxidase methods. Unconjugated bilirubin levels in the serum of newborns who were untreated or treated with phototherapy were compared. Effects of interfering factors in the serum (conjugated bilirubin, hemoglobin, and lipid) on unconjugated bilirubin concentration measured by the UnaG method were also evaluated. Unconjugated bilirubin levels measured by the UnaG method were highly correlated with those determined by the bilirubin oxidase assay. Unconjugated bilirubin levels determined by bilirubin oxidase and UnaG assays were similar in serum samples containing conjugated bilirubin. The performance of the UnaG assay was unaffected by phototherapy and the presence of serum hemoglobin and lipid emulsion. These results demonstrate the clinical applicability of the UnaG method for direct measurement of unconjugated bilirubin levels in newborn serum. PMID:27324682

  1. Fluorescent protein-based detection of unconjugated bilirubin in newborn serum.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, Sota; Nakamura, Hajime; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Koda, Tsubasa; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin are associated with the development of brain damage in newborns. In current clinical settings, there are no methods for directly determining serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin. UnaG, a fluorescent protein from Japanese eel muscle that specifically binds to unconjugated bilirubin was used in this study. Linear regression analysis was carried out to compare unconjugated bilirubin levels measured by UnaG and conventional bilirubin oxidase methods. Unconjugated bilirubin levels in the serum of newborns who were untreated or treated with phototherapy were compared. Effects of interfering factors in the serum (conjugated bilirubin, hemoglobin, and lipid) on unconjugated bilirubin concentration measured by the UnaG method were also evaluated. Unconjugated bilirubin levels measured by the UnaG method were highly correlated with those determined by the bilirubin oxidase assay. Unconjugated bilirubin levels determined by bilirubin oxidase and UnaG assays were similar in serum samples containing conjugated bilirubin. The performance of the UnaG assay was unaffected by phototherapy and the presence of serum hemoglobin and lipid emulsion. These results demonstrate the clinical applicability of the UnaG method for direct measurement of unconjugated bilirubin levels in newborn serum. PMID:27324682

  2. Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M.; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture. PMID:19003183

  3. Rouleaux-forming serum proteins are involved in the rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Treutiger, C J; Scholander, C; Carlson, J; McAdam, K P; Raynes, J G; Falksveden, L; Wahlgren, M

    1999-12-01

    Excessive sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected (pRBC) and uninfected erythrocytes (RBC) in the microvasculature, cytoadherence, and rosetting, have been suggested to be correlated with the development of cerebral malaria. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) is the parasite-derived adhesin which mediates rosetting. Herein we show that serum proteins are crucial for the rosette formation of four strains of parasites (FCR3S1, TM284, TM180, and R29), whereas the rosettes of a fifth strain (DD2) are serum independent. Some parasites, e.g., FCR3S1, can be depleted of all rosettes by washes in heparin and Na citrate and none of the rosettes remain when the parasite is grown in foetal calf serum or ALBUMAX. Rosettes of other parasites are less sensitive; e.g., 20% of TM180 and R29 and 70% of TM284 rosettes still prevail after cultivation. A serum fraction generated by ion-exchange chromatography and poly-ethylene-glycol precipitation restored 50% of FCR3S1 and approx 40 to 100% of TM180 rosettes. In FCR3S1, antibodies to fibrinogen reverted the effect of the serum fraction and stained fibrinogen bound to the pRBC surface in transmission electron microscopy. Normal, nonimmune IgM and/or IgG was also found attached to the pRBC of the four serum-dependent strains as seen by surface immunofluorescens. Our results suggest that serum proteins, known to participate in rouleaux formation of normal erythrocytes, produce stable rosettes in conjunction with the recently identified parasite-derived rosetting ligand PfEMP1. PMID:10600447

  4. Combined proteomic and metabolomic profiling of serum reveals association of the complement system with obesity and identifies novel markers of body fat mass changes.

    PubMed

    Oberbach, Andreas; Blüher, Matthias; Wirth, Henry; Till, Holger; Kovacs, Peter; Kullnick, Yvonne; Schlichting, Nadine; Tomm, Janina M; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Binder, Hans; Dietrich, Arne; von Bergen, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple adverse health effects and a high risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, there is a great need to identify circulating parameters that link changes in body fat mass with obesity. This study combines proteomic and metabolomic approaches to identify circulating molecules that discriminate healthy lean from healthy obese individuals in an exploratory study design. To correct for variations in physical activity, study participants performed a one hour exercise bout to exhaustion. Subsequently, circulating factors differing between lean and obese individuals, independent of physical activity, were identified. The DIGE approach yielded 126 differentially abundant spots representing 39 unique proteins. Differential abundance of proteins was confirmed by ELISA for antithrombin-III, clusterin, complement C3 and complement C3b, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), serum amyloid P (SAP), and vitamin-D binding protein (VDBP). Targeted serum metabolomics of 163 metabolites identified 12 metabolites significantly related to obesity. Among those, glycine (GLY), glutamine (GLN), and glycero-phosphatidylcholine 42:0 (PCaa 42:0) serum concentrations were higher, whereas PCaa 32:0, PCaa 32:1, and PCaa 40:5 were decreased in obese compared to lean individuals. The integrated bioinformatic evaluation of proteome and metabolome data yielded an improved group separation score of 2.65 in contrast to 2.02 and 2.16 for the single-type use of proteomic or metabolomics data, respectively. The identified circulating parameters were further investigated in an extended set of 30 volunteers and in the context of two intervention studies. Those included 14 obese patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy and 12 patients on a hypocaloric diet. For determining the long-term adaptation process the samples were taken six months after the treatment. In multivariate regression analyses, SAP, CLU

  5. Revision of the biodistribution of uranyl in serum: is fetuin-A the major protein target?

    PubMed

    Basset, Christian; Averseng, Olivier; Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Richaud, Nicolas; Hagège, Agnès; Pible, Olivier; Vidaud, Claude

    2013-05-20

    Uranium is a natural actinide present as uranyl U(VI) species in aqueous environments. Its toxicity is considered to be chemical rather than radiotoxicological. Whatever the route of entry, uranyl reaches the blood, is partly eliminated via the kidneys, and accumulated in the bones. In serum, its speciation mainly involves carbonate and proteins. Direct identification of labile uranyl-protein complexes is extremely difficult because of the complexity of this matrix. Thus, until now the biodistribution of the metal in serum has not been described, and therefore, little is known about the metal transport mechanisms leading to bone accumulation. A rapid screening method based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique was used to determine the apparent affinities for U(VI) of the major serum proteins. A first biodistribution of uranyl was obtained by ranking the proteins according to the criteria of both their serum concentrations and affinities for this metal. Despite its moderate concentration in serum, fetuin-A (FETUA) was shown to exhibit an apparent affinity within the 30 nM range and to carry more than 80% of the metal. This protein involved in bone mineralization aroused interest in characterizing the U(VI) and FETUA interaction. Using complementary chromatographic and spectroscopic approaches, we demonstrated that the protein can bind 3 U(VI) at different binding sites exhibiting Kd from ∼30 nM to 10 μM. Some structural modifications and functional properties of FETUA upon uranyl complexation were also controlled. To our knowledge, this article presents the first identification of a uranyl carrier involved in bone metabolism along with the characterization of its metal binding sites. PMID:23527557

  6. Diagnostic value of serum Golgi protein 73 for HBV-related primary hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guosheng; Dong, Feibo; Xu, Xiaozhen; Hu, Airong; Hu, Yaoren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are routinely used for diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic diseases, but it has a limited value. Golgi protein 73 (GP73) has been suggested as a new marker for hepatic diseases. Objective: To explore the clinical value of serum GP73 in different diseases associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Method: Between January 2010 and August 2014, serum samples from 88 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 78 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 194 patients with HBV-related primary hepatic cancer (PHC) were collected. Serum samples from 30 healthy volunteers were used as controls. ELISA and microparticle enzyme immunoassay were used to measure serum GP73 and AFP levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum GP73 and AFP for PHC. Results: For the diagnosis of PHC, GP73 showed a sensitivity of 65.5% and specificity of 66.3%, while AFP levels showed sensitivity of 64.4% and specificity of 76.5%. Serial testing (both tests are positive) could increase the specificity (sensitivity of 45.9% and specificity of 85.5%) while parallel testing (any single positive test result) could increase the sensitivity (sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 57.2%). Serum GP73 and AFP levels were significantly different between Child-Pugh grades (P<0.001 for GP73 and P=0.044 for AFP). Significant differences in serum GP73 and AFP were found between TNM stages (all P<0.001). Conclusion: Serum GP73 had limited diagnostic value for HBV-related PHC. The combined use of serum GP73 and AFP levels improved the diagnostic efficacy. PMID:26617863

  7. Serum Mac-2 binding protein is a novel biomarker for chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Tomohiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Ebisutani, Yusuke; Ueda, Makiko; Hata, Tomoki; Kawamoto, Koichi; Takamatsu, Shinji; Mizutani, Kayo; Shimomura, Mayuka; Sobajima, Tomoaki; Fujii, Hironobu; Nakayama, Kotarosumitomo; Nishino, Kimihiro; Yamada, Makoto; Kumada, Takashi; Ito, Toshifumi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2bp) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers (HV), 162 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 94 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were enrolled in this study. We measured serum Mac-2bp using our developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Additional biochemical variables were measured using an automated analyzer (including aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, and amylase levels) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen). The ability of Mac-2bp to predict CP diagnosis accurately was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. RESULTS: Serum Mac-2bp levels were significantly increased in CP patients compared to HV (P < 0.0001) and PDAC patients (P < 0.0001). Area under the ROC curve values of Mac-2bp for the discrimination of CP from HV and PDAC were 0.727 and 0.784, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that serum Mac-2bp levels were independent determinants for CP diagnosis from HV and PDAC patients. Immunohistological staining showed that Mac-2bp was expressed faintly in the pancreas tissues of both CP and PDAC patients. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in patients with CP or PDAC. Serum Mac-2bp levels were highly correlated with protein levels of alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and C-reactive protein, but not amylase, suggesting that the damaged liver produces Mac-2bp. CONCLUSION: Measurement of serum Mac-2bp may be a novel and useful biomarker for CP diagnosis as well as liver fibrosis in the general population. PMID:27158210

  8. Serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration in a dog with a thymoma and persistent hypercalcemia.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, P; Shaw, D; Runyon, C; McConkey, S; Ikede, B

    2000-01-01

    A thymoma was tentatively diagnosed by radiographic and cytologic examination in a dog with hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) concentration. Following surgical excision, the diagnosis of thymoma was confirmed via histopathologic examination, the hypercalcemia resolved, and the PTHrP concentration decreased to below detectable limits. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11126493

  9. Serum protein changes in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with various strains of Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1970-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  10. Iron Dextran treatment does not induce serum protein carbonyls in the newborn pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of serum proteins can lead to carbonyl formation which alters their function and is often associated with stress-related diseases. Since it is recommended that all pigs reared in modern production facilities be given supplemental iron at birth to prevent anemia, and metals can catalyze th...

  11. Serum complements and heart fatty acid binding protein in Bangladeshi patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nayareen; Taher, Abu; Rahman, Rezwanur; Chowdhury, Ashesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The complement system is activated following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a sensitive early biomarker of myocardial necrosis that can be used to confirm or exclude a diagnosis of AMI and to monitor recurrent infarction. This study was designed to detect changes in C3, C4 and H-FABP after AMI. Forty patients with AMI and a control group of 40 apparently healthy people were included. Selections were based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the groups. Patients’ blood samples were collected within 12 h of admission. Significant increases in C3 (AMI group 1.4260+0.04, healthy group 1.26040+0.04; p<0.05), C4 (AMI group 0.29305±0.013, healthy group 0.20860±0.012; p<0.05) and H-FABP (AMI group 12.3±1.69, healthy group 0.16±0.057; p<0.001) were seen in patients with AMI. The correlation between serum C3 and body mass index (BMI, r=0.33; p<0.05), serum C4 and BMI(r=0.313; p<0.05), serum C3 and total cholesterol high density lipoprotein (HDL, r=0.32; p<0.05), serum C4 and HbA1C (r=0.335; p<0.05) and serum C3 and troponin I (r= 0.325p<0.05) was found to be significant. But the correlation between serum C3 and waist:hip ratio (p=0.56), serum C4 and waist:hip ratio (p=0.83), serum C4 and total cholesterol HDL (p=0.993), serum C3 and HbA1C (p=0.440), serum C3 and random blood sugar (p=0.563), serum C4 and random blood sugar (p=0.828) and serum C4 and troponin I (p=0.373) was not significant. The significant complement activation detected in the plasma of patients with AMI indicated that complement plays a part in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. A significant increase of H-FABP improves the diagnosis of AMI.

  12. Serum MX2 Protein as Candidate Biomarker for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, L; Kumar, R; Nanda, T; Phulia, S K; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Balhara, S; Ghuman, Sps; Singh, I; Balhara, A K

    2016-08-01

    Interferon-tau (IFN-τ)-induced molecular markers such as ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and myxovirus resistance genes (MX1 and MX2) have generated immense attention towards developing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of pregnancy in bovine. These molecules are expressed at transcriptional level in peripheral nucleated cells. However, their presence in the serum is still a question mark. This study reports sequential changes in expression of MX2 transcript in whole blood and serum MX2 protein level on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 in pregnant (n = 9) buffalo heifers, and on days 0, 7 and 14 in non-inseminated (n = 8) and inseminated non-pregnant (n = 10) control animals. In non-inseminated and inseminated non-pregnant heifers, the differential expression of MX2 transcript and MX2 protein level remained similar between day 7 and 14 post-oestrus. However, in pregnant heifers, on 14th and 28th day post-insemination MX2 transcript was 16.38 ± 1.57 and 28.16 ± 1.91 times upregulated as compared to day 0. Similarly, serum MX2 protein concentration followed analogous trend as MX2 transcript and increased gradually with the progression of pregnancy. Correlation analysis between expression of MX2 transcript and its serum protein level showed a significant positive correlation in pregnant animals, while it was random in other two groups. Therefore, MX2 surge at transcriptional and serum protein level after day 14-28 of pregnancy in buffalo holds potential for its use in early pregnancy detection. PMID:27393074

  13. A Multicenter Trial Defining a Serum Protein Signature Associated with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtsson, Anna S.; Malats, Núria; Säll, Anna; Real, Francisco X.; Porta, Miquel; Skoog, Petter; Persson, Helena; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with rapid tumor progression and poor prognosis. This study was motivated by the lack of sensitive and specific PDAC biomarkers and aimed to identify a diagnostic, serum protein signature for PDAC. Methods. To mimic a real life test situation, a multicenter trial comprising a serum sample cohort, including 338 patients with either PDAC or other pancreatic diseases (OPD) and controls with nonpancreatic conditions (NPC), was analyzed on 293-plex recombinant antibody microarrays targeting immunoregulatory and cancer-associated antigens. Results. Serum samples collected from different hospitals were analyzed and showed that (i) sampling from five different hospitals could not be identified as a preanalytical variable and (ii) a multiplexed biomarker signature could be identified, utilizing up to 10 serum markers that could discriminate PDAC from controls, with sensitivities and specificities in the 91–100% range. The first protein profiles associated with the location of the primary tumor in the pancreas could also be identified. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that robust enough serum signatures could be identified in a multicenter trial, potentially contributing to the development of a multiplexed biomarker immunoassay for improved PDAC diagnosis. PMID:26587286

  14. Vitamin D binding protein as a serum biomarker of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Ram J; Palmer, Raymond F; Royall, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), a multifunctional protein, has been found to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neurodegenerative disorder cases, implicating it in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of VDBP to AD has not been fully explored. We used a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach to examine the relationship between serum VDBP levels and cognitive performance in a well characterized AD cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Instead of categorical diagnoses, we used a latent dementia phenotype (d), which has been validated in several prior studies using this dataset. We found that serum VDBP levels are significantly positively associated with d scores, which in turn are inversely related to cognitive performance. This suggests that d mediates the adverse effects of serum VDB on cognition and therefore that its effects are specifically dementing. d scores are also specifically related to default mode network (DMN) structure. VDBP acts as an amyloid-β (Aβ) scavenger, and Aβ deposition in the DMN is seen in the pre-clinical stages of AD. We speculate then that serum effects of VDBP are mediated through changes in DMN structure or function, most probably via Aβ. Aβ affects the DMN early in the course of AD. Therefore, raised serum VDBP levels may be a useful indicator of future dementia and/or dementia conversion. This might be confirmed through longitudinal analysis of TARCC data. PMID:25079796

  15. Influence of thyroid dysfunction on serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 6.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ahn, Hwa Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 6 (ANGPTL6) is a novel metabolic regulator that modulates energy expenditure as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Thyroid hormone can induce metabolic changes that are similar to those induced by ANGPTL6. Herein, we investigated whether circulating ANGPTL6 levels change according to thyroid hormone status in humans. We measured the serum levels of ANGPTL6 and metabolic parameters in 150 drug-naïve subjects with overt hyperthyroid, subclinical hyperthyroid, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid, or overt hypothyroid status (n=30 in each group). Serum ANGPTL6 levels were significantly higher in patients with overt hypothyroidism than in the other subjects. Women had significantly higher serum levels of ANGPTL6 than men. ANGPTL6 levels correlated positively with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and negatively with serum free thyroxine (T4) level. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that sex, TSH, free T4, and ALT were independent predictors of serum ANGPTL6 levels. In summary, serum ANGPTL6 levels increased in patients with a hypothyroid status, and both TSH and free T4 levels are associated with ANGPLT6 levels, suggesting a possible association between thyroid function and ANGPTL6 levels. Whether the upregulated ANGPTL6 level in the hypothyroid status is primarily owing to a direct association or a compensatory mechanism remains to be determined. PMID:26189599

  16. Ambulation speed and corresponding mechanics are associated with changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Denning, W Matt; Becker Pardo, Michael; Winward, Jason G; Hunter, Iain; Ridge, Sarah; Hopkins, J Ty; Reese, C Shane; Parcell, Allen C; Seeley, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Because serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) has been used to reflect articular cartilage condition, we aimed to identify walking and running mechanics that are associated with changes in serum COMP. Eighteen subjects (9 male, 9 female; age=23 ± 2 yrs.; mass=68.3 ± 9.6 kg; height=1.70 ± 0.08 m) completed 4000 steps on an instrumented treadmill on three separate days. Each day corresponded to a different ambulation speed: slow (preferred walking speed), medium (+50% of slow), and fast (+100% of slow). Synchronized ground reaction force and video data were collected to evaluate walking mechanics. Blood samples were collected pre-, post-, 30-minute post-, and 60-minute post-ambulation to determine serum COMP concentration at these times. Serum COMP increased 29%, 18%, and 5% immediately post ambulation for the fast, medium, and slow sessions (p<0.01). When the speeds were pooled, peak ankle inversion, knee extension, knee abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, and hip abduction moment, and knee flexion angle at impact explained 61.4% of total variance in COMP concentration change (p<0.001). These results indicate that (1) certain joint mechanics are associated with acute change in serum COMP due to ambulation, and (2) increased ambulation speed increases serum COMP concentration. PMID:27004646

  17. Seasonal trends in nesting leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) serum proteins further verify capital breeding hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Justin R.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Page-Karjian, Annie; Merrill, Anita; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Serum protein concentrations provide insight into the nutritional and immune status of organisms. It has been suggested that some marine turtles are capital breeders that fast during the nesting season. In this study, we documented serum proteins in neophyte and remigrant nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). This allowed us to establish trends across the nesting season to determine whether these physiological parameters indicate if leatherbacks forage or fast while on nesting grounds. Using the biuret method and agarose gel electrophoresis, total serum protein (median = 5.0 g/dl) and protein fractions were quantified and include pre-albumin (median = 0.0 g/dl), albumin (median = 1.81 g/dl), α1-globulin (median = 0.90 g/dl), α2-globulin (median = 0.74 g/dl), total α-globulin (median = 1.64 g/dl), β-globulin (median = 0.56 g/dl), γ-globulin (median = 0.81 g/dl) and total globulin (median = 3.12 g/dl). The albumin:globulin ratio (median = 0.59) was also calculated. Confidence intervals (90%) were used to establish reference intervals. Total protein, albumin and total globulin concentrations declined in successive nesting events. Protein fractions declined at less significant rates or remained relatively constant during the nesting season. Here, we show that leatherbacks are most likely fasting during the nesting season. A minimal threshold of total serum protein concentrations of around 3.5–4.5 g/dl may physiologically signal the end of the season's nesting for individual leatherbacks. The results presented here lend further insight into the interaction between reproduction, fasting and energy reserves and will potentially improve the conservation and management of this imperiled species. PMID:27293623

  18. Acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the course of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Paradowski, M; Lobos, M; Kuydowicz, J; Krakowiak, M; Kubasiewicz-Ujma, B

    1995-08-01

    We carried out estimations of the following acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha-2-ceruloplasmin (CER), and alpha-2-haptoglobin (HPT) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with bacterial meningitis (BM, n = 30) and viral meningitis (VM, n = 30). We have shown that determinations of concentrations of AAG and CRP in serum and CER in CSF are useful in differentiation between BM and VM. The diagnostic power of these three tests (the areas under their ROC curves equal 0.942, 0.929, and 0.931, respectively) is bigger, though statistically not significantly, than that of traditional parameters of BM in CSF, i.e., total protein concentration and white blood cell count. Determination of AAG, CRP, and AAT in serum is a valuable monitoring marker in the course of BM treatment. Convenience of serum sampling constitutes an advantage over traditional BM parameters in CSF. PMID:8521602

  19. Binding of labeled thyroxin analog to serum proteins evaluated after radioimmunoassay of free thyroxin

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, G.

    1989-03-01

    In ambulatory patients, assay of free thyroxin (FT4) in serum correlates well with thyroid status and with results obtained by equilibrium dialysis. The validity of FT4 results has been questioned mainly in euthyroid patients with altered concentrations of thyroid hormone-binding proteins, as in nonthyroidal illness, hereditary analbuminemia, familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH), and the presence of iodothyronine-binding antibodies. I present here a study of the binding of (/sup 125/I)T4-derivative to serum proteins in the supernate, which is ordinarily discarded after determination of FT4 by one-step radioimmunoassay with dextran-coated charcoal used to separate the free and bound fractions. The results are expressed as a ratio, with results for a normal serum pool as reference. The average ratio was high in hyperthyroid subjects, 1.26 (SD 0.12, n = 25), and in hypoalbuminemia, 1.20 (SD 0.10, n = 15), and low in FDH, 0.62 (SD 0.11, n = 9), and hypothyroid subjects, 0.90 (SD 0.06, n = 20). In normal individuals it was 0.98 (SD 0.05, n = 30). Determination of the analog-binding rate complements the FT4 result and allows for the recognition of cases with abnormal binding by serum proteins, without recourse to other tests recommended for thyroid-function studies.

  20. Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Iki, Shigeo; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokosawa, Noriko; Nagata, Kyosuke; Fujii, Nobuhiro . E-mail: fujii@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-12-05

    The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection.

  1. Serum lipids and proteins during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing desogestrel.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, I M; Bergink, E W; Holma, P; Hulkko, S; Makkonen, M; Pyörälä, T; Castrén, O

    1983-12-01

    The present study was carried out to measure lipid and protein levels in serum of healthy women during treatment with a new oral contraceptive combination containing 0.075 mg desogestrel (Org 2969, 17 alpha-ethinyl-18-methyl-11-methylene-4-estren-17-ol) plus 0.050 mg ethinyloestradiol per tablet. All 30 volunteers took 1 tablet daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by a tablet-free period of 7 days. Treatment lasted 3 months. At the end of treatment serum total cholesterol had increased by 0.26 mmol/l (5.0%), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 0.22 mmol/l (15.2%) and triglycerides by 0.43 mmol/l (50%); the calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased by 0.16 mmol/l (4.9%). All lipid concentrations had returned to initial levels 2 months after treatment stopped. After 3 months treatment serum ceruloplasmin, cortisol-binding globulin capacity, sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity and thyroxine-binding globulin had significantly increased by 85.2, 133, 206 and 101%, respectively. All protein levels returned to normal 2 months after treatment stopped. The relationship between serum lipids and hormone-binding proteins has been discussed, as well as the significance of the high-density lipoprotein level with regard to contraceptive treatment. PMID:6232161

  2. Serum insensitive, intranuclear protein delivery by the multipurpose cationic lipid SAINT-2.

    PubMed

    van der Gun, Bernardina T F; Monami, Amélie; Laarmann, Sven; Raskó, Tamás; Slaska-Kiss, Krystyna; Weinhold, Elmar; Wasserkort, Reinhold; de Leij, Lou F M H; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Kiss, Antal; McLaughlin, Pamela M J

    2007-11-20

    Cationic liposomal compounds are widely used to introduce DNA and siRNA into viable cells, but none of these compounds are also capable of introducing proteins. Here we describe the use of a cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-2:DOPE for the efficient delivery of proteins into cells (profection). Labeling studies demonstrated equal delivery efficiency for protein as for DNA and siRNA. Moreover, proteins complexed with Saint-2:DOPE were successfully delivered, irrespective of the presence of serum, and the profection efficiency was not influenced by the size or the charge of the protein:cationic liposomal complex. Using beta-galactosidase as a reporter protein, enzymatic activity was detected in up to 98% of the adherent cells, up to 83% of the suspension cells and up to 70% of the primary cells after profection. A delivered antibody was detected in the cytoplasm for up to 7 days after profection. Delivery of the methyltransferase M.SssI resulted in DNA methylation, leading to a decrease in E-cadherin expression. The lipid-mediated multipurpose transport system reported here can introduce proteins into the cell with an equal delivery efficiency as for nucleotides. Delivery is irrespective of the presence of serum, and the protein can exert its function both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Furthermore, DNA methylation by M.SssI delivery as a novel tool for gene silencing has potential applications in basic research and therapy. PMID:17884225

  3. Coordinate estrogen-regulated instability of serum protein-coding messenger RNAs in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Pastori, R L; Moskaitis, J E; Buzek, S W; Schoenberg, D R

    1991-04-01

    Estrogen causes the cytoplasmic destabilization of albumin and gamma-fibrinogen mRNA in Xenopus laevis liver. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether mRNA destabilization is a generalized phenomenon in response to estrogen, or whether this process is restricted to a particular class of mRNAs. To address this, we have expanded our bank of serum protein-coding cDNA clones to include transferrin, the second protein of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and clone 12B, for which there is no mammalian homolog. Together with albumin and gamma-fibrinogen, these represent more than 85% of the mRNAs encoding liver secreted proteins. Estrogen administration to male Xenopus or to liver explant cultures causes the generalized disappearance of all of these mRNAs. In contrast, estrogen has no effect on actin, ferritin, or poly(A)-binding protein mRNA, all of which encode intracellular proteins. We have previously demonstrated that albumin mRNA is degraded in both messenger ribonucleoprotein and polysome fractions. Sucrose gradient analysis demonstrates the same pattern for degradation of all other serum protein-coding mRNAs. Estrogen has no effect on the amounts or gradient distribution of actin, ferritin, or poly(A)-binding protein mRNA. We conclude that regulated destabilization of mRNAs encoding secreted proteins is a generalized phenomenon in response to estrogen stimulation of Xenopus liver. PMID:1922078

  4. Simultaneous analysis of serum immunoglobulins in patients with M protein using cellulose acetate membrane isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Iijima, S; Shiba, K; Kurihara, Y; Kamei, S; Kimura, S; Kimura, M; Fukumura, Y; Kobayashi, I

    1999-01-01

    We developed a method for the simultaneous analysis of microheterogeneity of human serum IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE, and serum protein pattern using cellulose acetate membrane isoelectric focusing, and analyzed in 11 healthy subjects and 67 patients with M protein (17 cases of multiple myeloma [MM] and 50 cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance [MGUS]). Using this method, bands indicating the microheterogeneity of each immunoglobulin could clearly be detected.Among healthy subjects, the detected IgG, IgA, and IgM bands did not vary, but the detected IgE and IgD bands did vary. Therefore, IgA, IgM, and IgG were selected for comparison of serum immunoglobulins in MM and in MGUS. In the IgA-type M protein group, normal IgM and IgG bands were decreased in MM patients compared to MGUS patients, while the M band and other bands were increased in MM patients compared to MGUS patients, but the differences between the two groups were not significant. In the IgG-type M protein group, normal IgM, IgA, and IgG were significantly decreased in MM patients compared to MGUS patients. We examined the changes in electrophoretic pattern in six MM patients and eight MGUS patients with IgA-type M protein after neuraminidase treatment. The width of the M band in MM patients with IgA-type M protein decreased with neuraminidase treatment. On the other hand, the width of the M band in MGUS patients with IgA-type M protein increased with neuraminidase treatment. We concluded that the decrease of the normal immunoglobulins in MM patients with IgG type M protein could be detected by this method, and IgA type of M protein binding sugar chain were different between MM and MGUS patients. PMID:10414593

  5. Evaluation of Plasma Fibrinogen Degradation Products and Total Serum Protein Concentration in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    B.N.V.S., Satish; B., Maharudrappa; K.M., Prashant; Hugar, Deepa; Allad, Umesh; Prabhu, Prasanth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder with a multifactorial etiology. Malnutrition is a major problem for the inhabitants of most countries where OSMF is prevalent. Recently, a new direction in the etiopathogenesis was provided by the identification of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in the plasma of OSMF patients. Aims and Objectives: To assess the role of FDP in the etiology of OSMF and to correlate with the nutritional status by evaluating the total serum protein level. The study also determines to evaluate the correlation between the levels of plasma FDP with respect to the staging and grading of OSMF. Correlation between the levels of Total Serum Protein (TSP) with respect to the staging and grading of OSMF was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 cases clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as oral submucous fibrosis. The FDP levels were assessed using both qualitative and semi quantitative method as supplied by ‘Tulip Diagnostics (P) Ltd. Total Serum Protein (TSP) estimation was done by Biuret method using Liquixx Protein kit by Erba, Manheim. Results: The study indicates that in qualitative assessment of FDP only 14 subjects showed the presence of FDP levels>200ng/ml. In semiquantitative assessment there is no significant association between varying clinical stages and histopathological grades and FDP levels. Total serum Protein level showed a marginal increase in all subjects. The study revealed a positive correlation between FDP and TSP in all OSMF subjects. Conclusion: A larger sample size which would be a better representation of the population and the use of different methods which have higher sensitivities and specificities to evaluate FDP level and detailed fractional analysis of protein along with immunoglobulin profiling would facilitate in attaining more conclusive results. PMID:24995245

  6. Analysis of protein oxidation in serum of fetal and newborn piglets and the influence of iron dextran on induction of protein carbonyls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods were employed to evaluate serum biomarkers associated with protein oxidative stress and damage, to determine potential sources of metabolic stress in baby pigs. Protein carbonyls in serum were converted to dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives with DNP-hydrazine, precipitated with TCA, extracted i...

