Science.gov

Sample records for setting national emission

  1. NATIONAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Emisssions Inventory (NEI) is a data base containing estimates of air pollutant emissions in every US county for the years 1990-2002. National estimates back to 1970 are also part of the NEI. Access to NEI data is available from the following products and services:...

  2. National Priorities List book set

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) sites. The set of documents compiles State-Specific site summary fact sheets on each site being cleaned up under the Superfund program. The individual state sites are available as PB91-921207, and PB91-921209 thru PB91-921258.

  3. Occupational illnesses within two national data sets.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J P; Miller, T R

    1998-01-01

    To describe occupational illness data in two large data sets, two national data sets were aggregated, and the numbers, percentages, and rates of cases of occupational illnesses were determined. Job-related illness data were from Bureau of Labor Statistics documents containing Annual Survey and Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data. A severity index was created to assess the overall burden of a disease. The index multiplies the number of cases times the median days lost. Circulatory disease accounted for 85% of the deaths in the Census and at least 80% in the Annual Survey. More fatal myocardial infarctions occurred on Monday than on any other day. Low-paying occupations had the most myocardial infarctions: operators, laborers, and truck drivers; high-paying occupations had the least: executives, administrators, and managers. Carpal tunnel syndrome and hearing loss accounted for more morbidity, measured by cases and days lost, than any other illness. Persons at great risk for carpal tunnel syndrome included dental hygienists, butchers, sewing machine operators, and dentists. Mental disorders generated more morbidity than is generally acknowledged. Neurotic reactions to stress were highest in the transportation and public utility industries, as well as in finance, insurance, and real estate. Manufacturing contributed far more cases than any other industry. Industries generating significant asbestos-related deaths included construction and boat building. Ninety-three percent of all illness fatalities were among men. Few African Americans died from coal-workers' pneumoconiosis. Illness cases increased much faster than injury cases in recent years. The two data sets provide insights into the incidences and prevalences of occupational illnesses, but underestimate the burden of job-related illnesses. PMID:10026471

  4. National Priorities List sites set (1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The publications provide general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. The report clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in Site Cleanups are doing, and how the Nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. (The overview document, Superfund: Focusing on the Nation at Large (1991), available separately order as PB92-953252).

  5. Using National Education Longitudinal Data Sets in School Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia A.; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    National longitudinal databases hold much promise for school counseling researchers. Several of the more frequently used data sets, possible professional implications, and strategies for acquiring training in the use of large-scale national data sets are described. A 6-step process for conducting research with the data sets is explicated:…

  6. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. o collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in D...

  7. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. To collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in ...

  8. 75 FR 80219 - National Emission Standards for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating); National Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...This action proposes how EPA will address the residual risk and technology review conducted for two industrial source categories regulated by separate national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. It also proposes to address provisions related to emissions during periods of startup, shutdown, and...

  9. Retrieved Surface Emissivity Impact of New Cloud-Clearing Channel Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Evan F.; Hook, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on a proposed new cloud clearing channel set to improve land products and validate surface emissivity is given. The topics include: 1) Methodology; 2) Channel Selection; 3) Temperature Statistics; 4) 850 hPa Temperature Variability; 5) Status of Surface Retrieval; 6) Emissivity at 9 micrometers; 7) Emissivity Spectra; 8) Ha Megev (Israel); 9) Egypt One; 10) Salonga National Park, Zaire; 11) HaGolan (Israel/Syria); 12) Emissivity at 3.75 micrometers; 13) Improving Surface Retrieval; 14) Work Needed for V5 Delivery; 15) Effects of MODIS Emissivity; 16) Channel Selection; 17) 500 hPa Temperature Variability; 18) 850 hPa Temperature Variability; and 19) 850 hPa Temperature Differences;

  10. Physical Geography Slide Sets of America's National Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, E. Willard

    1984-01-01

    The national parks of the United States are widely known for their unique physical environments. Described are 10 sets of slides that will acquaint students with the parks' landforms and geologic processes. (RM)

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  13. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  15. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  16. Incorporating energy trade into national greenhouse gas emission estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; Dailey, R.G.; Spencer, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    As negotiations aimed at establishing national emissions reductions targets proceed, it is very important to understand the differences between alternative methods of estimating and attributing emissions to the respective countries. Current estimates of national energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions frequently consider only domestic emissions sources. However, this approach may inaccurately reflect the true level of global emissions resulting from energy consumed by a particular economy, particularly if it engages in significant levels of energy trade. Alternative estimation methods may more accurately reflect these ``trade-based`` emissions. In this paper, the authors propose a method of estimating emissions, by country, that incorporates the effects of international energy trade. The paper shows that estimated trade-based emission levels for a country can significantly differ from domestic-based emissions estimates, depending on that country`s levels of fossil energy imports and exports relative to its domestic energy consumption. Four preliminary case studies are presented to demonstrate the impact of energy trade on emissions estimates, including the United States, Japan, France, and Saudi Arabia. Countries that are large exporters of fossil energy (like Saudi Arabia) tend to have reduced emissions attributable to their economy, while the converse is true for large energy importers (such as Japan).

  17. SETTING PRIORITIES FOR CONTROL OF FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM OPEN SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes setting priorities for controlling fugitive particulate emissions. Emission rate estimates of suspended particulates from open sources in the U.S. were obtained from emission factors and source extents in the literature. Major open sources, with their estimat...

  18. Rendering plant emissions in a residential setting: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, J.M.; MacDonald, H.F.

    1992-12-01

    The contingent value method is employed to estimate economic damages to households resulting from rendering plant emissions in a small town. Household WTA and WTP are estimated individually and in aggregate. The influence of Household characteristics is examined with regression models. The perception of health risk is an important determinant of household valuation while income appears insignificant. Results indicate that a potential Pareto-improvement is possible with the incorporation of current abatement technology.

  19. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ..., was published on January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1268). EPA has established the public docket for the proposed...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and...

  20. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  1. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  2. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT FROM ROOFTOP PV

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort will determine the emissions impacts to the U.S. PV generated electricity when PV systems are installed on building rooftops and employed as demand-side power supplies. The national assessment will be based on data provided by existing rooftop PV systems that have be...

  3. Towards national-scale greenhouse gas emissions evaluation with robust uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Matthew; Swallow, Ben; Lunt, Mark; Manning, Alistair; Ganesan, Anita; Stavert, Ann; Stanley, Kieran; O'Doherty, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Through the Deriving Emissions related to Climate Change (DECC) network and the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) programme, the UK's greenhouse gases are now monitored by instruments mounted on telecommunications towers and churches, on a ferry that performs regular transects of the North Sea, on-board a research aircraft and from space. When combined with information from high-resolution chemical transport models such as the Met Office Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), these measurements are allowing us to evaluate emissions more accurately than has previously been possible. However, it has long been appreciated that current methods for quantifying fluxes using atmospheric data suffer from uncertainties, primarily relating to the chemical transport model, that have been largely ignored to date. Here, we use novel model reduction techniques for quantifying the influence of a set of potential systematic model errors on the outcome of a national-scale inversion. This new technique has been incorporated into a hierarchical Bayesian framework, which can be shown to reduce the influence of subjective choices on the outcome of inverse modelling studies. Using estimates of the UK's methane emissions derived from DECC and GAUGE tall-tower measurements as a case study, we will show that such model systematic errors have the potential to significantly increase the uncertainty on national-scale emissions estimates. Therefore, we conclude that these factors must be incorporated in national emissions evaluation efforts, if they are to be credible.

  4. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1996 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1996 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  5. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1999 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1999 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  6. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 2002 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a data set of estimates of 2002 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  7. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources. PMID:15887892

  8. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  9. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  10. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  11. Estimating National-scale Emissions using Dense Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2014-12-01

    The UK's DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network consists of four greenhouse gas measurement stations that are situated to constrain emissions from the UK and Northwest Europe. These four stations are located in Mace Head (West Coast of Ireland), and on telecommunication towers at Ridge Hill (Western England), Tacolneston (Eastern England) and Angus (Eastern Scotland). With the exception of Angus, which currently only measures carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the remaining sites are additionally equipped to monitor nitrous oxide (N2O). We present an analysis of the network's CH4 and N2O observations from 2011-2013 and compare derived top-down regional emissions with bottom-up inventories, including a recently produced high-resolution inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory). As countries are moving toward national-level emissions estimation, we also address some of the considerations that need to be made when designing these national networks. One of the novel aspects of this work is that we use a hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework. This methodology, which has newly been applied to greenhouse gas emissions estimation, is designed to estimate temporally and spatially varying model-measurement uncertainties and correlation scales, in addition to fluxes. Through this analysis, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing these covariance parameters in order to properly use data from high-density monitoring networks. This UK case study highlights the ways in which this new inverse framework can be used to address some of the limitations of traditional Bayesian inverse methods.

  12. Estimation method for national methane emission from solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gaikwad, S. A.; Shekdar, A. V.; Kshirsagar, P. S.; Singh, R. N.

    In keeping with the global efforts on inventorisation of methane emission, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are recognised as one of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions generated from human activities. In India, most of the solid wastes are disposed of by landfilling in low-lying areas located in and around the urban centres resulting in generation of large quantities of biogas containing a sizeable proportion of methane. After a critical review of literature on the methodology for estimation of methane emissions, the default methodology has been used in estimation following the IPCC guidelines 1996. However, as the default methodology assumes that all potential methane is emitted in the year of waste deposition, a triangular model for biogas from landfill has been proposed and the results are compared. The methodology proposed for methane emissions from landfills based on a triangular model is more realistic and can very well be used in estimation on global basis. Methane emissions from MSW landfills for the year AD 1980-1999 have been estimated which could be used in computing national inventories of methane emission.

  13. 75 FR 65067 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...This action proposes how EPA will address the residual risk and technology reviews conducted for two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP), and this action is a supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking for an October 2008 action that proposed how EPA would address the residual risk and technology reviews for four NESHAP. The six NESHAP include 16 source......

  14. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  15. Unit: Life in Freshwater, Inspection Set, National Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This verion of a unit written by the Australian Science Education project, which is preparing materials for science instruction in grades seven through ten, is available for national testing. It contains two student books, the first providing instruction for six activities considered basic to an understanding of the aquatic habitat, and reading on…

  16. National Integration in Multicultural School Setting in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Abu Bakar; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is a multicultural country constituting three major ethno-cultural groups, Malay and Bumiputera, Chinese and Indian. Owing to its diverse cultures attempts through a number of channels, politics, economics and social were made to bring about national integration. School is thought to be the most effective platform to bring about national…

  17. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction... modification of sources subject to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  18. The National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign, September 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Larson, D. J.; et al

    2016-01-06

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), the National Ignition Facility (NIF) had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole U.S. inertial confinement fusion community. In 1994, the Joint Central Diagnostic Team documented a plan for a limited set of NIF diagnostics in the NIF Conceptual Design Report. Two decades later, these diagnostics, and many others, were installed workhorse tools for all users of NIF. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by themore » function of the diagnostics, namely, target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation, and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova in 1999. Although NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s, new diagnostics are limited such as the higher-speed X-ray imager. Lastly, recommendations for future diagnostics on the NIF are discussed.« less

  19. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  20. Rice cultivation and methane emission: Documentation of distributed geographic data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; John, Jasmin; Fung, Inez

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, seasonality, and methane emission from rice cultivation, a series of supporting data sets is included, allowing users not only to replicate the work of Matthews et al. but to investigate alternative cultivation and emission scenarios. The suite of databases provided, at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution for the globe, includes (1) locations of rice cultivation, (2) monthly arrays of actively growing rice areas, (3) countries and political subdivisions, and (4) monthly arrays of methane emission from rice cultivation. Ancillary data include (1) a listing, by country, of harvested rice areas and seasonal distribution of crop cycles and (2) country names and codes. Summary tables of zonal/monthly distributions of actively growing rice areas and of methane emissions are presented. Users should consult original publications for complete discussion of the data bases. This short paper is designed only to document formats of the distributed information and briefly describe the contents of the data sets and their initial application to evaluating the role of rice cultivation in the methane budget.

  1. Global estimation of CO emissions using three sets of satellite data for burned area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Atul K.

    Using three sets of satellite data for burned areas together with the tree cover imagery and a biogeochemical component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) the global emissions of CO and associated uncertainties are estimated for the year 2000. The available fuel load (AFL) is calculated using the ISAM biogeochemical model, which accounts for the aboveground and surface fuel removed by land clearing for croplands and pasturelands, as well as the influence on fuel load of various ecosystem processes (such as stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration, plant photosynthesis and respiration, litter production, and soil organic carbon decomposition) and important feedback mechanisms (such as climate and fertilization feedback mechanism). The ISAM estimated global total AFL in the year 2000 was about 687 Pg AFL. All forest ecosystems account for about 90% of the global total AFL. The estimated global CO emissions based on three global burned area satellite data sets (GLOBSCAR, GBA, and Global Fire Emissions Database version 2 (GFEDv2)) for the year 2000 ranges between 320 and 390 Tg CO. Emissions from open fires are highest in tropical Africa, primarily due to forest cutting and burning. The estimated overall uncertainty in global CO emission is about ±65%, with the highest uncertainty occurring in North Africa and Middle East region (±99%). The results of this study suggest that the uncertainties in the calculated emissions stem primarily from the area burned data.

  2. Parameterisation for National Scale Modelling of Macronutrient Emissions to Water and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trodahl, M.; Jackson, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, increases in emissions to atmosphere and water associated with the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous are concerning. While the sources of these emissions are varied, agricultural and other primary production land uses have been identified as both major contributors to some emissions, and potential sinks. Specifically targeted solutions are being sought to reduce emissions and increase storage in these areas. LUCI (the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator) is a GIS framework developed to consider the impacts of land use on various ecosystem services in a holistic and spatially explicit manner. It is designed to work at a variety of scales, from sub-field to catchment, using readily available national data that can be supplemented with local knowledge. Current tools available with the framework include flood mitigation, habitat connectivity, erosion and sediment delivery, agricultural productivity, carbon sequestration, and water quality. At present LUCI models emissions of N and P to water using an export coefficient approach linked to land use, land management and soils, and models emissions to air of carbon dioxide only; methane and nitrous oxide are not currently considered. This study aims to refine the representation in LUCI of N and P emissions to water and develop preliminary approaches for representing methane and nitrous oxide emissions to air. The ultimate aim is the provision of a set of model representations and associated parameters that can better represent emissions to air and water and suggest spatially explicit solutions that will not undermine, and may benefit, enterprise and/or community economic assets. The physical processes associated with emissions are being investigated and categorised based on land management, soil and climate regimes for two case study countries - Wales and New Zealand. Preliminary parameters, associated modelled results and potential future refinements are presented and discussed.