  7. Levels of the serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in normal persons of different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Hijmans, W; Sipe, J D

    1979-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) has been implicated by three independent studies to increase in concentration with ageing. The present study measured SAA concentration in 395 samples from 302 healthy individuals ranging in age from 21 to 100 years. The average SAA concentration was 20 microgram/ml, with only five serum samples falling below 5 microgram/ml. SAA concentrations are expressed in terms of cross-reactivity of purified, denatured SAA with anti-AA antibodies, rather than the purified, denatured amyloid fibril protein AA from tissues, which has been used in the past. No age-related increase in SAA concentration was observed in the present study. The average SAA concentration in these normal, healthy individuals was almost a hundred-fold less than values measured in acute phase human serum in a separate study with the same reagents. PMID:428149

  8. Measuring interactions between polydimethylsiloxane and serum proteins at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhengzheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Baumgart, Tobias; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2013-07-30

    The interaction between synthetic polymers and proteins at interfaces is relevant to basic science as well as a wide range of applications in biotechnology and medicine. One particularly common and important interface is the air-water interface (AWI). Due to the special energetics and dynamics of molecules at the AWI, the interplay between synthetic polymer and protein can be very different from that in bulk solution. In this paper, we applied the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and fluorescence microscopy to investigate how the compression state of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film at the AWI affects the subsequent adsorption of serum protein [e.g., human serum albumin (HSA) or immunoglobulin G (IgG)] and the interaction between PDMS and protein. Of particular note is our observation of circular PDMS domains with micrometer diameters that form at the AWI in the highly compressed state of the surface film: proteins were shown to adsorb preferentially to the surface of these circular PDMS domains, accompanied by a greater than 4-fold increase in protein found in the interfacial film. The PDMS-only film and the PDMS-IgG composite film were transferred to cover glass, and platinum-carbon replicas of the transferred films were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We conclude that the structure of the PDMS film greatly affects the amount and distribution of protein at the interface. PMID:23819833

  9. Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-07-05

    We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion and the multiplexing potential of this technique. Limits of quantification (LOQs) at low ng/mL levels with a median CV of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum using as little as 2 µL serum. PRISM-SRM provided up to ~1000-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional SRM measurements. Multiplexing capability of PRISM-SRM was also evaluated by two sets of serum samples with 6 and 21 target peptides spiked at the low attomole/µL levels. The results from SRM measurements for pooled or post-concatenated samples were comparable to those obtained from individual peptide fractions in terms of signal-to-noise ratios and SRM peak area ratios of light to heavy peptides. PRISM-SRM was applied to measure several ng/mL-level endogenous plasma proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, in clinical patient sera where correlation coefficients > 0.99 were observed between the results from PRISM-SRM and ELISA assays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can be successfully used for quantification of low-abundance endogenous proteins in highly complex samples. Moderate throughput (50 samples/week) can be achieved by applying the post-concatenation or fraction multiplexing strategies. We anticipate broad applications for targeted PRISM

  10. Serum-based protein biomarkers of bladder cancer: A pre- and post-operative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Navneeta; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Ashish; Sankhwar, Satya Narain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2016-05-30

    Urinary bladder cancer (BC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide with alarming mortality. Shortcomings of urine cytology and cystoscopy and sparse improvements in the survival rate prompt us to evolve surrogate serum based protein biomarkers to identify BC at an early stage. Previously, we showed that aberrant expression of S100A4, S100A8, S100A9, carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) and Annexin V proteins in pre-operative BC serum compared to healthy controls (HC) (Clin Chim Acta, 2014; 36: 97-103). Here we further evaluate and validate these findings with follow-up post-operative BC patients. This study was conducted on 160 sera samples comprising healthy controls (HC, n=52), pre-operative (n=55) and post-operative (n=53) BC patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to appraise the aberrantly expressed proteins. ELISA results revealed that the expression levels of S100A8, S100A9, S100A4, and CA I were gradually and significantly reduced; concomitantly, Annexin V was progressively and significantly increased in post-operative compared to pre-operative BC sera samples. Serum protein biomarkers appear to be an encouraging and least-invasive approach for BC identification and prognosticating patient outcomes. PMID:26922578

  11. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R.; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K.; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H. Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy–Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases. PMID:26039989

  12. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/μl in serum samples and 126 pg/μl in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/μl, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  13. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination. PMID:25922172

  14. The Prognostic Value of C-Reactive Protein Serum Levels in Patients with Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Schwameis, Richard; Grimm, Christoph; Petru, Edgar; Natter, Camilla; Staudigl, Christine; Lamm, Wolfgang; Koelbl, Heinz; Krainer, Michael; Brodowicz, Thomas; Reinthaller, Alexander; Polterauer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) has previously been shown to serve as a prognostic parameter in women with gynecologic malignancies. Due to the lack of valid prognostic markers for uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) this study set out to investigate the value of pre-treatment CRP serum levels as prognostic parameter. Methods Data of women with ULMS were extracted from databases of three Austrian centres for gynaecologic oncology. Pre-treatment CRP serum levels were measured and correlated with clinico-pathological parameters. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed. Results In total, 53 patients with ULMS were included into the analysis. Mean (SD) CRP serum level was 3.46 mg/dL (3.96). Solely, an association between pre-treatment CRP serum levels and tumor size (p = 0.04) but no other clinic-pathologic parameter such as tumor stage (p = 0.16), or histological grade (p = 0.07), was observed. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses revealed that CRP serum levels (HR 2.7 [1.1–7.2], p = 0.037) and tumor stage (HR 6.1 [1.9–19.5], p = 0.002) were the only independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with ULMS. Patients with high pre-treatment CRP serum levels showed impaired OS compared to women with low levels (5-year-OS rates: 22.6% and 52.3%, p = 0.007). Conclusion High pre-treatment CRP serum levels were independently associated with impaired prognosis in women with ULMS and might serve as a prognostic parameter in these patients. PMID:26248232

  15. Quantitative measurement of full-length and C-terminal proteolyzed RBP4 in serum of normal and insulin-resistant humans using a novel mass spectrometry immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Eskurza, Iratxe; Kiernan, Urban A; Phillips, David A; Blüher, Matthias; Graham, Timothy E; Kahn, Barbara B

    2012-03-01

    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are increased in insulin-resistant humans and correlate with severity of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. Quantitative Western blotting (qWestern) has been the most accurate method for serum RBP4 measurements, but qWestern is technically complex and labor intensive. The lack of a reliable, high-throughput method for RBP4 measurements has resulted in variability in findings in insulin-resistant humans. Many commonly used ELISAs have limited dynamic range. Neither the current ELISAs nor qWestern distinguish among full-length and carboxyl terminus proteolyzed forms of circulating RBP4 that are altered in different medical conditions. Here, we report the development of a novel quantitative mass spectrometry immunoaffinity assay (qMSIA) to measure full-length and proteolyzed forms of RBP4. qMSIA and qWestern of RBP4 were performed in identical serum aliquots from insulin-sensitive/normoglycemic or insulin-resistant humans with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Total RBP4 qMSIA measurements were highly similar to qWestern and correlated equally well with clinical severity of insulin resistance (assessed by clamp glucose disposal rate, r = -0.74), hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.63), triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein (r = 0.55), waist/hip (r = 0.61), and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.53, all P < 0.001). Proteolyzed forms of RBP4 accounted for up to 50% of total RBP4 in insulin-resistant subjects, and des(Leu)-RBP4 (cleavage of last leucine) correlated highly with insulin resistance (assessed by glucose disposal rate, r = -0.69). In multiple regression analysis, insulin resistance but not glomerular filtration rate was the strongest, independent predictor of serum RBP4 levels. Thus, qMSIA provides a novel tool for accurately measuring serum RBP4 levels as a biomarker for severity of insulin resistance and risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22253430

  16. Relationship between Maternal Serum C-Reactive Protein, Funisitis and Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Youn; Jeong, Eun Ha; Oh, Kyung Joon; Ryu, Aeli; Park, Kyoung Un

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is of value in predicting funisitis and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM). This retrospective cohort study included 306 consecutive women with preterm labor or preterm PROM who delivered preterm singleton neonates (23-35 weeks gestation) within 72 hr of CRP measurement. The CRP level was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of an elevated serum CRP level (≥ 8 mg/L) were 74.1%, 67.5%, 32.8%, and 92.4% for funisitis, and 67.7%, 63.3%, 17.2%, and 94.6% for EONS, respectively. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that elevated levels of serum CRP were significantly associated with funisitis and EONS, even after adjusting gestational age. The maternal serum CRP level obtained up to 72 hr before delivery is an independent predictor of funisitis and EONS in women with preterm labor or preterm PROM. A low serum CRP level (< 8 mg/L) has good negative predictive value in excluding funisitis and EONS, and may therefore be used as a non-invasive adjunct to clinical judgment to identify low-risk patients. PMID:22690100

  17. Evaluation of Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 as a Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pengxin; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a glycoprotein that mediates tissue-selective lymphocyte adhesion. The prognostic value of VAP-1 has been determined in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes and the predictive value of serum VAP-1 in patients with thyroid cancer. A total of 126 patients with thyroid nodules and 53 healthy controls participated in this study. The patients were further divided into subgroup 1 (69 cases with benign thyroid nodules) and subgroup 2 (57 cases with thyroid cancer). Serum VAP-1 was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Diagnostic value of presurgical VAP-1 for thyroid cancer was conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Serum levels of VAP-1 were significantly lower in thyroid cancer group than in healthy control and benign thyroid nodule groups. VAP-1 concentrations negatively correlated with serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients (r = −0.81; p < 0.001). The optimum cut-off value of VAP-1 was 456.6 ng/mL with a 77.4% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Serum VAP-1 decreased in thyroid cancer patients and VAP-1 could be a potential useful adjunct biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27446209

  18. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  19. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: Effect on cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Coffey, Paul D.; Swann, Marcus J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Welland, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  20. Serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the management of perennial and periodic asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Purohit, A; Stenger, R; Gries, P; Hamberger, C; David, B; Frossard, N; Pauli, G

    1998-03-01

    We performed a prospective study in order: 1) to determine whether a correlation could be found between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and clinical and functional status in perennial asthmatics during a 5 month prospective study; and 2) to evaluate the relationship between allergic exposure and ECP levels in periodic asthmatics. Two groups of asthmatic patients were selected: a group of acutely ill perennial asthmatics and a group of periodic asthmatics. The acutely ill perennial asthmatics (n=22, mean age=39.4 yrs) were included on the basis of hospitalization for acute asthma. At the end of the hospitalization, there was a 5 month follow-up of clinical, functional and medication scores, as well as eosinophil counts and ECP levels. The periodic asthmatic group was composed of asthmatics sensitized to birch and tree pollens (n=10, mean age=33.8 yrs). The same measurement were performed on this group, before, during and after the pollen season. Under corticosteroid treatment in the acutely ill patients, there was a significant decrease in serum ECP levels between the first day of hospitalization and the day of discharge (mean: 23.2 microg x L(-1) and 9.5 microg x L(-1), respectively; p=0.006). No correlation was found between the clinical status, functional status and serum ECP levels during the 5 month follow-up. A significant increase in ECP levels was found in periodic asthmatics during the pollen season. Our results suggest that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a useful marker of allergen exposure and of acute asthma treatment. This could be of importance in the prevention and follow-up of allergic asthma; the value of serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the day-to-day management of adult asthmatics needs to be further clarified. PMID:9596108

  1. Quantitative analysis of acrylamide labeled serum proteins by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Faca, Vitor; Coram, Marc; Phanstiel, Doug; Glukhova, Veronika; Zhang, Qing; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; McIntosh, Martin; Hanash, Samir

    2006-08-01

    Isotopic labeling of cysteine residues with acrylamide was previously utilized for relative quantitation of proteins by MALDI-TOF. Here, we explored and compared the application of deuterated and (13)C isotopes of acrylamide for quantitative proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS and high-resolution FTICR mass spectrometry. The method was applied to human serum samples that were immunodepleted of abundant proteins. Our results show reliable quantitation of proteins across an abundance range that spans 5 orders of magnitude based on ion intensities and known protein concentration in plasma. The use of (13)C isotope of acrylamide had a slightly greater advantage relative to deuterated acrylamide, because of shifts in elution of deuterated acrylamide relative to its corresponding nondeuterated compound by reversed-phase chromatography. Overall, the use of acrylamide for differentially labeling intact proteins in complex mixtures, in combination with LC-MS/MS provides a robust method for quantitative analysis of complex proteomes. PMID:16889424

  2. Serum and tissue profiling in bladder cancer combining protein and tissue arrays.

    PubMed

    Orenes-Piñero, Esteban; Barderas, Rodrigo; Rico, Daniel; Casal, J Ignacio; Gonzalez-Pisano, David; Navajo, Jose; Algaba, Ferran; Piulats, Josep Maria; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at identifying biomarkers for bladder cancer, the serum proteome was explored in a pilot study through a profiling approach using protein arrays. Supervised analyses identified a panel 171 immunogenic proteins differentially expressed between patients with bladder cancer (n = 12) and controls without the disease (n = 10). The microanatomical expression patterns of novel immunogenic proteins, especially dynamin and clusterin, were found significantly associated with histopathologic variables and overall survival, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an independent series of bladder tumors contained in tissue microarrays (n = 289). Thus, the protein arrays approach has identified a panel of immunogenic candidates that may potentially play a role as diagnostic biomarkers, especially for muscle invasive disease. Moreover, the protein expression patterns of dynamin and clusterin in bladder tumors were shown to adjunct for histopathologic staging and clinical outcome prognosis. PMID:19883059

  3. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloed, Franny; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Klaassen, René A.; Beekhof, Piet; van Steeg, Harry; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; van der Harst, Erwin; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER); and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71%) complied with the restricted and 13 (65%) with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg) than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002), but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg). The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB) and retinol binding protein (RBP). Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting. PMID:27213441

  4. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

  5. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  6. Effect of altered eating pattern on serum fructosamine: total protein ratio and plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S L; Cheah, S H; Husain, R; Duncan, M T

    1989-05-01

    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index. PMID:2774480

  7. Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Membrane Proteins in Human Serum: A New Concept for Detection of Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Crystal S F; Anderson, Kyle W; Benitez, Kenia Y Villatoro; Soloski, Mark J; Aucott, John N; Phinney, Karen W; Turko, Illarion V

    2015-11-17

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. The low abundance of bacterial proteins in human serum during infection imposes a challenge for early proteomic detection of Lyme disease. To address this challenge, we propose to detect membrane proteins released from bacteria due to disruption of their plasma membrane triggered by the innate immune system. These membrane proteins can be separated from the bulk of serum proteins by high-speed centrifugation causing substantial sample enrichment prior to targeted protein quantification using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. This new approach was first applied to detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins supplemented in human serum. Our results indicated that detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins, which are ≈10(7) lower in abundance than major serum proteins, is feasible. Therefore, quantitative analysis was also carried out for serum samples from three patients with acute Lyme disease. We were able to demonstrate the detection of ospA, the major B. burgdorferi lipoprotein at the level of 4.0 fmol of ospA/mg of serum protein. The results confirm the concept and suggest that the proposed approach can be expanded to detect other bacterial infections in humans, particularly where existing diagnostics are unreliable. PMID:26491962

  8. Serum protein and erythrocyte enzyme polymorphisms in twelve population groups of Hungary.

    PubMed

    Goedde, H W; Czeizel, A; Benkmann, H G; Hummel, K; Fukshansky, N; Kriese, L; Wimmer, U; Gaulke, R; Béres, J; Matsumoto, H

    1995-06-01

    The distribution of the serum proteins C3, TF, HP, GC, BF, AMY2, PLG, GM, and KM and the erythrocyte enzyme polymorphisms GLO, GPT, ESD, ACP, 6-PGD, ADA, AK, PGM1 and PGP amongst twelve population groups in Hungary was investigated. Gene frequencies and genetic distances are discussed in relation to the present geographical locations of these groups and their probable history of migration. PMID:7668845

  9. Serum clara cell protein: a sensitive biomarker of increased lung epithelium permeability caused by ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Broeckaert, F; Arsalane, K; Hermans, C; Bergamaschi, E; Brustolin, A; Mutti, A; Bernard, A

    2000-06-01

    Ozone in ambient air may cause various effects on human health, including decreased lung function, asthma exacerbation, and even premature mortality. These effects have been evidenced using various clinical indicators that, although sensitive, do not specifically evaluate the O(3)-increased lung epithelium permeability. In the present study, we assessed the acute effects of ambient O(3) on the pulmonary epithelium by a new approach relying on the assay in serum of the lung-specific Clara cell protein (CC16 or CC10). We applied this test to cyclists who exercised for 2 hr during episodes of photochemical smog and found that O(3) induces an early leakage of lung Clara cell protein. The protein levels increased significantly into the serum from exposure levels as low as 0.060-0.084 ppm. Our findings, confirmed in mice exposed to the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O(3) (0.08 ppm for 8 hr) indicate that above the present natural background levels, there is almost no safety margin for the effects of ambient O(3) on airway permeability. The assay of CC16 in the serum represents a new sensitive noninvasive test allowing the detection of early effects of ambient O(3) on the lung epithelial barrier. PMID:10856027

  10. Association Between Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein and Free Thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Shih, Shyang-Ron; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) has been shown to be a biomarker of body weight change and atherosclerosis. Changes in thyroid function are associated with changes in body weight and risks of cardiovascular diseases. The association between AFABP and thyroid function status has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the serum AFABP concentrations in hyperthyroid patients and those in euthyroid individuals, and to evaluate the associations between serum AFABP and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. For this study, 30 hyperthyroid patients and 30 euthyroid individuals at a referral medical center were recruited. The patients with hyperthyroidism were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated. No medication was given to the euthyroid individuals. The body weight, body mass index, thyroid function, serum levels of AFABP, and biochemical data of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Associations between AFABP and fT4 levels were also analyzed. At the baseline, the hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum AFABP levels than the euthyroid individuals (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.8 [19.4, 30.6] ng/mL vs 18.6 [15.3, 23.2] ng/mL; P = 0.038). With the antithyroid regimens, the AFABP serum levels of the hyperthyroid patients decreased to 16.6 (15.0, 23.9) ng/mL at the 6th month. No difference in the AFABP level was found between the hyperthyroid and the euthyroid groups at the 6th month. At baseline, sex (female vs male, ß = 7.65, P = 0.022) and fT4 level (ß = 2.51, P = 0.018) were significantly associated with AFABP levels in the univariate regression analysis. At the 6th month, sex and fT4 level (ß = 8.09, P < 0.001 and ß = 3.61, P = 0.005, respectively) were also significantly associated with AFABP levels. The associations between sex and fT4 level with AFABP levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both at baseline and at

  11. Determination of protein-ligand binding affinity by NMR: observations from serum albumin model systems.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee; Rutherford, Samantha; Fletcher, Dan

    2005-06-01

    The usefulness of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein for testing NMR methods for the study of protein-ligand interactions is discussed. Isothermal titration calorimetry established the binding affinity and stoichiometry of the specific binding site for L-tryptophan, D-tryptophan, naproxen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and warfarin. The binding affinities of the same ligands determined by NMR methods are universally weaker (larger KD). This is because the NMR methods are susceptible to interference from additional non-specific binding. The L-tryptophan-BSA and naproxen-BSA systems were the best behaved model systems. PMID:15816062

  12. Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein contributes to biofilm formation in the presence of serum

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Karl M.; Abraham, Nabil; Jefferson, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein (EAP) is secreted, but it can redock on the bacterial cell surface via neutral phosphatase (Nptase). EAP binds to certain blood proteins and to itself, and through these affinities, it contributes to adherence and aggregation. It has been demonstrated previously that EAP expression is iron regulated and it contributes to biofilm formation under iron-deplete conditions. In this study, we found that EAP and Nptase also play a role in biofilm formation under iron-replete conditions in the presence of human serum. PMID:20199571

  13. The serum protein fetuin-B is involved in the development of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Seo, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hwan Myung; Park, Eun Seok; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Bokyung

    2015-07-01

    The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is one of the main causes of coronary artery thrombotic occlusion, leading to myocardial infarction. However, the exact mechanism and causal risk factors for plaque rupture remain unclear. To identify a potential molecule that can influence atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we investigated protein expression in serum from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stable angina (SA), using proteomic analysis. The expression of six proteins, including fibrinogen, fetuin-B, keratin 9, proapolipoprotein and fibrinogen, were altered in serum from patients with AMI compared with serum from those with SA. Of these, fetuin-B, proapolipoprotein, fibrinogen γ-B-chain precursors and fibrinogen expression were greater in serum from patients with AMI than from patients with SA. Increased fetuin-B expression in serum from AMI patients was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Treatment with recombinant human fetuin-B increased the migration in monocytes and macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Fetuin-B also affected vascular plaque-stabilizing factors, including lipid deposition and cytokine production in macrophages, the activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in monocytes, and the activation of apoptosis and MMP-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, in vivo administration of fetuin-B decreased the collagen accumulation and smooth muscle cell content and showed an increased number of macrophages in the vascular plaque. From these results, we suggest that fetuin-B may act as a modulator in the development of AMI. This study may provide a therapeutic advantage for patients at high risk of AMI. PMID:25671698

  14. Structural modification of serum vitamin D3-binding protein and immunosuppression in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Srinivasula, S M

    1995-11-01

    A serum glycoprotein, vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of stimulated B lymphocytes and sialidase of T lymphocytes to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is a precursor for MAF. Treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high-titered MAF (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 46 HIV-infected patients were treated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of plasma Gc protein was low in 16 (35%) of of these patients. Loss of the MAF precursor activity appeared to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase found in the patient blood stream. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Thus, precursor activity of Gc protein and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in patient blood can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices. PMID:8573395

  15. Simultaneous serum desalting and total protein determination by macroporous reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boichenko, Alexander; Govorukhina, Natalia; van der Zee, Ate G J; Bischoff, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Macroporous reversed-phase (mRP) chromatography was successfully used to develop an accurate and precise method for total protein in serum. The limits of detection (0.83 μg, LOD) and quantification (2.51 μg, LOQ) for the mRP method are comparable with those of the widely used micro BCA protein assay. The mRP method can be used to determine the total protein concentration across a wide dynamic range by detecting chromatographic peaks at 215 nm and 280 nm. The method has the added advantage of desalting and denaturing proteins, leading to more complete digestion by trypsin and to better LC-MS-MS identification in shotgun proteomics experiments. PMID:23388688

  16. Adsorption and adhesion of common serum proteins to nanotextured gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Lauren E.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Bryan, Isaac; Collazo, Ramón; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules, particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization.As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules

  17. Development of Gel-Filter Method for High Enrichment of Low-Molecular Weight Proteins from Serum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  18. Identification of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prolactin as potential tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Who-Whong; Ang, Soo Fan; Kumar, Rajneesh; Heah, Charmain; Utama, Andi; Tania, Navessa Padma; Li, Huihua; Tan, Sze Huey; Poo, Desmond; Choo, Su Pin; Chow, Wan Cheng; Tan, Chee Kiat; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio® L-Series 507 Antibody Array and found 113 serum markers that were significantly modulated between HCC and control groups. Selected potential biomarkers from this list were quantified using a multiplex sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array in an expanded SGH cohort (126 resectable HCC patients and 115 non-HCC chronic HBV carriers (NC group)), confirming that serum prolactin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly upregulated in HCC patients. This finding of serum MCP-1 elevation in HCC patients was validated in a separate cohort of serum samples from the Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Indonesia (98 resectable HCC, 101 chronic hepatitis B patients and 100 asymptomatic HBV/HCV carriers) by sandwich ELISA. MCP-1 and prolactin levels were found to correlate with AFP, while MCP-1 also correlated with disease stage. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of AFP, prolactin and MCP-1 in the SGH cohort and comparing their area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated that neither prolactin nor MCP-1 on their own performed better than AFP. However, the combination of AFP+MCP-1 (AUC, 0.974) had significantly superior discriminative ability than AFP alone (AUC, 0.942; p<0.001). In conclusion, prolactin and MCP-1 are overexpressed in HCC and are conveniently quantifiable in patients' sera by ELISA. MCP-1 appears to be a promising complementary biomarker for HCC diagnosis and this MCP-1+AFP model should be further evaluated as potential

  19. Albumin-coated SPIONs: an experimental and theoretical evaluation of protein conformation, binding affinity and competition with serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siming; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Minelli, Caterina; Faraudo, Jordi; Roig, Anna; Laromaine, Anna

    2016-08-14

    The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the outside of the SPIONs and their binding strength to the SPIONs is about 3.5 × 10(-4) M, ten times higher than the adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the same SPIONs. We elucidate a strong electrostatic interaction between BSA and the SPIONs, although the secondary structure of the protein is not affected. We present data that supports the strong binding of the BSA monolayer on SPIONs and the properties of the BSA layer as a protein-resistant coating. We believe that a complete understanding of the behavior and morphology of BSA-SPIONs and how the protein interacts with SPIONs is crucial for improving NP surface design and expanding the potential applications of SPIONs in nanomedicine. PMID:27241081

  20. Serum surfactant protein-A, but not surfactant protein-D or KL-6, can predict preclinical lung damage induced by smoking.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Kanoh, Soichiro; Motoyoshi, Kazuo

    2008-06-01

    Serum surfactant protein (SP)-A offers a useful clinical marker for interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, SP-A is occasionally elevated in non-ILD pulmonary patients. The present study was conducted to investigate factors that affect serum SP- A levels in respiratory medicine. Serum SP-A, serum SP-D, serum Klebs von den Lungen (KL)-6 and pulmonary function tests were evaluated in 929 patients (current smokers, n=255; ex-smokers, n=242; never-smokers, n=432) without ILD or pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum SP-A was significantly higher in current smokers than in never- or ex-smokers (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Serum SP- A was significantly higher in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary thromboembolism than in other diseases (p<0.01). Serum SP-A correlated positively with amount of smoking (p<0.01) and negatively with forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (p<0.05). Serum SP-D and KL-6 were unaffected by smoking. Smoking should be taken into account when evaluating serum SP-A levels, and different baseline levels of serum SP-A should be established for smokers and non-smokers. Serum SP-A may also represent a useful marker for predicting COPD in the preclinical stage. PMID:18595202

  1. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein leads to immunosuppression in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Asbell, S O

    1996-06-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor of the macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high titered MAF, Gc-MAF. When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 52 patients bearing various types of cancer were incubated with 100 pg/ml of GcMAF, the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was found to be severely reduced in about 25% of this patient population. About 45% of the patients had moderately reduced MAF precursor activities. Loss of the precursor activity was found to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the patient's bloodstream. The source of the enzyme appeared to be cancerous cells. Radiation therapy decreased plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity with concomitant increase of precursor activity. This implies that radiation therapy decreases the number of cancerous cells capable of secreting alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Both alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and MAF precursor activity of Gc protein in patient bloodstream can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices. PMID:8665521

  2. Microfluidic Electrochemical Immunoarray for Ultrasensitive Detection of Two Cancer Biomarker Proteins in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Chikkaveeraiah, Bhaskara V.; Mani, Vigneshwaran; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Rusling, James F.

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical immunoassay system for multiplexed detection of protein cancer biomarkers was fabricated using a molded polydimethylsiloxane channel and routine machined parts interfaced with a pump and sample injector. Using off-line capture of analytes by heavily-enzyme-labeled 1 μm superparamagnetic particle (MP)-antibody bioconjugates and capture antibodies attached to an 8-electrode measuring chip, simultaneous detection of cancer biomarker proteins prostate specific antigen (PSA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum was achieved at sub-pg mL−1 levels. MPs were conjugated with ~90,000 antibodies and ~200,000 horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labels to provide efficient off-line capture and high sensitivity. Measuring electrodes feature a layer of 5 nm glutathione-decorated gold nanoparticles to attach antibodies that capture MP-analyte bioconjugates. Detection limits of 0.23 pg mL−1 for PSA and 0.30 pg mL−1 for IL-6 were obtained in diluted serum mixtures. PSA and IL-6 biomarkers were measured in serum of prostate cancer patients in total assay time 1.15 h and sensor array results gave excellent correlation with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). These microfluidic immunosensors employing nanostructured surfaces and off-line analyte capture with heavily-labeled paramagnetic particles hold great promise for accurate, sensitive multiplexed detection of diagnostic cancer biomarkers. PMID:21632234

  3. Analysis of Lidocaine Interactions with Serum Proteins Using High-Performance Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Sony; Yoo, Michelle J.; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Hage, David S.

    2010-01-01

    High-performance affinity chromatography was used to study binding by the drug lidocaine to human serum albumin (HSA) and α1–acid glycoprotein (AGP). AGP had strong binding to lidocaine, with an association equilibrium constant (Ka) of 1.1-1.7 × 105 M-1 at 37 °C and pH 7.4. Lidocaine had weak-to-moderate binding to HSA, with a Ka in the range of 103 to 104 M-1. Competitive experiments with site selective probes showed that lidocaine was interacting with Sudlow site II of HSA and the propranolol site of AGP. These results agree with previous observations in the literature and provide a better quantitative understanding of how lidocaine binds to these serum proteins and is transported in the circulation. This study also demonstrates how HPAC can be used to examine the binding of a drug with multiple serum proteins and provide detailed information on the interaction sites and equilibrium constants that are involved in such processes. PMID:20138813

  4. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type. PMID:25198797

  5. Serum vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and lung cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D may prolong cancer survival by inhibiting tumor progression and metastasis, however, there are limited epidemiologic studies regarding the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and lung cancer survival. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and lung cancer specific survival and to evaluate whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP) concentration modified this association. Materials and Methods 25(OH)D and DBP were measured in fasting serum samples from 500 male lung cancer cases in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer related death according to quartiles of season-specific 25(OH)D, DBP, and the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP, a proxy for free circulating 25(OH)D. Results Comparing highest to lowest quartiles, serum 25(OH)D (HR=1.18; 95% CI: 0.89–1.56) and DBP (HR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.71–1.26) were not associated with lung cancer survival and DBP concentration did not modify the association with 25(OH)D (p for interaction=0.56). There was suggestion of an association between higher serum 25(OH)D and better survival from adenocarcinoma (HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.17–2.45) and small cell carcinoma (HR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.21–1.45), but these estimates were based on a relatively small number of cases. Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with overall lung cancer survival regardless of DBP concentration, however, these findings should be examined in other studies that include women and subjects with higher 25(OH)D levels. PMID:25456734

  6. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE)

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Andriana I.; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Manali, Effrosyni D.; Papadaki, Georgia; Roussou, Aneza; Spathis, Aris; Mazioti, Argyro; Tomos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Ilias; Loukides, Stelios; Chainis, Kyriakos; Karakitsos, Petros; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Serum surfactant proteins (SPs) A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival. Methods 122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE) and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year. Results SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively). In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05) and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05). SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons). In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI). Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively). SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042). In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL) presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials. PMID:27337142

  7. Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles with Serum Proteins Affects Their Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

  8. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with serum proteins affects their antimicrobial activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

  9. Pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats: role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution in the non-linear pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. The first phase of the research was an attempt to elucidate the causes of intersubject differences in serum protein binding of warfarin in rats. It was found that the distribution of S-warfarin between blood and liver, kidneys, muscle, or fatty tissue was non-linear. Based on the tissue distribution data obtained, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the time course of S-warfarin concentrations in the serum and tissues of rats. The proposed model was able to display the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. Namely a lower clearance and a smaller apparent volume of distribution with increasing dose, which appear to be due to the presence of capacity-limited, high-affinity binding sites for warfarin in various tissues. To determine if the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the liver of rats is reversible, concentrations of S-warfarin in the liver and serum of rats were monitored for a very long time after an intravenous injection of a 1 mg/kg dose. In another study in rats, non-radioactive warfarin was found to be able to displace tissue-bound C/sup 14/-warfarin which was administered about 200 hours before the i.v. injection of the non-radioactive warfarin, showing that the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the body is persistent and reversible.