  3. Setting maximum emission rates from ozone emitting consumer appliances in the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Glenn; Shaughnessy, Richard; Shu, Shi

    2011-02-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of indoor ozone levels in four cities was applied to provide guidance to regulatory agencies on setting maximum ozone emission rates from consumer appliances. Measured distributions of air exchange rates, ozone decay rates and outdoor ozone levels at monitoring stations were combined with a steady-state indoor air quality model resulting in emission rate distributions (mg h -1) as a function of % of building hours protected from exceeding a target maximum indoor concentration of 20 ppb. Whole-year, summer and winter results for Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, Windsor, ON, and Los Angeles, CA exhibited strong regional differences, primarily due to differences in air exchange rates. Infiltration of ambient ozone at higher average air exchange rates significantly reduces allowable emission rates, even though air exchange also dilutes emissions from appliances. For Houston, TX and Windsor, ON, which have lower average residential air exchange rates, emission rates ranged from -1.1 to 2.3 mg h -1 for scenarios that protect 80% or more of building hours from experiencing ozone concentrations greater than 20 ppb in summer. For Los Angeles, CA and Elizabeth, NJ, with higher air exchange rates, only negative emission rates were allowable to provide the same level of protection. For the 80th percentile residence, we estimate that an 8-h average limit concentration of 20 ppb would be exceeded, even in the absence of an indoor ozone source, 40 or more days per year in any of the cities analyzed. The negative emission rates emerging from the analysis suggest that only a zero-emission rate standard is prudent for Los Angeles, Elizabeth, NJ and other regions with higher summertime air exchange rates. For regions such as Houston with lower summertime air exchange rates, the higher emission rates would likely increase occupant exposure to the undesirable products of ozone reactions, thus reinforcing the need for zero-emission rate standard.

  4. 42 CFR 137.204 - How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed? 137.204 Section 137.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.204 How will this voluntary national uniform data set...

  5. 42 CFR 137.204 - How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed? 137.204 Section 137.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.204 How will this voluntary national uniform data set...

  6. 42 CFR 137.204 - How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed? 137.204 Section 137.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.204 How will this voluntary national uniform data set...

  7. 42 CFR 137.204 - How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed? 137.204 Section 137.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.204 How will this voluntary national uniform data set...

  8. 42 CFR 137.204 - How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will this voluntary national uniform data set be developed? 137.204 Section 137.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Operational Provisions Health Status Reports § 137.204 How will this voluntary national uniform data set...

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  10. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the secondary lead smelting source category regulated under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include revisions to the emissions limits for lead compounds; revisions to the standards for fugitive emissions; the addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions......

  11. FRAMEWORK FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF THE NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a methodologies framework to assess the uncertainties associated with the emissions values as presented in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory and to implement a prototype computer system ...

  12. The Evolution of School Nursing Data Indicators in Massachusetts: Recommendations for a National Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gapinski, Mary Ann; Sheetz, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses' research priorities include the recommendation that data reliability, quality, and availability be addressed to advance research in child and school health. However, identifying a national school nursing data set has remained a challenge for school nurses, school nursing leaders, school nurse…

  13. Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10(9) vs. 2.4 × 10(8) particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100-300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm(3) and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m(3) and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing. PMID:26550911

  14. Water Quality Modelling - Developing a Data Input Set Based on an Emission Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffels, E.

    2009-04-01

    To enable precise characterisation of the immission situations for watercourses, it is first necessary to characterise the emissions in the catchment area. The data required to yield useful information on emissions can be collected via monitoring (e.g. at waste water treatment plant outlet, run-off of surface waters, run-off of soil moisture content) and can also be generated as the result of running a suitable model (e.g. by sewer simulation modelling). The combined approach of monitoring and modelling permits development of an emission inventory. This inventory can be used as a data input set to run a water quality model for rivers which, when used in conjunction with valid methods of river monitoring (routine spot check program, online monitoring network, sediment studies), provides valuable information about the immission situation (immission inventory). It will be presented how the Erftverband, a water management association operating in the Erft river catchment in Germany, has established an emission inventory for the entire Erft basin. This inventory provides essential data input to run the water quality model of the German Water Association, generally known as the DWA Water Quality Model. It will be demonstrated that, using this inventory, the DWA Water Quality Model, applied to the Erft river basin as the Erft water quality model, constitutes a valuable tool in support of water management planning.

  15. Routine radiopharmaceutical production for positron emission tomography in a clinical setting

    SciTech Connect

    Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-11-01

    With the development of positron emission tomography (PET), many cellular processes can now be investigated in humans. To perform this task, positron-emitting radioisotopes, which decay by emission of coincidence photons externally detected after positron annihilation, are used in PET. Thus, biochemically and pharmacologically active compounds can be labeled with cyclotron-produced positron-emitting radioisotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine to probe enzyme reaction rates, membrane transport, metabolism, synthesis processes, and various pharmacological parameters. The development of PET technology for clinical applications requires not only the development of a minicyclotron technology, but also the targetry and reliable synthetic procedures for labeled compounds, all of which must be finally integrated into automated delivery systems. Although an integrated unit (cyclotron, chemistry, imaging device) specially designed for PET in clinical settings has never been developed, the work in progress in this area indicates that its implementation is immediately possible.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  18. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( < 0.02) in annual NO emission between the riparian buffers was detected (4.32 vs. 1.03 kg NO-N ha at WR and LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. PMID:25602568

  19. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  20. 77 FR 14279 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...The EPA is taking direct final action to amend the National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings final rule, which is a rule that establishes national reactivity-based emission standards for the aerosol coatings category (aerosol spray paints) under the Clean Air Act, published elsewhere in the Federal Register. This direct final action adds three compounds:......

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  4. Disproportionality in Power Plants' Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-01-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector's facilities often produces the lion's share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world's electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations' greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  9. Agenda-Setting with Bi-Weekly Content Data for Three National Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Howard, Jr.

    Using media content data produced by Issues Management of Alexandria, Virginia (also known as "The Conference on Issues and Media"), a study examined agenda-setting for network television news, newspapers with broad syndication, and national weekly news magazines. Issues Management bi-weekly publishes the combined content for all three national…

  10. An Evaluation of Methods for Setting Standards on the Essay Portion of the National Teacher Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, John Christian; Jaeger, Richard M.

    This study addressed seven questions regarding the methods used in setting passing scores on the essay subtest of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Communication Skills test for the North Carolina State Board of Education. North Carolina uses these tests to screen prospective applicants to teacher education programs. The judges (five college…

  11. The National Literacy Strategy and Setting: An Investigation in One School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the policy of setting that is commonly being seen as an organizational tool for effective delivery of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS). It is suggested that teachers are finding the increased amount of whole-class teaching to a diverse range of abilities, as prescribed by the NLS, problematic. This case-study…

  12. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Smith, Steven M.; Horton, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1) discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols, and analytical

  13. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Gasser, G.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lee, D.

    2008-12-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values "latch" in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  14. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    SciTech Connect

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lee, Danny C

    2008-01-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231 m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values 'latch' in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  15. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-01-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677

  16. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-07-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  18. Using Satellite Imagery to Improve the Characterization of Crop Residue Burning Emissions in the U.S. National Emission Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, T. E.; Pouliot, G.; Rao, V.; McCarty, J. L.; Soja, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning contributes to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One sector of the U.S. National Emission Inventory (NEI), crop residue burning, has been difficult to characterize. Previous "bottom up" efforts have resulted in omissions in some regions and unrealistic gradients of emissions across state boundaries. This work integrates daily fire locations from NOAA's Hazard Mapping System (HMS), burn scar products from NASA satellite imagery, and updated emission factors to build an improved characterization of temporally and spatially resolved emission datasets for regional air quality modeling. Comparisons with earlier estimates show significant changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of crop residue burning emissions. Results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system exercised at a 12 km resolution across the continental U.S. show relatively small but appreciable changes in fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations over parts of the modeling domain.

  19. Mechanical properties of the fiberglass prepreg system used for the National Transonic Facility replacement blade set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wallace, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of mechanical and physical properties characterization testing for the fiber glass prepreg system used to fabricate 15 of the replacement set of 25 fan blades for the National Transonic Facility. The fan blades were fabricated to be identical to the original blade set with the exception that the 7576 style E glass cloth used for the replacement set has a different surface finish than the original 7576 cloth. The 7781 E glass cloth and resin system were unchanged. The data are presented for elevated, room, and cryogenic temperatures. The results are compared with data from the original blade set and evaluated against selected structural design criteria. Test experience is described along with recommendations for future testing of these materials if required.

  20. The Revised Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer Limb-Sounding Temperature Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have revised the limb-sounding portion of the MGS-TES temperature retrievals to account for correlated noise components as well as a slowly variance radiance bias, both of which are significant contributions to TES limb-sounding radiances. See McConnochie and Smith [AGU Fall Meeting ,2011] for further discussion of these issues. We have reprocessed the complete limb-sounding temperature data set and will present an overview of its key features, focusing on the improvements and differences relative to the original version described by Smith et al. [JGR 106, 2001]. One important improvement is a decrease in the statistical uncertainty in individual retrievals at high altitudes. In the original version, uncertainties at the 1.5 Pascal levels increased from 5 - 10 K early in the mission (Mars Year 24) to 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. In the revised version, these uncertainties remain near 2 K throughout the data set. Considering averages of large numbers of

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A.

  2. Use of tool sets by chimpanzees for multiple purposes in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Wilfried, Ebang Ella Ghislain; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2014-10-01

    We report our recent findings on the use of tool sets by chimpanzees in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Direct observations and evidences left by chimpanzees showed that chimpanzees used sticks as pounders, enlargers, and collectors to extract honey from beehives of stingless bees (Meliponula sp.), which may correspond to those previously found in the same site for fishing termites and to those found in Loango National Park, Gabon. However, we observed chimpanzees using a similar set of tools for hunting a medium-sized mammal (possibly mongoose) that hid inside a log. This is the first report of hunting with tools by a chimpanzee population in Central Africa. Chimpanzees may recognize the multiple functions and applicability of tools (extracting honey and driving prey), although it is still a preliminary speculation. Our findings may provide us a new insight on the chimpanzee's flexibility of tool use and cognitive abilities of complex food gathering. PMID:24916372

  3. National Educational Research and Development Centers: Research Literature, 1966-1996. CD-ROM Set Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Document Reproduction Service, Springfield, VA.

    This manual is designed to accompany a set of 31 CD-ROM discs. Disc 1 contains a database of some 8,300 bibliographic records representing publications of the OERI-supported National Research and Development (R&D) Centers acquired and processed by ERIC across the 30-year period 1966-1997. Discs 2-31 contain digitized page images of the full text…

  4. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... aspects of the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  5. 75 FR 67676 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County,...

  6. SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTOR PROCEDURES FOR THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of spatial allocation factors to apportion National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) area source emissions from counties to individual grid cells for input to the Regional Acid Deposition Models (RADM) and Regional Oxidant Models ...

  7. Step Up and Be Counted! Update: The National Standardized School Nurse Data Set.

    PubMed

    Bergren, Martha Dewey; Maughan, Erin D; Wolfe, Linda C; Cole, Marjorie; Johnson, Kathleen H; Watts, H Estelle S

    2016-09-01

    There is a significant gap in meaningful school health data in the current national education and health data sets. Current data sets do not sufficiently capture the number and credentials of school health providers, the health of students who receive care at school, or the outcomes of school nurse interventions. Since 2014, school nurses across the United States have embraced Step Up and Be Counted!: A National Standardized School Nurse Data Set. The goal of Step Up is to collect school nurse data in a standardized, uniform format. Prior to the project, no data were recorded in a uniform manner across states and health services delivery models. Data have been reported for two years on who is delivering health care in school, selected student chronic conditions, and the disposition of students once they leave the school health office. Professional development sessions have been conducted at the national conferences of both the NASN and the NASSNC and at the state level. As the project matures, steps are being taken to increase the number of school nurses and states participating and to assure data accuracy and validity. PMID:27520986

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  10. NATIONAL- AND STATE-LEVEL EMISSIONS ESTIMATES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES (RITGS) FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of national- and state- level emissions estimates of radiatively important trace gases (RlTGs). Emissions estimates are presented for the principal anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and o...

  11. ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS DATA FOR THE 1985 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of the anthropogenic emissions estimates to be used in the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Emissions Inventory. Point and area source data, spanning the contiguous U.S., focus on the NAPAP high priority pollutants S...

  12. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...On March 21, 2011, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: industrial boilers, and commercial and institutional boilers. On that same date, the EPA announced that it was convening a proceeding for reconsideration of certain portions of those final emission standards. After promulgation, the Administrator......

  13. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  14. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  15. Extending the Cumulative Emissions Framework to Non-CO2 Gases: Can This Inform the Allocation of National Emissions Allowances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that global temperature responds approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions, allowing a finite carbon emissions budget to be defined and associated with a given global temperature target. However, it is less obvious how to incorporate into this framework the other greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions, owing largely to their widely varying atmospheric lifetimes and consequent climate effect. In this presentation, I will propose a new way to compare the climate effect of a range of greenhouse gases and aerosols. I will first assess the lifetime of the temperature response to different types of emissions, which depends on the atmospheric lifetime of the gas in question, as well as the timescale of the climate system response to forcing. I will then use this timescale of temperature decay to weight emissions of a given gas over time, generating an estimate of the effective cumulative emissions that produce a given amount of temperature change at a particular time. Finally, I will illustrate the application of this method to the question of quantifying historical national contributions to global warming and determine future emission allowances for a given climate target.

  16. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H. H.; Hutchings, N. J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Döhler, H.; Dämmgen, U.

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH 3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH 3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization, other N losses and mineralization, produced estimates of TAN available at spreading which differed by a factor of almost 1.7. The differences in estimates of NH 3 emissions decreased as estimates of immobilization and other N losses increased. Since immobilization and denitrification depend also on the C:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs.

  17. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

  18. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  19. Implementing the Career Domain of the American School Counselor Association's National Model into the Virtual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Laura Robin

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) national model has not been studied in nontraditional settings such as in virtual schools. The purpose of this quantitative research study was to examine the implementation of the career domain of the ASCA national model into the virtual high school setting. Social cognitive…

  20. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  1. Setting up a national system of compounding pharmacies: preventing error, assuring quality, building trust.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Hugo Guedes; Favaro, Alvaro; Andrade, Alba Livia; Gomes, Lenir Yago; Aguiar, Simone de Souza; Garcez, Mario do Carmo

    2009-01-01

    Influencing the drawing of future legislation, gaining the confidence of consumers, prescribers, and government; and enhancing the communication with the medical profession are among the major upcoming challenges for compounding pharmacists worldwide. In our systematic effort to prevent eror and improve quality, we have learned that guidance is our main ally. When the Brazilian National Health Agency issued legislation that had a major impact on operating costs for compounding businesses, the Brazilian National Health Agency issued legislation that had major impact on operating costs for compounding businesses, the Brazilian National Association of Compounding Pharmacies, a nongovernmental organization, set out to tackle the many deadlocks resulting from the legislation. With the support of compounding pharmacists, the association has been able to develop and implement a National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices, a process-focused system. Custom-made, individualized drugs are necessary for providing the best treatment, and compounding pharmacies must be viewed and act as partners for health. PMID:23965327

  2. Setting the Stage: Measure Selection, Coordination, and Data Collection for a National Self-Management Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Kristie P.; Boutaugh, Michele; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Lorig, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the history and rationale behind the development of a centralized data collection system for the national rollout of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Communities Putting Prevention to Work: CDSMP initiative. In addition to justifying the need for solutions to the burgeoning burden of chronic disease in the United States, this paper provides details about CDSMP and related self-management education programs, including their structure, facilitator training, and effectiveness. These topics set the stage for the processes and procedures to create and manage the database for use at the national, state, and local levels. Furthermore, this paper describes the processes related to selecting variables, coordinating data collection, and utilizing data to inform research and policy. PMID:25964919

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  4. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  6. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  8. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production were promulgated on June 1, 1999 (64 FR... Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), 54 FR 38044... thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum...

  9. Quantification of Methane Source Locations and Emissions in AN Urban Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, E.; Richardson, S.; Tan, S. M.; Whetstone, J.; Bova, T.; Prasad, K. R.; Davis, K. J.; Phillips, N. G.; Turnbull, J. C.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The regulation of methane emissions from urban sources such as landfills and waste-water treatment facilities is currently a highly debated topic in the US and in Europe. This interest is fueled, in part, by recent measurements indicating that urban emissions are a significant source of Methane (CH4) and in fact may be substantially higher than current inventory estimates(1). As a result, developing methods for locating and quantifying emissions from urban methane sources is of great interest to industries such as landfill and wastewater treatment facility owners, watchdog groups, and the governmental agencies seeking to evaluate or enforce regulations. In an attempt to identify major methane source locations and emissions in Boston, Indianapolis, and the Bay Area, systematic measurements of CH4 concentrations and meteorology data were made at street level using a vehicle mounted cavity ringdown analyzer. A number of discrete sources were detected at concentration levels in excess of 15 times background levels. Using Gaussian plume models as well as tomographic techniques, methane source locations and emission rates will be presented. In addition, flux chamber measurements of discrete sources such as those found in natural gas leaks will also be presented. (1) Wunch, D., P.O. Wennberg, G.C. Toon, G. Keppel-Aleks, and Y.G. Yavin, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from a North American Megacity, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, L15810, doi:10.1029/2009GL)39825, 2009.

  10. Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindelarova, K.; Granier, C.; Bouarar, I.; Guenther, A.; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-09-01

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission data set of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980-2010. This data set, developed under the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC), is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg (C) yr-1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2%. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of up to ±17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for a sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene inventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the data sets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene, α-pinene and group of monoterpenes showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements at sites located in tropical forests in the Amazon and Malaysia. The model was able to capture the seasonal variation of isoprene emissions in the Amazon forest.

  11. Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe; Head, Josephine; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-06-01

    Homo faber was once proposed as a label for humans specifically to highlight their unique propensity for tool use. However, new observations on complex tool use by the chimpanzees of Loango National Park, Gabon, expand our knowledge about tool-using abilities in Pan troglodytes. Chimpanzees in Loango, when using tools to extract honey from three types of bee nests, were observed to regularly use three- to five-element tool sets. In other words, different types of tools were used sequentially to access a single food source. Such tool sets included multi-function tools that present typical wear for two distinct uses. In addition, chimpanzees exploited underground bee nests and used ground-perforating tools to locate nest chambers that were not visible from the ground surface. These new observations concur with others from Central African chimpanzees to highlight the importance of honey extraction in arguments favoring the emergence of complex tool use in hominoids, including different tool types, expanded tool sets, multifunction tools, and the exploitation of underground resources. This last technique requires sophisticated cognitive abilities concerning unseen objects. A sequential analysis reveals a higher level of complexity in honey extraction than previously proposed for nut cracking or hunting tools, and compares with some technologies attributed to early hominins from the Early and Middle Stone Age. A better understanding of similarities in human and chimpanzee tool use will allow for a greater understanding of tool-using skills that are uniquely human. PMID:19457542

  12. Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting.

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, B; Bassett, I; Bodsworth, N J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the circumcision status of men affected their likelihood of acquiring sexually transmissible diseases (STDs). DESIGN--A cross-sectional study employing an anonymous questionnaire, clinical examination and type specific serology for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). SETTING--A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS--300 consecutive heterosexual male patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Associations between circumcision status and past or present diagnoses of STDs including HSV-2 serology and clinical pattern of genital herpes. RESULTS--185 (62%) of the men were circumcised and they reported similar ages, education levels and lifetime partner numbers as men who were uncircumcised. There were no significant associations between the presence or absence of the male prepuce and the number diagnosed with genital herpes, genital warts and non-gonococcal urethritis. Men who were uncircumcised were no more likely to be seropositive for HSV-2 and reported symptomatic genital herpes outbreaks of the same frequency and severity as men who were circumcised. Gonorrhoea, syphilis and acute hepatitis B were reported too infrequently to reliably exclude any association with circumcision status. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (rare among heterosexual men in the clinic) was an exclusion criterion. CONCLUSIONS--From the findings of this study, circumcision of men has no significant effect on the incidence of common STDs in this developed nation setting. However, these findings may not necessarily extend to other setting where hygiene is poorer and the spectrum of common STDs is different. PMID:8001942

  13. Use of a national collaborative to improve hospital quality in a low-income setting

    PubMed Central

    Linnander, Erika; McNatt, Zahirah; Sipsma, Heather; Tatek, Dawit; Abebe, Yigeremu; Endeshaw, Abraham; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality improvement collaboratives are a widely used mechanism to improve hospital performance in high-income settings, but we lack evidence about their effectiveness in low-income settings. Methods We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of data from the Ethiopian Hospital Alliance for Quality, a national collaborative sponsored by Ethiopia's Federal Ministry of Health. We identified hospital strategies associated with more positive patient satisfaction using linear regression and assessed changes in patient experience over a 3-year period (2012–2014) using matched t-tests. Results A total of 68 hospitals (response rate 68/120, 56.7%) were included in cross-sectional analysis. Four practices were significantly associated with more positive patient satisfaction (p<0.05): posting a record of cleaning activity in toilets and in patient wards, distributing leaflets in the local language with each prescription, and sharing ideas about patient experience across the hospital. Among hospitals that had complete data for longitudinal analysis (44/68, 65%), we found a 10% improvement in a 10-point measure of patient satisfaction (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.01) from the start to the end of the study period. Conclusions Quality improvement collaboratives can be useful at scale in low-income settings in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly for hospitals that adopt strategies associated with patient satisfaction. PMID:26796023

  14. X-ray emission from National Ignition Facility indirect drive targets

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.T.; Managan, R.A.; Tobin, M.T.; Peterson, P.F.

    1996-06-04

    We have performed a series of 1-D numerical simulations of the x-ray emission from National Ignition Facility (NIF) targets. Results are presented in terms of total x-ray energy, pulse length, and spectrum. Scaling of x-ray emissions is presented for variations in both target yield and hohlraum thickness. Experiments conducted on the Nova facility provide some validation of the computational tools and methods.

  15. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  16. National air quality and emissions trends report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This document is the twenty-fourth annual report documenting air pollution trends in the United States. While in recent years this report has widened its scope to include air pollution topics such as acid rain, visibility, and air toxics, its focus remains on those pollutants for which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Primary standards are designed to protect public health, including sensitive populations such as children and the elderly, while secondary standards protect public welfare, such as the effects of air pollution on vegetation, materials, and visibility. There are six criteria pollutants with primary standards: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  17. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

    1999-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  20. Development of an Optimum Tracer Set for Apportioning Emissions of Individual Power Plants Using Highly Time-Resolved Measurements and Advanced Receptor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    John Ondov; Gregory Beachley

    2007-07-05

    . (2005), included 6 sources. Herein, we reassessed the number of contributing sources in light of the new data. A comprehensive list of sources was prepared and both our Gaussian Plume model and PMF were used to identify and predict the relative strengths of source contributions at the receptor sites. Additionally, PDRM was modified to apply National Inventory Emissions, Toxic Release Inventory, and Chemical Mass Balance source profile data to further constrain solutions. Both the original Tampa data set (SO{sub 2} plus 11 elements) and the new expanded data set (SO{sub 2} plus 23 elements) were used to resolve the contributions of particle constituents and PM to sources using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and PDRM.

  1. Effect of measurement network densities and stratification on the uncertainty of implied emission factors for national N2O budgets from agricultural mineral soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Soeren

    2015-04-01

    Among other GHG sources that are reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) national budgets of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils are often characterized by the highest estimation uncertainties within the sectors "agriculture" and "land use and land use change". The majority of recent national emission inventories in Europe are based on Tier 1 approaches. Nitrous oxide emissions from mineral soils are highly influenced by anthropogenic and environmental conditions like soil properties and climate. Specification of those controlling factors on a national to regional scale can highly influence the spatial emission pattern and might cause systematic errors when using Tier 1 emission factors. Regionally stratified emission factors reflecting conditions that determine the N2O flux rates from agricultural soils could significantly improve the accuracy of national nitrous oxide emission inventories (Tier 2). If these stratified emission factors are based on measurement networks the density and stratification of measurement networks with respect to spatial variability of soil properties and climate is an important driver of emission factor uncertainty. In the last two decades, intensive effort has been spend on the experimentally determination of nitrous oxide emissions at plot scale and related drivers resulting in numerous published data sets that were collected and analyzed within meta-studies and European and international projects. We give an overview on recently available data on direct nitrous oxide emissions on agricultural land in Europe. Mixed linear models are trained on these data sets. These models estimate N2O emissions in response to management, meteorological data and soil properties. Based on the developed mixed linear models the effect of N2O measurement network density and stratification on bias and uncertainty of national implied emission factors from agricultural soils are quantified by Monte Carlo

  2. Infection in home health care: Results from national Outcome and Assessment Information Set data

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jingjing; Larson, Elaine; Liu, Jianfang; Stone, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients in home health care (HHC), the fastest growing health care sector, are at risk for infection. The existing research on infection in HHC is often limited by small sample sizes, local scope of inquiry, and a lack of current data. There is no national study examining agency-level infection rates. Methods This secondary data analysis used a 20% random sample of the 2010 national Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) data. An infection case was identified when the HHC patient was hospitalized or received emergency care for respiratory infection, urinary tract infection, intravenous catheter-related infection, wound infection, or deterioration. Proportions of infection cases out of the total number of patients were calculated for the whole sample and for each HHC agency. Results The final analysis included 199,462 patients from 8,255 HHC agencies. Approximately 3.5% of patients developed infections during their HHC stay, leading to emergency care treatment or hospitalization. Seventeen percent of unplanned hospitalizations among HHC patients were caused by infections. The agency-level infection rate ranged from 0%–34%, with an average of 3.5%. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the proportion of hospitalizations or emergency care treatment caused by infection in HHC and the agency-level infection rate at a national level by using OASIS data. These data demonstrate that infection is a serious problem in HHC, and infection rates varied between agencies. The variance in agency level rates may be caused by differences in infection control policies and practices. Better infection surveillance system in HHC is needed to benchmark quality of care. PMID:25681302

  3. Breath tests sustainability in hospital settings: cost analysis and reimbursement in the Italian National Health System.

    PubMed

    Volpe, M; Scaldaferri, F; Ojetti, V; Poscia, A

    2013-01-01

    The high demand of Breath Tests (BT) in many gastroenterological conditions in time of limited resources for health care systems, generates increased interest in cost analysis from the point of view of the delivery of services to better understand how use the money to generate value. This study aims to measure the cost of C13 Urea and other most utilized breath tests in order to describe key aspects of costs and reimbursements looking at the economic sustainability for the hospital. A hospital based cost-analysis of the main breath tests commonly delivery in an ambulatory setting is performed. Mean salary for professional nurses and gastroenterologists, drugs/preparation used and disposable materials, purchase and depreciation of the instrument and the testing time was used to estimate the cost, while reimbursements are based on the 2013 Italian National Health System ambulatory pricelist. Variables that could influence the model are considered in the sensitivity analyses. The mean cost for C13--Urea, Lactulose and Lactose BT are, respectively, Euros 30,59; 45,20 and 30,29. National reimbursement often doesn't cover the cost of the analysis, especially considering the scenario with lower number of exam. On the contrary, in high performance scenario all the reimbursement could cover the cost, except for the C13 Urea BT that is high influenced by the drugs cost. However, consideration about the difference between Italian Regional Health System ambulatory pricelist are done. Our analysis shows that while national reimbursement rates cover the costs of H2 breath testing, they do not cover sufficiently C13 BT, particularly urea breath test. The real economic strength of these non invasive tests should be considered in the overall organization of inpatient and outpatient clinic, accounting for complete diagnostic pathway for each gastrointestinal disease. PMID:24443075

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  5. Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelarova, K.; Granier, Claire; Bouarar, I.; Guenther, Alex B.; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-09-09

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission dataset of biogenic VOCs available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980 - 2010. This dataset is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg(C) yr1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2 %. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of * 17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene in ventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the datasets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene and*-pinene showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements in the Amazon andthe model was able to capture the seasonal variation of emissions in this region.