  10. Purification, properties and identification of a serum DNA binding protein (64DP) and its microheterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, M; Ohkubo, T; Kamiguchi, H; Suzuki, K; Nakasaki, H; Mitomi, T; Katsunuma, T

    1982-03-01

    A DNA binding protein with a molecular weight of 64,000, designated 64DP, has been purified and characterized. This protein was isolated from adult human pooled serum by DEAE Sephadex column Chromatography, DNA cellulose affinity column chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-150 gel filtration. The final preparation of 64DP was homogeneous, as judged from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with or without sodium dodecyl sulfate and sedimentation experiments. Physicochemical and immunochemical properties of this protein were very similar or identical to those of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin with some differences in electric mobility and th pattern of isoelectric focusing. Furthermore, the general properties of 64DP from various sera were practically similar with the exception that isolectric focusing analysis showed microheterogeneity among 64DP purified from various sera. PMID:6808710

  11. Metallothionein gene expression is regulated by serum factors and activators of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Imbra, R J; Karin, M

    1987-01-01

    The exact physiological role of metallothionein (MT) is not clear. It has been suggested that these low-molecular-weight, highly inducible, heavy-metal-binding proteins serve in the regulation of intracellular Zn metabolism. Among the Zn-requiring systems are several enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. Therefore, during periods of active DNA synthesis there is likely to be an increased demand for Zn, which could be met by elevated MT synthesis. For that reason, we examined whether stimulation of cellular proliferation leads to increased expression of MT. We report here that treatment of cultured mammalian cells with serum growth factors and activators of protein kinase C, all of which are known to have growth stimulatory activity, led to induction of MT mRNA. One of the required steps in the signal transduction pathways triggered by these agents, ending in MT induction, appears to be the activation of protein kinase C. Images PMID:3600629

  12. Interaction of bovine serum albumin protein with self assembled monolayer of mercaptoundecanoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonia, Monika; Agarwal, Hitesh; Manjuladevi, V.; Gupta, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Detection of proteins and other biomolecules in liquid phase is the essence for the design of a biosensor. The sensitivity of a sensor can be enhanced by the appropriate functionalization of the sensing area so as to establish the molecular specific interaction. In the present work, we have studied the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein with a chemically functionalized surface using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The gold-coated quartz crystals (AT-cut/5 MHz) were functionalized by forming self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). The adsorption characteristics of BSA onto SAM of MUA on quartz crystal are reported. BSA showed the highest affinity for SAM of MUA as compared to pure gold surface. The SAM of MUA provides carboxylated surface which enhances not only the adsorption of the BSA protein but also a very stable BSA-MUA complex in the liquid phase.

  13. Overcoming inactivation of the lung surfactant by serum proteins: a potential role for fluorocarbons?

    PubMed

    Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2015-08-14

    In many pulmonary conditions serum proteins interfere with the normal adsorption of components of the lung surfactant to the surface of the alveoli, resulting in lung surfactant inactivation, with potentially serious untoward consequences. Here, we review the strategies that have recently been designed in order to counteract the biophysical mechanisms of inactivation of the surfactant. One approach includes protein analogues or peptides that mimic the native proteins responsible for innate resistance to inactivation. Another perspective uses water-soluble additives, such as electrolytes and hydrophilic polymers that are prone to enhance adsorption of phospholipids. An alternative, more recent approach consists of using fluorocarbons, that is, highly hydrophobic inert compounds that were investigated for partial liquid ventilation, that modify interfacial properties and can act as carriers of exogenous lung surfactant. The latter approach that allows fluidisation of phospholipid monolayers while maintaining capacity to reach near-zero surface tension definitely warrants further investigation. PMID:26110877

  14. Insulinlike Growth Factor I Plus Insulinlike Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Attenuates the Proinflammatory Acute Phase Response in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Barrow, Robert E.; Herndon, David N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) in combination with its principal binding protein (IGFBP-3) on the hepatic acute phase response in severely burned children. Summary Background Data The hepatic acute phase response is a cascade of events initiated to restore homeostasis after trauma. A prolonged response, however, may contribute to multiple organ failure, hypermetabolism, complications, and death. Methods Twenty-two children with a mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn of 57 ± 3% were given a continuous infusion of 1 to 4 mg/kg/day IGF-I/BP-3 for 5 days after wound excision and grafting. Eight children with a TBSA burn of 54 ± 4% were given saline as controls. Before and 5 days after excision and grafting, blood samples were taken for serum hepatic constitutive protein, acute phase protein, and proinflammatory cytokine analysis. Results Serum IGF-I levels in burned children given the IGF-I/BP-3 complex increased from 113 ± 15 to 458 ± 40 ng/mL and IGFBP-3 levels increased from 1.8 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3 ng/mL. Levels of serum constitutive hepatic proteins (prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, and transferrin) increased with IGF-I/BP-3, whereas levels of type I acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, α1-acid glycoprotein, and complement C-3) decreased when compared with controls. The complex had no effect on type II acute phase proteins. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels decreased with IGF-I/BP-3 compared with controls, with no effect on interleukin-6. Conclusion Severely burned children receiving IGF-I/BP-3 showed a decrease in IL-1β and TNF-α followed by a decrease in type I acute phase proteins that was associated with a concomitant increase in constitutive hepatic proteins. Attenuating the proinflammatory acute phase with IGF-1/BP-3 response may prevent multiple organ failure and improve clinical outcomes after thermal injury without any detectable adverse side effects. PMID

  15. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. )

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  16. High resolution protein electrophoresis of 100 paired canine cerebrospinal fluid and serum.

    PubMed

    Behr, Sébastien; Trumel, Cathy; Cauzinille, Laurent; Palenché, Florence; Braun, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the diagnostic relevance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) high resolution electrophoresis. The laboratory technique was applied to 100 paired samples of canine CSF and serum, with paired samples tested during the same analytical run, as recommended in human medicine. Ninety four of the dogs had a neurological disease and 6 healthy dogs served as a control group. A strong linear correlation between CSF total protein concentration and the albumin quota (AQ) was found in the control group and in the inflammatory (infectious or noninfectious), neoplastic, and miscellaneous groups: AQ = 0.015 CSF total protein--0.102, r = 0.990. This correlation suggests that an increased CSF total protein concentration can be an indicator of blood brain barrier dysfunction. The highest median AQ value was found in the aseptic suppurative meningitis group, but no statistical differences were found between this and the other groups. The AQ, calculated with this technique, did not provide any additional information. Moreover, although unexpected, the electrophoretic profiles were not characteristic of any particular disease. In conclusion, this study did not confirm high resolution electrophoresis of paired CSF and serum samples to be a valuable ancillary diagnostic tool for canine neurological diseases. PMID:16734104

  17. Serum-free culture alters the quantity and protein composition of neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinghuan; Lee, Yi; Johansson, Henrik J.; Mäger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Nordin, Joel Z.; Wiklander, Oscar P. B.; Lehtiö, Janne; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Andaloussi, Samir EL

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in cell–cell communication in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, and offer promise as novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for genetic diseases. Many recent studies have described different molecular mechanisms that contribute to EV biogenesis and release from cells. However, little is known about how external stimuli such as cell culture conditions can affect the quantity and content of EVs. While N2a neuroblastoma cells cultured in serum-free (OptiMEM) conditions did not result in EVs with significant biophysical or size differences compared with cells cultured in serum-containing (pre-spun) conditions, the quantity of isolated EVs was greatly increased. Moreover, the expression levels of certain vesicular proteins (e.g. small GTPases, G-protein complexes, mRNA processing proteins and splicing factors), some of which were previously reported to be involved in EV biogenesis, were found to be differentially expressed in EVs under different culture conditions. These data, therefore, contribute to the understanding of how extracellular factors and intracellular molecular pathways affect the composition and release of EVs. PMID:26022510

  18. Limitations of protein-coated charcoal in the separation of free from bound vitamin B12 in serum.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, E; Wong, K T

    1983-01-01

    The effect of haemoglobin and albumin-coated charcoal on the concentration of vitamin B12 binding proteins in serum has been investigated. As commonly employed, coated charcoal removes a significant amount of transcobalamin II (TCII) from serum, but does not affect transcobalamin I and III (TCI and III). Increasing the protein coat up to about 10 mg of protein per 25 mg of charcoal reduces the adsorption of TCII, but increasing the protein concentration beyond this has little added effect. The amount of adsorption is proportional to the amount of coated charcoal employed, but even small amounts adsorb some TCII. These results indicate that protein-coated charcoal is not the ideal way of separating free from bound vitamin B12 in serum; it cannot reliably be used for the measurement of the concentration of apo-TCII but can be employed for the measurement of apo-TCI and III. PMID:6886019

  19. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

  20. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo. PMID:26643610

  1. Serum Galectin-9 and Galectin-3-Binding Protein in Acute Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Yao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious threat for public health and induces various inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including galectins and glycoproteins. Diverse immune responses and immunological pathways are induced in different phases of dengue fever progression. However, the status of serum galectins and glycoproteins is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration and potential interaction of soluble galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-9, galectin-3 binding protein (galectin-3BP), glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and E-, L-, and P-selectin in patients with dengue fever in acute febrile phase. In this study, 317 febrile patients (187 dengue patients, 150 non-dengue patients that included 48 patients with bacterial infection and 102 patients with other febrile illness) who presented to the emergency department and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Our results showed the levels of galectin-9 and galectin-3BP were significantly higher in dengue patients than those in healthy controls. Lower serum levels of galectin-1, galectin-3, and E-, L-, and P-selectin in dengue patients were detected compared to bacteria-infected patients, but not to healthy controls. In addition, strong correlation between galectin-9 and galectin-3BP was observed in dengue patients. In summary, our study suggested galectin-9 and galectin-3BP might be critical inflammatory mediators in acute dengue virus infection. PMID:27240351

  2. Differential expression profiling of serum proteins and metabolites for biomarker discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sushmita Mimi; Anderle, Markus; Lin, Hua; Becker, Christopher H.

    2004-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomics and metabolomics platform is presented for quantitative differential expression analysis. Proteome profiles obtained from 1.5 [mu]L of human serum show ~5000 de-isotoped and quantifiable molecular ions. Approximately 1500 metabolites are observed from 100 [mu]L of serum. Quantification is based on reproducible sample preparation and linear signal intensity as a function of concentration. The platform is validated using human serum, but is generally applicable to all biological fluids and tissues. The median coefficient of variation (CV) for ~5000 proteomic and ~1500 metabolomic molecular ions is approximately 25%. For the case of C-reactive protein, results agree with quantification by immunoassay. The independent contributions of two sources of variance, namely sample preparation and LC-MS analysis, are respectively quantified as 20.4 and 15.1% for the proteome, and 19.5 and 13.5% for the metabolome, for median CV values. Furthermore, biological diversity for ~20 healthy individuals is estimated by measuring the variance of ~6500 proteomic and metabolomic molecular ions in sera for each sample; the median CV is 22.3% for the proteome and 16.7% for the metabolome. Finally, quantitative differential expression profiling is applied to a clinical study comparing healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

  3. Serum-stable quantum dot--protein hybrid nanocapsules for optical bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Yu; Nam, Dong Heon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Youngsun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jeon, Duk Young; Beum Park, Chan; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-05-01

    We introduce shell cross-linked protein/quantum dot (QD) hybrid nanocapsules as a serum-stable systemic delivery nanocarrier for tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging applications. Highly luminescent, heavy-metal-free Cu0.3InS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core-shell QDs are synthesized and mixed with amine-reactive six-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in dichloromethane. Emulsification in an aqueous solution containing human serum albumin (HSA) results in shell cross-linked nanocapsules incorporating CIS/ZnS QDs, exhibiting high luminescence and excellent dispersion stability in a serum-containing medium. Folic acid is introduced as a tumor-targeting ligand. The feasibility of tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging is demonstrated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of several major organs and tumor tissue after an intravenous tail vein injection of the nanocapsules into nude mice. The cytotoxicity of the QD-loaded HSA-PEG nanocapsules is also examined in several types of cells. Our results show that the cellular uptake of the QDs is critical for cytotoxicity. Moreover, a significantly lower level of cell death is observed in the CIS/ZnS QDs compared to nanocapsules loaded with cadmium-based QDs. This study suggests that the systemic tumor targeting of heavy-metal-free QDs using shell cross-linked HSA-PEG hybrid nanocapsules is a promising route for in vivo tumor diagnosis with reduced non-specific toxicity.

  4. Effects of aluminum chloride on serum proteins, bilirubin, and hepatic trace elements in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ben; Zhu, Yanzhu; Zhang, Hongling; Liu, Liming; Li, Guojiang; Song, Yongli; Li, Yanfei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the hepatic metabolism function and trace elements' distribution. Two hundred healthy male chickens (1 day old) were intraperitoneally administered with AlCl3 (0, 18.31, 27.47, and 36.62 mg kg(-1) day(-1) of Al(3+)) consecutively for 3 days. Then the chickens were allowed to rest for 1 day. The cycle lasted four days. The cycle was repeated 15 times (60 days). The contents of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBI), direct bilirubin (DBI), hepatic aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were examined. The results showed that the contents of serum TP and ALB and hepatic Fe and Zn decreased and the contents of serum TBI and DBI and hepatic Al and Cu increased in the chickens with AlCl3 This indicates that chronic administration of AlCl3 impairs the hepatic metabolism function and disorders the hepatic trace elements' distribution. PMID:25896954

  5. Serum Galectin-9 and Galectin-3-Binding Protein in Acute Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Yao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a serious threat for public health and induces various inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including galectins and glycoproteins. Diverse immune responses and immunological pathways are induced in different phases of dengue fever progression. However, the status of serum galectins and glycoproteins is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration and potential interaction of soluble galectin-1, galectin-3, galectin-9, galectin-3 binding protein (galectin-3BP), glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and E-, L-, and P-selectin in patients with dengue fever in acute febrile phase. In this study, 317 febrile patients (187 dengue patients, 150 non-dengue patients that included 48 patients with bacterial infection and 102 patients with other febrile illness) who presented to the emergency department and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Our results showed the levels of galectin-9 and galectin-3BP were significantly higher in dengue patients than those in healthy controls. Lower serum levels of galectin-1, galectin-3, and E-, L-, and P-selectin in dengue patients were detected compared to bacteria-infected patients, but not to healthy controls. In addition, strong correlation between galectin-9 and galectin-3BP was observed in dengue patients. In summary, our study suggested galectin-9 and galectin-3BP might be critical inflammatory mediators in acute dengue virus infection. PMID:27240351

  6. Albumin-coated SPIONs: an experimental and theoretical evaluation of protein conformation, binding affinity and competition with serum proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Siming; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Minelli, Caterina; Faraudo, Jordi; Roig, Anna; Laromaine, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the outside of the SPIONs and their binding strength to the SPIONs is about 3.5 × 10-4 M, ten times higher than the adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the same SPIONs. We elucidate a strong electrostatic interaction between BSA and the SPIONs, although the secondary structure of the protein is not affected. We present data that supports the strong binding of the BSA monolayer on SPIONs and the properties of the BSA layer as a protein-resistant coating. We believe that a complete understanding of the behavior and morphology of BSA-SPIONs and how the protein interacts with SPIONs is crucial for improving NP surface design and expanding the potential applications of SPIONs in nanomedicine.The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the

  7. Serum eosinophil cationic protein and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypoosmolar challenge in naive atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, R; Tognella, S; Micheletto, C; Pomari, C; Burti, E; Mauroner, L; Turco, P

    1998-01-01

    Inhaled nonisotonic solutions (e.g., ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, UNDW) are sensitive bronchoconstrictive agents in asthmatics, their suggested mechanism of action being the release of mediators from some inflammatory cells. Studies assessing the relationship between degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to UNDW and plasma levels of eosinophilic markers are not available to date. Fourteen asymptomatic, nonsmoking, naive asthmatics (8 males, aged 18 to 45; mean basal FEV1 = 93.8% predicted +/- 1.7 SE), monosensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and twelve normal subjects (9 males, aged 19 to 40, mean basal FEV1 = 93.3% predicted +/- 1.4 SE) entered the study after informed consent. Each subject performed the UNDW challenge while the transcutaneous pO2 (PtcO2) was monitored. Serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was measured together with blood eosinophils 60 min before UNDW. The bronchial response was expressed as FEV1 and PtcO2% drop from baseline, as assessed 10 min following UNDW. Mean blood eosinophils were 3.4% total leukocytes +/- 0.3 SE in normal subjects and 7.9% total leukocytes +/- 0.4 SE in asthmatics (p < 0.001). Mean serum ECP was 4.6 micrograms/l +/- 0.6 SE in normal subjects and 22.4 micrograms/l +/- 1.3 SE in asthmatics (p < 0.001). Mean FEV1 drop was 2.1% +/- 1.1 SE in normal subjects and 24.2% +/- 1.1 SE in asthmatics; the corresponding mean PtcO2% drop was 3.6 +/- 0.7 SE in normal subjects and 28.6 +/- 1.4 SE in asthmatics. Serum ECP was found to be related to blood eosinophils (r = 0.7, p = 0.003); despite the eosinophils, serum ECP proved to be related to a drop in both FEV1 and PtcO2, atr = 0.6 (p = 0.024) and r = 0.7 (p = 0.006), respectively. In conclusion, serum ECP, but not eosinophils per se, can differentiate normal subjects from naive asthmatics hyperresponsive to UNDW. Serum ECP was also proven to be directly related to both the UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction and hypoxemia, thus confirming that proximal, but

  8. Nucleocapsid protein N of Lelystad virus: expression by recombinant baculovirus, immunological properties, and suitability for detection of serum antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Meulenberg, J J; Bende, R J; Pol, J M; Wensvoort, G; Moormann, R J

    1995-01-01

    The ORF7 gene, encoding the nucleocapsid protein N of Lelystad virus (LV), was inserted downstream of the P10 promoter into Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (baculovirus). The resulting recombinant baculovirus, designated bac-ORF7, expressed a 15-kDa protein in insect cells. This protein was similar in size to the N protein expressed by LV in CL2621 cells when it was analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The N protein expressed by bac-ORF7 was immunoprecipitated with anti-ORF7 was immunoprecipitated with anti-ORF7 peptide serum, porcine convalescent-phase anti-LV serum, and N protein-specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that this N protein had retained its native antigenic structure. The recombinant N protein was immunogenic in pigs, and the porcine antibodies raised against this protein recognized LV in an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. However, pigs vaccinated twice with approximately 20 micrograms of N protein were not protected against a challenge with 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses of LV. Experimental and field sera directed against various European and North American isolates reacted with the N protein expressed by bac-ORF7 in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Therefore, the recombinant N protein may be useful for developing diagnostic assays for the detection of serum antibodies directed against different isolates of LV. PMID:8574824

  9. Serum 5-LOX: a progressive protein marker for breast cancer and new approach for therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Shekhar, Shashank; Rai, Nitish; Kaur, Punit; Parshad, Rajinder; Dey, Sharmistha

    2016-09-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway has emerged to have a role in carcinogenesis. There is an evidence that both 12-LOX and 5-LOX have procarcinogenic role. We have previously reported the elevated level of serum 12-LOX in breast cancer patients. This study evaluated the serum level of 5-LOX in breast cancer patients and its in vitro inhibition assessment with peptide inhibitor YWCS. The level of 5-LOX was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The peptide inhibitor of 5-LOX was designed by molecular modeling and kinetic assay was performed by spectrophotometry. The siRNA mediated 5-LOX gene silencing was performed to investigate the effect on proliferation of MDA-MB-231, breast cancer cell line. The serum 5-LOX level in breast cancer (5.69±1.97ng/µl) was almost 2-fold elevated compared to control (3.53±1.0ng/µl) (P < 0.0001). The peptide YWCS had shown competitive inhibitory effects with IC50, 2.2 µM and dissociation constant (K D), 4.92×10(-8) M. The siRNA mediated knockdown of 5-LOX, resulted in the decreased gene expression for 5-LOX and increased cell death in MDA-MB-231 cell line and thereby play a key role in reducing tumor proliferation. Thus, it can be concluded that 5-LOX is one of the potential serum protein marker for breast cancer and a promising therapeutic target for the same. PMID:27432812

  10. Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in Patients with Facial Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianjing; O'Reilly, Niamh; Sheha, Hosam; Katz, Raananah; Raju, Vadrevu K.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum. Design A prospective study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data. Participants We consecutively enrolled 59 patients: 34 men and 25 women with a mean age of 60.4±17.6 years (range, 17–93). Methods Demodex counting was performed based on lash sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis. Facial rosacea, lid margin, and ocular surface inflammation were documented by photography and graded in a masked fashion. Main Outcome Measures Statistical significance based on correlative analyses of clinical and laboratory data. Results These 59 patients were age matched, but not gender matched, regarding serum immunoreactivity, ocular Demodex infestation, or facial rosacea. There was a significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and facial rosacea (P = 0.009), lid margin inflammation (P = 0.040), and ocular Demodex infestation (P = 0.048), but not inferior bulbar conjunctival inflammation (P = 0.573). The Demodex count was significantly higher in patients with positive facial rosacea (6.6±9.0 vs. 1.9±2.2; P = 0.014). There was a significant correlation of facial rosacea with lid margin inflammation (P = 0.016), but not with inferior bulbar conjunctival inflammation (P = 0.728). Ocular Demodex infestation was less prevalent in patients with aqueous tear-deficiency dry eye than those without (7/38 vs. 12/21; P = 0.002). Conclusions The strong correlation provides a better understanding of comorbidity between Demodex mites and their symbiotic B oleronius in facial rosacea and blepharitis. Treatments directed to both warrant future investigation. PMID:20079929

  11. Role of Serum Interleukin 6, Albumin and C-Reactive Protein in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emami Ardestani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a non-specific inflammation, which involves the airways, lung parenchyma and pulmonary vessels. The inflammation causes the activation of inflammatory cells and the release of various inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6 and tumor necoris factor alpha (TNF-a). The purpose of the present study was to measure serum IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) (as a positive phase reactant) and albumin level (as a negative phase reactant) in COPD patients (only due to cigarette smoking not bio-mass), non COPD smokers and healthy subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we compared the differences in inflammatory factors among groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 males were enrolled in this study and divided into three equal groups. The first group was 60 smokers who had COPD. The second group included 60 smokers without COPD and the third group consisted of people who were not smokers and did not have COPD; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from all participants and it was collected in a test tube containing anticoagulant and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. Serum was separated and used to measure the amount of IL-6, CRP and albumin. Spirometry was performed according to the criteria set by the American Thoracic Society. Results: The mean serum level of IL-6 was 83.2±7.5 pg/mL in group I, 54.9±24.3 pg/mL in group II and 46.9±10.4 pg/mL in group III. There was a significant difference among the three groups (P<0.001). The mean serum level of CRP was 28.9±14.9 mg/dL in the first group, 19.9±8.5 mg/dL in the second group and 4.2±2.3 mg/dL in the third group (P=0.02). But by controlling the confounding effects of age, this difference was not significant (P=0.49). The mean serum level of albumin was I 4.1±0.57 mg/dL in group I, 4.3±0.56 mg/dL in group II and 4.1±0.53 mg/dL in group III. There was no significant difference among the three groups in this regard (P=0

  12. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15–3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  13. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15-3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  14. Serum amyloid A protein enhances the activity of secretory non-pancreatic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Pruzanski, W; de Beer, F C; de Beer, M C; Stefanski, E; Vadas, P

    1995-01-01

    The acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are simultaneously expressed during inflammatory conditions. SAA associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) altering its physicochemical composition. We found that purified acute-phase SAA, but not the constitutive form, markedly enhances the lipolytic activity of sPLA2 in a dose-related manner with phosphatidylcholine/lysophosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine/lysophosphatidylethanolamine liposomal substrates. Normal HDL was found to reduce activity of sPLA2 in a dose-dependent manner, but when acute-phase HDL containing 27% SAA was tested, it enhanced sPLA2 activity. Immunopurified monospecific antibodies against SAA completely abolished the enhancing activity of SAA and acute-phase HDL. Given the central role of HDL in lipoprotein metabolism, the interaction between HDL, SAA and sPLA2 may account for changes detected in lipoprotein metabolism during the acute phase. PMID:7542869

  15. Continuous separation of serum proteins using a stirred cell charged with carboxylated and sulfonated microspheres.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Yoon, J Y; Kim, W S

    1998-01-01

    We contrived a new separation system using a stirred cell charged with uncoupled microsphere similar to the chromatographic separation. Microspheres, carboxylated PS/PMAA and sulfonated PS/PNaSS, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. To complement the submicron size weakness and the absence of ligands, we employed the latex form, the dispersion of microsphere, and took advantage of interaction relationships between proteins and microspheres. Adsorption isotherm is contemplated to investigate continuous separation behaviours of serum proteins. Selectivity of separation is in the following order: PS/PNaSS-2.0 (high sulfonated) < PS/PNaSS-0.3 (low sulfonated) < PS/PMAA-0.5 (low carboxylated). Unlike previous works on batch separation, not only the adsorbed amount in equilibrium (Cm), but also adsorption coefficient (K), played an important role in continuous separation. Functional groups (carboxyl and sulfonate), induced from the co-monomer, also affected the adsorption behaviours. PMID:9861492

  16. Identification of novel biomarkers in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) by microarray-based serum protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Bal, Gürkan; Futschik, Matthias E; Hartl, Daniela; Ringel, Frauke; Kamhieh-Milz, Julian; Sterzer, Viktor; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Alhamdani, Mohamed S S; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2016-02-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying the development of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are unclear and its diagnosis remains a process of exclusion. Currently, there are no known specific biomarkers for ITP to support differential diagnosis and treatment decisions. Profiling of serum proteins may be valuable for identifying such biomarkers. Sera from 46 patients with primary chronic ITP and 34 healthy blood donors were analysed using a microarray of 755 antibodies. We identified 161 differentially expressed proteins. In addition to oncoproteins and tumour-suppressor proteins, including apoptosis regulator BCL2, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1), Fanconi anaemia complementation group C (FANCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we detected six anti-nuclear autoantibodies in a subset of ITP patients: anti-PCNA, anti-SmD, anti-Ro/SSA60, anti-Ro/SSA52, anti-La/SSB and anti-RNPC antibodies. This finding may provide a rational explanation for the association of ITP with malignancies and other autoimmune diseases. While RUNX1mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients was significantly downregulated, an accumulation of RUNX1 protein was observed in the platelets of ITP patients. This may indicate dysregulation of RUNX1 expression in PBMC and megakaryocytes and may lead to an imbalanced immune response and impaired thrombopoiesis. In conclusion, we provide novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of ITP that warrant further exploration. PMID:26628061

  17. Serum amyloid A in marine bivalves: An acute phase and innate immunity protein.

    PubMed

    Rosani, U; Domeneghetti, S; Gerdol, M; Franzoi, M; Pallavicini, A; Venier, P

    2016-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is among the most potent acute phase proteins (APP) in vertebrates. After injury, its early expression can dramatically increase to promote the recruitment of immuno-competent cells, expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and the activation of the innate immune defences. Although APP have been studied in many vertebrates, only recently their search was extended to invertebrates and the finding of SAA-like molecules has opened new questions on the immune-regulatory functions of these soluble proteins in the animal kingdom. Taking advantage of the considerable amount of genomic and transcriptomic data currently available, we retrieved 51 SAA-like proteins in several protostome taxa comprising 21 marine bivalve species and basal metazoans. In addition to vertebrate-like SAAs, we identified a second protein type with peculiar features. In the bivalves Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus galloprovincialis, both digital expression analysis and qPCR data indicated an induction of the classical SAA after bacterial challenge. PMID:26828389

  18. Development of sensitive metalloporphyrin probes for chemiluminescent imaging detection of serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Huang, Lingyun; Baeyens, Willy R G; Ouyang, Jin; He, Dacheng; Wan, Genping; Zhang, Li

    2009-09-01

    The development of metalloporphyrin- (ferric protoporphyrin IX chloride (FePP), cobalt (III) protoporphyrin IX chloride, copper (II) protoporphyrin IX) enhanced chemiluminescent (CL) imaging detection of serum proteins after PAGE is described in this article. The detection is based on the catalytic activity of metalloporphyrins, especially FePP, in the CL reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system. Some relatively low abundant proteins such as hemopexin (Hpx) and complement C4 are sensitively detected by FePP-enhanced CL imaging. Other proteins such as haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, complement C3, and alpha-1-antitrypsin are also detected and identified by MS and MS/MS techniques. Detection limit of Hpx is as low as 20 ng, without the need of expensive antibodies or tedious immunoassay procedures. The mechanism of the proposed method is discussed employing standard proteins. The application to the analysis of different protein patterns in healthy people and in Thalassemia patients is being investigated. PMID:19711378

  19. The impact of dietary protein intake on serum biochemical and haematological profiles in vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Q; Veith, W J; Mouton, T

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Westernised and traditional African diets on biochemical and haematological profiles in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Twelve adult male vervet monkeys bred at the Medical Research Council, all over 4 years of age and weighing more than 5 kg each, were divided into two groups of six individuals. These monkeys were raised on a standard in-house diet post-weaning, before they were fed for 8 weeks on diets containing milk solids (17.2%) or maize + legume (17.4%), as sources of high crude protein (+/- 3.5 g/kg). High protein diets had no significant effect on serum biochemical indices such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations (P > 0.10). However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations were significantly higher during week 8 (P < 0.05) for the maize + legume protein group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; P < 0.07), total protein (P < 0.0001), albumin (P < 0.02), and bilirubin (P < 0.003) were elevated in the milk solids group, while glucose levels were also significantly higher for the milk solids group (P < 0.05) between weeks 2 and 6. Elevated protein intake had no significant effect on haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC), platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin levels and monocyte and neutrophil concentrations (P > 0.10). In contrast, serum lymphocyte levels were significantly raised in the maize + legume protein group (P = 0.03), whereas values for the haematocrit (P < 0.002), mean cell volume (MCV; P < 0.03) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC; P < 0.0001) were higher in the monkeys that were fed the milk solids. This investigation showed that the type of dietary protein that is consumed may well affect certain biochemical and haematological indices in vervet monkeys. Compared to the group that were given the traditional African food regime, the animals on the Western-type milk solids diet showed significant

  20. Pulmonary surfactant proteins and polymer combinations reduce surfactant inhibition by serum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Karen W; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H William

    2011-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition that can be associated with capillary leak of serum into alveoli causing inactivation of surfactant. Resistance to inactivation is affected by types and concentrations of surfactant proteins, lipids, and polymers. Our aim was to investigate the effects of different combinations of these three components. A simple lipid mixture (DPPC/POPG) or a more complex lipid mixture (DPPC/POPC/POPG/cholesterol) was used. Native surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C obtained from pig lung lavage were added either singly or combined at two concentrations. Also, non-ionic polymers polyethylene glycol and dextran and the anionic polymer hyaluronan were added either singly or in pairs with hyaluronan included. Non-ionic polymers work by different mechanisms than anionic polymers, thus the purpose of placing them together in the same surfactant mixture was to evaluate if the combination would show enhanced beneficial effects. The resulting surfactant mixtures were studied in the presence or absence of serum. A modified bubble surfactometer was used to evaluate surface activities. Mixtures that included both SP-B and SP-C plus hyaluronan and either dextran or polyethylene glycol were found to be the most resistant to inhibition by serum. These mixtures, as well as some with either SP-B or SP-C with combined polymers were as or more resistant to inactivation than native surfactant. These results suggest that improved formulations of lung surfactants are possible and may be useful in reducing some types of surfactant inactivation in treating lung injuries. PMID:21741354

  1. Short-term space flight on nitrogenous compounds, lipoproteins, and serum proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Lane, H. W.; Krauhs, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Biochemical variables in blood were measured in venous blood samples from 38 to 72 Space Shuttle astronauts before and immediately after flights of 2 to 11 days. Mean pre- and postflight values were compared using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The largest change in serum enzymes was a 21% increase (P = .0014) in gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, which may have been related to stress. The median value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I decreased from 152 to 127 mg/dL (P < .0001), but the change in apo B (77 to 73 mg/dL) was not statistically significant, and the mean apo A-I/apo B ratio remained well above 1.5. A decrease in dietary fat and cholesterol intake during shuttle missions may have been a cause of the change in apo A-I. Twelve of the 16 nonenzyme serum proteins measured were significantly elevated (P < .05), possibly because of hemoconcentration and increased protein catabolism. The 56% increase in haptoglobin may be related to release of suppressed erythropoiesis at landing.