  6. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  7. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  8. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  9. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  10. Evaluation of a U.S. National Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reff, A.; Bhave, P.; Zubrow, A.; Rao, V.

    2012-12-01

    This work explores the potential of speciating PM2.5 emissions to evaluate inventories against ambient pollutant measurements. Previously developed (Reff et al., Environ. Sci Technol., 2009, vol. 43, 5790-5796) source profiles of PM2.5 trace elements, carbon, and ions are applied to the U.S. EPA's 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) to create a database of emissions disaggregated by species, source category, location, and time period (annual and monthly). These emissions are then "diluted" to produce projected ambient concentrations, which can be directly compared to measurements from monitoring networks. Dilution is performed by multiplying emissions against ratios of elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to EC emissions from a CMAQ modeling run that employed the same version of the NEI. After emissions dilution and spatial aggregation to the Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) level, various statistical and graphical comparisons of ambient measurements to emissions in each of the four dimensions above are then performed to diagnose gross errors in the 2005 PM2.5 NEI. Results are anticpated to be highly useful for developing future versions of the NEI, since they will allow developers to focus their efforts on the regions of the inventory that are most in need of improvement.

  11. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  12. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  13. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...On March 21, 2011, the EPA promulgated national emission standards for the control of hazardous air pollutants from new and existing industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters at major sources of hazardous air pollutants. On that same day, the EPA also published a notice announcing its intent to reconsider certain provisions of the final rule. The EPA subsequently......

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of the 1980 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Emissions Inventory. The current version of the annual inventory, Version 5.0, and the related Version 5.2 Eulerian Modeling Inventory and Version 5.3 Regional Oxidant Modeling...

  15. 76 FR 78872 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...The EPA published in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011, the proposed rules, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public hearing only on the wool fiberglass rule. Therefore, EPA is making two announcements: first, a public hearing for the proposed Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing......

  16. 76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ42 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  17. 77 FR 11476 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October...

  18. 76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA is extending the deadline for written... Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9410). EPA has established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ43 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  19. 75 FR 42030 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... are we making to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA promulgated the national emission... action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is, therefore, not... not impose any additional costs over those in the final rule published on January 5, 2010 (75 FR...

  20. 75 FR 41991 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... are we making to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA promulgated the national emission... Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is, therefore, not subject to review under the Executive... over those in the final rule published on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522). D. Unfunded Mandates Reform...

  1. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...: Background Information Document. On March 5, 2009 (71 FR 9698), EPA proposed national emission standards for... sources on June 15, 2004 (69 FR 33474). EPA promulgated NESHAP for new and reconstructed stationary RICE... on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 3568). On March 3, 2010, EPA promulgated NESHAP for existing...

  2. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is denying in part and granting in part the petitions to reconsider the final revised National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants issued under sections 112(d) and 111(b) of the Clean Air Act, respectively. The EPA is also......

  3. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...The EPA is proposing amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland cement industry for Portland cement plants issued under sections 112(d) of the Clean Air Act. Specifically, the EPA is proposing to amend the existing and new source standards for particulate matter (PM). The EPA is also proposing amendments with respect to issues on which it......

  4. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to delegate the authority to implement and enforce specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County, Nevada. The preamble outlines the process that Clark County will use to receive delegation of any future NESHAP, and identifies the NESHAP categories to be delegated by today's action. EPA has reviewed Clark County's......

  5. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... amendments? On September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54970), EPA issued final amendments to National Emission Standards... production if significant adverse comments are filed. II. What are the changes to the final rules (75 FR... Register for the particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbons (THC), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and...

  6. 78 FR 25242 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the States of Arizona, California, and Nevada AGENCY... Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP...: steckel.andrew@epa.gov . 3. Mail or deliver: Andrew Steckel (Air-4), U.S. Environmental Protection...

  7. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2010, when EPA published the proposed rule (75 FR 22470). Several parties requested that EPA extend the... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22470) Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  8. DAYCENT NATIONAL SCALE SIMULATIONS OF N2O EMISSIONS FROM CROPPED SOILS IN THE USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission factor methodology, based on simple empirical relationships, has been used to estimate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes for regional and national inventories. However, the 2005 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) greenh...

  9. 76 FR 9449 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... February 17, 2011 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 National Emission... / Thursday, February 17, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is adding the gold mine ore...

  10. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be received... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  11. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9674) a document amending the national emission... Order Reviews Under Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... specified in Executive Order 13132, Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999). This action does...

  12. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ....gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-07/pdf/2012-13193.pdf and also in the docket identified below. The public... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... proposed rule, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating...

  13. 75 FR 9647 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Information Document. On March 5, 2009 (71 FR 9698), EPA proposed national..., and reconstructed stationary RICE greater than 500 HP located at major sources on June 15, 2004 (69 FR... than or equal to 500 HP that are located at major sources of HAP emissions on January 18, 2008 (73...

  14. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... the amendments? On August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51570), EPA issued final amendments to the National Emission... Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a ``significant regulatory action'' and is.... Executive Order 13132: Federalism Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) requires EPA...

  15. Emission from dielectric cavities in terms of invariant sets of the chaotic ray dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic ray dynamics inside dielectric cavities is described by the properties of an invariant chaotic saddle. The localization of the far-field emission in specific directions, recently observed in different experiments and wave simulations, is found to be a consequence of the filamentary pattern of the saddle’s unstable manifold. For cavities with mixed phase space, the chaotic saddle is divided in hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic components, related, respectively, to the intermediate exponential (ttc) decay of the energy inside the cavity. The alignment of the manifolds of the two components of the saddle explains why even if the energy concentration inside the cavity dramatically changes from ttc , the far-field emission changes only slightly. Simulations in the annular billiard confirm and illustrate the main results.

  16. N2O emissions from activated sludge processes, 2008-2009: results of a national monitoring survey in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joon Ho; Kim, Sungpyo; Park, Hongkeun; Rahm, Brian; Pagilla, Krishna; Chandran, Kartik

    2010-06-15

    Despite recognition of the possible role of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes in nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission, a measured database of N(2)O emissions from these processes at the national scale does not currently exist. This study focused on the quantification of N(2)O emissions at 12 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the United States using a newly developed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reviewed protocol. A high degree of variability in field-scale measurements of N(2)O was observed, both across the WWTPs sampled and within each WWTP. Additionally, aerobic zones, which have hitherto not been considered in the USEPA approach of estimating N(2)O emissions, generally contributed more to N(2)O fluxes than anoxic zones from BNR reactors. These results severely qualify the conventional use of a single emission factor to "estimate" N(2)O emissions from BNR processes, solely by virtue of denitrification. Upon subjecting the nationwide data set to multivariate regression data mining, high nitrite, ammonium, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were positively correlated with N(2)O emissions from aerobic zones of activated sludge reactors. On the other hand, high nitrite and dissolved oxygen concentrations were positively correlated with N(2)O emissions from anoxic zones. Based on these results, it can be argued that activated sludge processes that minimize transient or permanent build up of ammonium or nitrite, especially in the presence of dissolved oxygen, are expected to have low N(2)O emissions. PMID:20465250

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  18. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  19. The setting of standards for agricultural nitrogen emissions: a case study of the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Angus, A J; Hodge, I D; McNally, S; Sutton, M A

    2003-12-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of aggregating the judgement of a panel of experts in order to improve the quality of decision-making. This paper provides a case study of the technique by undertaking a three-round Delphi study to determine a package of best available techniques to reduce nitrogen emissions from a poultry unit under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC). Forms of nitrogen addressed included ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) nitrogen oxides (NOx), dusts and nitrate (NO3-), with the study providing a means to prioritise the pollution concerns on different spatial scales. The priority pollutant issues were the contribution of NH3 to eutrophication, the global cooling effect of NH4+ aerosol, the role of NH4+ as a vector for atmospheric transport of NOx and SO2, the contribution of N2O to global warming, and NO3- leaching. Reduced nitrogen (NHx) was rated as a priority on all scales, while N2O and NO3- were rated as priorities only on global and local scales, respectively. The study indicated the need for abatement techniques at each stage of poultry rearing and waste management, with particular attention to reduce NH3 emissions, reflecting the priority pollutant concerns. Measures identified by the panel include maintenance of dry litter, low emission removal of litter from housing and storage of litter under cover. Once the litter has left the farm, this should either be used as a biofuel for electricity generation or rapidly incorporated into agricultural soils. The amounts and timing of manure application should be tuned to crop needs. Uncertainties in the Delphi technique limit its suitability as a stand-alone decision making tool. However, the Delphi technique proved useful in identifying priority pollutant issues, areas of agreement, disagreement and where information is lacking. This demonstrates its use when dealing with the complex issues of prioritising pollution issues and abatement approaches. PMID:14680894

  20. Atmosphere-derived National Emissions of Ozone Depleting Substances and Substitutes for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, B. R.; Lehman, S.; Godwin, D.; Thoning, K. W.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S.; Torn, M. S.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Saikawa, E.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) are strong ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Their production and consumption have been controlled by the Montreal Protocol since 1989 in developed countries and 1999 in developing countries. Although global atmospheric burdens of some of these gases have been declining for the last decade, their emissions continue due to releases from their existing reservoirs. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are transitional substitutes for CFCs; because they also deplete stratospheric ozone, they are also controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. Due to incomplete understanding of the reservoir size and emission rates for ODSs and their substitutes, uncertainty of their national emissions from inventory-based "bottom-up" estimates is undetermined. In this study, we use our atmospheric observations from multiple surface sites and aircraft profiles across the continental US from 2008 to 2012, along with data from remote sites over the Pacific basin, to derive national emissions of ODSs and their substitutes using inverse modeling. The performance of our modeling framework and the sensitivity of derived emissions to prior fluxes and model-data mismatch errors were investigated by conducting a suite of synthetic-data experiments. Sensitivity of derived fluxes to boundary values and transport was explored in real-data inversions. Our preliminary results suggest that (1) US emissions of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b are currently declining at faster rates than those reported by US EPA; (2) our emission estimate of HFC-134a, the most abundant HFCs in the atmosphere, is consistent with the estimate reported by US EPA, whereas our estimates for some currently minor HFCs (i.e. HFC-125 and HFC-143a) show no significant emission trends during 2008 - 2012, which is inconsistent with a 70 - 120 % increase over this period reported by US EPA; and

  1. Setting priorities for the adoption of health technologies on a national level -- the Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Shani, S; Siebzehner, M I; Luxenburg, O; Shemer, J

    2000-12-01

    its recommended list with minor changes within a limited timeframe. In conclusion, we propose a practical and pragmatic model for the inclusion of new health technologies at a national level, based on health technology assessment and explicit priority setting. PMID:11154787

  2. Setting priorities for action plans at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C.

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes work done by Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Subcontract Number 9-XQ2-Y3837-1 with the University of California. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of setting priorities for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) deficiencies at Los Alamos. The deficiencies were identified by a DOE Tiger Team that visited LANL in the fall of 1991, and by self assessments done by the Laboratory. ADA did the work described here between October 1991 and the end of September 1992. The ADA staff working on this project became part of a Risk Management Team in the Laboratory`s Integration and Coordination Office (ICO). During the project, the Risk Management Team produced a variety of documents describing aspects of the action-plan prioritization system. Some of those documents are attached to this report. Rather than attempt to duplicate their contents, this report provides a guide to those documents, and references them whenever appropriate.

  3. The relevance of physicochemical and biological parameters for setting emission limit values for plants treating complex industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Diane; Weltens, Reinhilde; Jacobs, Griet; Borburgh, Ab; Smets, Toon; Hoebeke, Lut; Polders, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    The influents of plants treating complex industrial wastewaters from third parties may contain a large variety of often unknown or unidentified potentially harmful substances. The conventional approach of assessing and regulating the effluents of these plants is to set emission limit values for a limited set of physicochemical parameters, such as heavy metals, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogen compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of physicochemical parameters for setting emission limit values for such plants based on a comparison of effluent analyses by physicochemical and biological assessment tools. The results show that physicochemical parameters alone are not sufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of the water treatment plants for removing hazardous compounds and to protect the environment. The introduction of toxicity limits and limits for the total bioaccumulation potential should be considered to supplement generic parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogens. A recommendation is made to include toxicity screening as a technique to consider in the determination of best available techniques (BAT) during the upcoming revision of the BAT reference document for the waste treatment industries to provide a more rational basis in decisions on additional treatment steps. PMID:24142491

  4. Development of an air emissions inventory for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    Accurate air emissions inventory is important in an effective Clean Air Act (CAA) compliance program; without it, a facility may have difficulty proving compliance with regulations or permit conditions. An emissions inventory can also serve for evaluating the applicability of new regulations (eg, Title V of CAA) and in complying with them. Therefore it is important for the inventory to be well-planned and comprehensive. Preparation of an emissions inventory for a large R&D facility such as ORNL can be a challenging task. ORNL, a government facility managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. for US DOE, consists of more than 300 buildings on about 1,500 acres. It has several thousand diverse emission sources, including small laboratory hoods, several wastewater treatment facilities, and a steam plant. This paper describes the development of ORNL`s emissions inventory with emphasis on setting goals and identifying the scope of the inventory, identifying the emission points, developing/implementing the inventory methodology, compiling data, and evaluating the results.

  5. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  6. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in acute care settings: dispensing and administration--1999.

    PubMed

    Ringold, D J; Santell, J P; Schneider, P J

    2000-10-01

    Results of the 1999 ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in acute care settings that pertain to drug dispensing and administration practices are presented. Pharmacy directors at 1050 general and children's medical-surgical hospitals in the United States were surveyed by mail. The response rate was 51%. About three-fourths of respondents described their inpatient pharmacy's distribution system as centralized. Of those with centralized distribution, 77.4% indicated that their system was not automated. Decentralized pharmacists were used in 29.4% of the hospitals surveyed; an average of 58.9% of their time was spent on clinical, as opposed to distributive, activities. About 67% of directors reported pharmacy computer access to hospital laboratory data, 38% reported access to automated medication-dispensing-unit data, and 19% reported computer access to hospital outpatient affiliates. Only 13% of hospitals had an electronic medication order-entry system; another 27% reported they were in the process of developing such a system. Decentralized medication storage and distribution devices were used in 49.2% of hospitals, while 7.3% used bedside information systems for medication management. Machine-readable coding was used for inpatient pharmacy dispensing by 8.2% of hospitals. Ninety percent reported a formal, systemwide committee responsible for data collection, review, and evaluation of medication errors. Virtually all respondents (98.7%) reported that their staff initiated manual reports. Only two thirds tracked these reports and reported trends to the staff. Fewer than 15% reported that staff were penalized for making or contributing to an error. Pharmacists are making a significant contribution to the safety of medication distribution and administration. The increased use of technology to improve efficiency and reduce costs will require that pharmacists continue to focus on the impact of changes on the safety of the medication-use system. PMID:11030028

  7. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    monitoring data on different roads. Depending on the results in this research, the largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. The differences were caused by different driving conditions that we monitored via GPS. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million t and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million t, respectively, via the REIB approach in 2011. Another implication of this research is that different road infrastructure would have different impacts for NOx and PM2.5 emissions. A region with more inter-city freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with former studies, which allocate emissions according to local truck registration number and neglect inter-region long distance transport trips, the REIB approach has advantages regarding the allocation of diesel truck emissions into the provinces. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the different roads types are no longer overlooked with this approach.

  8. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  9. Issue Obtrusiveness and the Agenda-Setting Effects of National Network News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, David Pearce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects of issue obtrusiveness on network news agenda-setting. Tests two competing models: (1) obtrusive contingency (agenda-setting effects decrease as personal experience with issues increase); and (2) cognitive-priming contingency (agenda-setting effects increase as obtrusiveness increases). Finds no support for obtrusive contingency…

  10. Assessment of the potential of urban organic carbon dynamics to off-set urban anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, P.; Churkina, G.; Wattenbach, M.; Cubasch, U.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of urban systems on current and future global carbon emissions has been a focus of several studies. Many mitigation options in terms of increasing energy efficiency are discussed. However, apart from technical mitigation potential urban systems also have a considerable biogenic potential to mitigate carbon through an optimized management of organic carbon pools of vegetation and soil. Berlin city area comprises almost 50% of areas covered with vegetation or largely covered with vegetation. This potentially offers various areas for carbon mitigation actions. To assess the mitigation potentials our first objective is to estimate how large current vegetation and soil carbon stocks of Berlin are. We use publicly available forest and soil inventories to calculate soil organic carbon of non-pervious areas and forest standing biomass carbon. This research highlights data-gaps and assigns uncertainty ranges to estimated carbon resources. The second objective is to assess the carbon mitigation potential of Berlin’s vegetation and soils using a biogeochemical simulation model. BIOME-BGC simulates carbon-, nitrogen- and water-fluxes of ecosystems mechanistically. First, its applicability for Berlin forests is tested at selected sites. A spatial application gives an estimate of current net carbon fluxes. The application of such a model allows determining the sensitivity of key ecosystem processes (e.g. carbon gains through photosynthesis, carbon losses through decomposition) towards external drivers. This information can then be used to optimise forest management in terms of carbon mitigation. Initial results of Berlin’s current carbon stocks and its spatial distribution and preliminary simulations results will be presented.

  11. Creating the spatial framework for National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS): Melding National Aquatic Data Sets with Survey Requirements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) require a consistent spatial representation of the resource target populations being monitored (i.e., rivers and streams, lakes, coastal waters, and wetlands). A sample frame is the GIS representation of this target popula...

  12. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  13. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  14. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  15. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  16. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  17. Rehabilitation-Related Research on Disability and Employer Practices Using Individual-Based National and Administrative Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…

  18. Understanding Rasch Measurement: A Mapmark Method of Standard Setting as Implemented for the National Assessment Governing Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Mapmark standard setting procedure, developed under contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). The procedure enhances the bookmark method with spatially representative item maps, holistic feedback, and an emphasis on independent judgment. A rationale for these enhancements, and the bookmark method, is…

  19. What's Up With "Step Up"? Step Up and Be Counted: The National Uniform School Nurse Data Set.

    PubMed

    Bergren, Martha Dewey; Maughan, Erin D; Wolfe, Linda C; Patrick, Kathleen; Watts, H Estelle S; Pontius, Deborah J; Johnson, Kathleen H; Cole, Marjorie; Gerdes, Jessica; Mendonca, Linda L

    2016-01-01

    The health and well-being of children who attend school is not collected in any national data sets. To effectively advocate for the health needs of children where they live, learn, and play, it is essential to build a National Uniform School Nurse Data Set. In 2014, school nurses nationwide were invited to join the Step Up and Be Counted! initiative. To prepare nurses for data collection and reporting, an informational website was established, a marketing campaign was launched, and a data collection tool was developed. Trainings were held at the national conferences of both the National Association of School Nurses and the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants, and locally by state school nurse consultants and champions. The goal of the 2014-2015 academic year was to establish the processes for such a large-scale effort. In Year 1, only three initial data sets were collected from participating school nurses from 37 states. The first year yielded much data, and challenges have been identified and addressed. PMID:26739932

  20. Characteristics of Effective Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Beth L.; Everhart, Maria; Gordon, Lyn; Gettman, Maria Garcia

    2006-01-01

    In response to (a) an increasing need to support children with emotional and behavioral challenges in childcare settings and (b) the high rates of expulsion among preschool children, mental health consultation in early childhood settings is becoming an increasingly popular intervention strategy. At the same time, there is little agreement or…

  1. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  2. Women's status and carbon dioxide emissions: A quantitative cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Christina; York, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) emissions per capita. We find that CO(2) emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally. PMID:23017863

  3. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  4. Career and Family Aspirations of Female Athletic Trainers Employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be

  5. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  6. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  7. 76 FR 65138 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews; Correction of Comment Period... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews,'' closes on October 31, 2011. This notice does not... Hazardous Air pollutants Review.'' In that notice, the EPA announced that all comments must be received...

  8. "The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

  9. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  10. Boundary Creek Thermal areas of Yellowstone National Park I: thermal activity and geologic setting

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Proposed geothermal leasing in the Island Park Geothermal Area (IPGA) in national forest and public lands adjacent to Yellowstone National Park has called attention to the moderate to high temperature springs of the Boundary Creek Thermal Areas. Up until late 1977 no description or geochemical inventory studies had been conducted in these areas. The thermal springs are scattered in four major groups along the Boundary Creek drainage with three to six km. of the IPGA - park border. Observations and analyses of physical and chemical indicators suggest that the source is under the Madison Plateau and that the waters are generally similar in the lower three thermal units. These hot springs should be monitored so as to provide early warning of change in the event that geothermal development in the IPGA causes withdrawal of groundwater from Yellow Stone National Park.

  11. The Neutron Emission Ratio Observer NERO at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Jorge; Hosmer, Paul; Lorusso, Giuseppe; Santi, Peter; Del Santo, Marcelo; Herlitzius, Clemens; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Montes, Fernando; Schatz, Hendrik; Schertz, Florian; Schnorrenberger, Linda; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The new neutron counter NERO (Neutron Emission Ratio Observer) was built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) for measuring Pn values of neutron-rich nuclei produced as fast fragmentation beams. The design was motivated by the requirement of being coupled to the NSCL beta counting system, so that β-decay particles and neutrons emitted from implanted nuclei can be measured simultaneously, while keeping a high efficiency. The detector's performance and main features will be discussed, as well as recent measurements done at NSCL for astrophysical studies of the r-process.

  12. Testing Set-Point Theory in a Swiss National Sample: Reaction and Adaptation to Major Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Anusic, Ivana; Yap, Stevie C. Y.; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Set-point theory posits that individuals react to the experience of major life events, but quickly adapt back to pre-event baseline levels of subjective well-being in the years following the event. A large, nationally representative panel study of Swiss households was used to examine set-point theory by investigating the extent of adaptation following the experience of marriage, childbirth, widowhood, unemployment, and disability. Our results demonstrate that major life events are associated with marked change in life satisfaction and, for some events (e.g., marriage, disability), these changes are relatively long lasting even when accounting for normative, age related change. PMID:25419036

  13. Testing Set-Point Theory in a Swiss National Sample: Reaction and Adaptation to Major Life Events.

    PubMed

    Anusic, Ivana; Yap, Stevie C Y; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    Set-point theory posits that individuals react to the experience of major life events, but quickly adapt back to pre-event baseline levels of subjective well-being in the years following the event. A large, nationally representative panel study of Swiss households was used to examine set-point theory by investigating the extent of adaptation following the experience of marriage, childbirth, widowhood, unemployment, and disability. Our results demonstrate that major life events are associated with marked change in life satisfaction and, for some events (e.g., marriage, disability), these changes are relatively long lasting even when accounting for normative, age related change. PMID:25419036

  14. Electron Bernstein wave emission based diagnostic on National Spherical Torus Experiment (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Diem, S. J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Caughman, J. B.; Wilgen, J.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.

    2008-10-15

    National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with n{sub e} up to 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} and B{sub T} less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for T{sub e} measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local T{sub e} measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust T{sub e}(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of >90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While T{sub e}(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge n{sub e} scale length resulted in >20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency during H modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when T{sub e}<30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase T{sub e} inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  15. Electron Bernstein Wave Emission Based Diagnostic on National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Diem, S.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, John B; Efthimion, P. C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B; Preinhaelter, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Urban, J; Wilgen, John B

    2008-01-01

    National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with n(e) up to 10(20) m(-3) and B(T) less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for T(e) measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local T(e) measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust T(e)(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of >90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While T(e)(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge n(e) scale length resulted in >20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency during H modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when T(e)< 30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase T(e) inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  16. Electron Bernstein wave emission based diagnostic on National Spherical Torus Experiment (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Diem, S.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, John B; Efthimion, P. C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B; Preinhaelter, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Urban, J

    2008-01-01

    National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with n(e) up to 10(20) m(-3) and B-T less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for T-e measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local T-e measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust T-e(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of >90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While T-e(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge n(e) scale length resulted in >20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency during H modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when T-e < 30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase T-e inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  17. A Classical Test Theory Analysis of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory National Study Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…

  18. Comparison of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Trends between a Prohibitionist University and National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Lien, Lisa M.; McBride, Duane C.; Bell, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on a decade of trends and prevalence of substance use at a Midwestern prohibitionist university. Trends were based on three data collection times, 1995, 2000, and 2005. This information was compared with results of a number of national surveys to identify trends in the data. Total averages for the prohibitionist…

  19. Setting the Table for Diversity. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lisa L., Ed.; Kotinek, Jonathan D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides a cross section of policy and practice through the voices and experiences of honors faculty, staff, and students from across the nation. While far from comprehensive, this volume does pick up different strands of thinking on diversity to present a rich and complicated understanding of what diversity is, why it is important,…

  20. NASPE Sets the Standard: 35 Years of National Leadership in Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Lumpkin, Angela; Guedes, Claudia; Eguaoje, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With 17,000 members, NASPE is the largest of the five national associations of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) and comprises six Academy Committees (Biomechanics; Curriculum and Instruction; Exercise Physiology; Motor Development and Learning; Sport and Exercise Psychology; and Sport History,…

  1. Molecular characterization of the Gossypium diversity reference set of the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the genetic diversity of cotton (Gossypium spp.) is essential to develop strategies for collection, conservation, and utilization of these germplasm resources. The US National Cotton Germplasm Collection is one of the largest world collections and includes not only accessions wi...