  2. A multiplexed device based on tunable nanoshearing for specific detection of multiple protein biomarkers in serum.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; van Leeuwen, Lara Michelle; Rauf, Sakandar; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic flow based multiplexed devices have gained significant promise in detecting biomarkers in complex biological samples. However, to fully exploit their use in bioanalysis, issues such as (i) low sensitivity and (ii) high levels of nonspecific adsorption of non-target species have to be overcome. Herein, we describe a new multiplexed device for the sensitive detection of multiple protein biomarkers in serum by using an alternating current (ac) electrohydrodynamics (ac-EHD) induced surface shear forces based phenomenon referred to as nanoshearing. The tunable nature (via manipulation of ac field) of these nanoshearing forces can alter the capture performance of the device (e.g., improved fluid transport enhances number of sensor-target collisions). This can also selectively displace weakly (nonspecifically) bound molecules from the electrode surface (i.e., fluid shear forces can be tuned to shear away nonspecific species present in biological samples). Using this approach, we achieved sensitive (100 fg mL(-1)) naked eye detection of multiple protein targets spiked in human serum and a 1000-fold enhancement in comparison to hydrodynamic flow based devices for biomarker detection. We believe that this approach could potentially represent a clinical diagnostic tool that can be integrated into resource-limited settings for sensitive detection of target biomarkers using naked eye. PMID:25978807

  3. A Multiplexed Device Based on Tunable Nanoshearing for Specific Detection of Multiple Protein Biomarkers in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; van Leeuwen, Lara Michelle; Rauf, Sakandar; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic flow based multiplexed devices have gained significant promise in detecting biomarkers in complex biological samples. However, to fully exploit their use in bioanalysis, issues such as (i) low sensitivity and (ii) high levels of nonspecific adsorption of non-target species have to be overcome. Herein, we describe a new multiplexed device for the sensitive detection of multiple protein biomarkers in serum by using an alternating current (ac) electrohydrodynamics (ac-EHD) induced surface shear forces based phenomenon referred to as nanoshearing. The tunable nature (via manipulation of ac field) of these nanoshearing forces can alter the capture performance of the device (e.g., improved fluid transport enhances number of sensor-target collisions). This can also selectively displace weakly (nonspecifically) bound molecules from the electrode surface (i.e., fluid shear forces can be tuned to shear away nonspecific species present in biological samples). Using this approach, we achieved sensitive (100 fg mL−1) naked eye detection of multiple protein targets spiked in human serum and a 1000-fold enhancement in comparison to hydrodynamic flow based devices for biomarker detection. We believe that this approach could potentially represent a clinical diagnostic tool that can be integrated into resource-limited settings for sensitive detection of target biomarkers using naked eye. PMID:25978807

  4. Serum heat shock protein after simulated deep diving in Navy divers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Chieh; Chen, Yin-Shin; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Wan, Fan-Jong; Chang, Lu-Peng; Huang, Kun-Lun

    2009-10-31

    Deep sea diving might cause a tremendous physical or psychological stress to the divers. The present study aims to evaluate the stress response to a simulated wet dive in Navy divers. Nineteen Navy divers took part in this study when they were undergoing annual deep dive training. Ten divers were exposed to 190 feet of sea water (fsw) breathing compressed air on day 1 and to 250 fsw breathing helium-oxygen (Heliox) gas mixture on day 3. Another 9 divers were exposed to 220 fsw on day 1 and 285 fsw on day 3 breathing Heliox gas mixture. The bottom time ranged from 5 to 8 min, and then the standard U.S. Navy air and Heliox decompression tables were followed for surfacing. Predive levels of serum heat shock protein 72 (sHsp72) were 9.95 +/- 0.56 ng/ml, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (8.01 +/- 0.77 ng/ml). After simulating Heliox dive, the sHsp72 increased to 10.43 +/- 0.56 ng/ml, but this was not statistically significant. Our results demonstrated that the serum level of Hsp72 is higher in the Navy divers who underwent regular intensive exercise. However, it remains unknown whether this increase of stress protein is associated with the diving stress or exercise preconditioning in the Navy divers. PMID:20034233

  5. Identification of serum and urine proteins responsible for enhanced pigment production by group B streptococci as amylases.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Fraile, M; Sampedro, A; Ruiz-Bravo, A; Sanbonmatsu, S; Gimenez-Gallego, G

    1996-09-01

    The serum and urine proteins responsible for enhanced pigment production in Streptococcus agalactiae in culture media were purified by chromatography and were identified as amylases by comparison of their amino acid composition with that calculated for proteins with known sequences. Similar pigment-enhancing activity was displayed by other amylases of nonanimal origin and by maltooligosaccharides. PMID:8877142

  6. Detection of IP-10 protein marker in undiluted blood serum via an electrochemical E-DNA scaffold sensor

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Andrew J.; Paden, Nicole G.; Ricci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical analog of fluorescence polarization that supports the quantitative measurement of a specific protein, the chemokine IP-10, directly in undiluted blood serum. The sensor is label-free, wash-free, and electronic, suggesting it could support point-of-care detection of diagnostic proteins in largely unprocessed clinical samples. PMID:23905162

  7. Integration of binding peptide selection and multifunctional particles as tool-box for capture of soluble proteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Moglie, Raffaella Della; Falco, Nunzia; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Aliberti, Anna; Vecchione, Raffaele; Battista, Edmondo; Marasco, Daniela; Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Rega, Nadia; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we report on a general approach for the detection of a specific tumoural biomarker directly in serum. Such detection is made possible using a protein-binding peptide selected through an improved phage display technique and then conjugated to engineered microparticles (MPs). Protein biomarkers represent an unlimited source of information for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tests; MP-based assays are becoming largely used in manipulation of soluble biomarkers, but their direct use in serum is hampered by the complex biomolecular environment. Our technique overcomes the current limitations as it produces a selective MP--engineered with an antifouling layer--that 'captures' the relevant protein staying impervious to the background. Our system succeeds in fishing-out the human tumour necrosis factor alpha directly in serum with a high selectivity degree. Our method could have great impact in soluble protein manipulation and detection for a wide variety of diagnostic applications. PMID:25100324

  8. Integration of binding peptide selection and multifunctional particles as tool-box for capture of soluble proteins in serum

    PubMed Central

    Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Moglie, Raffaella Della; Falco, Nunzia; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Aliberti, Anna; Vecchione, Raffaele; Battista, Edmondo; Marasco, Daniela; Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Rega, Nadia; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a general approach for the detection of a specific tumoural biomarker directly in serum. Such detection is made possible using a protein-binding peptide selected through an improved phage display technique and then conjugated to engineered microparticles (MPs). Protein biomarkers represent an unlimited source of information for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tests; MP-based assays are becoming largely used in manipulation of soluble biomarkers, but their direct use in serum is hampered by the complex biomolecular environment. Our technique overcomes the current limitations as it produces a selective MP—engineered with an antifouling layer—that ‘captures’ the relevant protein staying impervious to the background. Our system succeeds in fishing-out the human tumour necrosis factor alpha directly in serum with a high selectivity degree. Our method could have great impact in soluble protein manipulation and detection for a wide variety of diagnostic applications. PMID:25100324

  9. Marsupial and monotreme serum immunoglobulin binding by proteins A, G and L and anti-kangaroo antibody.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Paola K; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-12-01

    Serological studies are often conducted to examine exposure to infectious agents in wildlife populations. However, specific immunological reagents for wildlife species are seldom available and can limit the study of infectious diseases in these animals. This study examined the ability of four commercially available immunoglobulin-binding reagents to bind serum immunoglobulins from 17 species within the Marsupialia and Monotremata. Serum samples were assessed for binding, using immunoblots and ELISAs (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), to three microbially-derived proteins - staphylococcal protein A, streptococcal protein G and peptostreptococcal protein L. Additionally, an anti-kangaroo antibody was included for comparison. The inter- and intra-familial binding patterns of the reagents to serum immunoglobulins varied and evolutionary distance between animal species was not an accurate predictor of the ability of reagents to bind immunoglobulins. Results from this study can be used to inform the selection of appropriate immunological reagents in future serological studies in these clades. PMID:26523413

  10. Development of an ELISA detecting Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 in serum of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Houda; Seillier, Marion; Sandi, Maria José; Peuget, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Dusetti, Nelson J; Iovanna, Juan L; Rocchi, Palma; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1) plays an important role during cell stress response in synergy with the potent "genome-keeper" p53. In human, the gene encoding TP53INP1 is expressed at very high level in some pathological situations, such as inflammation and prostate cancer (PC). TP53INP1 overexpression in PC seems to be a worse prognostic factor, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse, making TP53INP1 a relevant specific target for molecular therapy of Castration Resistant (CR) PC. In that context, detection of TP53INP1 in patient biological fluids is a promising diagnostic avenue. We report here successful development of a new Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detecting TP53INP1, taking advantage of molecular tools (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins) generated in the laboratory during the course of basic functional investigations devoted to TP53INP1. The ELISA principle is based on a sandwich immunoenzymatic system, TP53INP1 protein being trapped by a first specific mAb coated on microplate then recognized by a second specific mAb. This new assay allows specific detection of TP53INP1 in serum of several PC patients. This breakthrough paves the way towards investigation of a large cohort of patients and assessment of clinical applications of TP53INP1 dosage. PMID:24600558

  11. Differentially Expressed RNA from Public Microarray Data Identifies Serum Protein Biomarkers for Cross-Organ Transplant Rejection and Other Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Sigdel, Tara K.; Li, Li; Kambham, Neeraja; Dudley, Joel T.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Klassen, R. Bryan; Chen, Amery; Caohuu, Tuyen; Morgan, Alexander A.; Valantine, Hannah A.; Khush, Kiran K.; Sarwal, Minnie M.; Butte, Atul J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum proteins are routinely used to diagnose diseases, but are hard to find due to low sensitivity in screening the serum proteome. Public repositories of microarray data, such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), contain RNA expression profiles for more than 16,000 biological conditions, covering more than 30% of United States mortality. We hypothesized that genes coding for serum- and urine-detectable proteins, and showing differential expression of RNA in disease-damaged tissues would make ideal diagnostic protein biomarkers for those diseases. We showed that predicted protein biomarkers are significantly enriched for known diagnostic protein biomarkers in 22 diseases, with enrichment significantly higher in diseases for which at least three datasets are available. We then used this strategy to search for new biomarkers indicating acute rejection (AR) across different types of transplanted solid organs. We integrated three biopsy-based microarray studies of AR from pediatric renal, adult renal and adult cardiac transplantation and identified 45 genes upregulated in all three. From this set, we chose 10 proteins for serum ELISA assays in 39 renal transplant patients, and discovered three that were significantly higher in AR. Interestingly, all three proteins were also significantly higher during AR in the 63 cardiac transplant recipients studied. Our best marker, serum PECAM1, identified renal AR with 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity, and also showed increased expression in AR by immunohistochemistry in renal, hepatic and cardiac transplant biopsies. Our results demonstrate that integrating gene expression microarray measurements from disease samples and even publicly-available data sets can be a powerful, fast, and cost-effective strategy for the discovery of new diagnostic serum protein biomarkers. PMID:20885780

  12. Effects of hemolysis, lipemia, hyperbilirrubinemia, and anticoagulants in canine C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and ceruloplasmin assays

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to determine the effects that hemolysis, lipemia, bilirubinemia, and anticoagulants might have on the most commonly used assays for C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, and determination of ceruloplasmin values in dogs. Solutions of hemoglobin, lipid, and bilirubin were added to serum aliquots. Additionally, serum and plasma samples with different anticoagulants (heparin, EDTA, and citrate) were obtained from healthy dogs. Hemolysis, lipemia, and hyperbilirubinemia interfered significantly with the C-reactive protein and ceruloplasmin results, but not with those for the serum amyloid A assay. The use of anticoagulants produced significant changes in the results for the assays tested. However, the magnitude of the differences caused by the interfering substances does not appear to have an important impact on the clinical interpretation of the tests. PMID:16152718

  13. Serum and tissue thiocyanate concentrations in growing pigs fed cassava peel or corn based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1984-11-01

    Thiocyanate concentrations of serum, liver, kidney, spleen and longissimus dorsi were determined in 64 growing Large White x Landrace pigs offered 8 experimental isocaloric diets containing different levels of cassava peel and crude protein. Cassava peel increased serum thiocyanate on day 60 (P less than 0.01) and day 90 (P less than 0.01) of the trial, while the crude protein level increased it (P less than 0.05) on days 30 and 90, respectively. Interaction of the two factors was significant on day 30 (P less than 0.05) and day 90 (P less than 0.05). There was a correlation between cyanide intake and serum thiocyanate level. Coefficient of determination revealed that cyanide alone accounted for 28.5; 60.6 and 48.8% variation in serum thiocyanate on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Liver, spleen and longissimus dorsi thiocyanate were affected by dietary protein intake (P less than 0.05). Thiocyanate concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) on cassava peel diet. Generally, crude protein at 5% reduced organ and muscle thiocyanate concentrations. A diet containing 112.2-117.3 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) affected serum but not organ and muscle thiocyanate in protein-sufficient diets. PMID:6506092

  14. Interaction kinetics of serum proteins with liposomes and their effect on phospholipase-induced liposomal drug release.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Haishima, Yuji; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2015-11-30

    We used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to measure the affinity and kinetics of the interaction between serum proteins and both conventional and PEGylated liposomes. The effect of the interactions on secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-induced release of a model drug from liposomes was also assessed. SPR analysis of 12 serum proteins revealed that the mode of interaction between serum proteins and liposomes greatly varies depending on the type of protein. For example, albumin bound to liposomes at slower association/dissociation rates with higher affinity and prevented sPLA2-induced drug release from PEGylated liposomes. Conversely, fibronectin bound at faster association/dissociation rates with lower affinity and demonstrated little impact on the drug release. These results indicate that the effect of serum proteins on sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis varies with the mode of interaction between proteins and liposomes. Understanding how the proteins interact with liposomes and impact sPLA2 phospholipid hydrolysis should aid the rational design of therapeutic liposomal formulations. PMID:26410758

  15. Structural aspects of a protein-surfactant assembly: native and reduced States of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Anand, Uttam; Ray, Sutapa; Ghosh, Subhadip; Banerjee, Rajat; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-04-01

    The inherently present seventeen disulfide bonds of the circulatory protein, human serum albumin (HSA) provide the necessary structural stability. Various spectroscopic approaches were used to investigate the effect of reduction of these disulfide bonds and its binding with the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Based on several spectroscopic analyses, our investigations highlight the following interesting aspects: (1) HSA on reduction loses not only its tertiary structure but also a significant amount of secondary structure as well. However, the reduced state of the protein is not like the molten-globule, (2) this structural loss of the protein due to reduction is more prominent than that caused by higher SDS concentrations alone and can certainly be attributed to the role of disulfide bonds, (3) lower surfactant concentrations provide marginal structural rigidity to the native state of the protein, whereas, higher concentrations of SDS induces secondary structure to the reduced state of HSA, (4) the binding of SDS with both the native and reduced states of HSA, occurred in three distinct stages which was followed by a saturation stage. However, the nature of such binding is different for both the states as investigated by using the Stern-Volmer equations and estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Besides, in contrast to the native state, the reduced state of HSA shows that the lone tryptophan residue gets more buried. However, there occurs a sudden decrement in the lifetime of the tryptophan and the hydrodynamic diameter increases by twofold. PMID:25821118

  16. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG < 10 g/L, Brix % ≤ 8.5% showed optimal sensitivity (100%) and specificity (89.2%) to predict FPT. At the same IgG cut-point, an STP value of ≤ 52 g/L showed a similar sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80.4%) to predict FPT. Brix refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. PMID:26993533

  17. Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Human Serum Depends on T and B Cell Stimulating Protein B

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Maike G.; Moe, Nina E.; Richards, Phillip Q.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis to cause invasive disease depends on survival in the bloodstream via mechanisms to suppress complement activation. In this study, we show that prophage genes coding for T and B cell stimulating protein B (TspB), which is an immunoglobulin-binding protein, are essential for survival of N. meningitidis group B strain H44/76 in normal human serum (NHS). H44/76 carries three genes coding for TspB. Mutants having all tspB genes inactivated did not survive in >5% NHS or IgG-depleted NHS. TspB appeared to inhibit IgM-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, since survival of the tspB triple knockout was the same as that of the parent strain or a complemented mutant when the classical pathway was inactivated by depleting NHS of C1q and was increased in IgM-depleted NHS. A mutant solely carrying tspB gene nmbh4476_0681 was as resistant as the parent strain, while mutants carrying only nmbh4476_0598 or nmbh4476_1698 were killed in ≥5% NHS. The phenotype associated with TspB is formation of a matrix containing TspB, IgG, and DNA that envelopes aggregates of bacteria. Recombinant proteins corresponding to particular subdomains of TspB were found to have human IgG Fcγ- and/or DNA-binding activity, but only TspB derivatives containing both domains formed large, biofilm-like aggregates when combined with purified IgG and DNA. Recognizing the role of TspB in serum resistance may lead to a better understanding of why strains that carry tspB genes are associated with invasive meningococcal disease. PMID:25583528

  18. Redox Proteomic Profiling of Specifically Carbonylated Proteins in the Serum of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liming; Chen, Youjiao; Yang, Aochu; Chen, Cheng; Liao, Liping; Li, Shuiming; Ying, Ming; Tian, Jing; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a key event in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the role of oxidative stress in AD and to search for potential biomarkers in peripheral blood, serums were collected in this study from the 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old triple transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice) and the age- and sex-matched non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates. The serum oxidized proteins were quantified by slot-blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate the total levels of serum protein carbonyl groups. Western blotting, in conjunction with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-Oxyblot), was employed to identify and quantify the specifically-carbonylated proteins in the serum of 3×Tg-AD mice. The results showed that the levels of serum protein carbonyls were increased in the three month old 3×Tg-AD mice compared with the non-Tg control mice, whereas no significant differences were observed in the six and 12 months old AD mice, suggesting that oxidative stress is an early event in AD progression. With the application of 2D-Oxyblot analysis, (immunoglobin) Ig gamma-2B chain C region (IGH-3), Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2), Ig kappa chain C region (IGKC), and Ig kappa chain V-V region HP R16.7 were identified as significantly oxidized proteins compared with the control. Among them IGH-3 and IGKC were validated via immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Identification of oxidized proteins in the serums of 3×Tg-AD mice can not only reveal potential roles of those proteins in the pathogenesis of AD but also provide potential biomarkers of AD at the early stage. PMID:27077851

  19. The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mörtl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Köhler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n = 466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n = 76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n = 13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9 mg/l, 79.6 mg/l, and 98.6 mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6 mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0 mg/l vs. 55.4 mg/l, P = 0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:24768783

  20. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Lowered Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoru; Goto, Sae; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Okuno, Tatsuya; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Shibata, Akihide; Fujisawa, Yoshiro; Minato, Tomomi; Okamoto, Akira; Ohno, Kinji; Hirayama, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The intestine is one of the first affected organs in Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD subjects show abnormal staining for Escherichia coli and α-synuclein in the colon. Methods We recruited 52 PD patients and 36 healthy cohabitants. We measured serum markers and quantified the numbers of 19 fecal bacterial groups/genera/species by quantitative RT-PCR of 16S or 23S rRNA. Although the six most predominant bacterial groups/genera/species covered on average 71.3% of total intestinal bacteria, our analysis was not comprehensive compared to metagenome analysis or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results In PD, the number of Lactobacillus was higher, while the sum of analyzed bacteria, Clostridium coccoides group, and Bacteroides fragilis group were lower than controls. Additionally, the sum of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria was lower in PD. A linear regression model to predict disease durations demonstrated that C. coccoides group and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup had the largest negative and positive coefficients, respectively. As a linear regression model to predict stool frequencies showed that these bacteria were not associated with constipation, changes in these bacteria were unlikely to represent worsening of constipation in the course of progression of PD. In PD, the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels were lower than controls, while the levels of serum diamine oxidase, a marker for intestinal mucosal integrity, remained unchanged in PD. Conclusions The permeability to LPS is likely to be increased without compromising the integrity of intestinal mucosa in PD. The increased intestinal permeability in PD may make the patients susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis may lead to the increased intestinal permeability. One or both of the two mechanisms may be operational in development and progression of PD. PMID:26539989

  1. [Relation between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) level and asthma attack in children].

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, N; Masuhara, C; Sakamaki, K; Ishikawa, Y; Ohta, K; Koike, R; Mikuni, K; Haruna, H; Awa, S

    2000-11-01

    Serum eosinophil cationic protein (sECP) levels were measured in 339 patients with childhood asthma, and the clinical courses of these patients were followed for 57 weeks. While considering the history and characteristics of each patient, we examined the correlation between asthma attack frequency and sECP, blood eosinophil count, and serum total IgE (tIgE) to determine their usefulness in predicting asthma attacks. Among patients with no other allergic diseases, sECP levels in patients who had no asthma attacks two weeks before or after the measurement were significantly lower than those of patients who had attacks during the same four-week period. Among patients who had attacks, those patients with no attack for a year after the measurement were also found to have low sECP levels. Similarly, even among patients with asthma attacks and high sECP levels, there were cases where attacks were well controlled using nebulizer treatments with DSCG or BDP. The incident rate of attacks for patients with other allergic diseases and a low sECP was low. Yet, there was no common trend in patients with high sECP levels. Moreover, this study detected a significant correlation between sECP level and blood eosinophil count as well as between sECP level and serum tIgE. The most significant correlation with asthma attack frequency was sECP level. Thus, sECP level seems to reflect the allergy activity level, especially two weeks prior to and after the measurement. For patients without other allergic diseases, asthma attack prediction during the two weeks period after the measurement of sECP also seems possible. Therefore, periodic measurement of sECP level is useful in objectively monitoring the improvement of symptoms and establishing the treatment plan, including treatment with DSCG or BDP. PMID:11193461

  2. An electrochemical immunosensor to minimize the nonspecific adsorption and to improve sensitivity of protein assays in human serum.

    PubMed

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Kithva, Prakash H; Kozak, Darby; Trau, Matt

    2012-01-01

    An electrochemical immunoassay which minimizes nonspecific protein adsorption and improves detection sensitivity of proteomic cancer biomarker is described. Our technique comprises two novel features: (i) a high density terminally functionalized poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) 'brush' layer is grown by surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method from the electrode surface in order to minimize nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins and other biomolecules, and (ii) a signal amplifying 'bionanoconjugate' comprised of graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with CdSe quantum dots and recombinant single-chain variable fragments towards MSLN, is used to 'physically' amplify the anodic stripping voltammetric signal. This method enabled a detection limit of ca. 1 pg/mL MSLN (RSD=4.6%, n=4) spiked in serum samples. Because of the simple, specific and sensitive nature of this methodology, we feel that it may find potential use in serum-based protein diagnostics. PMID:22705407

  3. Rat serum proteins and nutritional quality of full-fat soy flour: application of response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Buassi, N

    1987-06-01

    A study was conducted to diagnose nutritional status by determining total serum proteins and electrophoretic patterns of protein reserves. Serum proteins are affected by privation of several amino acids. The purpose of the present research work was to evaluate protein quality of full-fat soy flour (FFSF) obtained from various hydrothermal processes by measuring changes in the serum proteins of Wistar rats. Response surface methodology was used as tool to determine the optimum conditions of hydrothermal process. The mean values of total serum proteins for the experimental group fed treated FFSF, were beta 0 = 5.12 +/- 0.13 g%; for the untreated FFSF group, C1 = 4.60 +/- 0.28 g%, and for the control group fed casein, C2 = 5.63 +/- 0.33 g%. All these values differ at 5% of significance (p less than or equal to 0.05). Results confirmed that treated full-fat soy flour is nutritionally superior to untreated FFSF, but not to casein. PMID:3455183

  4. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    PubMed Central

    BRAVO-TOBAR, Iván Darío; NELLO-PÉREZ, Carlota; FERNÁNDEZ, Alí; MOGOLLÓN, Nora; PÉREZ, Mary Carmen; VERDE, Juan; CONCEPCIÓN, Juan Luis; RODRIGUEZ-BONFANTE, Claudina; BONFANTE-CABARCAS, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  5. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Tobar, Iván Darío; Nello-Pérez, Carlota; Fernández, Alí; Mogollón, Nora; Pérez, Mary Carmen; Verde, Juan; Concepción, Juan Luis; Rodriguez-Bonfante, Claudina; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  6. Influence of racing on the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins and bone metabolism biomarkers in racing greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Buczinski, S

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of racing on the serum concentrations of the acute-phase proteins (APPs) C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in 32 endurance-racing greyhounds. The study also aimed to investigate the effect of a 7 km race on the bone biomarkers osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD). Total white blood cell (WBC) count, and the serum concentrations of cortisol, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vitamin D and testosterone were also determined. Blood samples were collected 24 h prior to (T0) and within 2 h of completion of the race (T1). Compared to baseline values, WBC count did not change significantly (P = 0.2300), serum cortisol, Hp and SAA increased, while TNF-α and CRP decreased (P <0.0001 for each). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-race serum concentrations of OC and PYD (P = 0.9500 and P = 0.2600, respectively), but serum b-ALP increased significantly (P = 0.0004). Serum concentrations of vitamin D and testosterone increased after racing (P = 0.0100 and P <0.0001, respectively). In this study, a 7 km race stimulated an acute-phase response, demonstrated by significant increases in the serum concentrations Hp and SAA in racing greyhounds. Increased serum b-ALP post-race probably indicates a change in bone metabolism and deserves further study. PMID:25294662

  7. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of three different sized (diameter 10, 18, and 28 nm) anionic silica nanoparticles with two model proteins-cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa)] and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kDa) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The adsorption behavior of proteins on the nanoparticles, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, is found to be very different for lysozyme and BSA. Lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and shows exponential behavior as a function of lysozyme concentration irrespective of the nanoparticle size. The total amount of adsorbed lysozyme, as governed by the surface-to-volume ratio, increases on lowering the size of the nanoparticles for a fixed volume fraction of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, BSA does not show any adsorption for all the different sizes of the nanoparticles. Despite having different interactions, both proteins induce similar phase behavior where the nanoparticle-protein system transforms from one phase (clear) to two phase (turbid) as a function of protein concentration. The phase behavior is modified towards the lower concentrations for both proteins with increasing the nanoparticle size. DLS suggests that the phase behavior arises as a result of the nanoparticles' aggregation on the addition of proteins. The size-dependent modifications in the interaction potential, responsible for the phase behavior, have been determined by SANS data as modeled using the two-Yukawa potential accounting for the repulsive and attractive interactions in the systems. The protein-induced interaction between the nanoparticles is found to be short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The magnitude of attractive interaction irrespective of protein type is enhanced with increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The total (attractive+repulsive) potential leading to two-phase formation is found to be

  8. Adenoviral expression of murine serum amyloid A proteins to study amyloid fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kindy, M S; King, A R; Yu, J; Gerardot, C; Whitley, J; de Beer, F C

    1998-06-15

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are one of the most inducible acute-phase reactants and are precursors of secondary amyloidosis. In the mouse, SAA1 and SAA2 are induced in approximately equal quantities in response to amyloid induction models. These two isotypes differ in only 9 of 103 amino acid residues; however, only SAA2 is selectively deposited into amyloid fibrils. SAA expression in the CE/J mouse species is an exception in that gene duplication did not occur and the CE/J variant is a hybrid molecule sharing features of SAA1 and SAA2. However, even though it is more closely related to SAA2 it is not deposited as amyloid fibrils. We have developed an adenoviral vector system to overexpress SAA proteins in cell culture to determine the ability of these proteins to form amyloid fibrils, and to study the structural features in relation to amyloid formation. Both the SAA2 and CE/J SAA proteins were synthesized in large quantities and purified to homogeneity. Electron microscopic analysis of the SAA proteins revealed that the SAA2 protein was capable of forming amyloid fibrils, whereas the CE/J SAA was incapable. Radiolabelled SAAs were associated with normal or acute-phase high-density lipoproteins (HDLs); we examined them for their clearance from the circulation. In normal mice, SAA2 had a half-life of 70 min and CE/J SAA had a half-life of 120 min; however, in amyloid mice 50% of the SAA2 cleared in 55 min, compared with 135 min for the CE/J protein. When the SAA proteins were associated with acute-phase HDLs, SAA2 clearance was decreased to 60 min in normal mice compared with 30 min in amyloidogenic mice. Both normal and acute-phase HDLs were capable of depositing SAA2 into preformed amyloid fibrils, whereas the CE/J protein did not become associated with amyloid fibrils. This established approach opens the doors for large-scale SAA production and for the examination of specific amino acids involved in the fibrillogenic capability of the SAA2 molecule in vitro

  9. Apolipoproteins and lipoproteins in children with type I diabetes: relation to glycosylated serum protein and HbA1.

    PubMed

    Strobl, W; Widhalm, K; Schober, E; Frisch, H; Pollak, A; Westphal, G

    1985-11-01

    Serum levels of cholesterol (C), triglycerides (TG), lipoprotein-C and apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-II and B were measured in 30 children with type I diabetes mellitus (16 boys, 14 girls, aged 11-14 years) and in 26 healthy controls (15 boys, 11 girls, aged 10-13 years). For 19 diabetics controls matched for age, sex and relative body weight were selected. The diabetic patients were considered to be in fair metabolic control according to HbA1 levels and glycosylated serum protein concentrations. Mean serum apo A-I, A-II and B, C, TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) did not differ significantly between diabetic nondiabetic children. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) was significantly higher in diabetic children than in controls. Serum C and LDL-C levels showed close univariate linear correlations with glycosylated serum protein (LDL-C: r = 0.53, p less than 0.01, C: r = 0.58, p less than 0.01) in diabetics. The ratio LDL/HDL-C was significantly correlated to HbA1 levels (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). By canonical and multiple linear correlation analysis significant relations of a selected set of variables concerning the control and therapy of diabetes (serum glucose, HbA1, glycosylated serum protein, insulin dose) with a set of lipoprotein variables (C, TG, VLDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C, apo A-I, A-II, B) could be demonstrated. From these data we conclude that significant relations between atherogenic serum lipids and lipoproteins (C, LDL-C) and the degree of metabolic control exist in diabetic children, even in the absence of marked dyslipoproteinemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4090971

  10. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein “corona” has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. PMID:22271932

  11. Two-color, rolling-circle amplification on antibody microarrays for sensitive, multiplexed serum-protein measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heping; Bouwman, Kerri; Schotanus, Mark; Verweij, Cornelius; Marrero, Jorge A; Dillon, Deborah; Costa, Jose; Lizardi, Paul; Haab, Brian B

    2004-01-01

    The ability to conveniently and rapidly profile a diverse set of proteins has valuable applications. In a step toward further enabling such a capability, we developed the use of rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to measure the relative levels of proteins from two serum samples, labeled with biotin and digoxigenin, respectively, that have been captured on antibody microarrays. Two-color RCA produced fluorescence up to 30-fold higher than direct-labeling and indirect-detection methods using antibody microarrays prepared on both polyacrylamide-based hydrogels and nitrocellulose. Replicate RCA measurements of multiple proteins from sets of 24 serum samples were highly reproducible and accurate. In addition, RCA enabled reproducible measurements of distinct expression profiles from lower-abundance proteins that were not measurable using the other detection methods. Two-color RCA on antibody microarrays should allow the convenient acquisition of expression profiles from a great diversity of proteins for a variety of applications. PMID:15059261

  12. Serum and testicular testosterone and androgen binding protein profiles following subchronic treatment with carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Rehnberg, G L; Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Gray, L E; Hein, J F; McElroy, W K

    1989-10-01

    While the general toxicity of the benzimidazole pesticides for mammals is low, one of these compounds, carbendazim (MBC), causes degeneration of testicular tissue and decreases spermatogenic activity at doses well below the LD50 value. A study conducted by S. D. Carter, R. A. Hess, and J. W. Laskey (1987, Biol. Reprod. 37, 709-717) showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg/day MBC resulted in severe seminiferous tubular atrophy and infertility. Since spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent process, we characterized the effects of MBC (0-400 mg/kg/day) on the endocrine function of the rat testes. Following subchronic (85 day) exposure, serum hormones (TSH, LH, FSH, and Prl) were measured as were androgen binding protein (ABP) and testosterone in testicular fluids (interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid). In addition, the functional capacity of the Leydig cell to secrete testosterone was assessed in vitro following an hCG challenge. Subchronic treatment with MBC at doses of 50-100 mg/kg/day had no effect on pituitary or testicular hormone concentrations: 200 mg/kg/day elevated the testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubule fluid and the ABP concentration in both the interstitial fluid and the seminiferous tubule fluid without affecting serum testosterone or ABP concentrations. The 400 mg/kg/day dose resulted in increased concentration of both testosterone and ABP in the interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid and elevated serum ABP, with no change in serum testosterone. This endocrine profile is consistent with the testicular atrophy and "Sertoli cell-only" syndrome seen in these animals as reported by Gray et al. (1987, Toxicologist 7, 717). We conclude that seminiferous tubule fluid testosterone may be a result of two factors: (1) increased interstitial fluid testosterone concentrations and (2) decreased testosterone outflow from the testis to the general circulation. Also, increased ABP in the interstitial fluid may reflect a change in

  13. Is serum or sputum eosinophil cationic protein level adequate for diagnosis of mild asthma?

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Mirsadraee, Majid; Sankian, Mojtaba; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma. In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1.Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO) percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted) in 22 (44%) subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5+/- 3.1% vs. 1.2+/-0.2%, P=0.009), and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1+/- 2.6 % and 22.6+/- 15.8 ng/ml, respectively). Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3+/-29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0+/-24.7ng/mL, P=0.045). Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF(25-75) and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041). Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable. PMID:20124607

  14. Detection of kappa and lambda light chain monoclonal proteins in human serum: automated immunoassay versus immunofixation electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jaskowski, Troy D; Litwin, Christine M; Hill, Harry R

    2006-02-01

    Recently, turbidimetric immunoassays for detecting and quantifying kappa and lambda free light chains (FLC) have become available and are promoted as being more sensitive than immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in detecting FLC monoclonal proteins. In this study, we assessed the ability of these turbidimetric assays to detect serum monoclonal proteins involving both free and heavy-chain-bound kappa and lambda light chains compared to standard immunofixation electrophoresis. Sera demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration (other than a definite M spike) by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), which may represent early monoclonal proteins, were also examined. When compared to IFE, percent agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for the kappa-FLC and lambda-FLC were 94.6, 72.9, and 99.5% and 98.5, 91.4, and 99.7%, respectively, in detecting monoclonal proteins involving free and heavy-chain-bound light chains. The majority of sera (73.7%) demonstrating a restricted band of protein migration on SPE demonstrated abnormal IFE patterns suggestive of multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, but gave normal kappa/lambda FLC ratios using the turbidimetric immunoassays. In conclusion, the kappa and lambda FLC assays are significantly less sensitive (72.9 to 91.4%) than IFE, but specific in detecting serum monoclonal proteins. Moreover, the kappa/lambda ratio has little value in routine screening since the majority of sera with abnormal IFE patterns had normal kappa/lambda FLC ratios. PMID:16467338

  15. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of three different sized (diameter 10, 18, and 28 nm) anionic silica nanoparticles with two model proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa)] and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kDa) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The adsorption behavior of proteins on the nanoparticles, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, is found to be very different for lysozyme and BSA. Lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and shows exponential behavior as a function of lysozyme concentration irrespective of the nanoparticle size. The total amount of adsorbed lysozyme, as governed by the surface-to-volume ratio, increases on lowering the size of the nanoparticles for a fixed volume fraction of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, BSA does not show any adsorption for all the different sizes of the nanoparticles. Despite having different interactions, both proteins induce similar phase behavior where the nanoparticle-protein system transforms from one phase (clear) to two phase (turbid) as a function of protein concentration. The phase behavior is modified towards the lower concentrations for both proteins with increasing the nanoparticle size. DLS suggests that the phase behavior arises as a result of the nanoparticles' aggregation on the addition of proteins. The size-dependent modifications in the interaction potential, responsible for the phase behavior, have been determined by SANS data as modeled using the two-Yukawa potential accounting for the repulsive and attractive interactions in the systems. The protein-induced interaction between the nanoparticles is found to be short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The magnitude of attractive interaction irrespective of protein type is enhanced with increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The total (attractive+repulsive) potential leading to two-phase formation is found to be

  16. Seasonal influence on biochemical profile and serum protein electrophoresis for Boa constrictor amarali in captivity.

    PubMed

    Silva, L F N; Riani-Costa, C C M; Ramos, P R R; Takahira, R K

    2011-05-01

    Similarly to other reptiles, snakes are ectothermic animals and depend exclusively on the environment for the maintenance of their physiological, biochemical and immunological processes. Thus, changes in biochemical values can be expected due to seasonal influence. Twenty-two adult specimens of Boa constrictor amarali kept in captivity were used. Blood collections were done in two different seasons: winter (July 2004) and summer (January 2005) for the following assays: uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, cholesterol, total protein, and serum protein electrophoresis. The mean biochemical results found in summer and winter, respectively, were: 6.3 ± 3.4 and 11.3 ± 6.2 mg/dL for uric acid; 28.7 ± 12.4 and 20.7 ± 16.2 UI/L for AST; 26.3 ± 17 and 17.4 ± 6.8 mg/dL for glucose; 67.3 ± 30.2 and 69.7 ± 38.5 mg/dL for cholesterol; and 5.9 ± 1.6 and 5.9 ± 1.4 g/dL for total protein. Results regarding electrophoresis in summer and winter, respectively, were: 1.9 ± 0.7 and 2.4 ± 0.6 g/dL for albumin; 0.7 ± 0.2 and 0.5 ± 0.2 g/dL for α-globulin; 1.5 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.6 g/dL for β-globulin; and 1.8 ± 0.5 and 1.5 ± 0.5 g/dL for γ-globulin. In the summer, there was a significant increase in AST and a decrease in uric acid (p < 0.05). Serum protein electrophoresis showed a significant increase in α-globulin fraction (p < 0.05) in the same season. There were not significant differences between seasons for the remaining variables. Based on these results, the period of the year must be considered in the interpretation of some biochemical values for these animals. PMID:21755171

  17. Delineation of Concentration Ranges and Longitudinal Changes of Human Plasma Protein Variants

    PubMed Central

    Trenchevska, Olgica; Phillips, David A.; Nelson, Randall W.; Nedelkov, Dobrin

    2014-01-01

    Human protein diversity arises as a result of alternative splicing, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and posttranslational modifications. Because of these processes, each protein can exists as multiple variants in vivo. Tailored strategies are needed to study these protein variants and understand their role in health and disease. In this work we utilized quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassays to determine the protein variants concentration of beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol binding protein, and transthyretin, in a population of 500 healthy individuals. Additionally, we determined the longitudinal concentration changes for the protein variants from four individuals over a 6 month period. Along with the native forms of the four proteins, 13 posttranslationally modified variants and 7 SNP-derived variants were detected and their concentration determined. Correlations of the variants concentration with geographical origin, gender, and age of the individuals were also examined. This work represents an important step toward building a catalog of protein variants concentrations and examining their longitudinal changes. PMID:24955979

  18. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. Benefits and Limitations of Protein Hydrolysates as Components of Serum-Free Media for Animal Cell Culture Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo-Alfonso, Juliet; Price, Paul; Jayme, David

    Increased understanding of influential factors for the cultivation of animal cells, combined with heightened regulatory concern over potential transmission of adventitious contaminants associated with serum and other animal-derived components, has elevated interest in using protein hydrolysates as serum replacements or nutrient supplements. This paper reviews the chemistry and biology of various hydrolysates derived from animal, plant and microbial sources. It provides specific examples of a beneficial selection of plant and yeast hydrolysates as ingredients of serum-free nutrient formulations for bioproduction applications of cultured mammalian and insect cells. Strategies for customizing and optimizing nutrients for specialized applications and general benefits and limitations of protein hydrolysates for biopharmaceutical production are also discussed.

  20. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time. PMID:1801007

  1. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    PubMed

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role. PMID:27096793

  2. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hodačová, Petra; Kučková, Štěpánka; Švorčík, Václav

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  3. Identification of a protein-binding site that mediates transcriptional response of the c-fos gene to serum factors.

    PubMed

    Treisman, R

    1986-08-15

    Transient transcriptional activation of the c-fos gene following serum stimulation of susceptible cells requires a conserved DNA element located 300 bp 5' to the mRNA cap site. A DNA-binding gel electrophoresis assay was used to detect a protein(s) in HeLa cell nuclear extracts that specifically binds to the 5' activating element. The protein recognizes a region of dyad symmetry within the 5' activating element, defined by binding competition, dimethylsulphate (DMS) interference and DNAase I and DMS protection studies. A single 22 bp synthetic copy of the dyad symmetry element will both compete efficiently for protein binding and restore serum regulation to c-fosH genes that lack the 5' activating element. PMID:3524858

  4. Purification and characterization of a novel 88 kDa protein from serum and vitreous of patients with Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, K N; Rajesh, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2001-10-01

    Eales' disease is a perivasculitis that affects the peripheral retina of young adults and results in recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. Although increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense have been reported to be associated with Eales' disease, the exact cause for the disease and its pathogenesis are not known. Here is reported the identification, purification and characterization of a new protein from the serum and vitreous of patients with Eales' disease. This protein was purified using preparative electrophoresis and HPLC. The purified protein had a retention time of 9.2 min in RP HPLC. Its molecular weight as determined by gel permeation chromatography was 88 kDa hence, it was termed as 88 kDa protein. Alcian blue and Schiffs staining revealed 88 kDa protein to be a glycoprotein. Proteins purified from both serum and vitreous exhibited anti lipid peroxidation effect on erythrocyte when added during in vitro assay of thiobarbuteric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In addition to this property the protein also has Fe(2+)sequestering effect. The anti TBARS activity of 88 kDa protein was completely inhibited by 0.1 m M concentration of parachlromercuric benzoate (PCMB) and 5,5' dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB. The total thiol content (cysteine) of the purified 88 kDa protein was found to be 8% by mass. Eighty eight kDa protein from both the sources namely vitreous and serum are immunologically identical when studied using polyclonal antibodies raised in goat against purified serum protein. The N terminal sequence of 88 kDa protein by automated Edman's degradation chemistry is A D D P N S L S P S A F A E A L A L L R D S X L A R F V. The protein and DNA data base search revealed no match to 88 kDa protein and hence this was considered as unique protein. Further knowledge on the in vivo function of 88 kDa protein is very important to understand its role in the pathogenesis of Eales' disease. PMID:11825025

  5. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2013-12-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. JG Teeguarden1 and HA Barton2. 1ENVIRON International, Ruston LA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Pharmacokinetics Branch, RTP, NC.

    One measure of th...

  7. Serum S100B Protein is Specifically Related to White Matter Changes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Milleit, Berko; Smesny, Stefan; Rothermundt, Matthias; Preul, Christoph; Schroeter, Matthias L.; von Eiff, Christof; Ponath, Gerald; Milleit, Christine; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia can be conceptualized as a form of dysconnectivity between brain regions.To investigate the neurobiological foundation of dysconnectivity, one approach is to analyze white matter structures, such as the pathology of fiber tracks. S100B is considered a marker protein for glial cells, in particular oligodendrocytes and astroglia, that passes the blood brain barrier and is detectable in peripheral blood. Earlier Studies have consistently reported increased S100B levels in schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to investigate associations between S100B and structural white matter abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed data of 17 unmedicated schizophrenic patients (first and recurrent episode) and 22 controls. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect group differences of white matter structures as obtained from T1-weighted MR-images and considered S100B serum levels as a regressor in an age-corrected interaction analysis. Results: S100B was increased in both patient subgroups. Using VBM, we found clusters indicating significant differences of the association between S100B concentration and white matter. Involved anatomical structures are the posterior cingulate bundle and temporal white matter structures assigned to the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusions: S100B-associated alterations of white matter are shown to be existent already at time of first manifestation of psychosis and are distinct from findings in recurrent episode patients. This suggests involvement of S100B in an ongoing and dynamic process associated with structural brain changes in schizophrenia. However, it remains elusive whether increased S100B serum concentrations in psychotic patients represent a protective response to a continuous pathogenic process or if elevated S100B levels are actively involved in promoting structural brain damage. PMID:27013967

  8. Effect of serum proteins on haem uptake and metabolism in primary cultures of liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, P R; Bement, W J; Gorman, N; Liem, H H; Wolkoff, A W; Muller-Eberhard, U

    1988-01-01

    A role of haemopexin in transporting haem to hepatocytes for degradation has been inferred from the high affinity of haemopexin for haem. We have examined this question in primary cultures of chick-embryo and adult rat liver cells. We present here the results of four sets of experiments which indicate that haemopexin retarded haem uptake by hepatocytes in culture. (1) Haem bound to bovine serum albumin is known to repress the activity of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase in chick cultures as indicated by decreased porphyrin accumulation. When haem-albumin was added in the presence of excess purified or freshly secreted chicken haemopexin, no haem-mediated repression of porphyrin production was observed. The haem-mediated repression of porphyrin accumulation was partially prevented when human, but not chicken, albumin was added to cultures. This finding reflected the higher affinity of human albumin for haem compared with that of chicken albumin. (2) Haemopexin inhibited the ability of haem to be incorporated into cytochrome P-450 induced in the chick cultures in the presence of the iron chelator desferrioxamine. (3) The rate of association of [55Fe]haem with cultured rat hepatocytes when [55Fe]haem-haemopexin was added was one-eighth of the rate observed when [55Fe]haem-bovine serum albumin was used as the haem donor. (4) The presence of haemopexin also diminished the catabolism of haem by both rat and chick-embryo liver cell cultures. It is concluded that the uptake and subsequent metabolic effects of haem are inhibited in cultured hepatocytes by proteins such as haemopexin which have a high affinity for haem. PMID:3223898

  9. Detection of oxidized methionine in selected proteins, cellular extracts, and blood serums by novel anti-methionine sulfoxide antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Derek B.; Canello, Tamar; Gabizon, Ruth; Gasset, Maria; Lundquist, Brandi L.; Burns, Jeff M; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) is a common posttranslational modification to proteins occurring in vivo. These modifications are prevalent when reactive oxygen species levels are increased. To enable the detection of MetO in pure and extracted proteins from various sources, we have developed novel antibodies that can recognize MetO-proteins. These antibodies are polyclonal antibodies raised against an oxidized methionine-rich zein protein (MetO-DZS18) that are shown to recognize methionine oxidation in pure proteins and mouse and yeast extracts. Furthermore, mouse serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG) were shown to accumulate MetO as function of age especially in serums of methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice. Interestingly, high levels of methionine-oxidized IgG in serums of subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease were detected by western blot analysis using these antibodies. It is suggested that anti-MetO-DZS18 antibodies can be applied in the identification of proteins that undergo methionine oxidation under oxidative stress, aging, or disease state conditions. PMID:19388147

  10. Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Predicts Tissue Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Break-Down Products and Therapeutic Efficacy after Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Angela M; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Johnson, David; Tortella, Frank C; Dave, Jitendra R; Shear, Deborah A; Schmid, Kara E

    2016-01-01

    Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neurological dysfunction, changes in brain proteins, and increased serum biomarkers. However, the relationship between these brain proteins and serum biomarkers, and the ability of these serum biomarkers to indicate a neuroprotective/therapeutic response, remains elusive. Penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) was used to systematically analyze several key TBI biomarkers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its break-down products (BDPs)-ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), α-II spectrin, and α-II spectrin BDPs (SBDPs)-in brain tissues and serum during an extended acute-subacute time-frame. In addition, neurological improvement and serum GFAP theranostic value was evaluated after neuroprotective treatment. In brain tissues, total GFAP increased more than three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI. However, this change was primarily due to GFAP-BDPs which increased to 2.7-4.8 arbitrary units (AU). Alpha-II spectrin was nearly ablated 3 d after PBBI, but somewhat recovered after 7 d. In conjunction with α-II spectrin loss, SBDP-145/150 increased approximately three-fold 2 to 7 d after PBBI (vs. sham, p<0.05). UCH-L1 protein levels were slightly decreased 7 d after PBBI but otherwise were unaffected. Serum GFAP was elevated by 3.2- to 8.8-fold at 2 to 4 h (vs. sham; p<0.05) and the 4 h increase was strongly correlated to 3 d GFAP-BDP abundance (r=0.66; p<0.05). Serum GFAP showed such a strong injury effect that it also was evaluated after therapeutic intervention with cyclosporin A (CsA). Administration of 2.5 mg/kg CsA significantly reduced serum GFAP elevation by 22.4-fold 2 h after PBBI (vs. PBBI+vehicle; p<0.05) and improved neurological function 1 d post-injury. Serum biomarkers, particularly GFAP, may be correlative tools of brain protein changes and feasible theranostic markers of TBI progression and recovery. PMID:25789543

  11. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... passive immunization. It gives you immediate, but temporary, protection while your body develops an active immune response against the toxin or germ. During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein in antiserum as a ...

  12. Correlation between Serum Level of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Postoperative Recurrence of Spinal Tuberculosis in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    He, Dan; Zhang, Xiaolu; Gao, Qile; Huang, Rongfu; Deng, Zhansheng; Guo, Chaofeng; Guo, Qiang; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To correlate serum level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population. Methods Patients of Han nationality with newly diagnosed spinal tuberculosis were consecutively included in this study. At different time points postoperatively, serum level of MCP-1 was determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recurrence of spinal tuberculosis after surgery and during the follow-up period was recorded. The correlation between serum MCP-1 level and recurrence of spinal tuberculosis was analyzed. Results A total of 169 patients with spinal tuberculosis were included in the study and followed up for an average of2.2±1.3 years (range, 1–5 years). Of these patients, 11 had postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis. The patients’ serum level of MCP-1 increased significantly after postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis. Once the symptoms of recurrence were cured, the serum level of MCP-1 decreased significantly and it did not differ from patients without disease recurrence. Conclusion Postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis is likely to increase the serum level of MCP-1. PMID:25962150

  13. Childhood atopic dermatitis-Brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlates with serum eosinophil cationic protein and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Papakonstantinou, E; Rüdrich, U; Buchner, M; Pite, H; Gehring, M; Kapp, A; Weidinger, S; Raap, U

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a role in chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). BDNF is increased in the serum samples of adults with AD. Interestingly, eosinophils of these patients can release and produce BDNF. We analyzed BDNF serum levels with ELISA and their correlation with SCORAD score, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-31 in children with AD (n = 56) compared to nonatopic healthy children (n = 25). In addition, we analyzed FLG loss-of-function mutations in 17 children with AD and their connection to BDNF. BDNF serum levels were significantly higher in children with AD. Further, BDNF correlated with disease activity, serum ECP, and total IgE serum levels in AD. There was no difference in BDNF levels of filaggrin-positive or filaggrin-negative children with AD, and there was no correlation of BDNF with IL-31 and Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13. Together, our data add new insights into the pathophysiology of AD, suggesting that serum BDNF which correlates with disease severity contributes to the regulation of inflammation in an eosinophil-, but not Th2-dependent manner. PMID:27087278

  14. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-12-15

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-Δ52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  15. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L.; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J.; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K.; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-Δ52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  16. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  17. Serum protein electrophoresis: an interesting diagnosis tool to distinguish viral from bacterial community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Davido, B; Badr, C; Lagrange, A; Makhloufi, S; De Truchis, P; Perronne, C; Salomon, J; Dinh, A

    2016-06-01

    29-69 % of pneumonias are microbiologically documented because it can be considered as an invasive procedure with variable test sensitivity. However, it drastically impacts therapeutic strategy in particular the use of antibiotics. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is a routine and non-invasive test commonly used to identify serum protein disorders. As virus and bacteria may induce different globulins production, we hypothesize that SPEP can be used as an etiological diagnosis test. Retrospective study conducted from 1/1/13 until 5/1/15 among patient hospitalized for an acute community-acquired pneumonia based on fever, crackles and radiological abnormalities. α/β, α/γ, β/γ globulins and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were calculated from SPEP. Data were analyzed in 3 groups: documented viral (DVP) or bacterial pneumonia (DBP) and supposedly bacterial pneumonia (SBP). We used ANOVA statistic test with multiple comparisons using CI95 and ROC curve to compare them. 109 patients included divided into DBP (n = 16), DVP (n = 26) and SBP (n = 67). Mean age was 62 ± 18 year-old with a sex ratio M/F of 1.3. Underlying conditions (e.g. COPD, diabetes) were comparable between groups in multivariate analysis. Means of A/G ratio were 0.80 [0.76-0.84], 0.96 [0.91-1.01], 1.08 [0.99-1.16] respectively for DBP, SBP and DVP (p = 0.0002). A/G ratio cut-off value of 0.845 has a sensitivity of 87.5 % and a specificity of 73.1 %. A/G ratio seems to be an easy diagnostic tool to differentiate bacterial from viral pneumonia. A/G ratio cut-off value below 0.845 seems to be predictable of a bacterial origin and support the use of antibiotics. PMID:26936614

  18. Characterization of the comparative drug binding to intra- (liver fatty acid binding protein) and extra- (human serum albumin) cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew; Hallifax, David; Nussio, Matthew R; Shapter, Joseph G; Mackenzie, Peter I; Brian Houston, J; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-01-01

    1. This study compared the extent, affinity, and kinetics of drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) using ultrafiltration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 2. Binding of basic and neutral drugs to both HSA and LFABP was typically negligible. Binding of acidic drugs ranged from minor (fu > 0.8) to extensive (fu < 0.1). Of the compounds screened, the highest binding to both HSA and LFABP was observed for the acidic drugs torsemide and sulfinpyrazone, and for β-estradiol (a polar, neutral compound). 3. The extent of binding of acidic drugs to HSA was up to 40% greater than binding to LFABP. SPR experiments demonstrated comparable kinetics and affinity for the binding of representative acidic drugs (naproxen, sulfinpyrazone, and torsemide) to HSA and LFABP. 4. Simulations based on in vitro kinetic constants derived from SPR experiments and a rapid equilibrium model were undertaken to examine the impact of binding characteristics on compartmental drug distribution. Simulations provided mechanistic confirmation that equilibration of intracellular unbound drug with the extracellular unbound drug is attained rapidly in the absence of active transport mechanisms for drugs bound moderately or extensively to HSA and LFABP. PMID:25801059

  19. Serum protein 90K/Mac-2BP is an independent predictor of disease severity during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Hofmann, J; Hartmann, G; Sebesta, C; Beer, F; Bauer, K; Huber, K R

    2000-03-01

    The serum protein designated 90K/Mac-2BP has been found at elevated concentrations in the sera of patients with various types of cancer and viral infections. The importance of the 90K/Mac-2BP serum concentrations in predicting the response towards interferon-alpha treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prompted us to utilize a new ELISA for soluble human 90K/Mac-2BP to monitor the serum concentrations of this protein in our HCV-positive patients. Seventy HCV-PCR and anti-HCV antibody positive patients were analyzed for their serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, cholinesterase, HCV-viral load, viral subtypes, and 90K/Mac-2BP. On correlation of age and 90K/Mac-2BP levels, we found an apparent correlation that was proved rather to be a strong dependence of 90K/Mac-2BP concentrations on disease severity/duration, which increases with age. Multiple correlation analysis demonstrated the independent nature of 90K/Mac-2BP concentrations, underscoring the potential high utility of this new marker. Our data corroborate the potential of the scavenger receptor family protein 90K/Mac-2BP as an independent predictor of disease severity during HCV infection. PMID:10905755

  20. Factors Ruling the Uptake of Silica Nanoparticles by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Agglomeration Versus Dispersions, Absence Versus Presence of Serum Proteins.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Federico; Accomasso, Lisa; Alberto, Gabriele; Gallina, Clara; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Giachino, Claudia; Martra, Gianmario

    2015-06-24

    The results of a systematic investigation of the role of serum proteins on the interaction of silica nanoparticles (NP) doped in their bulk with fluorescent molecules (IRIS Dots, 50 nm in size), with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are reported. The suspension of IRIS Dots in bare Dulbecco-modified Eagle's medium results in the formation of large agglomerates (≈1.5 μm, by dynamic light scattering), which become progressively smaller, down to ≈300 nm in size, by progressively increasing the fetal bovine serum (FBS) content of the solutions along the series 1.0%, 2.5%, 6.0%, and 10.0% v/v. Such difference in NP dispersion is maintained in the external cellular microenvironment, as observed by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. As a consequence of the limited diffusion of proteins in the inter-NP spaces, the surface of NP agglomerates is coated by a protein corona independently of the agglomerate size/FBS concentration conditions (ζ-potential and UV circular dichroism measurements). The protein corona appears not to be particularly relevant for the uptake of IRIS Dots by hMSCs, whereas the main role in determining the internalization rate is played by the absence/presence of serum proteins in the extracellular media. PMID:25689227

  1. Comprehensive maternal serum proteomics identifies the cytoskeletal proteins as non-invasive biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhu; Gu, Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shan, Liping; Wu, Lina; Wei, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yili; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Cao, Songying; Huang, Tianchu; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common group of major birth defects. Presently there are no clinically used biomarkers for prenatally detecting CHDs. Here, we performed a comprehensive maternal serum proteomics assessment, combined with immunoassays, for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for prenatal diagnosis of CHDs. A total of 370 women were included in this study. An isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic approach was used first to compare protein profiles in pooled serum collected from women who had CHD-possessing or normal fetuses, and 47 proteins displayed significant differential expressions. Targeted verifications were performed on 11 proteins using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), and the resultant candidate biomarkers were then further validated using ELISA analysis. Finally, we identified a biomarker panel composed of 4 cytoskeletal proteins capable of differentiating CHD-pregnancies from normal ones [with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.938, P < 0.0001]. The discovery of cytoskeletal protein changes in maternal serum not only could help us in prenatal diagnosis of CHDs, but also may shed new light on CHD embryogenesis studies. PMID:26750556

  2. The silk protein, sericin, protects against cell death caused by acute serum deprivation in insect cell culture.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Hideyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Shigeru

    2003-11-01

    Sericin is the silk protein that covers fibroin fibers and functions as a 'glue' in the cocoons of silkworms, and its most abundant component, Ser1, contains repeats of Ser- and Thr-rich 38 amino acid residues. The viability of Sf9 insect cells was 20, 57 and 49% on the fifth day and 41, 91 and 70% on the ninth day after serum deprivation in the presence of no additives, 3000 microg sericin hydrolysate and 350 microg SerD (the peptide containing the two repetitive units) ml(-1), respectively. Thus, the sericin samples were useful in preventing cell death and promoting cellular growth after acute serum deprivation. PMID:14677702