  2. VET in Schools: The Adoption of National Training Packages in a Secondary School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Kathryn; Pelliccione, Lina

    2003-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) teachers in Australian secondary schools (n=11) identified the following influences on adoption of National Training Packages: ways in which teachers construct meaning for innovations, organizational culture, infrastructure, leadership, and policy. More time, training, and a coordinator helped embed and…

  3. The Television Framing Methods of the National Basketball Association: An Agenda-Setting Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes the exposure and portrayal framing methods that are utilized by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Notes that key informant interviews provide insight into the exposure framing method and reveal two portrayal instruments: cameras and announcers; and three framing strategies: depicting the NBA as a team game,…

  4. Patterns and Predictors of Disciplinary Exclusion over Time: An Analysis of the SEELS National Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Benz, Michael R.; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan; Kwok, Oi-Man; Eisterhold, Leigh Ann; Zhang, Dalun

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary exclusion practices are on the rise nationally, as are concerns about their disproportionate use and lack of effectiveness. This study used data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of disciplinary exclusion over time. Students with emotional/behavioral disorders were most likely…

  5. The Use of National Data Sets to Baseline Science Education Reform: Exploring Value-Added Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim; Donnelly, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Pupil Database to investigate the differences in "performance" across the range of science courses available following the 2006 Key Stage 4 (KS4) science reforms in England. This is a value-added exploration (from Key Stage 3 [KS3] to KS4) aimed not at the student or the school level, but rather at that of…

  6. A New Zealand Scientific Perspective on 20+ Years of Efforts to Introduce Policies Setting Limits on Emissions: What's the Way Forward?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Setting limits on pollution is an inherently political process negotiated between stakeholders within society. Science has a critical, but not dominant role in setting environmental limits. Over the past 20 years, nations have had the opportunity to build on a period of major international successes, limiting ozone-depleting chemicals and sulphur emissions causing acid rain. The science and politics of solutions attempted during this time has become vastly more complicated, and the outcome has been disappointing: global greenhouse gas emissions remain at business-as-usual trajectories. It seems logical and timely to examine the landscape before forging onward. In a brief review of lessons learned from the perspective of earth-system science within New Zealand, I highlight key examples and opportunities for creating more promising way forward. Among the lessons are that small-scale limit setting can host important innovation, while collapses can occur when systems that are too-big-to-fail but lack critical pre-requisites. In this sense, implementation of cap-and-trade for water quality may represent the former, while the collapse of C prices highlight the latter. Of critical importance is the simple observation that perceived uncertainties must be brought within bounds that make decisions possible. The way in which system are framed scientifically can be of overarching significance. Cap and trade for nutrients in New Zealand catchments has enabled small-scale illustrations of how the system frame can be vital in successful policy. For example, the N budget of Lake Taupo is simplified by focusing on inputs to the land, while 100-year forcing equivalence still raises questions about managing climate change. Relationships between emissions and activity must be distilled based on sound science, in a manner simple and certain enough for people and businesses to meaningfully consider in decisions that are made every day. With trust becoming a major limiting factor in the

  7. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.; Bell, P. E.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W.; Kalantar, H.; Kauffman, R.; Moody, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Shelton, R. T.; Yeamans, C. B.; Batha, S. H.; Grim, G. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Merrill, F. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Y.; Regan, S. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rindernecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  8. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  9. Collaborative Outcome Measurement: Development of the Nationally Standardized Minimum Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Barry C.; Kirchner, Corinne; Orr, Alberta L.; Suvino, Dawn; Rogers, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the challenging process of developing a common data set for independent living programs serving older adults who are visually impaired. The three-year project, which included collaborative efforts among many stakeholders that encompass diverse program models, resulted in the development of the Internet-based Nationally…

  10. Early Predictors of ASD in Young Children Using a Nationally Representative Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeans, Laurie M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Laxman, Daniel J.; McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) occurs between 3 and 4 years of age, but increasing evidence indicates that intervention begun earlier may improve outcomes. Using secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, the current study identifies early predictors prior to the diagnosis of…

  11. Quality indicators for pharmaceutical care: a comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided

  12. Adverse Drug Events in the Outpatient Setting: An 11-Year National Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Florence T; Shannon, Michael W; Valim, Clarissa; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a common complication of medical care resulting in high morbidity and medical expenditure. Population level estimates of outpatient ADEs are limited. Our objective was to provide national estimates and characterizations of outpatient ADEs and determine risk factors associated with these events. Methods Data are from the National Center for Health Statistics which collects information on patient visits to outpatient clinics and emergency departments throughout the United States. We examined visits between 1995 and 2005 and measured the national annual estimates of and risk factors for outpatient ADEs requiring medical treatment. Results The national annual number of ADE-related visits was 4,335,990 (95%CI, 4,326,872–4,345,108). Visits for ADEs to outpatient clinics increased over the study period from 9.0 to 17.0 per 1000 persons (P value for trend<0.001). In multivariate analyses, factors associated with ADE visits included patient age (OR 2.13; 95%CI 1.63–2.79 for 65 years and older), number of medications taken by patient (OR, 1.88; 95%CI, 1.58–2.25 for five medications or more), and female gender (OR, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.34–1.71). Overall, outpatient ADEs resulted in 107,468 (95%CI, 89,011–125,925) hospital admissions annually, with older patients at highest risk for hospitalization (P value for trend<0.001). Conclusions Both patient age and polypharmacy use are risk factors for ADE-related healthcare visits, which have substantially increased in outpatient clinics between 1995 and 2005. The incidence of ADEs has particularly increased among patients 65 years and older with as many as 1 in 20 persons seeking medical care for an ADE. PMID:20623513

  13. Assessing satellite-based fire data for use in the National Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Amber J.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Giglio, Louis; Randall, Dave; Kittaka, Chieko; Pouliot, George; Kordzi, Joseph J.; Raffuse, Sean; Pace, Thompson G.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Moore, Tom; Roy, Biswadev; Pierce, R. Bradley; Szykman, James J.

    2009-05-01

    Biomass burning is significant to emission estimates because: (1) it is a major contributor of particulate matter and other pollutants; (2) it is one of the most poorly documented of all sources; (3) it can adversely affect human health; and (4) it has been identified as a significant contributor to climate change through feedbacks with the radiation budget. Additionally, biomass burning can be a significant contributor to a regions inability to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM 2.5 and ozone, particularly on the top 20% worst air quality days. The United States does not have a standard methodology to track fire occurrence or area burned, which are essential components to estimating fire emissions. Satellite imagery is available almost instantaneously and has great potential to enhance emission estimates and their timeliness. This investigation compares satellite-derived fire data to ground-based data to assign statistical error and helps provide confidence in these data. The largest fires are identified by all satellites and their spatial domain is accurately sensed. MODIS provides enhanced spatial and temporal information, and GOES ABBA data are able to capture more small agricultural fires. A methodology is presented that combines these satellite data in Near-Real-Time to produce a product that captures 81 to 92% of the total area burned by wildfire, prescribed, agricultural and rangeland burning. Each satellite possesses distinct temporal and spatial capabilities that permit the detection of unique fires that could be omitted if using data from only one satellite.

  14. Assessing Satellite-Based Fire Data for use in the National Emissions Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soja, Amber J.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Giglio, Louis; Randall, Dave; Kittaka, Chieko; Pouliot, George; Kordzi, Joseph J.; Raffuse, Sean; Pace, Thompson G.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Moore, Tom; Biswadev, Roy; Pierce, R. Bradley; Szykman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is significant to emission estimates because: (1) it can be a major contributor of particulate matter and other pollutants; (2) it is one of the most poorly documented of all sources; (3) it can adversely affect human health; and (4) it has been identified as a significant contributor to climate change through feedbacks with the radiation budget. Additionally, biomass burning can be a significant contributor to a regions inability to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM 2.5 and ozone, particularly on the top 20% worst air quality days. The United States does not have a standard methodology to track fire occurrence or area burned, which are essential components to estimating fire emissions. Satellite imagery is available almost instantaneously and has great potential to enhance emission estimates and their timeliness. This investigation compares satellite-derived fire data to ground-based data to assign statistical error and helps provide confidence in these data. The largest fires are identified by all satellites and their spatial domain is accurately sensed. MODIS provides enhanced spatial and temporal information, and GOES ABBA data are able to capture more small agricultural fires. A methodology is presented that combines these satellite data in Near-Real-Time to produce a product that captures 81 to 92% of the total area burned by wildfire, prescribed, agricultural and rangeland burning. Each satellite possesses distinct temporal and spatial capabilities that permit the detection of unique fires that could be omitted if using data from only one satellite.

  15. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Within the transportation sector, the largest component (80%) is made up of onroad emissions. In order to accurately quantify future emissions and evaluate emissions regulation strategies, analysis must account for spatially-explicit fleet distribution, driving patterns, and mitigation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. We compare a high resolution onroad emissions data product (Vulcan) to a national averaging of the Vulcan result. This comparison is performed in four groupings: light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) vehicle classes, and rural and urban road classes. Two different bias metrics are studied: 1) the state-specific, group-specific bias and 2) the same bias when weighted by the state share of the national group-specific emissions. In the first metric, we find a spread of positive and negative biases for the LD and HD vehicle groupings and these biases are driven by states having a greater/lesser proportion of LD/HD vehicles within their total state fleet than found from a national average. The standard deviation of these biases is 2.01% and 0.75% for the LD and HD groupings, respectively. These biases correlate with the road type present in a state, so that biases found in the urban and LD groups are both positive or both negative, with a similar relationship found between biases of the rural and HD groups. Additionally, the road group bias is driven by the distribution of VMT on individual road classes within the road groupings. When normalized by national totals, the state-level group-specific biases reflect states with large amounts of onroad travel that deviate

  16. Southwest under stress: national resource-development issues in a regional setting

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, A.V.; Brown, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This book examines the development-environmental conflict in the four contiguous states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. It emphasizes three issues with implications that extend beyond the Southwest: water, its quantity, quality, and allocation; environment, how and to what extent it should be preserved; and the future of Indian and other poverty-stricken people. Energy receives special attention because the Southwest is a principal repository of fossil and nuclear fuels. The authors are convinced that too little attention is given to the local functioning of national policymaking and implementation. The book discusses ways in which the federal role may change to improve both federal policy itself and cooperation with other levels of government. 144 references, 16 figures, 50 tables.

  17. A methodology for a minimum data set for rare diseases to support national centers of excellence for healthcare and research

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Rémy; Maaroufi, Meriem; de Carrara, Albane; Messiaen, Claude; Luigi, Emmanuel; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rare disease patients make up approximately 6–8% of all patients in Europe, it is often difficult to find the necessary expertise for diagnosis and care and the patient numbers needed for rare disease research. The second French National Plan for Rare Diseases highlighted the necessity for better care coordination and epidemiology for rare diseases. A clinical data standard for normalization and exchange of rare disease patient data was proposed. The original methodology used to build the French national minimum data set (F-MDS-RD) common to the 131 expert rare disease centers is presented. Methods To encourage consensus at a national level for homogeneous data collection at the point of care for rare disease patients, we first identified four national expert groups. We reviewed the scientific literature for rare disease common data elements (CDEs) in order to build the first version of the F-MDS-RD. The French rare disease expert centers validated the data elements (DEs). The resulting F-MDS-RD was reviewed and approved by the National Plan Strategic Committee. It was then represented in an HL7 electronic format to maximize interoperability with electronic health records. Results The F-MDS-RD is composed of 58 DEs in six categories: patient, family history, encounter, condition, medication, and questionnaire. It is HL7 compatible and can use various ontologies for diagnosis or sign encoding. The F-MDS-RD was aligned with other CDE initiatives for rare diseases, thus facilitating potential interconnections between rare disease registries. Conclusions The French F-MDS-RD was defined through national consensus. It can foster better care coordination and facilitate determining rare disease patients’ eligibility for research studies, trials, or cohorts. Since other countries will need to develop their own standards for rare disease data collection, they might benefit from the methods presented here. PMID:25038198

  18. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  19. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries

    PubMed Central

    Luyirika, Emmanuel BK; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  20. Comparison of emissions estimates derived from atmospheric measurements with national estimates of HFCs, PFCs and SF6.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, Jochen; Höhne, Niklas

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of using atmospheric measurement of fluorinated greenhouse gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) for the review and verification of greenhouse gas inventories provided by national governments. For this purpose, available data were compiled. It was found that atmospheric measurements of these gases are available and provide an indication of global annual emissions with sufficient certainty to reach the following conclusions: Within the uncertainty of the method, it was found that emissions of HFC-23, a by-product of HCFC-22 production, as obtained from atmospheric measurements did not decrease as fast, as the countries have reported. In contrast, SF6 concentrations in the atmosphere suggest higher emissions than reported by countries. Regional emission estimates from atmospheric measurements are still in a more pioneering state and cannot be compared to national estimates. Intensified efforts to measure HFCs, PFCs and SF6 in the atmosphere are recommended. PMID:12391806

  1. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DL Edwards; KD Shields; MJ Sula; MY Ballinger

    1999-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.

  2. Diagnostic performance of the beam emission spectroscopy system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S.

    2012-10-15

    The beam emission spectroscopy system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment measures localized density fluctuations on the ion gyroscale. Optical sightlines provide core to edge radial coverage, and the sightlines are aligned to typical pitch angles to maximize cross-field spatial resolution. Sightline images are 2-3 cm, and point spread function calculations indicate image distortion from pitch angle misalignment and atomic state finite lifetimes is minor with a 15% increase in the image size. New generation photodetectors achieve photon noise limited measurements at frequencies up to 400 kHz with refrigerant cooling at -20 Degree-Sign C. Measurements near the pedestal show broadband turbulence up to 100 kHz, and poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 cm. Plasma turbulence signals can be 2-3 orders of magnitude above photon noise and amplifier thermal noise.

  3. Diagnostic performance of the beam emission spectroscopy system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Fonck, R J; McKee, G R; Thompson, D S

    2012-10-01

    The beam emission spectroscopy system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment measures localized density fluctuations on the ion gyroscale. Optical sightlines provide core to edge radial coverage, and the sightlines are aligned to typical pitch angles to maximize cross-field spatial resolution. Sightline images are 2-3 cm, and point spread function calculations indicate image distortion from pitch angle misalignment and atomic state finite lifetimes is minor with a 15% increase in the image size. New generation photodetectors achieve photon noise limited measurements at frequencies up to 400 kHz with refrigerant cooling at -20 °C. Measurements near the pedestal show broadband turbulence up to 100 kHz, and poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 cm. Plasma turbulence signals can be 2-3 orders of magnitude above photon noise and amplifier thermal noise. PMID:23126846

  4. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver. PMID:26713047

  5. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  6. Integrated evaluation of cost, emissions, and resource potential for algal biofuels at the national scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan E; Fishman, Daniel B; Frank, Edward D; Johnson, Michael C; Jones, Susanne B; Kinchin, Christopher M; Skaggs, Richard L; Venteris, Erik R; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-05-20

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr(-1) (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and interannual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, but economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance. PMID:24749989

  7. A new particle-induced X-ray emission set-up for laterally resolved analysis over wide areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, D.; Buchriegler, J.; Renno, A. D.; Merchel, S.; Munnik, F.; Ziegenrücker, R.; Scharf, O.; Nowak, S. H.; von Borany, J.

    2016-06-01

    The recently installed and unique PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) set-up at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) is mainly dedicated to applications for a detailed overview of elemental composition over large sample areas within a short time even at trace level. The so-called High-Speed-PIXE (HS-PIXE), a combination of a pnCCD-based pixel-detector with polycapillary X-ray optics, offers simultaneous imaging of sample areas up to 12 × 12 mm2 with a lateral resolution better than 100 μm. Each of the 264 × 264 individual pixels detects X-ray photons in an energy range from 2 keV to 20 keV with an energy resolution of 152 eV (@Mn-Kα). A high precision sample manipulator offers the inspection of areas up to 250 × 250 mm2. During first experiments the determined resolution is (76 ± 23) μm using a sample of well-known sharp-edged chromium patterns. Trace element analysis has been performed using a geological sample, a tin ore, with an average Ta-concentration below 0.1 at.%. Fine-zoned structures became visible in the Ta-Lα intensity map within only 45 min. The High-Speed-PIXE closes a gap in the analytical process flow chain especially for geoanalytical characterisations. It is a unique and fast detection system to identify areas of interest in comparably short time at large-area scale for further analysis.