  3. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

  4. Proteome analysis of maternal serum samples for trisomy 21 pregnancies using ProteinChip arrays and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Busch, Anne; Michel, Susanne; Hoppe, Constance; Driesch, Dominik; Claussen, Uwe; von Eggeling, Ferdinand

    2005-03-01

    A surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF)-based ProteinChip System was used as a tool for rapid discovery and identification of protein patterns in serum that discriminate between trisomy 21 and unaffected pregnancies. We analyzed 24 serum samples from women carrying a trisomy 21 pregnancy and 32 with an unaffected pregnancy, ranging from 10.0 to 14.0 weeks of gestation. The resulting protein profiles were submitted to a clustering algorithm, a rule extraction, a rating, and a rule base construction step. For the generated combined rule base, the specificity and sensitivity for the prediction of a trisomy 21 pregnancy reach 97% and 91%, respectively. PMID:15750015

  5. Insight into the Interaction of Graphene Oxide with Serum Proteins and the Impact of the Degree of Reduction and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xue-Qin; Hao, Li-Ying; Shao, Xiao-Ru; Zhang, Quan; Jia, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Lin, Yun-Feng; Peng, Qiang

    2015-06-24

    As novel applied nanomaterials, both graphene oxide (GO) and its reduced form (rGO) have attracted global attention, because of their excellent properties. However, the lack of comprehensive understanding of their interactions with biomacromolecules highly limits their biomedical applications. This work aims to initiate a systematic study on the property changes of GO/rGO upon interaction with serum proteins and on how their degree of reduction and exposure concentration affect this interaction, as well as to analyze the possible biomedical impacts of the interaction. We found that the adsorption of proteins on GO/rGO occurred spontaneously and rapidly, leading to significant changes in size, zeta potential, and morphology. Compared to rGO, GO showed a higher ability in quenching intrinsic fluorescence of serum proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein adsorption efficiency and the types of associated proteins varied, depending on the degree of reduction and concentration of graphene. Our findings indicate the importance of evaluating the potential protein adsorption before making use of GO/rGO in drug delivery, because the changed physicochemical properties after protein adsorption will have significant impacts on safety and effectiveness of these delivery systems. On the other hand, this interaction can also be used for the separation, purification, or delivery of certain proteins. PMID:26029973

  6. Serum levels of hypersensitive-C-reactive protein in moderate and severe acne

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, M. R.; Parhizkar, A. R.; Jowkar, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been reported to occur in psoriasis, urticaria, acne, rosacea and many other dermatological and nondermatological conditions. Chronic systemic inflammation has been implicated in the development of neuropsychiatric/degenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and even carcinogenesis. The present study is designed to determine whether the level of inflammation created by acne vulgaris could be high enough to raise the serum levels of high-sensitive CRP. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris were enrolled, along with 44 age and sex matched healthy blood donors as controls. Hypersensitive-CRP (Hs-CRP) was measured in both groups. Results: Hypersensitive-C-reactive protein levels in the case group varied between 0 and 28.1 μg/ml with an average of 2.24 ± 4.87 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation) and a median of 0.6 μg/ml (interquartile range [IQR] =0.3, 1.4 μg/ml). Hs-CRP levels of the control group varied between 0 and 14 μg/ml with an average of 3.12 ± 3.67 μg/ml and a median of 1.5 μg/ml (IQR = 0.55, 5.0 μg/ml). No significant difference of Hs-CRP level between the two groups was seen (t = –0.961, 95% confidence interval: Lower = –2.6942, upper = 0.9377; P = 0.339). Additionally, no significant difference in the level of Hs-CRP was noted between the moderate and severe acne groups (95% confidence interval: Lower = –5.2495, upper = 1.6711; P = 0.165). Conclusion: Acne vulgaris, even in its severe grades (excluding acne fulminans and acne conglobata), does not induce significant inflammation at the systemic level. PMID:26225329

  7. Regulation of serum amyloid A protein expression during the acute-phase response.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, L E; Whitehead, A S

    1998-01-01

    The acute-phase (AP) serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAA) are multifunctional apolipoproteins which are involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism, and in modulating numerous immunological responses during inflammation and the AP response to infection, trauma or stress. During the AP response the hepatic biosynthesis of A-SAA is up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and circulating concentrations can increase by up to 1000-fold. Chronically elevated A-SAA concentrations are a prerequisite for the pathogenesis of secondary amyloidosis, a progressive and fatal disease characterized by the deposition in major organs of insoluble plaques composed principally of proteolytically cleaved A-SAA, and may also contribute to physiological processes that lead to atherosclerosis. There is therefore a requirement for both positive and negative control mechanisms that permit the rapid induction of A-SAA expression until it has fulfilled its host-protective function(s) and subsequently ensure that its expression can be rapidly returned to baseline. These mechanisms include modulation of promoter activity involving, for example, the inducer nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and its inhibitor IkappaB, up-regulatory transcription factors of the nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) family and transcriptional repressors such as yin and yang 1 (YY1). Post-transcriptional modulation involving changes in mRNA stability and translation efficiency permit further up- and down-regulatory control of A-SAA protein synthesis to be achieved. In the later stages of the AP response, A-SAA expression is effectively down-regulated via the increased production of cytokine antagonists such as the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and of soluble cytokine receptors, resulting in less signal transduction driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9729453

  8. Exploring the interaction between picoplatin and human serum albumin: The effects on protein structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqing; Wu, Peirong; Zhou, Xinchun; Zhang, Hongmei; Qiu, Ligan; Cao, Jian

    2016-09-01

    For the first time, the effects of picoplatin on the structure and esterase-like catalytic activity of human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by spectroscopic approaches and molecular modeling. The circular dichroism (CD) spectral examinations indicated that the binding of picoplatin with HSA induced a slight decrease of a-helix content of protein and unfolded the constituent polypeptides of the protein. The synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectral methods were used to estimate the effect of picoplatin on the micro-environmental changes of the Trp and Tyr residues of HSA, indicating that the micro-environment around the Tyr and Trp residue is partly disturbed by picoplatin. UV-vis absorption spectral result indicated the formation of the ground state complex between picoplatin with HSA. The ANS binding assay indicated the existence of competitive combination of picoplatin and ANS with HSA. The studies on the effects of picoplatin on the binding of HSA with bilirubin and heme showed that picoplatin binding caused a change of angle between two chromophores of bound bilirubin and the binding site of picoplatin does not locate in subdomain IB in HSA that bound with heme. The molecular modeling results showed that picoplatin binds to the connection between domain I and domain II by hydrophobic, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals forces. In addition, HSA maintains most of its esterase activity in the presence of picoplatin. The investigations on how picoplatin interacts with HSA are important for the understanding of the anticancer mechanism and toxicity of platinum-based anticancer drug. PMID:27484966

  9. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling; Hu, Fangdi; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40min incubation time and in the pH5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5mM FeSO4, 50mM H2O2). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy)3(3+). The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin>kaempferol>apigenin>naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. PMID:26952415

  10. Serum C-reactive protein level as a biomarker for differentiation of ischemic from hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Roudbary, Seyed Ali; Saadat, Farshid; Forghanparast, Kambiz; Sohrabnejad, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents rank first in the frequency and importance among all neurological disease. Although a number of studies had shown increased level of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with ischemic stroke, the association of increased hs-CRP with various type of stroke especially the assessment hs-CRP level in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke have not been investigated. In the present study, we assessed the concentration of hs-CRP in patients with documented ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the first 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Thirty-two patients with Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were evaluated at neurology department of Poursina Hospital. The presence of baseline vascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking, was determined. The blood samples were then collected and routine hematology and biochemistry tests were done. hs-CRP levels were determined using a highly sensitive immunonephelometric method. In this cross sectional study, the age of patient varied from 45-85 years (Mean 70.9 ± 9.4). Serum level of hs-CRP in Ischemic patients were 18.92 ± 11.28 and in hemorrhagic group was 2.65 ± 1.7. This relationship was statistically significant (P<0.0001). It might be concluded that hs-CRP might be considered as a usefully adjunct method for the initial diagnosis of the type of stroke. PMID:21681701

  11. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  12. ANALYSIS OF DRUG-PROTEIN BINDING BY ULTRAFAST AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY USING IMMOBILIZED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Mallik, Rangan; Yoo, Michelle J.; Briscoe, Chad J.; Hage, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) was explored for use as a stationary phase and ligand in affinity microcolumns for the ultrafast extraction of free drug fractions and the use of this information for the analysis of drug-protein binding. Warfarin, imipramine, and ibuprofen were used as model analytes in this study. It was found that greater than 95% extraction of all these drugs could be achieved in as little as 250 ms on HSA microcolumns. The retained drug fraction was then eluted from the same column under isocratic conditions, giving elution in less than 40 s when working at 4.5 mL/min. The chromatographic behavior of this system gave a good fit with that predicted by computer simulations based on a reversible, saturable model for the binding of an injected drug with immobilized HSA. The free fractions measured by this method were found to be comparable to those determined by ultrafiltration, and equilibrium constants estimated by this approach gave good agreement with literature values. Advantages of this method include its speed and the relatively low cost of microcolumns that contain HSA. The ability of HSA to bind many types of drugs also creates the possibility of using the same affinity microcolumn to study and measure the free fractions for a variety of pharmaceutical agents. These properties make this technique appealing for use in drug binding studies and in the high-throughput screening of new drug candidates. PMID:20227701

  13. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  14. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. PMID:26153407

  15. Flavorase, a novel non-haemorrhagic metalloproteinase in Protobothrops flavoviridis venom, is a target molecule of small serum protein-3.

    PubMed

    Shioi, Narumi; Nishijima, Ayumi; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2015-07-01

    Some venomous snakes possess anti-toxic proteins in their sera that may play a role in neutralizing the haemorrhagic factors or toxins in their own venom. Five small serum proteins (SSP-1-SSP-5) were isolated from the serum of Japanese viper (Protobothrops flavoviridis), and were found to act as self-defence proteins against the viper's own toxic components. However, the physiological function of SSP-3 has not been completely elucidated. Affinity chromatography of the venom on an SSP-3-immobilized column identified a novel 55-kDa protein as the target molecule of SSP-3. Sequences of internal fragments of this SSP-3-binding protein showed high homology to those of metalloproteinases from the P. flavoviridis venom. The cDNA sequence revealed that this protein, termed flavorase, is a P-III class metalloproteinase consisting of 423 amino acid residues. The purified protein did not show haemorrhagic and cytotoxic activity. Biacore measurements revealed that SSP-3 was bound to flavorase with a dissociation constant of 6.4 × 10(-9) M. SSP-3 non-competitively inhibited the peptidase activity of flavorase with an inhibition constant of 6.6 × 10(-9) M. PMID:25681613

  16. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Yan; Dai, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001) and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001) in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD. PMID:26924277

  17. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Yan; Dai, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl-1 (P < 0.001) and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml-1 (P < 0.001) in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD. PMID:26924277

  18. Relationship between VEGF Gene Polymorphisms and Serum VEGF Protein Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Pawlik, Andrzej; Romanowska-Prochnicka, Katarzyna; Haladyj, Ewa; Malinowski, Damian; Stypinska, Barbara; Manczak, Malgorzata; Olesinska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    lower than the number of women with wild type allele -2578A (p = 0.006). Serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in control groups (both p = 0,0001). Conclusion Present findings indicated that VEGF genetic polymorphism as well as VEGF protein levels may be associated with the susceptibility to RA in the Polish population. PMID:27513931

  19. Direct detection of C-reactive proteins in human serum using nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.-Y.; Tsang, K. Y.; Hu, W. P.; Hsu, H.-Y.; Chiou, A.; Chang, G.-L.; Chen, S.-J.

    2006-08-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) produced by the liver is one of the most characteristic acute-phase proteins. It has been suggested that the level of CRP in human serum may be a significant tool of detecting risks of developing cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Here we propose an advanced plasmonic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bioassay with Au nanoparticles embedded in the dielectric film that demonstrates a 10X improvement in resolution compared to the conventional SPR biosensor. The co-sputtered film was modified with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane to sequentially immobilize protein G, monoclonal anti-CRP antibody (C8), and human serum albumins (HSA). After blocked by ethanolamine, the sensor was used to detect CRP. Using this extremely sensitive biochip, the lowest reliable concentration of CRP without any exterior labeling is simplified to human physiological level. The novel assay has the latent capability of not only eliminating the disturbances coming from serum proteins resulting in false signals, but is also able to be applied in rapid and label-free clinical detections of CRP with large improved sensitivity.

  20. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2016-03-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A (-97delG) allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs. PMID:26585380

  1. Development of a suspension array assay in multiplex for simultaneous measurement of serum levels of four eosinophil granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Makiya, Michelle A.; Herrick, Jesica A.; Khoury, Paneez; Prussin, Calman P.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) have been associated with eosinophilic disease severity. Whereas a variety of techniques have been used to measure individual eosinophil granule protein concentration, none of these methods efficiently measures MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO simultaneously. A multiplex suspension array system was developed to simultaneously measure the concentration of MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO in serum. The assay showed excellent inter- and intra-assay reliability, and serum levels of MBP, ECP and EDN from eosinophilic subjects analyzed by ELISA and multiplex were highly correlated (r = 0.8579; P < 0.0001, r = 0.6356; P = 0.0006 and r = 0.8600; P < 0.0001, respectively, Spearman rank correlation). Moreover, the multiplex assay required 500-fold less serum than a single ELISA to achieve comparable sensitivity. Absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil surface expression of the activation marker, CD69, were significantly correlated with concentrations of MBP, EDN and EPO, but not ECP, in serum from eosinophilic subjects. Furthermore, subjects with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and normal peripheral absolute eosinophil counts (< 0.5 × 109/L) had significantly increased concentrations of MBP (P < 0.0001), ECP (P < 0.0001), EDN (P = 0.0001) and EPO (P < 0.0001) compared to normal donors. In summary, the eosinophil granule protein multiplex assay provides a rapid and reliable way to measure eosinophil granule protein levels and should prove useful in assessing patterns of degranulation in patients with eosinophilic disorders. PMID:24914990

  2. The role of serum surfactant protein D as a biomarker of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zien Alaabden, Alaa; Mohammad, Yousser; Fahoum, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major factor for the high mortality associated with the disease. There is a paucity in the lung-specific biomarkers which diagnose these exacerbations. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a promising biomarker in predicting clinical outcomes for patients with COPD, is lung-specific and can be detected in serum. However, the profile in which serum concentrations of SP-D change during acute exacerbation is still unclear. This study aims to estimate and compare the concentrations of serum SP-D in patients with stable disease and during the exacerbation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which composed of apparently healthy individuals (n = 28), which included 14 smokers and 14 nonsmokers, patients with stable COPD (n = 28), and patients experiencing acute exacerbations (n = 28). Pulmonary functions were performed for all groups. Serum SP-D concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These concentrations were compared by analysis of variance. Results: Serum SP-D levels were significantly elevated in patients with acute exacerbations (508.733 ± 102.813 ng/ml) compared to patients with stable COPD (337.916 ± 86.265 ng/ml) and healthy subjects (177.313 ± 46.998 ng/ml; p <  0.001). Serum SP-D levels correlated inversely with lung function parameters including FEV1%pred, FVC%pred and FEV1/FVC. Conclusion: Serum SP-D levels are raised early on during acute exacerbations of COPD, which could be a potential early diagnostic biomarker for COPD exacerbations. PMID:26942111

  3. Association of a high normalized protein catabolic rate and low serum albumin level with carpal tunnel syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Meng

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common mononeuropathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic inflammation and CTS in hemodialysis (HD) patients has rarely been investigated. HD patients with a high normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and low serum albumin level likely have adequate nutrition and inflammation. In this study, we assume that a low serum albumin level and high nPCR is associated with CTS in HD patients. We recruited 866 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and divided them into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels: (1) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (2) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (3) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL; and (4) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL. After adjustment for related variables, HD duration and nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL were positively correlated with CTS. By calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, we calculated that the nPCR and HD duration cut-off points for obtaining the most favorable Youden index were 1.29 g/kg/d and 7.5 years, respectively. Advance multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that in MHD patients, nPCR ≥1.29 g/kg/d and serum albumin <4 g/dL, and also HD duration >7.5 years were associated with CTS. A high nPCR and low serum albumin level, which likely reflect adequate nutrition and inflammation, were associated with CTS in MHD patients. PMID:27368039

  4. Association of a high normalized protein catabolic rate and low serum albumin level with carpal tunnel syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common mononeuropathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic inflammation and CTS in hemodialysis (HD) patients has rarely been investigated. HD patients with a high normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and low serum albumin level likely have adequate nutrition and inflammation. In this study, we assume that a low serum albumin level and high nPCR is associated with CTS in HD patients. We recruited 866 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and divided them into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels: (1) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (2) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (3) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL; and (4) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL. After adjustment for related variables, HD duration and nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL were positively correlated with CTS. By calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, we calculated that the nPCR and HD duration cut-off points for obtaining the most favorable Youden index were 1.29 g/kg/d and 7.5 years, respectively. Advance multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that in MHD patients, nPCR ≥1.29 g/kg/d and serum albumin <4 g/dL, and also HD duration >7.5 years were associated with CTS. A high nPCR and low serum albumin level, which likely reflect adequate nutrition and inflammation, were associated with CTS in MHD patients. PMID:27368039

  5. Influence of serum proteins on the accumulation of aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX in cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, M. M.; Vernon, David I.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1995-03-01

    Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) induced porphyrin biosynthesis and the resulting in vitro phototoxicity have been determined in both SV40 transformed Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and PtK2 epithelial cells. Both cell lines respond to the addition of exogenous ALA, producing porphyrin linearly with ALA concentrations up to 0.3 mM. Notably the only accumulating porphyrin detected by HPLC was PpIX. Although the levels of PpIX are both dependent on the time and concentration used, the final intracellular porphyrin concentration is dictated by the presence of serum. When ALA is added in medium containing 10% new born calf serum, 90 - 95% of the induced porphyrin appears in the incubation medium. In the absence of serum, the intracellular PpIX levels are maintained and only under these conditions can successful in vitro PDT be performed. Gel permeation chromatography has indicated that the afflux of PpIX is promoted by the low density and high density lipoproteins, with an unknown protein (mw < 66000) contributing significantly to the effect seen. It appears that this protein is present at very low concentrations in both foetal and new born calf serum.

  6. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (≤250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-α-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl. PMID:26057938

  7. Associations Between Common and Rare Exonic Genetic Variants and Serum Levels of 20 Cardiovascular-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Terry; Smith, Erin N.; Matsui, Hiroko; Braekkan, Sigrid K.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Background— Genetic variation can be used to study causal relationships between biomarkers and diseases. Here, we identify new common and rare genetic variants associated with cardiovascular-related protein levels (protein quantitative trait loci [pQTLs]). We functionally annotate these pQTLs, predict and experimentally confirm a novel molecular interaction, and determine which pQTLs are associated with diseases and physiological phenotypes. Methods and Results— As part of a larger case–control study of venous thromboembolism, serum levels of 51 proteins implicated in cardiovascular diseases were measured in 330 individuals from the Tromsø Study. Exonic genetic variation near each protein’s respective gene (cis) was identified using sequencing and arrays. Using single site and gene-based tests, we identified 27 genetic associations between pQTLs and the serum levels of 20 proteins: 14 associated with common variation in cis, of which 6 are novel (ie, not previously reported); 7 associations with rare variants in cis, of which 4 are novel; and 6 associations in trans. Of the 20 proteins, 15 were associated with single sites and 7 with rare variants. cis-pQTLs for kallikrein and F12 also show trans associations for proteins (uPAR, kininogen) known to be cleaved by kallikrein and with NTproBNP. We experimentally demonstrate that kallikrein can cleave proBNP (NTproBNP precursor) in vitro. Nine of the pQTLs have previously identified associations with 17 disease and physiological phenotypes. Conclusions— We have identified cis and trans genetic variation associated with the serum levels of 20 proteins and utilized these pQTLs to study molecular mechanisms underlying disease and physiological phenotypes. PMID:27329291

  8. Chromatography of carbon nanotubes separated albumin from other serum proteins: a method for direct analysis of their interactions.

    PubMed

    Kuboki, Yoshinori; Koshikawa, Takamitu; Takita, Hiroko; Fujisawa, Ryuichi; Lee, Min-ho; Abe, Shigeaki; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio; Sammons, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    Chromatography technology was employed to clarify the mechanism of interaction between multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and proteins. A column (16x100 mm) was packed with purified MWCNT, and various proteins were eluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with and without gradient systems. It was found that albumin in bovine serum was eluted immediately from the column without any adsorption to MWCNT. Conversely, the non-albumin proteins, including a protein of 85 kDa molecular mass and a group of proteins with molecular masses higher than 115 kDa, exhibited considerably high affinity towards MWCNT. A sample of pure bovine serum albumin was also eluted immediately from the column, while lysozyme did not elute as a peak with PBS, but eluted with 0.6 M NaCl. Fundamentally, carbon nanotubes are devoid of any electrical charge. Therefore, other forces including the hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic interactions, and van der Waals forces were most probably responsible for the differential elution behaviors. In conclusion, this chromatographic method provided a simple and direct analysis of the interactions between carbon nanotubes and the various proteins. PMID:20610879

  9. In-Depth Analysis of a Plasma or Serum Proteome Using a 4D Protein Profiling Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hsin-Yao; Beer, Lynn A.; Speicher, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human plasma or serum has been a major strategy used to identify biomarkers that serve as indicators of disease. However, such in-depth proteomic analyses are challenging due to the complexity and extremely large dynamic range of protein concentrations in plasma. Therefore, reduction in sample complexity through multidimensional pre-fractionation strategies is critical, particularly for the detection of low-abundance proteins that have the potential to be the most specific disease biomarkers. We describe here a 4D protein profiling method that we developed for comprehensive proteomic analyses of both plasma and serum. Our method consists of abundant protein depletion coupled with separation strategies – microscale solution isoelectrofocusing and 1D SDS-PAGE – followed by reversed-phase separation of tryptic peptides prior to LC–MS/MS. Using this profiling strategy, we routinely identify a large number of proteins over nine orders of magnitude, including a substantial number of proteins at the low ng/mL or lower levels from approximately 300 μL of plasma sample. PMID:21468940

  10. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3′-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  11. Photoactivable analogs for labeling 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum binding protein and for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutner, A.; Link, R. P.; Schnoes, H. K.; DeLuca, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    3-Azidobenzoates and 3-azidonitrobenzoates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as well as 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 3-deoxy-3-azido-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared as photoaffinity labels for vitamin D serum binding protein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein. The compounds prepared were easily activated by short- or long-wavelength uv light, as monitored by uv and ir spectrometry. The efficacy of the compounds to compete with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the binding site of serum binding protein and receptor, respectively, was studied to evaluate the vitamin D label with the highest affinity for the protein. The presence of an azidobenzoate or azidonitrobenzoate substituent at the C-3 position of 25-OH-D3 significantly decreased (10(4)- to 10(6)-fold) the binding activity. However, the labels containing the azido substituent attached directly to the vitamin D skeleton at the C-3 position showed a high affinity, only 20- to 150-fold lower than that of the parent compounds with their respective proteins. Therefore, 3-deoxy-3-azidovitamins present potential ligands for photolabeling of vitamin D proteins and for studying the structures of the protein active sites.

  12. [Comparative studies into effects of synthetic oestrogens and gestagens on certain serum protein fractions under standardised conditions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Stelzner, A; Krause, G; Tarnick, M; Scheler, R; Schubert, H; Börner, A; Carol, W

    1980-01-01

    Initial effects of the following hormonal contraceptives on certain serum proteins in 29 women were checked under standardised conditions through the first three cycles on the pill: Deposiston (ethinyloestradiol-sulphonate/norethisterone-acetate), Gravistat (ethinyloestradiol/norgestrel), Non-Ovlon (ethinyloestradiol/norethisterone-actate).--Effects were found to differ strongly by fractions. Differences were recorded also from action over time. Changes and deviations were confirmed to depend on oestrogen levels. PMID:6164183

  13. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-Nin; Wang, Guan-Song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:26071935

  14. Serum protein electrophoresis under effective control of HIV-1 disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Adebayo Lawrence; Adenikinju, Rufus Omotayo; Ajele, Joshua Olufemi; Olawoye, Theophilus Ladapo

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we compared the serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) patterns in a subset of HIV-1-infected subjects who did not progress to AIDS without antiretroviral treatment with those in whose control of disease progression was achieved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). SPE and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed on Helena Electrophoresis System according to manufacturer’s instructions. The percentage of SPE abnormalities, resembling chronic inflammation, was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected subject without HAART compared with those under HAART (p = 0.001). The majority of individuals under HAART showed evidence of oligoclonal bands on the γ-band against a polyclonal background compared with those without HAART but ß-γ-band bridging was more evident. Immunofixation pattern was consistent with oligoclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia of IgG kappa type, which was found to be more intense in group without HAART. HIV clinical status did not show appreciable effect on the SPE pattern in subjects without HAART. However, under effective HAART, subjects with better CD4 T-cell count were associated with higher γ-globulin band. In group without HAART, acute infection was found to be associated the higher γ-globulin fraction compared with chronic infection. The opposite was the case under effective HAART. HIV infected subjects that did not progress to AIDS were associated with markedly abnormal SPE pattern. Overall results reflect the host ability compensate defective cellular immunity in HIV-1 infection with humoral immune responses. These findings underscore the usefulness of SPE monitoring HIV disease management and identifying individuals that may not progress to full-blown AIDS in the absence of treatment. PMID:26417299

  15. Screening and identification of five serum proteins as novel potential biomarkers for cured pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Wei, Li-Liang; Shi, Li-Ying; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Yu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Tian-Yu; Liu, Chang-Ming; Ping, Ze-Peng; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Zhong-Liang; Mao, Lian-Gen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and efficient methods for the determination of cured tuberculosis (TB) are lacking. A total of 85 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) analysis (fold change >1.50 or <0.60, P < 0.05). We validated albumin (ALB), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (ARHGDIB), complement 3 (C3), ficolin-2 (FCN2), and apolipoprotein (a) (LPA) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Significantly increased ALB and LPA levels (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012, respectively) and significantly reduced ARHGDIB, C3, and FCN2 levels (P < 0.001, P = 0.035, and P = 0.018, respectively) were observed in cured TB patients compared with untreated TB patients. In addition, changes in ALB and FCN2 levels occurred after 2 months of treatment (P < 0.001 and P = 0.030, respectively). We established a cured TB model with 87.10% sensitivity, 79.49% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.876. The results indicated that ALB, ARHGDIB, C3, FCN2, and LPA levels might serve as potential biomarkers for cured TB. Our study provides experimental data for establishing objective indicators of cured TB and also proposes potential markers for evaluating the efficacy of anti-TB drugs. PMID:26499913

  16. Maternal Serum C-Reactive Protein in Women with Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Martin; Cobo, Teresa; Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Methods This study was a prospective observational cohort study of 386 women. Maternal serum CRP concentrations were evaluated, and amniotic fluid samples were obtained via transabdominal amniocentesis at the time of admission. Placentas underwent histopathological examination after delivery. MIAC was defined based on a positive PCR for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis and/or positive 16S rRNA gene amplification. HCA was defined based on the Salafia classification. Results Maternal CRP was significantly higher in women with MIAC and HCA (median 9.0 mg/l) than in women with HCA alone (median 6.9 mg/l), MIAC alone (median 7.4 mg/l) and without MIAC or HCA (median 4.5 mg/l) (p<0.0001). CRP was a weak predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA before and after 32 weeks of gestation. Only the 95th percentile of CRP and PPROM before 32 weeks exhibited a false-positive rate of 1%, a positive predictive value of 90% and a positive likelihood ratio of 13.2 to predict MIAC and HCA. However, the low sensitivity of 15% limits the clinical utility of this detection. Conclusion CRP is a poor predictor of the occurrence of MIAC and HCA, even at early gestational ages. PMID:26942752

  17. The serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinases (SGK) stimulate bovine herpesvirus 1 and herpes simplex virus 1 productive infection.

    PubMed

    Kook, Insun; Jones, Clinton

    2016-08-15

    Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinases (SGK) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain a catalytic domain resembling other protein kinases: AKT/protein kinase B, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C-Zeta for example. Unlike these constitutively expressed protein kinases, SGK1 RNA and protein levels are increased by growth factors and corticosteroids. Stress can directly stimulate SGK1 levels as well as stimulate bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) productive infection and reactivation from latency suggesting SGK1 can stimulate productive infection. For the first time, we provide evidence that a specific SGK inhibitor (GSK650394) significantly reduced BoHV-1 and HSV-1 replication in cultured cells. Proteins encoded by the three BoHV-1 immediate early genes (bICP0, bICP4, and bICP22) and two late proteins (VP16 and gE) were consistently reduced by GSK650394 during early stages of productive infection. In summary, these studies suggest SGK may stimulate viral replication following stressful stimuli. PMID:27297663

  18. Proteomic analysis of serum proteins in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice: implications for identifying biomarkers for use to screen potential candidate therapeutic drugs for early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaojing; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Peiwu; Li, Shuiming; Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers of early AD. This study aims to search for potential early protein biomarkers in serum from a triple transgenic (PS1M146V/APPSwe/TauP301L) mouse model. Proteomic analysis via two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was performed on serum samples from wild-type (WT) and triple transgenic mice that were treated with or without coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (800 mg/kg body weight/day), a powerful endogenous antioxidant displaying therapeutic benefits against AD pathology and cognitive impairment in multiple AD mouse models, for a period of three months beginning at two months of age. A total of 15 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between the WT and AD transgenic mice. The administration of CoQ10 was found to alter the changes in the differentially expressed serum proteins by upregulating 10 proteins and down-regulating 10 proteins. Among the proteins modulated by CoQ10, clusterin and α-2-macroglobulin were validated via ELISA assay. These findings revealed significant changes in serum proteins in the AD mouse model at an early pathological stage and demonstrated that administration of CoQ10 could modulate these changes in serum proteins. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed serum proteins could serve as potential protein biomarkers of early AD and that screening for potential candidate AD therapeutic drugs and monitoring of therapeutic effects could be performed via measurement of the changes in these differentially expressed serum proteins. PMID:24496070

  19. Analysis of blood gases, serum fat and serum protein: a new approach to estimate survival chances of stranded Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from the German North Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Facing numerous challenges, such as illness, storms or human disturbance, some harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups lose contact to their dams and are found abandoned along the North Sea coast. In Schleswig-Holstein, pups with the prospect of surviving rehabilitation are admitted to the Seal Center Friedrichskoog. Despite elaborate clinical health assessments on admission, including differential hematology, in 2010, 17% of 108 admitted pups did not survive the first 20 days. The death rate during the years 2006 and 2009 varied between 9 and 19%. To broaden the spectrum of variables which could be predictive for survival, blood gas and serum analyses were performed for 99 pups using venous blood. Variables included total CO2, pH, partial CO2, HCO3–, base excess and anion gap as well as glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride. Moreover, total serum protein and fat (triglyceride) concentrations were measured for all pups on admission. Results Repeated measurements of 12 randomly selected individuals revealed a significant (p = 0.002) positive influence of time in rehabilitation on triglyceride concentrations. This trend probably shows the improvement of the pups’ nutritional status as a consequence of the shift from milk replacer formula to fish. No such positive influence was detected for total protein concentrations though. Hematologic values, including blood gases, were not predictive for survival. Conclusions For the first time blood gas values are reported in this study for a large sample size (N = 99) of seal pups (regardless of their health status). The ranges and medians calculated from the data can serve as a stepping stone towards the establishment of reference values for neonate harbor seals. However, future investigations on the development of blood gases in harbor seals with different health conditions and ages over time are necessary to allow for a better understanding of acid–base regulation in harbor seals. PMID:24490584

  20. Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of 25(OH)D to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary 25(OH)D transport protein, and whether DBP modified the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk. Methods In a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, controls were 1∶1 matched to 416 colorectal cancer cases based on age and date of blood collection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of 25(OH)D, DBP, and the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP, a proxy for free, unbound circulating 25(OH)D. Results Comparing highest to lowest quartiles, DBP was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.42, p for trend  = 0.58); however, a positive risk association was observed for the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26, p for trend  = 0.04). In stratified analyses, the positive association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer was stronger among men with DBP levels above the median (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.36, p for trend  = 0.01) than below the median (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.68, 2.12, p for trend  = 0.87), although the interaction was not statistically significant (p for interaction  = 0.24). Conclusion Circulating DBP may influence the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer in male smokers, with the suggestion of a stronger positive association in men with higher DBP concentrations. This finding should be examined in other populations, especially those that include women and non-smokers. PMID:25036524

  1. Integrative Proteomics and Tissue Microarray Profiling Indicate the Association between Overexpressed Serum Proteins and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haichuan; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yihua; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinically, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by the early detection and risk screening among population. To meet this need, here we describe the application of extensive peptide level fractionation coupled with label free quantitative proteomics for the discovery of potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer, and the usage of Tissue microarray analysis (TMA) and Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assays for the following up validations in the verification phase. Using these state-of-art, currently available clinical proteomic approaches, in the discovery phase we confidently identified 647 serum proteins, and 101 proteins showed a statistically significant association with NSCLC in our 18 discovery samples. This serum proteomic dataset allowed us to discern the differential patterns and abnormal biological processes in the lung cancer blood. Of these proteins, Alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), two plasma glycoproteins with previously unknown function were selected as examples for which TMA and MRM verification were performed in a large sample set consisting about 100 patients. We revealed that A1BG and LRG1 were overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases. PMID:23284758

  2. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-nin; Wang, Guan-song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-sheng; Lu, Kai-zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • CBDL-rat serum promotes the myogenic

  3. Zeptomole Detection of C-Reactive Protein in Serum by a Nanoparticle Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Aptasensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Stephen A.; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2014-05-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers (i.e. proteins) are often in low abundance in bodily fluids presenting many challenges for their detection. In order to extend the application of SPRi systems in detecting biomarkers at ultralow levels, we combine the advantage of aptamer technology with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. By implementing a sandwich assay through the introduction of aptamer-modified quantum dots (QDs), it was possible to measure 7 zeptomole (at 5 fg/mL) of C-reactive protein (CRP) selectively in spiked human serum. It is expected that the proposed platform will provide new direction in designing ultrasensitive SPRi biosensors with multiplexing capabilities.

  4. Genotypes and serum concentrations of human alpha‐1‐antitrypsin “P” protein variants in a clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Bornhorst, Joshua A; Calderon, Fernanda R O; Procter, Melinda; Tang, Wei; Ashwood, Edward R; Mao, Rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Alpha‐1‐antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a relatively common genetic disorder that can lead to the development of pulmonary disorders. Diagnosis of AAT deficiency is typically performed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) protein phenotyping in concert with determination of AAT serum concentration levels. The “P” phenotypic variant is associated with several known genetic variants that are found at unknown relative frequencies. Aims To investigate the genetic variation of “P” alleles in patient samples. Methods A DNA sequencing protocol for the full AAT coding region from serum was developed. Additionally, a retrospective evaluation of AAT concentrations in serum samples containing “P” allele IEF phenotype variants was undertaken. Results “P” phenotypic variants are observed in ∼1 of every 900 samples received in the reference laboratory. Heterozygous “MP” allele samples exhibited a wide range of serum protein concentrations. Genotyping revealed the presence of the deleterious Plowell variant in six heterozygous MP samples, two heterozygous PZ samples, and one homozygous PP sample. A non‐deleterious Pst albans variant was observed in a single MP sample. A novel heterozygous AAT M“P” variant, Psalt lake was identified, that did not exhibit a reduced AAT serum concentration. Conclusions Genetic heterogeneity is present in clinical “P” phenotype variants identified by IEF, and the deleterious Plowell variant appears to be relatively common. Sequencing of “P” phenotype variants can provide useful clinical information, especially when the “P” phenotype variant is paired with a deficiency phenotype allele. PMID:17906067

  5. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M. L.; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A.; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F.; Gait, Michael J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Roberts, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P < 0.001, q < 0.01) in mdx mice. Additionally, systemic treatment with a peptide-antisense oligonucleotide conjugate designed to induce Dmd exon skipping and recover dystrophin protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients. PMID:26594036

  6. Combined Inflammatory and Metabolic Defects Reflected by Reduced Serum Protein Levels in Patients with Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Oldenburg, Reid; Frimpong, Michael; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Abass, Kabiru; Thompson, William; Forson, Mark; Fontanet, Arnaud; Niang, Fatoumata; Demangel, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is spreading in tropical countries, with major public health and economic implications in West Africa. Multi-analyte profiling of serum proteins in patients and endemic controls revealed that Buruli ulcer disease down-regulates the circulating levels of a large array of inflammatory mediators, without impacting on the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood. Notably, several proteins contributing to acute phase reaction, lipid metabolism, coagulation and tissue remodelling were also impacted. Their down-regulation was selective and persisted after the elimination of bacteria with antibiotic therapy. It involved proteins with various functions and origins, suggesting that M. ulcerans infection causes global and chronic defects in the host's protein metabolism. Accordingly, patients had reduced levels of total serum proteins and blood urea, in the absence of signs of malnutrition, or functional failure of liver or kidney. Interestingly, slow healers had deeper metabolic and coagulation defects at the start of antibiotic therapy. In addition to providing novel insight into Buruli ulcer pathogenesis, our study therefore identifies a unique proteomic signature for this disease. PMID:24722524

  7. Label-Free LC-MSe in Tissue and Serum Reveals Protein Networks Underlying Differences between Benign and Malignant Serous Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wegdam, Wouter; Argmann, Carmen A.; Kramer, Gertjan; Vissers, Johannes P.; Buist, Marrije R.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Meijer, Danielle; Moerland, Perry D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify proteins and (molecular/biological) pathways associated with differences between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. Experimental Procedures Serum of six patients with a serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary was collected before treatment, with a control group consisting of six matched patients with a serous cystadenoma. In addition to the serum, homogeneous regions of cells exhibiting uniform histology were isolated from benign and cancerous tissue by laser microdissection. We subsequently employed label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSe) to identify proteins in these serum and tissues samples. Analyses of differential expression between samples were performed using Bioconductor packages and in-house scripts in the statistical software package R. Hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, as well as network enrichment and interactome analysis using MetaCore. Results In total, we identified 20 and 71 proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serum and tissue samples, respectively. The differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue largely differed with only 2 proteins in common. MetaCore network analysis, however inferred GCR-alpha and Sp1 as common transcriptional regulators. Interactome analysis highlighted 14-3-3 zeta/delta, 14-3-3 beta/alpha, Alpha-actinin 4, HSP60, and PCBP1 as critical proteins in the tumor proteome signature based on their relative overconnectivity. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001084. Discussion Our analysis identified proteins with both novel and previously known associations to ovarian cancer biology. Despite the small overlap between differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue, APOA1 and Serotransferrin were significantly lower expressed in both serum and cancer tissue samples, suggesting a tissue-derived effect in serum. Pathway and subsequent

  8. Isolation of Protein-Associated Circular DNA from Healthy Cattle Serum

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Mathis; Gunst, Karin; Lucansky, Vincent; Müller, Hermann; zur Hausen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Three replication-competent single-stranded DNA molecules sharing nucleotide similarity to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 2.36 were isolated from healthy bovine serum. PMID:25169856

  9. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the authors research into teratogenesis of blood serum of patients on medication or rats injected with drugs is presented. In addition studies concerning the role of methionine in the developing fetus is given. 68 refs.

  10. Isolation of protein-associated circular DNA from healthy cattle serum.

    PubMed

    Funk, Mathis; Gunst, Karin; Lucansky, Vincent; Müller, Hermann; Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-01-01

    Three replication-competent single-stranded DNA molecules sharing nucleotide similarity to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 2.36 were isolated from healthy bovine serum. PMID:25169856

  11. The interrelationship of thyroid hormones with vitamin A and zinc nutritional status in patients with chronic hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Morley, J E; Russell, R M; Reed, A; Carney, E A; Hershman, J M

    1981-08-01

    To define the role of vitamin A, retinol binding protein, and zinc deficiency in producing the thyroid hormone abnormalities found in chronic illness, we studied 62 clinically stable patients with hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 index (FT3I) were depressed compared to controls (p less than 0.05) in the patients. Retinol binding protein and prealbumin levels correlated with both T3 and FT3I (p less than 0.01), whereas vitamin A levels did not. Vitamin A therapy in patients with documented vitamin A deficiency produced an increase in T3, thyroxine (T4), FT3I, FT4I, and free T3 by dialysis, with a concomitant increase in retinol binding protein and no alteration in prealbumin concentrations. Zinc-deficient patients had significantly depressed T3 and FT3I (p less than 0.001) and increased prolactin levels (p less than 0.01). Zinc supplementation failed to return any of these parameters to normal. Vitamin A therapy in normals produced a transient decrease in T3 and T4 after 1 wk of therapy, but after a further 2 wk, thyroid function returned to normal. Our data suggest a causal relationship between the pathogenesis of deranged vitamin A-retinol binding protein metabolism and the low T3 syndrome either by interfering with T4 entry into tissues or by directly affecting the enzymatic conversion of T4 to T3. PMID:7196691

  12. Tuning the electronic absorption of protein-embedded all-trans-retinal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Nossoni, Zahra; Berbasova, Tetyana; Watson, Camille T; Yapici, Ipek; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak

    2012-12-01

    Protein-chromophore interactions are a central component of a wide variety of critical biological processes such as color vision and photosynthesis. To understand the fundamental elements that contribute to spectral tuning of a chromophore inside the protein cavity, we redesigned human cellular retinol binding protein II (hCRBPII) to fully encapsulate all-trans-retinal and form a covalent bond as a protonated Schiff base. This system, using rational mutagenesis designed to alter the electrostatic environment within the binding pocket of the host protein, enabled regulation of the absorption maximum of the pigment in the range of 425 to 644 nanometers. With only nine point mutations, the hCRBPII mutants induced a systematic shift in the absorption profile of all-trans-retinal of more than 200 nanometers across the visible spectrum. PMID:23224553

  13. Tuning the Electronic Absorption of Protein-Embedded All-trans-Retinal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjing; Nossoni, Zahra; Berbasova, Tetyana; Watson, Camille T.; Yapici, Ipek; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Geiger, James H.; Borhan, Babak

    2014-10-02

    Protein-chromophore interactions are a central component of a wide variety of critical biological processes such as color vision and photosynthesis. To understand the fundamental elements that contribute to spectral tuning of a chromophore inside the protein cavity, we redesigned human cellular retinol binding protein II (hCRBPII) to fully encapsulate all-trans-retinal and form a covalent bond as a protonated Schiff base. The system, using rational mutagenesis designed to alter the electrostatic environment within the binding pocket of the host protein, enabled regulation of the absorption maximum of the pigment in the range of 425 to 644 nanometers. Moreover, with only nine point mutations, the hCRBPII mutants induced a systematic shift in the absorption profile of all-trans-retinal of more than 200 nanometers across the visible spectrum.

  14. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC–MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  15. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  16. Novel application of Ag nanoclusters in fluorescent imaging of human serum proteins after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Lingyun; He, Dacheng; Ma, Lin; Ouyang, Jin; Jiang, Fubin

    2012-01-27

    We have developed a novel application for DNA oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanoclusters in fluorescent imaging of human serum proteins after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanoclusters were used as fluorescent probes for direct detection of proteins after native PAGE. Some relatively low-abundance proteins, such as α-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and α-2-glycoprotein 1, zinc (ZAG) were easily detected by oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster-based fluorescent imaging and identified by MS and MS/MS techniques, without the need of expensive antibodies or tedious immunoassay procedures. The pH condition for the oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster solution was optimized and the possible mechanism of interaction between proteins and DNA oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanoclusters was analyzed. As a novel fluorescent detection method it is simple, fast, nontoxic and sensitive, and it shows great analytical potential in proteome research and in biochemistry. PMID:22249908

  17. Correlation of secretion of retinol and protein by the lacrimal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Ubels, J.L.; Rismondo, V.

    1986-03-01

    Retinol, which is present in tears, is secreted by the lacrimal gland. Retinol secretion is stimulated by cholinergic drugs and vasoactive intestinal peptide with characteristics very similar to the exocytotic secretion of protein by the lacrimal gland, suggesting that retinol and protein are secreted by similar mechanisms. The authors investigated this by cannulating the lacrimal gland ducts of rabbits and collecting lacrimal gland fluid (LGF) under conditions of maximal flow stimulated by IV injection of pilocarpine (400 ..mu..g/kg) every 20 min for 4.5 hr. Over this period LGF protein concentration decreased 36.4% from 22.8 +/- 1.94 mg/ml to 8.29 1.86 mg/ml while retinol decreased 37% from 55.1 +/- 16.2 ng/ml to 20.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml. The retinol/protein ratio remained constant at 2.88 ng/mg. This demonstrates a strong correlation between retinol and protein secretion, suggesting that retinol may be protein bound. To investigate binding of retinol to LGF protein, LGF was incubated with /sup 3/H-retinol. The bound and unbound retinol were separated on a Lipidex 1000 column. Retinol binding was linear over a range of 1.25-200 nM /sup 3/H-retinol. Binding was not inhibited by PCMBS or addition of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled retinol and was not increased by prior extraction of endogenous retinol from the LGF. This indicates that the binding of retinol to LGF protein is non-specific. Retinol therefore appears to be secreted by the lacrimal gland cells in non-specific association with protein.

  18. Plasma protein alterations in the refractory anemia with excess blasts subtype 1 subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Refractory anemia with excess blasts subtype 1 (RAEB-1) is a subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome. It represents a heterogeneous group of oncohematological bone marrow diseases, which occur particularly in elderly patients. The aim of this proteomic study was to search for plasma protein alterations in RAEB-1 patients. Results A total of 24 plasma samples were depleted of fourteen high-abundant plasma proteins, analyzed with 2D SDS-PAGE, compared, and statistically processed with Progenesis SameSpots software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Retinol-binding protein 4 and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein were relatively quantified using mass spectrometry. 56 significantly differing spots were found; and in 52 spots 50 different proteins were successfully identified. Several plasma proteins that changed either in their level or modification have been described herein. The plasma level of retinol-binding protein 4 was decreased, while leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein was modified in RAEB-1 patients. Changes in the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, altered protein fragmentation, or fragments modifications were observed. Conclusions This study describes proteins, which change quantitatively or qualitatively in the plasma of RAEB-1 patients. It is the first report on qualitative changes in the leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein in the RAEB-1 subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome. Described changes in the composition or modification of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragments in RAEB-1 are in agreement with those changes observed in previous study of refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, and thus H4 fragments could be a marker specific for myelodysplastic syndrome. PMID:22568928

  19. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  20. Simple and rapid solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone, using the protein A of Staphylococcus aureus as immunoadsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jungers, J.; Delogne-Desnoeck, J.; Robyn, C.

    1981-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive radioimmunoassay method for serum progesterone is described, which uses a solid-phase technique for separation of antibody-bound from antibody-free progesterone. Rabbit antiprogesterone immunoglobulins are adsorbed on the protein A of formaldehyde- and heat-treated Staphylococcus aureus cells (Pansorbin; Calbiochem-Behring Corp., La Jolla, California). The suspension of antibody-coated Pansorbin retains all its binding activity of 1-2-H(N)-progesterone when kept at + 4/sup 0/ or at -25/sup 0/C for at least 4 months. Dose-response curves obtained with ether-serum extracts and with the progesterone standard do not deviate significantly from parallelism. The progesterone standard gives identical dose-response curves whether diluted in the assay buffer or in a progesterone-free ether-serum extract. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.02 ng/assay tube. The intra-assay variation coefficient is 16%, and the routine interassay variation coefficient is 17%. The mean serum progesterone concentrations were 0.55 ng/ml during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and 12.5 ng/ml during the luteal phase. The average blank value for distilled water was 0.02 ng/assay tube.

  1. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Agustín; Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  2. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  3. Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 Predicts End-Stage Renal Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Feng-Jung; Wu, Vin-Cent; Jiang, Yi-Der; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lin, Mao-Shin; Wei, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation and catalyzes the deamination of primary amines into aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We have shown that serum VAP-1 is higher in patients with diabetes and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and can predict cardiovascular mortality in subjects with diabetes. In this study, we investigated if serum VAP-1 can predict ESRD in diabetic subjects. Methods In this prospective cohort study, a total of 604 type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled between 1996 to 2003 at National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan, and were followed for a median of 12.36 years. The development of ESRD was ascertained by linking our database with the nationally comprehensive Taiwan Society Nephrology registry. Serum VAP-1 concentrations at enrollment were measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Results Subjects with serum VAP-1 in the highest tertile had the highest incidence of ESRD (p<0.001). Every 1-SD increase in serum VAP-1 was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.55 (95%CI 1.12–2.14, p<0.01) for the risk of ESRD, adjusted for smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, hypertension, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, total cholesterol, use of statins, ankle-brachial index, estimated GFR, and proteinuria. We developed a risk score comprising serum VAP-1, HbA1c, estimated GFR, and proteinuria, which could predict ESRD with good performance (area under the ROC curve = 0.9406, 95%CI 0.8871–0.9941, sensitivity = 77.3%, and specificity = 92.8%). We also developed an algorithm based on the stage of CKD and a risk score including serum VAP-1, which can stratify these subjects into 3 categories with an ESRD risk of 0.101%/year, 0.131%/year, and 2.427%/year, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, serum VAP-1 can predict ESRD

  4. Serum differential protein identification of Xinjiang Kazakh esophageal cancer patients based on the two-dimensional liquid-phase chromatography and LTQ MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; Xia, Guo; Jianqing, Zhang; Mei, Yang; Ge, Bai; Li, Zhang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chemo-radiotherapy on serum protein expression of the esophageal cancer patients and discover potential biomarkers by detecting serum proteins mass spectrometry of the healthy Kazakh people in Xinjiang as well as the patients before and after their chemo-radiotherapy. In order to separate and compare the three serum samples (the healthy group's, the patients' before and after chemo-radiotherapy) with two-dimensional protein liquid chromatography system (Proteome LabTM PF-2D), then detect the differential protein spots with linear trap quadruple mass spectrometer (LTQ MS/MS). (1) The Kazakh esophageal cancer patients got 21 expressed protein spots peaks with significant difference after chemo-radiotherapy compared with before; before the treatment there were 10 different expressed protein spots compared with the healthy group, and after it there were four peaks in the expression of protein spots compared with the healthy group. (2) After LTQ mass spectrometric detection, 22 proteins were up-regulated in serum samples of the healthy group, 22 were up-regulated of the patients before medical treatment and 5 were up-regulated after chemo-radiotherapy. (3) 8 proteins including APOA1 can be served as serum markers in Kazakh esophageal cancer diagnosis, and proteins like CLU can be served as serum markers in judging the resistance and sensitivity towards chemo-radiotherapy. (4) The abnormal expressions of APOC2, APOC3, Antithrombin-III in esophageal cancer were discovered for the first time. Specific protein spots related to Xinjiang Kazakh esophageal cancer diagnosis and chemo-radiotherapy can be identified in the serum, which will probably become a maker in Kazakh esophageal cancer diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. PMID:24469726

  5. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  6. DECREASED HEART RATE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBAMATE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY SERUM PROTEINS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that chlorpyrifos (CHP), an irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, induces hypertension in rats. Concomitant with hypertension, we found an increase in C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 , monocyte chemotactic protein-5 and interfer...

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, iron, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A for prediction of outcome in dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jitpean, Supranee; Holst, Bodil Ström; Höglund, Odd V; Pettersson, Ann; Olsson, Ulf; Strage, Emma; Södersten, Fredrik; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra, accumulation of pus in the uterus, is a bacterial infection that frequently initiates systemic inflammation. The disease may have lethal consequences when the systemic effects are severe or complications occur. Markers for identifying high-risk patients and predicting outcome are therefore in high demand. The objective of this study was to measure serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), iron, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in bitches with pyometra and to explore the possible value of these variables for detection of increased morbidity. In total, 31 bitches were diagnosed with pyometra and destined for surgical treatment (ovariohysterectomy) and 17 healthy bitches were included in the study. Concentrations of IGF-I and iron were lower in the pyometra group (mean concentration 221.2 ± 22.5 ng/mL and 16.9 ± 1.6 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the healthy control group (mean concentration 366.7 ± 46.2 ng/mL and 38.1 ± 2.7 μmol/L, respectively). In contrast, concentrations of CRP and SAA were significantly higher in bitches with pyometra (mean concentrations 212.9 ± 17.3 mg/L and 119.9 ± 8.5 mg/L, respectively) compared with the control group (<5 mg/L and <10 mg/L, respectively). None of the explored variables were associated with morbidity as measured by duration of postoperative hospitalization. In conclusion, IGF-I and iron concentrations were decreased in pyometra, whereas SAA and CRP concentrations were increased in the disease. Although unspecific, measurement of these variables may be valuable as adjunctive markers for prognosis in cases of pyometra. PMID:24661434

  8. Multiplexing of miniaturized planar antibody arrays for serum protein profiling--a biomarker discovery in SLE nephritis.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Linn; Dexlin-Mellby, Linda; Bengtsson, Anders A; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Wingren, Christer

    2014-06-01

    In the quest to decipher disease-associated biomarkers, miniaturized and multiplexed antibody arrays may play a central role in generating protein expression profiles, or protein maps, of crude serum samples. In this conceptual study, we explored a novel, 4-times larger pen design, enabling us to, in a unique manner, simultaneously print 48 different reagents (antibodies) as individual 78.5 μm(2) (10 μm in diameter) sized spots at a density of 38,000 spots cm(-2) using dip-pen nanolithography technology. The antibody array set-up was interfaced with a high-resolution fluorescent-based scanner for sensitive sensing. The performance and applicability of this novel 48-plex recombinant antibody array platform design was demonstrated in a first clinical application targeting SLE nephritis, a severe chronic autoimmune connective tissue disorder, as the model disease. To this end, crude, directly biotinylated serum samples were targeted. The results showed that the miniaturized and multiplexed array platform displayed adequate performance, and that SLE-associated serum biomarker panels reflecting the disease process could be deciphered, outlining the use of miniaturized antibody arrays for disease proteomics and biomarker discovery. PMID:24763547

  9. Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean birds in adipose tissue and serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B H; Leng, L; Wu, M Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xu, S S; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression levels of BMP4 transcript and protein were relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than those of lean males at 1, 2, 5, and 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum BMP4 content of fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). BMP4 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in preadipocytes than those in mature adipocytes (P < 0.05), and the expression level decreased during differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). These results suggested that chicken BMP4 might affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species. PMID:26945137

  10. Protein expression and fucosylated glycans of the serum haptoglobin-{beta} subunit in hepatitis B virus-based liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hong; Zhang, Shu; Kang, Xiaonan; Li, Shan; Qin, Xue; Sun, Chun; Lu, Haojie; Liu, Yinkun

    2011-07-01

    Glycosylation, which regulates the configuration and function of glycoproteins, is the most important post-translational modification. The aim of this study was to observe the differential patterns in glycan and protein parts of the serum haptoglobin-β subunit (Hp-β) purified from patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, liver cirrhosis (LC), or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 2-D gel electrophoresis and multiplexed proteomics staining technique were employed to investigate whether the Hp-β glycan level was proportional to the protein level. Multi-lectin blot, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and western blot analysis were carried out to identify the glycoform of Hp-β quantitatively. Our experiments showed that the ratio of total serum Hp-β to the glycosylated form of Hp-β varied among the patients with different liver diseases. The total Hp-β protein expression level was much higher in HCC than LC, while an incremental proportion of fucosylated Hp-β was also observed in LC and HCC patients compared with that in HBV and healthy controls. Differential fucosylation was further identified as a Lewis X structure by HPLC and anti-human Sialyl-Lewis X antibody. In conclusion, the aberrant alternation of Hp-β glycan and total protein expression may be a promising biomarker for early hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21606158

  11. A reliable non-separation fluorescence quenching assay for total glycated serum protein: a simple alternative to nitroblue tetrazolium reduction.

    PubMed

    Blincko, S; Colbert, D; John, W G; Edwards, R

    2000-05-01

    A simple non-separation assay for the measurement of total glycated serum protein is described. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of a solution of a fluorescein-boronic acid derivative was quenched in proportion to the amount of serum added. This led to the development of an assay in which 10 microL of serum is added to 4 mL of a solution of the fluorescein-boronic acid derivative and the fluorescence intensity is measured after 15 min. The results, as measured by drop in fluorescence intensity, calibrated by a single standard, were compared with the results for nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction of fructosamine and showed good correlation (r=0.936, n=114). The intra-assay precision (seven samples each measured 10 times) was less than 2.1% (concentration range 190-660 micromol/L); inter-assay precision for seven samples in 10 assays was less than 2.5% (over the same concentration range). Dilution of serum that had a high concentration of total glycated protein showed the assay to be linear. Serum samples (with low, medium and high total glycated protein concentrations) showed less than 2.1% difference from base results with added glucose (up to 60 mmol/L), less than 9.7% difference with added bilirubin (up to 250 micromol/L) and less than 6.9% with added triglycerides (up to 50 mmol/L). Addition of haemoglobin (up to 0.9 g/dL) with high glycation (11.7% HbA1c) to plasma (298 micromol/L total glycated protein) showed less than 10% difference from the base result. Assays performed over a range of temperatures (12-34 degrees C) showed no significant differences in the results. The assay gives similar results to the currently used NTB method but with significantly less susceptibility to interferences. As such the method should be a useful aid in the management of diabetes. PMID:10817254

  12. The cellular uptake of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin entrapped in organically modified silica nanoparticles is mediated by serum proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compagnin, Chiara; Baù, Luca; Mognato, Maddalena; Celotti, Lucia; Miotto, Giovanni; Arduini, Maria; Moret, Francesca; Fede, Caterina; Selvestrel, Francesco; Rio Echevarria, Iria M.; Mancin, Fabrizio; Reddi, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Nanosized objects made of various materials are gaining increasing attention as promising vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents for cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears to offer a very attractive opportunity to implement drug delivery systems since no release of the sensitizer is needed to obtain the therapeutic effect and the design of the nanovehicle should be much easier. The aim of our study was to investigate the use of organic-modified silica nanoparticles (NPs) for the delivery of the second-generation photosensitizer meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) to cancer cells in vitro. mTHPC was entrapped in NPs (~33 nm diameter) in a monomeric form which produced singlet oxygen with a high efficiency. In aqueous media with high salt concentrations, the NPs underwent aggregation and precipitation but their stability could be preserved in the presence of foetal bovine serum. The cellular uptake, localization and phototoxic activity of mTHPC was determined comparatively in human oesophageal cancer cells after its delivery by the NPs and the standard solvent ethanol/poly(ethylene glycol) 400/water (20:30:50, by vol). The NP formulation reduced the cellular uptake of mTHPC by about 50% in comparison to standard solvent while it did not affect the concentration-dependent photokilling activity of mTHPC and its intracellular localization. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements, using NPs with mTHPC physically entrapped and a cyanine covalently linked, and ultracentrifugation experiments indicated that mTHPC is transferred from NPs to serum proteins when present in the medium. However, the coating of the NP surface with poly(ethylene glycol) largely prevented the transfer to proteins. In conclusion, mTHPC is rapidly transferred from the uncoated nanoparticles to the serum proteins and then internalized by the cells as a protein complex, irrespective of its modality of delivery.