  8. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  9. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS) (National) EZ-Base (trade name) Version 7. 3 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created by EPA to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of PRPs. EZ-Base(TM) is a relational data base management system that utilizes a WordPerfect(R) interface and requires no programming skills to either convert or input databases. EZ-Base(TM) allows users to output selected records to merge files for reports or directly to printer. Selections may be made on any combination of field content criteria such as: site identification codes; site name; NPL flag; Potentially Responsible Party (PRP); addressee; title; address; city; state; ZIP notification date GNL and SNL.

  10. Experiential benefits, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a national scenic trail.

    PubMed

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M; Stein, Taylor V

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups. PMID:25579621

  11. Atmosphere-based nation-wide emission estimates of hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons from the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, B. R.; Thoning, K. W.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Bruhwiler, L.; Masarie, K.; Miller, S. M.; Fischer, M. L.; Saikawa, E.; Elkins, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Limiting the warming influence induced by greenhouse gases (GHGs) ultimately requires reductions in emissions. To evaluate emission magnitudes and their changes over time, we recommend verifying self-reported emission inventories with independent, atmosphere-based, 'top-down' estimates. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are potent GHGs with global warming potentials up to thousands of times larger than CO2 over a 100-year time horizon. Reductions in HCFC production and consumption were required by the Montreal Protocol in developed countries beginning in 2004. However, it is uncertain whether emissions of these gases are declining within the US because emissions are not linearly related to production or consumption due to the existence of substantial 'banks' (stores of in-use chemicals that have not yet escaped to the atmosphere). HFCs are replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. Without regulation, CO2 equivalent emissions of HFCs could become substantial in the future relative to CO2. In this study, we estimated emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a within the US from 2008 - 2012 using a Bayesian approach of a regional inverse model with atmospheric observations from 8 tall-tower sites, 5 surface flask sites and 19 aircraft sites. We used a maximum likelihood estimation to estimate model-data mismatch errors, prior flux uncertainty, and temporal and spatial correlations in flux deviations between prior and posterior fluxes. We optimized our model design and tested our model performance by conducting synthetic data experiments. With this optimized design and boundary mixing ratios calculated with three different approaches, we derived national emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a. This study provides the first multi-year atmosphere-based national emission estimates of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a, derived from multiple sites distributed across the US.

  12. RADIOLOGICAL EMISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR BROOKHAV EN NATIONAL LABORATORY, 1947 - 1961.

    SciTech Connect

    MEINHOLD,C.B.; MEINHOLD,A.F.

    2001-05-30

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has monitored its releases to the environment since its inception in 1947. From 1962 to 1966 and from 1971 to the present, annual reports,were published that recorded the emissions and releases to the environment from Laboratory operations. In 1998, a report was written to summarize the environmental data for the years 1967 to 1970. One of the purposes of the current report is to complete BNL's environmental history by covering the period from 1948 through 1961. The activities in 1947 were primarily organizational and there is no information on the use of radiation at the Laboratory before 1948. An additional objective of this report is to provide environmental data to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The report does not provide an estimate of the doses associated with BNL operations. The report is comprised of two parts. The first part is a summary of emissions, releases, and environmental monitoring information including a discussion of the uncertainties in these data. Part two contains the detailed information on the approach taken to estimate the releases from the fuel cartridge failures at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR). A series of appendices present more detailed information on these events in tabular form. The approach in this report is to be reasonable, conservative, (pessimistic), and transparent in estimating releases from fuel cartridge ruptures. Clearly, reactor stack monitoring records and more extensive records would have greatly improved this effort, but in accordance with Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Appendix 0230 Annex C-9, many of the detailed records from this time were not retained.

  13. TRACKING THE EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY NATION, SECTOR, AND FUEL TYPE: A TRACE GAS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (TGAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a new way to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for six sectors: agricultural, indus...

  14. The incorporation of the US national emission inventory into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of air Pollutants inventory

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's 2008 national emission inventory has been incorporated into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the International Nomenclature for Reporting Sy...

  15. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Function of Speed EC14OC91.013...

  16. Use of cost-effectiveness data in priority setting decisions: experiences from the national guidelines for heart diseases in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Nathalie; Janzon, Magnus; Levin, Lars-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of cost-effectiveness data, as a basis for priority setting rankings, is a distinguishing feature in the formulation of the Swedish national guidelines. Guidelines are generated with the direct intent to influence health policy and support decisions about the efficient allocation of scarce healthcare resources. Certain medical conditions may be given higher priority rankings i.e. given more resources than others, depending on how serious the medical condition is. This study investigated how a decision-making group, the Priority Setting Group (PSG), used cost-effectiveness data in ranking priority setting decisions in the national guidelines for heart diseases. Methods: A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore the use of such data in ranking priority setting healthcare decisions. The study addressed availability of cost-effectiveness data, evidence understanding, interpretation difficulties, and the reliance on evidence. We were also interested in the explicit use of data in ranking decisions, especially in situations where economic arguments impacted the reasoning behind the decisions. Results: This study showed that cost-effectiveness data was an important and integrated part of the decision-making process. Involvement of a health economist and reliance on the data facilitated the use of cost-effectiveness data. Economic arguments were used both as a fine-tuning instrument and a counterweight for dichotomization. Cost-effectiveness data were used when the overall evidence base was weak and the decision-makers had trouble making decisions due to lack of clinical evidence and in times of uncertainty. Cost-effectiveness data were also used for decisions on the introduction of new expensive medical technologies. Conclusion: Cost-effectiveness data matters in decision-making processes and the results of this study could be applicable to other jurisdictions where health economics is implemented in decision-making. This study

  17. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    PubMed Central

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m, p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m, p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990’s, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal

  18. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from 1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m,p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal air

  19. Importance of Dose Settings in the X-Ray Systems Used for Interventional Radiology: A National Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Vano, E. Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M.; Rosales, F.; Garcia, M. A.; Sotil, J.; Hernandez, J.; Carrera, F.; Ciudad, J.; Soler, M. M.; Ballester, T.

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the differences in dose settings among the X-ray units involved in a national survey of patient doses in interventional radiology (IR). The survey was promoted by the National Society of IR and involved 10 centers. As part of the agreed quality control for the survey, entrance doses were measured in a 20-cm-thick acrylic phantom simulating a medium-sized patient. A standard digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging protocol for the abdomen was used at the different centers. The center of the phantom was placed at the isocenter of the C-arm system during the measurements to simulate clinical conditions. Units with image intensifiers and flat detectors were involved in the survey. Entrance doses for low, medium, and high fluoroscopy modes and DSA acquisitions were measured for a field of view of 20 cm (or closest). A widespread range of entrance dose values was obtained: 4.5-18.6, 9.2-28.4, and 15.4-51.5 mGy/min in low, medium, and high fluoroscopy mode, respectively, and 0.7-5.0 mGy/DSA image. The ratios between the maximum and the minimum values measured (3-4 for fluoroscopy and 7 for DSA) suggest an important margin for optimization. The calibration factor for the dose-area product meter was also included in the survey and resulted in a mean value of 0.73, with a standard deviation of 0.07. It seems clear that the dose setting for the X-ray systems used in IR requires better criteria and approaches.

  20. Global EDGAR greenhouse gas emissions and national emissions reporting under the UN Climate Convention: availability, structure, definitions and role of uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, J. G.; Monni, S.; van Aardenne, J.; Doering, U. M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Peters, J. A.; Pagliari, V.

    2010-12-01

    JRC and PBL have compiled a comprehensive EDGAR v4 dataset for the ‘six’ greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6), which were constructed using consistently the 2006 IPCC methodology and combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and for the first time - to the extent possible - emission factors as recommended by the IPCC 2006 guidelines for GHG emission inventories. This dataset, that covers all countries, provides independent estimates for all anthropogenic sources from 1970 onwards that are consistent over time and comparable between countries. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. Of the 220 UN nations only 43 industrialised countries (‘Annex I’) annually report their national GHG emissions in large detail from 1990 up to (presently) 2008, while most developing countries (‘non-Annex I’) for the UN Climate Convention (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol only report a summary table with emissions for one or more years (many only for 1994). All emissions in EDGAR 4 are detailed at country level using the same standard IPCC inventory source categories as used by industrialised countries in their report to the Climate Convention. Thus we provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries that go beyond the mostly very aggregated UNFCCC reports of the developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the UNFCCC trends a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of

  1. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  2. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  3. Screening for substance misuse in the dental care setting: findings from a nationally representative survey of dentists

    PubMed Central

    Parish, Carrigan L.; Pereyra, Margaret R.; Pollack, Harold A.; Cardenas, Gabriel; Castellon, Pedro C.; Abel, Stephen N.; Singer, Richard; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The dental setting is a potentially valuable venue for screening for substance misuse. Therefore, we assessed dentists’ inquiry of substance misuse through their patient medical history forms and their agreement with the compatibility of screening as part of the dentists’ professional role. Design A nationally representative survey of general dentists using a sampling frame obtained from the American Dental Association Survey Center (November 2010 – November 2011). Setting United States of America Participants 1,802 general dentists Measurements A 38 item survey instrument assessing the relationship between dentists’ practice, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes with their query about substance misuse and their belief that such screening is part of their professional role. Findings Dentists who accepted substance misuse screening as part of their professional role were more likely to query about misuse with their patients (85.8%) compared with those who did not accept such screening as part of their role (68.2%) (p<0.001). Prior experience and knowledge about substance misuse were the strongest predictors of dentists’ inquiry about patient substance use/misuse and acceptance of screening as part of their role in their clinical practice (p<0.05). Conclusion While more than three quarters of U.S. dentists-report that they ask their patients about substance misuse, two-thirds do not agree that such screening is compatible with their professional role. PMID:26032243

  4. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the "latest scientific knowledge" at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are "requisite to protect public health" while "allowing an adequate margin of safety" without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. The NAAQS are set using scientific knowledge to inform the Administrator's policy judgments on each NAAQS. Recently, there has been increasing tension and debate over the role of scientific knowledge versus policy judgment in the setting of NAAQS. This paper reviews key elements of this debate drawing on the opinion of Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, in Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, to resolve the conundrum posed by the CAA language. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk. PMID:22662024

  5. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole

  6. Producing remote sensing-based emission estimates of prescribed burning in the contiguous United States for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Pouliot, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Miller, M. E.; Rao, T.

    2013-12-01

    Prescribed fires in agricultural landscapes generally produce smaller burned areas than wildland fires but are important contributors to emissions impacting air quality and human health. Currently, there are a variety of available satellite-based estimates of crop residue burning, including the NOAA/NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS) the Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation (SMARTFIRE 2), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Official Burned Area Product (MCD45A1)), the MODIS Direct Broadcast Burned Area Product (MCD64A1) the MODIS Active Fire Product (MCD14ML), and a regionally-tuned 8-day cropland differenced Normalized Burn Ratio product for the contiguous U.S. The purpose of this NASA-funded research was to refine the regionally-tuned product utilizing higher spatial resolution crop type data from the USDA NASS Cropland Data Layer and burned area training data from field work and high resolution commercial satellite data to improve the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The final product delivered to the EPA included a detailed database of 25 different atmospheric emissions at the county level, emission distributions by crop type and seasonality, and GIS data. The resulting emission databases were shared with the U.S. EPA and regional offices, the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWGC) Smoke Committee, and all 48 states in the contiguous U.S., with detailed error estimations for Wyoming and Indiana and detailed analyses of results for Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Oregon. This work also provided opportunities in discovering the different needs of federal and state partners, including the various geospatial abilities and platforms across the many users and how to incorporate expert air quality, policy, and land management knowledge into quantitative earth observation-based estimations of prescribed fire emissions. Finally, this work

  7. [Acupuncture patients' experience in the Brazilian Unified National Health System in different healthcare settings and social (de)medicalization].

    PubMed

    Silva, Emiliana Domingues Cunha da; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale

    2013-11-01

    The virtues attributed to complementary therapies such as holistic and patient-centered approaches and stimulus for self-healing have been increasingly valued and could theoretically attenuate the current prevailing excessive social medicalization. Among such therapies, acupuncture has been highlighted due to its progressive institutionalization and acceptance. The objective of the current study was to analyze the experience of acupuncture patients in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and its relationship to their care, in light of social medicalization in terms of the constitutive aspects, representations, and users' explanatory models. Thirty patients were interviewed, selected from primary and secondary care services in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Important therapeutic results were observed in the principal complaints, sleep, disposition, emotional status, and decreased use of medication. Users' explanatory models and self-care were modified very little, or not at all, by acupuncture treatment. However, the study showed expanded and less iatrogenic care, especially in the primary care setting, in which there was little supply of other associated practices from Chinese medicine. PMID:24233034

  8. Estimation of the carbon monoxide emissions due to Sandia National Laboratories commuter and on-base traffic for conformity determination

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, Y.; Royer, R.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the analysis and conclusion of an investigation of the carbon monoxide emissions resulting from Sandia National Laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) commuter and on-base traffic for the Clean Air Act (CAA) Conformity Determination. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County was classified as a nonattainment area by the Environmental Protection Agency. Nonattainment area is an area which is shown by monitored data or which is calculated by air quality modeling to exceed any National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County exceeds the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and ozone. The Conformity Determination was needed to complete the CAA Title V Permitting process for SNL and the DOE. The analysis used the EPA approved MOBILE5a Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions modeling program. This analysis will provide a baseline for mobile sources to allow Sandia to estimate any future activity and how that activity will impact CO emissions. The General Conformity Rule (AQCR 43) requires that operations which will increase CO emissions in nonattaimnent or maintenance areas such as Bernalillo County undergo conformity analyses to determine whether or not they will impact ambient air quality in the area.