  13. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding protein-3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity after cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, V; Shalet, S M; Price, D A; Wales, J K; Pennells, L; Soden, J; Gill, M S; Whatmore, A J; Clayton, P E

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between peak growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-3 protease activity was studied in 28 children and adolescents undergoing investigation of pituitary function 0.4-14.2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation for the treatment of CNS tumours distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (n = 16) or prophylaxis against CNS leukaemia (n = 12). Seven out of 15 patients with GH deficiency (GHD) (defined as a peak GH concentration <7.5 ng/ml in a stimulation test) had IGF-I <-2 standard deviation score (SDS). None of the 28 patients had serum IGFBP-3 concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) <-1.5 SDS with no difference between those with and without GHD. IGFBP-3 concentrations measured by RIA were strongly correlated to IGFBP-3 band density on Western ligand blot (WLB) (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001). IGFBP-3 protease activity was negatively correlated to IGFBP-3 by RIA (r = -0.55; p < 0.01) and to IGFBP-3 by WLB (r = -0.51; p < 0.01). Twenty-two patients had normal IGFBP-3 protease activity (<30% of the activity in pregnancy serum) indicating that serum IGFBP-3 protease activity does not account for the normal levels of IGFBP-3 in RIA. Low serum IGF-I but normal IGFBP-3 concentrations and in the majority normal IGFBP-3 protease activity was found in patients in the years after CNS irradiation. Neither serum IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 can be used as a reliable index of the development of radiation-induced GHD. PMID:9701699

  14. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  15. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  16. Analysis of S100 calcium binding protein B serum levels in different types of traumatic intracranial lesions.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald; Frantal, Sophie; Pajenda, Gholam; Leitgeb, Johannes; Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Hajdu, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of intracranial traumatic lesions, the number of simultaneous traumatic lesions, and the occurrence of skull and facial bone fractures have an influence on S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) serum levels. Patients with blunt traumatic brain injury were prospectively enrolled into this cohort study over a period of 13 months. Venous blood samples were obtained prior to emergency cranial CT scan in all patients within 3 h after injury. The patients were then assigned into six groups: 1) concussion, 2) epidural hematoma, 3) subdural hematoma, 4) subarachnoid hemorrhage, 5) brain contusions, and 6) brain edema. The study included 1696 head trauma patients with a mean age of 57.7 ± 25.3 years, and 126 patients (8%) had 182 traumatic lesions on CT. Significant differences in S100B serum levels were found between cerebral edema and the other four bleeding groups: epidural p = 0.0002, subdural p < 0.0001, subarachnoid p = 0.0001, brain contusions p = 0.0003, and concussion p < 0.0001. Significant differences in S100B values between patients with one or two intracranial lesions (p = 0.014) or with three (p < 0.0001) simultaneous intracranial lesions were found. In patients with intracranial traumatic lesions, skull fractures, as well as skull and facial bone fractures occurring together, were identified as significant additional factors for the increase in serum S100B levels (p < 0.0001). Older age was also associated with elevated S100B serum levels (p < 0.0001). Our data show that peak S100B serum levels were found in patients with cerebral edema and brain contusions. PMID:25068442

  17. Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract inhibits reducing monosaccharide-induced protein glycation and oxidation of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nunthanawanich, Pornpimon; Sompong, Weerachat; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Dahlan, Winai; Ngamukote, Sathaporn

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important factor for pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. Moringa oleifera is one of the medicinal plants that have anti-hyperglycemic activity. However, anti-glycation property of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the different types of reducing monosaccharides-induced protein glycation has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on reducing sugars-induced protein glycation and protein oxidation. Total phenolic content of MOE was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bovine serum albumin was incubated with 0.5 M of reducing sugars (glucose or fructose) with or without MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The results found that total phenolic content was 38.56 ± 1.50 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry extract. The formation of fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs [N (ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)] and the level of fructosamine were determined to indicate protein glycation, whereas the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group were examined for protein oxidation. MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent, N (ε)-CML and markedly decreased fructosamine level (P < 0.05). Moreover, MOE significantly prevented protein oxidation manifested by reducing protein carbonyl and the depletion of protein thiol in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Thus, the findings indicated that polyphenols containing in MOE have high potential for decreasing protein glycation and protein oxidation that may delay or prevent AGE-related diabetic complications. PMID:27468399

  18. The OspE-Related Proteins Inhibit Complement Deposition and Enhance Serum Resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Spirochete ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Akins, Darrin R.

    2011-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds the host complement inhibitors factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1). Binding of FH/FHL-1 by the B. burgdorferi proteins CspA and the OspE-related proteins is thought to enhance resistance to serum-mediated killing. While previous reports have shown that CspA confers serum resistance in B. burgdorferi, it is unclear whether the OspE-related proteins are relevant in B. burgdorferi serum resistance when OspE is expressed on the borrelial surface. To assess the role of the OspE-related proteins, we overexpressed them in a serum-sensitive CspA mutant strain. OspE overexpression enhanced serum resistance of the CspA-deficient organisms. Furthermore, FH was more efficiently bound to the B. burgdorferi surface when OspE was overexpressed. Deposition of complement components C3 and C5b-9 (the membrane attack complex), however, was reduced on the surface of the OspE-overexpressing strain compared to that on the CspA mutant strain. These data demonstrate that OspE proteins expressed on the surface of B. burgdorferi bind FH and protect the organism from complement deposition and subsequent serum-mediated destruction. PMID:21282413

  19. Increased serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) concentration after longterm alcohol consumption: further evidence for regular subclinical pancreatic damage after heavy drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Nordback, I; Jaakkola, M; Iovanna, J L; Dagorn, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown recently that longterm but not short term heavy drinking of alcohol frequently results in increased serum activities of pancreatic enzymes suggesting subclinical pancreatic injury. Serum pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a novel protein, whose synthesis in the acinar cells and release into serum is specifically induced by acute pancreatic damage. This study was performed to further characterise the alcohol induced subclinical pancreatic injury by using serum PAP measurements. Three groups were studied: (1) control group (n = 25), (2) short term drinking group (n = 20), who consumed 2.0 g of ethanol per kg body weight during four hours, and (3) longterm drinking group (n = 32), who were admitted to withdrawal clinic after a median 30 months heavy drinking period. Serum PAP concentration was low in the control group (8 (5 to 12) micrograms/l, geometric mean (95% confidence intervals)). In the short term drinking group serum PAP was in the range of the control group values during 56 hours after drinking. Longterm drinking induced at least a 10-fold increase in serum PAP, the highest concentrations being seen on day 2 after drinking had ended (106 (61 to 184) micrograms/l). The patients did not develop abdominal symptoms, increased blood white cell count, or increased serum C reactive protein concentration. These results further support the suggestion that heavy longterm drinking often induces subclinical pancreatic damage, but not clinical pancreatitis. PMID:7890213

  20. Does binding of complement factor H to the meningococcal vaccine antigen, factor H binding protein, decrease protective serum antibody responses?

    PubMed

    Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay; Beernink, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a principal antigen in a multicomponent meningococcal vaccine recently licensed in Europe for prevention of serogroup B diseases. The protein recruits the complement downregulator, factor H (fH), to the bacterial surface, which enables the organism to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Binding is specific for human fH. In preclinical studies, mice and rabbits immunized with fHbp vaccines developed serum bactericidal antibody responses, which in humans predict protection against developing meningococcal disease. These studies, however, were in animals whose fH did not bind to the vaccine antigen. Here we review the immunogenicity of fHbp vaccines in human fH transgenic mice. The data suggest that animals with high serum human fH concentrations have impaired protective antibody responses. Further, mutant fHbp vaccines with single amino acid substitutions that decrease fH binding are superior immunogens, possibly by unmasking epitopes in the fH binding site that are important for eliciting serum bactericidal antibody responses. Humans immunized with fHbp vaccines develop serum bactericidal antibody, but achieving broad coverage in infants required incorporation of additional antigens, including outer membrane vesicles, which increased rates of fever and local reactions at the injection site. The experimental results in transgenic mice predict that fHbp immunogenicity can be improved in humans by using mutant fHbp vaccines with decreased fH binding. These results have important public health implications for developing improved fHbp vaccines for control of serogroup B meningococcal disease and for development of vaccines against other microbes that bind host molecules. PMID:23740919

  1. Redox chemistry of the molecular interactions between tea catechins and human serum proteins under simulated hyperglycemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Hazal; Luna, Carolina; Estévez, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Carbonylation is an irreversible modification in oxidized proteins that has been directly related to a number of health disorders including Type 2 diabetes. Dietary antioxidants have been proposed to counteract the oxidative stress occurring under hyperglycemic conditions. An understanding of the nature and consequences of the molecular interactions between phytochemicals and human plasma proteins is of utmost scientific interest. Three tea catechins namely epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) were tested for (i) their affinity to bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HH) and (ii) their ability to inhibit tryptophan (Trp) depletion and for the formation of specific protein carbonyls and pentosidine in the aforementioned proteins. Both proteins (20 mg mL(-1)) were allowed to react with postprandial plasmatic concentrations of the catechins (EC: 0.7 μM, EGC: 1.8 μM, and EGCG: 0.7 μM) under simulated hyperglycemic conditions (12 mM glucose/0.2 mM Fe(3+)/37 °C/10 days). The three catechins were able to inhibit Trp oxidation and protein carbonylation in both plasma proteins. Some anti-glycation properties were linked to their binding affinities. The molecular interactions reported in the present study may explain the alleged beneficial effects of tea catechins against the redox impairment linked to hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:26839039

  2. Spectroscopic investigations of the interactions of tramadol hydrochloride and 5-azacytidine drugs with human serum albumin and human hemoglobin proteins.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Sibel; Cetinkaya, Ahmet; Duman, Osman

    2013-03-01

    The interactions of tramadol hydrochloride (THC) and 5-azacytidine (AZA) drugs with human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HMG) proteins were investigated by fluorescence, UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at pH 7.4 and different temperatures. The UV absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching of HSA and HMG proteins indicated the formation of HSA-THC and HMG-THC complexes via static quenching mechanism. AZA did not interact with HSA and HMG proteins. It was found that the formation of HMG-THC complex was stronger than that of HSA-THC complex. The stability of HSA-THC and HMG-THC complexes decreased with increasing temperature. The number of binding site was found as one for HSA-THC and HMG-THC systems. Negative enthalpy change (ΔH) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) and positive entropy change (ΔS) values were obtained for these systems. The binding of THC-HSA and HMG proteins was spontaneous and exothermic. In addition, electrostatic interactions between protein and drug molecules played an important role in the binding processes. The results of CD analysis revealed that the addition of THC led to a significant conformational change in the secondary structure of HSA protein, on the contrary to HMG protein. PMID:23428887

  3. Rapid and serum-insensitive endocytotic delivery of proteins using biotinylated polymers attached via multivalent hydrophobic anchors.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Kyohei; Li, Cuicui; Takeo, Masafumi; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Niidome, Takuro; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2014-03-10

    We have designed biotinylated polymers as synthetic receptors that have multiple alkyl groups for endocytotic delivery of target proteins. The polymers were stably attached to a cell surface via multivalent anchoring. The presented biotin was bound to streptavidin (SA) on the cell surface, and, via an endocytotic pathway, the cell rapidly internalized the biotinylated polymer/SA complex. The cell's uptake of the complex was not inhibited by the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum, and its efficacy for the uptake of SA was the highest when compared with commercial reagents and single-anchored-type synthetic receptors. The synthetic receptor-mediated endocytosis can be used generally for other kind of protein by using SA as an adaptor molecule between a target protein and the cell-surface presented biotin. PMID:24389131

  4. Interaction study on bovine serum albumin physically binding to silver nanoparticles: Evolution from discrete conjugates to protein coronas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Zhong, Ruibo; Li, Wanrong; Liu, Yushuang; Bai, Zhijun; Yin, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Gong, Pei; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The nanostructures formed by inorganic nanoparticles together with organic molecules especially biomolecules have attracted increasing attention from both industries and researching fields due to their unique hybrid properties. In this paper, we systemically studied the interactions between amphiphilic polymer coated silver nanoparticles and bovine serum albumins by employing the fluorescence quenching approach in combination with the Stern-Volmer and Hill equations. The binding affinity was determined to 1.30 × 107 M-1 and the interaction was spontaneously driven by mainly the van der Waals force and hydrogen-bond mediated interactions, and negatively cooperative from the point of view of thermodynamics. With the non-uniform coating of amphiphilic polymer, the silver nanoparticles can form protein coronas which can become discrete protein-nanoparticle conjugates when controlling their molar ratios of mixing. The protein's conformational changes upon binding nanoparticles was also studied by using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  5. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. Methods The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Results Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p < 0.01). In atopic athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Conclusions Regular high-load exercise is associated with

  6. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins

  7. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  8. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and mi

  9. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio

    2016-06-01

    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation. PMID:26556312

  10. Serum Proteins and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, M. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Six 4- to 37-year-old patients with tuberosis sclerosis (a chronic condition characterized by siezures, intercranial calcification, a reddish-yellow sebaceous glandular mass on the face, and frequent crises in early years), did not exhibit an elevation of the (alpha + beta) globulin fraction in their serum. (Author/MC)

  11. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  12. Is the serum amyloid A protein in acute phase plasma high density lipoprotein the precursor of AA amyloid fibrils?

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, M L; Rowe, I F; Caspi, D; Turnell, W G; Pepys, M B

    1986-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an apolipoprotein of high density lipoprotein (HDL), is generally considered to be the precursor of AA protein, which forms the fibrils in reactive systemic amyloidosis in man and animals. This view is based on amino acid sequence identity between AA and the amino-terminal portion of SAA. However, in extensive and well-controlled studies of experimentally induced murine AA amyloidosis, we were unable to demonstrate a direct precursor-product relationship between SAA, in SAA-rich HDL preparations from acute phase or amyloidotic mouse or human serum, and AA protein in the amyloid deposits. This raises the possibility that SAA in its usual form, as an apolipoprotein of HDL synthesized during the acute phase response, may not be the major precursor of AA fibrils. The amyloidogenic forms of circulating SAA molecules may not be isolated during the preparation of HDL. Alternatively, particularly in the light of recent evidence that SAA mRNA is expressed in many different tissues throughout the body of appropriately stimulated animals, amyloidogenic SAA may be derived from sources other than the liver cells in which SAA-rich HDL is synthesized. PMID:3105937

  13. Complementary mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of the protein corona: a case study on gold nanoparticles and human serum proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Iglesias, Nerea; Bettmer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    Once nanoparticles enter a biological system, it is known that their surface is instantly covered by the biomolecules present with preference to proteins. This protein corona has been a subject of numerous studies in order to reveal its composition. Besides that, growing interest exists in its quantitative determination in order to gain a deeper insight into the nature of these nanoparticle-protein bioconjugates. Only a few analytical methods are available nowadays, so the aim of this study is to provide a reliable and alternative methodology for the quantification of the protein corona. The suggested approach is based on the assumption that the total protein content within the corona can be correlated to its sulfur concentration due to the presence of cysteine and methionine as sulfur-containing amino acids. Once the most abundant proteins had been identified with the use of gel electrophoresis with subsequent peptide analysis by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the isolated nanoparticle-protein conjugates were subjected to total analysis of sulfur and the corresponding metal being present in the nanoparticles by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concept is exemplarily demonstrated on citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) incubated with human serum. Two different purification procedures were tested in order to isolate the sought bioconjugates. 26 most abundant proteins could be identified and an average of approximately 40 S atoms per protein was calculated and used for further studies. ICP-MS analyses of S/Au ratios served for the quantification of the protein corona revealing an absolute number of proteins bound to the incubated GNPs. Two main results could be obtained for this specific system under the chosen experimental conditions: the number of proteins per GNP decreased with their size from 10 nm to 60 nm and the obtained values suggested that the protein corona in this specific case was

  14. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Serum Response Factor Binding Protein 1 as a Host Factor for Hepatitis C Virus Entry.

    PubMed

    Gerold, Gisa; Meissner, Felix; Bruening, Janina; Welsch, Kathrin; Perin, Paula M; Baumert, Thomas F; Vondran, Florian W; Kaderali, Lars; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Khan, Abdul G; Mann, Matthias; Rice, Charles M; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes through a multistep mechanism involving, among other host proteins, the virus receptor CD81. How CD81 governs HCV entry is poorly characterized, and CD81 protein interactions after virus binding remain elusive. We have developed a quantitative proteomics protocol to identify HCV-triggered CD81 interactions and found 26 dynamic binding partners. At least six of these proteins promote HCV infection, as indicated by RNAi. We further characterized serum response factor binding protein 1 (SRFBP1), which is recruited to CD81 during HCV uptake and supports HCV infection in hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. SRFBP1 facilitates host cell penetration by all seven HCV genotypes, but not of vesicular stomatitis virus and human coronavirus. Thus, SRFBP1 is an HCV-specific, pan-genotypic host entry factor. These results demonstrate the use of quantitative proteomics to elucidate pathogen entry and underscore the importance of host protein-protein interactions during HCV invasion. PMID:26212323

  15. High-mobility group box-1 protein and keratin-18, circulating serum proteins informative of acetaminophen-induced necrosis and apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Daniel J; Williams, Dominic P; Kipar, Anja; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Regan, Sophie L; Sathish, Jean G; Kitteringham, Neil R; Park, B Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity represents a major clinical problem and an impediment to new medicine development. Serum biomarkers hold the potential to provide information about pathways leading to cellular responses within inaccessible tissues, which can inform the medicinal chemist and the clinician with respect to safe drug design and use. Hepatocyte apoptosis, necrosis, and innate immune activation have been defined as features of the toxicological response associated with the hepatotoxin acetaminophen (APAP). Within this investigation, we have unambiguously identified and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry differing circulating molecular forms of high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and keratin-18 (K18), which are linked to the mechanisms and pathological changes induced by APAP in the mouse. Hypoacetylated HMGB1 (necrosis indicator), caspase-cleaved K18 (apoptosis indicator), and full-length K18 (necrosis indicator) present in serum showed strong correlations with the histological time course of cell death and was more sensitive than alanine aminotransferase activity. We have further identified a hyperacetylated form of HMGB1 (inflammatory indicator) in serum, which indicated that hepatotoxicity was associated with an inflammatory response. The inhibition of APAP-induced apoptosis and K18 cleavage by the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe) fluoromethyl ketone are associated with increased hepatic damage, by a shift to necrotic cell death only. These findings illustrate the initial verification of K18 and HMGB1 molecular forms as serum-based sensitive tools that provide insights into the cellular dynamics involved in APAP hepatotoxicity within an inaccessible tissue. Based on these findings, potential exists for the qualification and measurement of these proteins to further assist in vitro, in vivo, and clinical bridging in toxicological research. PMID:19783637

  16. Independent Candidate Serum Protein Biomarkers of Response to Adalimumab and to Infliximab in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortea, Ignacio; Roschitzki, Bernd; López-Rodríguez, Rosario; Tomero, Eva G.; Ovalles, Juan G.; López-Longo, Javier; de la Torre, Inmaculada; González-Alvaro, Isidoro; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; González, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Response to treatment of rheumatoid arthritis shows large inter-individual variability. This heterogeneity is observed with all the anti-rheumatic drugs, including the commonly used TNF inhibitors. It seems that drug-specific and target-specific factors lead individual patients to respond or not to a given drug, although this point has been challenged. The search of biomarkers distinguishing responders from non-responders has included shotgun proteomics of serum, as a previous study of response to infliximab, an anti-TNF antibody. Here, we have used the same study design and technology to search biomarkers of response to a different anti-TNF antibody, adalimumab, and we have compared the results obtained for the two anti-TNF drugs. Search of biomarkers of response to adalimumab included depletion of the most abundant serum proteins, 8-plex isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography fractionation and relative quantification with a hybrid Orbitrap mass spectrometer. With this approach, 264 proteins were identified in all the samples with at least 2 peptides and 95% confidence. Nine proteins showed differences between non-responders and responders (P < 0.05), representing putative biomarkers of response to adalimumab. These results were compared with the previous study of infliximab. Surprisingly, the non-responder/responder differences in the two studies were not correlated (rs = 0.07; P = 0.40). This overall independence with all the proteins showed two identifiable components. On one side, the putative biomarkers of response to either adalimumab or infliximab, which were not shared and showed an inverse correlation (rs = -0.69; P = 0.0023). On the other, eight proteins showing significant non-responder/responder differences in the analysis combining data of response to the two drugs. These results identify new putative biomarkers of response to treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and indicate that they

  17. Use of a stationary bed reactor and serum-free medium for the production of recombinant proteins in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Kompier, R; Kislev, N; Segal, I; Kadouri, A

    1991-10-01

    Insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda) have been cultured in a stationary bed reactor, packed with a fibrous polyester carrier. When the bioreactor was perfused with serum-supplemented medium, a cell density of 6 x 10(6) cells ml-1 packed carrier was reached. Scanning electron microscopy investigations have shown that the insect cells grew along the three-dimensionally oriented fibers of the Fibra-cel carrier. After infection of the logarithmically growing cells with a recombinant baculovirus (Autographa californica) containing the gene coding for beta-galactosidase, the medium in the bioreactor was changed to serum-free medium. At day 13 postinfection (p.i.), a beta-galactosidase level of 320 microgram ml-1 and, at day 17 p.i., a virus titer of 2.1 x 10(8) TCID50 units ml-1 (day 17 p.i.) were reached. In another bioreactor, operated in a similar way but with serum-containing medium, a beta-galactosidase concentration of 360 microgram ml-1 and a virus titer of 2.3 x 10(8) TCID50 units ml-1 were obtained. These results indicate the potential use of this production system for the production of recombinant protein and baculovirus in insect cells. PMID:1367637

  18. Regulation of heat shock protein message in Jurkat cells cultured under serum-starved and gravity-altered conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although our understanding of effects of space flight on human physiology has advanced significantly over the past four decades, the potential contribution of stress at the cellular and gene regulation level is not characterized. The objective of this ground-based study was to evaluate stress gene regulation in cells exposed to altered gravity and environmentally suboptimal conditions. We designed primers to detect message for both the constitutive and inducible forms of the heat shock protein, HSP-70. Applying the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we probed for HSP-70 message in human acute T-cell leukemia cells, Jurkat, subjected to three types of environmental stressors: (1) altered gravity achieved by centrifugation (hypergravity) and randomization of the gravity vector in rotating bioreactors, (2) serum starvation by culture in medium containing 0.05% serum, and (3) temperature elevation (42 degrees C). Temperature elevation, as the positive control, significantly increased HSP-70 message, while centrifugation and culture in rotating bioreactors did not upregulate heat shock gene expression. We found a fourfold increase in heat shock message in serum-starved cells. Message for the housekeeping genes, actin and cyclophilin, were constant and comparable to unstressed controls for all treatments. We conclude that gravitational perturbations incurred by centrifugal forces, exceeding those characteristic of a Space Shuttle launch (3g), and culture in rotating bioreactors do not upregulate HSP-70 gene expression. In addition, we found RT-PCR useful for evaluating stress in cultured cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Rapid quantitation of human epididymis protein 4 in human serum by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous immunoassay (AlphaLISA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Lin, Guanfeng; Liu, Tiancai; Liang, Junyu; Ren, Zhiqi; Liang, Rongliang; Chen, Baihong; Huang, Wenhua; Wu, Yingsong

    2016-10-01

    A sensitive, rapid and homogeneous reaction measurement method for quantitation of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in human serum by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous immunoassay (AlphaLISA) was described. Built on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by one biotinylated monoclonal antibody combining on the surface of streptavidin coated donor beads, and "sandwiched" by another monoclonal antibody coated on acceptor beads. The coefficient variations of the method were lower than 10%, and the recoveries were in the range of 90-110% for serum samples. A value of 0.88pmol/l was identified as the minimum detectable dose of the present method for HE4. Compared with the results from electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kit (Roche) in 170 serum samples, there was a satisfied correlation coefficient of 0.984. The present assay demonstrated high sensitivity, wider effective detection range and excellent reproducibility for quantitation of HE4 can be useful for early screening and prognosis evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27568283

  20. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

  1. Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    GUO, TAO; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, JIAN; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; LI, HUI; LIN, WEI-XIONG; YANG, DE-ZHAI

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters. PMID:26004022

  2. Evaluation of the major royal jelly proteins as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in culturing human cell lines*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Di; Xin, Xiao-xuan; Qian, Hao-cheng; Yu, Zhang-yin; Shen, Li-rong

    2016-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a well-known bioactive substance. It contains large amounts of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), which express growth-factor-like activity in several animal and human cell lines. However, the question on whether MRJPs possess growth-factor-like activity on all types of cell cultures remains. In order to determine whether MRJPs can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in different types of human cell culture, the proliferation of the complex serum with different ratios of MRJPs/FBS (M/F) was evaluated on five cell lines: 293T, HFL-I, 231, HCT116, and Changliver using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The proliferation activity of the combination of the complex M/F serum with cytokines on the test cell lines was also measured. The results demonstrated that the complex serum with M/F 6/4 possessed the highest proliferation activity similar to or in excess of FBS. However, no activity of complex medium with M/F 6/4 was observed in 231 cells, indicating a selectivity of MRJPs on cell types. Compared with the complex medium with M/F 6/4, the complex medium with M/F 6/4 together with two cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), promoted proliferations of Changliver, 293T, HCT116, and HFL-I by 18.73%‒56.19% (P<0.01). Our findings demonstrate that MRJPs could partially replace FBS in culturing many human cell lines. PMID:27256681

  3. Evaluation of the major royal jelly proteins as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in culturing human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Xin, Xiao-Xuan; Qian, Hao-Cheng; Yu, Zhang-Yin; Shen, Li-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a well-known bioactive substance. It contains large amounts of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), which express growth-factor-like activity in several animal and human cell lines. However, the question on whether MRJPs possess growth-factor-like activity on all types of cell cultures remains. In order to determine whether MRJPs can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in different types of human cell culture, the proliferation of the complex serum with different ratios of MRJPs/FBS (M/F) was evaluated on five cell lines: 293T, HFL-I, 231, HCT116, and Changliver using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The proliferation activity of the combination of the complex M/F serum with cytokines on the test cell lines was also measured. The results demonstrated that the complex serum with M/F 6/4 possessed the highest proliferation activity similar to or in excess of FBS. However, no activity of complex medium with M/F 6/4 was observed in 231 cells, indicating a selectivity of MRJPs on cell types. Compared with the complex medium with M/F 6/4, the complex medium with M/F 6/4 together with two cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), promoted proliferations of Changliver, 293T, HCT116, and HFL-I by 18.73%‒56.19% (P<0.01). Our findings demonstrate that MRJPs could partially replace FBS in culturing many human cell lines. PMID:27256681

  4. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Thao; Huth, Teilah; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Immunological dysregulation is present in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), with recent studies also highlighting the importance of examining symptom severity. This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. Participants included healthy controls (n= 22), moderately (n = 22) and severely (n=19) affected CFS/ME patients. The 1994 Fukuda Criteria defined CFS/ME and severity scales confirmed mobile and housebound CFS/ME patients as moderate and severe respectively. IL-1β was significantly reduced in severe compared with moderate CFS/ME patients. IL-6 was significantly decreased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared with healthy controls and severe CFS/ME patients. RANTES was significantly increased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared to severe CFS/ME patients. Serum IL-7 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the severe CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and moderate CFS/ME patients. IFN-γ was significantly increased in severe CFS/ME patients compared with moderately affected patients. This was the first study to show cytokine variation in moderate and severe CFS/ME patients, with significant differences shown between CFS/ME symptom severity groups. This research suggests that distinguishing severity subgroups in CFS/ME research settings may allow for a more stringent analysis of the heterogeneous and otherwise inconsistent illness. PMID:26516304

  5. Postmortem serum protein growth arrest-specific 6 levels in sepsis-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Augsburger, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) is widely expressed in leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, and monocytes. It regulates various processes including granulocyte adhesion to the endothelium, cell migration, thrombus stabilization, and cytokine release. In humans, increased plasma Gas6 levels have been described in patients with sepsis and septic shock. In this study, Gas6 concentrations were measured in postmortem serum from femoral blood in a series of sepsis-related fatalities and control cases. The aims were twofold: first, to determine whether Gas6 can be reliably determined in postmortem serum; and second, to assess its diagnostic potential in identifying sepsis-related deaths. Two study groups were prospectively formed, a sepsis-related fatalities group (24 cases) and a control group (24 cases) including cases of deep vein thrombosis and fatal pulmonary embolism, cases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in severe trauma, cases of end-stage renal failure, and cases of hanging (non-septic, non-SIRS, non-end stage renal failure cases). The preliminary results of this study seem to indicate that Gas6 can be effectively measured in postmortem serum. However, Gas6 levels in sepsis-related fatalities do not appear to be clearly distinguishable from concentrations in pulmonary embolism, severe trauma, and end-stage renal failure cases. These findings tend to support previous reports that indicated that Gas6 behaves as an acute phase reactant and can be considered a general marker of inflammation rather than a specific biomarker of sepsis. PMID:26233610

  6. Tuning the Protein-Induced Absorption Shifts of Retinal in Engineered Rhodopsin Mimics.

    PubMed

    Suomivuori, Carl-Mikael; Lang, Lucas; Sundholm, Dage; Gamiz-Hernandez, Ana P; Kaila, Ville R I

    2016-06-01

    Rational design of light-capturing properties requires understanding the molecular and electronic structure of chromophores in their native chemical or biological environment. We employ here large-scale quantum chemical calculations to study the light-capturing properties of retinal in recently designed human cellular retinol binding protein II (hCRBPII) variants (Wang et al. Science, 2012, 338, 1340-1343). Our calculations show that these proteins absorb across a large part of the visible spectrum by combined polarization and electrostatic effects. These effects stabilize the ground or excited state energy levels of the retinal by perturbing the Schiff-base or β-ionone moieties of the chromophore, which in turn modulates the amount of charge transfer within the molecule. Based on the predicted tuning principles, we design putative in silico mutations that further shift the absorption properties of retinal in hCRBPII towards the ultraviolet and infrared regions of the spectrum. PMID:27120137

  7. Denaturation of human serum albumin under the action of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide according to fluorescence polarization data of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Zhuravleva, V. V.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Denaturation of human serum albumin (HSA) under the action of cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is studied at different pH values by estimating the rotational diffusion of protein via fluorescence polarization. The degree of polarization of HSA tryptophan fluorescence, the rotational relaxation time, the rotational diffusion coefficient and the effective Einstein radius of the HSA molecules in solutions with different CTAB concentrations at different pH values are determined. The obtained rotational diffusion parameters of the HSA molecules show that under the action of CTAB, HSA denaturation has a one-stage character and proceeds more intensely and effectively at pH values higher than the p I value of protein (4.7).

  8. [Reversibility of alterations induced by sexual steroids in various serum protein fractions, following application of hormonal contraceptives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Stelzner, A; Börner, A; Schubert, H; Krause, G; Scheler, R; Tarnick, M; Carol, W

    1980-01-01

    Reversibility of changes induced by sexual steroids was studied in 19 different serum protein fractions of 20 women. The following preparations were available for testing: Gravistat (ethinyl-oestradiol/norgestrel), Non-Ovlon (ethinyloestradiol/norethisterone-acetate), Ovosiston (mestranol/chlormadinone-acetate), and Deposiston (ethinyloestradiol-sulphonate/norethisterone-acetate). The tests were made towards the end of the 24th cycle on the pill and in the first cycle thereafter.--The proteins tested were found to be affected in a differentiated way and, throughout, depending on oestrogen levels. Reversal was rapid, but the phase of restitution usually was longer than the period of testing and follow-up. The long-lasting action of Deposiston was visualised also in its "reversal effect". PMID:6164184

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise intervention on serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and lymphocyte dna damage in obese elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441

  10. Electrolyte effect on the phase behavior of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine-serum-albumin proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of an electrolyte on the phase behavior of anionic silica nanoparticles with two globular proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa] and anionic bovine serum albumin (MW 66.4 kDa). The results are compared with our earlier published work on similar systems without any electrolyte [I. Yadav, S. Kumar, V. K. Aswal, and J. Kohlbrecher, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032304 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.032304]. Both the nanoparticle-protein systems transform to two phase at lower concentration of protein in the presence of an electrolyte. The autocorrelation function in DLS suggests that the diffusion coefficient (D) of a nanoparticle-protein system decreases in approaching two phase with the increase in protein concentration. This variation in D can be attributed to increase in attractive interaction and/or overall inc