  9. DOCUMENTATION FOR THE GRIDDED HOURLY ATRAZINE EMISSIONS DATA SET FOR THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY: A FINAL CONTRACT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to develop effective strategies for toxics management, the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in 1994, launched an ambitious five year program to conduct a mass balance study of selected toxics p...

  10. Radiative Transfer Models of Tidal Disruption Events: What Sets their Emission Line Strengths and Total Optical Flux?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Given the recent influx of observational data and theoretical investigation into the nature of the tidal disruption of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs), a full radiative transfer calculation applicable to an optically thick, electron scattering-dominated reprocessing region can provide valuable insight. Such a calculation can help address puzzles such as the lack of hydrogen emission lines in the optical spectra some TDEs, the origin of the optical and UV flux, and the simultaneous observation of x-rays along with the optical emission. In this talk I will discuss such a calculation performed with my collaborators as part of my dissertation. We track the reprocessing of accretion luminosity from a supermassive black hole as the light travels through an extended, spherical envelope composed of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen from the disrupted star. The steady-state radiative transfer equation is coupled to a solver for the atomic level populations and ionization states that does not assume local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how the hydrogen optical emission lines can become more effectively optically thick than their helium counterparts, causing them to remain hidden even in the disruption of a hydrogen-rich star. More generally, variations in the structure of the reprocessing material can give rise to a variety of hydrogen-to-helium line ratios, as has been seen in recent observations. We also determine the amount of material necessary to transfer enough radiative energy from x-ray to optical wavelengths to match what is observed, and we demonstrate how the partial absorption of ionizing radiation can give rise to events simultaneously observed in x-rays and in the optical.

  11. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency under controlled conditions for household biomass cookstoves and implications for metrics useful in setting international test standards.

    PubMed

    Jetter, James; Zhao, Yongxin; Smith, Kirk R; Khan, Bernine; Yelverton, Tiffany; Decarlo, Peter; Hays, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and enables meaningful comparisons among traditional and advanced stove types. In this study, 22 cookstoves burning six fuel types (wood, charcoal, pellets, corn cobs, rice hulls, and plant oil) at two fuel moisture levels were examined under laboratory-controlled operating conditions as outlined in the Water Boiling Test (WBT) protocol, Version 4. Pollutant emissions (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, total hydrocarbons, and ultrafine particles) were continuously monitored. Fine particle mass was measured gravimetrically for each WBT phase. Additional measurements included cookstove power, energy efficiency, and fuel use. Emission factors are given on the basis of fuel energy, cooking energy, fuel mass, time, and cooking task or activity. The lowest PM(2.5) emissions were 74 mg MJ(delivered)(-1) from a technologically advanced cookstove compared with 700-1400 mg MJ(delivered)(-1) from the base-case open 3-stone cookfire. The highest thermal efficiency was 53% compared with 14-15% for the 3-stone cookfire. Based on these laboratory-controlled test results and observations, recommendations for developing potentially useful metrics for setting international standards are suggested. PMID:22924525

  12. A framework and a set of tools called Nutting models to estimate retention capacities and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in rivers at catchment and national level (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    The Nutting-N and Nutting-P models (Dupas et al., 2013, 2015) have been developed to estimate Nitrogen and Phosphorus nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data. These models were inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen and phosphorus surplus to catchment's land and rivers characteristics to find the catchment relative retention capacities. The nutrient load (L) at the outlet of each catchment is expressed as: L=R*(B*DS+PS) [1] where DS is diffuse sources (i.e. surplus in kg.ha-1/yr-1 for N, P storage in soil for P), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kg.ha-1.yr-1), R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively and they combine observed variables and calibrated parameters. The model was calibrated on independent catchments for the 2005-2009 and 2008-2012 periods. Variables were selected according to Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in order to optimize the predictive performance of the models. From these basic models, different improvements have been realized to build a framework and a set of tools: 1) a routing module has been added in order to improve estimations on 4 or 5 stream order, i.e. upscaling the basic Nutting approach; 2) a territorial module, in order to test the models at local scale (from 500 to 5000 km²); 3) a seasonal estimation has been investigated. The basic approach as well territorial application will be illustrated. These tools allow water manager to identify areas at risk where high nutrients loads are estimated, as well areas where retention is potentially high and can buffer high nutrient sources. References Dupas R., Curie F., Gascuel-Odoux C., Moatar F., Delmas M., Parnaudeau, V., Durand P., 2013. Assessing N emissions in surface water at the national level: Comparison of country-wide vs. regionalized models. Science of the Total Environment

  13. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  14. Environmental setting of Lake Mead National Recreation Area: Chapter 2 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Kent; Rosen, Michael R.; Holdren, G. Chris; Goodbred, Steven L.; Twichell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Lakes Mead and Mohave provide opportunities for millions of regional, national, and international visitors to enjoy a wide array of water-based recreation in a spectacular desert setting. The national significance of the site’s recreational opportunities and scientific values led to its designation as the nation’s first National Recreation Area in 1964. The stark contrast of the deep blue lakes with spacious open water basins against a backdrop of mountain and canyon scenery creates a diversity of landscapes inviting recreation from the active to the contemplative (Maxon, 2009). The quality of the setting as a backdrop for the recreational experience has resulted in designation of approximately 200,000 acres of lands surrounding the lakes as wilderness (National Park Service, 2005).

  15. 77 FR 36248 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Uniform Emission Standards General Provisions, was published on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17898). The EPA has... for this extension from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Chemistry Council...

  16. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  17. Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Ferreira, Joana; Lopes, Myriam; Borrego, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch emission legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and reduction of atmospheric pollutants emissions, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding emissions reduction. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning emission control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this emissions control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension. PMID:16573194

  18. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  19. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. PMID:21901443

  20. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model. PMID:18512440

  1. EMISSION INVENTORY PREPARATION IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY MODELING AND BENEFITS ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Statutes and executive orders require that major national regulatory initiatives, for example new rules for emissions from motor vehicles or proposed legislation setting emission limits on electricity producing units, be studied for their cost and benefits. This often requires t...

  2. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources. PMID:26847720

  3. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  5. National air pollutant emission trends procedures document, 1900--1996, and projections 1999--2010. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nizich, S.V.

    1998-06-01

    Data from this report has also been used for the Biennial Assessment report, the Air Quality Trends report, the Industrial SO{sub 2} Report to Congress, and the 1994 Report to Congress. The emission estimates developed and included in the Emission Trends data base have been utilized to support development of the National Particulates Inventory, in support of recent evaluations of the particulate matter and ozone NAAQS, in support of the FACA process, and in support of the CAA Section 812 retrospective analysis. The procedures document provides information on the methods and data used in the before mentioned report. Methods for calculating 1900--1996 and project estimates for 1999--2010 are also included.

  6. The evolution of OPUS: A set of web-based GPS processing tools offered by the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Dr.; Mader, Dr.; Schenewerk, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) is a suite of web-based GPS processing tools that were initially developed by the National Geodetic Survey approximately eleven years ago. The first version, known as OPUS static (OPUS-S), processes L1 and L2 carrier-phase data in native receiver and RINEX formats. Datasets submitted to OPUS-S must be between two and 48 hours in duration and pass several quality control steps before being passed onto the positioning algorithm. OPUS-S was designed to select five nearby CORS to form baselines that are processed independently. The best three solutions are averaged to produce a final set of coordinates. The current version of OPUS-S has been optimized to accept and process GPS data from any location in the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and the Caribbean. OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net), one of the most recently developed versions and currently in beta testing, has many of the same processing characteristics and dataset requirements as OPUS-S but with one significant difference. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS reference sites and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the user-submitted data. The CORS stations are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS reference stations are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS reference stations. Additional enhancements to OPUS-Net are the implementation of absolute antenna patterns and ocean tides (FES2004), using reference station coordinates in IGS08 reference frame, as well as using improved phase ambiguity integer fixing and troposphere modeling (GPT and GMF a priori models). OPUS Projects, the final version of OPUS to be reviewed in this paper, is a complete web-based, GPS data processing and analysis environment. The main idea behind OPUS Projects is that one or more managers can define numerous, independent GPS projects. Each newly defined project is

  7. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  8. Does Vocational Education Make a Difference? A Review of Previous Research and Reanalyses of National Longitudinal Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Elinor M.; Haney, Walt

    Designed to determine whether vocational education appears to make a difference in terms of a variety of outcomes, including opportunities for employment and advanced education and training, this report contains a review of previous national and non-national research concerning the effects of vocational education and a reanalysis of three national…

  9. National Survey of Educational Support Provision to Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education Settings. A Technical Report June 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports, Honolulu, HI.

    This technical report provides an overview and profile of the provision of educational supports and accommodations to students with disabilities in postsecondary programs across the United States. It is based on an analysis of a national survey conducted by the National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports at the University…

  10. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (<1.5%, referred value based on the heating value of standard coal of China), increasing Ca/S enough could decrease SO2 emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (<12%), while for fuels with high volatiles, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) should be considered. Due to the unique temperature in CFB as well as the circulating ash, the efficiency of SNCR could reach as high as

  11. The National Council of Churches' Alleged Leftist Bias: To What Degree Did Two Major Media Set the Agenda for Debate on the Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Richard H.

    In January 1983, the American public read or saw hard-hitting allegations of leftist bias by the National Council of Churches (NCC) in the largest circulation magazine, "Reader's Digest," and on the top-rated television program, "60 Minutes." A study examined the extent to which the media set the agenda for debate on this issue. It was…

  12. The Demand and Supply of Child Care in 1990: Joint Findings from the National Child Care Survey 1990 and a Profile of Child Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Barbara; And Others

    This document reports the results of two coordinated studies of early education and care in the United States. Information on child care demand was provided through the National Child Care Survey 1990 (NCCS), which involved interviews with 4,392 parents. Information on child care supply was provided by A Profile of Child Care Settings (PCS), which…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NAPAP) EMISSIONS INVENTORY, 1980: THE FLEXIBLE REGIONAL EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM (SOFTWARE, ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES, PERIPHERAL DATA FILES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The package contains documentation of the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory, FREDS source code, allocation factor files, and peripheral data files. FREDS extracts emissions data, pertinent modeling parameters (e.g., stack heigh...

  14. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations--EPA. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Today's action suspends the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization and Fumigation Operations (EO NESHAP) requirements for chamber exhaust and aeration room vents. The suspension allows affected sources subject to the EO NESHAP to defer compliance with the NESHAP requirements for chamber exhaust and aeration room vents for one year until December 6, 1999. This suspension does not affect the requirement for sources subject to the EO NESHAP to comply with provisions for sterilizer vents by December 6, 1998. This action does not change the level of the standards or the intent of the NESHAP promulgated in 1994. PMID:10338881

  15. Assessing Satellite-based Fire Data for use in the National Emissions Inventory

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning is significant to emission estimated because: (1) it can be a major contributor of particulate matter and other pollutants; (2) it is one of the most poorly documented of all sources; (3) it can adversely affect human health; and (4) it has been identified as a si...

  16. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... major and area sources, and for hydrochloric acid (HCl) from new and existing kilns located at major... requirements through the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999).\\2\\ \\1\\ An area... Industry (64 FR 31898, June 14, 1999) included emission limits based on performance of MACT for the...

  17. 78 FR 27375 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Monitoring Plan For pH for Water Absorbers at Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Production. M120011 MACT NNNNN... off-gas vent stream from the Platformer Regenerator that is vented to a hydrochloric acid (HCl... not pH through absorbers used to control hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions at the Dow Chemical...

  18. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... section 112(c)(6) due to emissions of polycyclic organic matter (POM) and mercury (63 FR 17838, 17848... vacated the Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration (CISWI) Definitions Rule, 70 FR 55568... Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (74 FR 41, January 2, 2009) soliciting comment on whether...

  19. 76 FR 15607 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... pursuant to CAA section 112(c)(6) due to emissions of POM and Hg (63 FR 17838, 17848, April 10, 1998). In... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration (CISWI) Definitions Rule, 70 FR 55568 (September 22, 2005... rule. See 75 FR 32009. CAA section 129 covers any facility that combusts any solid waste; CAA...

  20. 76 FR 80261 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... published on January 5, 2010, (75 FR 522) if adverse comments are received on this direct final rule. If we.... V. What amendments are being made to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA promulgated... Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions control (75 FR 533). We added the 95-percent design...

  1. 78 FR 6673 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ....melanie@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Information Document. On June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33812... emissions in 2004 (69 FR 33473). The EPA addressed new stationary RICE less than or equal to 500 HP located at major sources and new stationary RICE located at area sources in 2008 (73 FR 3568). Most...

  2. Potential Emissions of Tritium in Air from Wells on the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2012-10-08

    This slide-show discusses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and tritium in the groundwater. It describes the wells and boreholes and potential airflow from these sources. Monitoring of selected wells is discussed and preliminary results are presented.

  3. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  4. Modeling the effects of changes in New Source Review on national SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Evans; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Craig Oren; Karen L. Palmer

    2007-03-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to the construction or modification of major stationary emissions sources. In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency revised its rules to narrow the applicability of NSR to facility renovations. Congress then mandated a National Research Council study of the effects of the rules. An electricity-sector model - the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) - was used to explore the possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change that was to affect the power-generation industry. The studies focused in particular on coal-fired electricity generating units, EGUs, for two reasons. First, coal-fired EGUs are important contributors of these pollutants, accounting for approximately 70 and 20% of nations SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in 2004, respectively. Second, the shares of total capacity of large coal-fired EGUs that lack flue-gas desulfurization to control SO{sub 2} and selective catalytic reduction to reduce NOx emissions are 62 and 63% respectively. Although the analysis cannot predict effects on local emissions, assuming that the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is implemented, we find that stringent enforcement of the previous NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. Our results indicate that tighter emissions caps could achieve further decreases in national emissions more cost-effectively than NSR programs. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Investigation of EBW thermal emission and mode-conversion physics in the national spherical torus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, Stephanie Josephine

    2008-10-01

    NSTX is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with ne up to 1020 m-3 and BT less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) waves widely used for electron temperature measurements and EC heating and current drive in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is readily absorbed and emitted at EC harmonics. Additionally, EBWs do not experience a density dependent cutoff. As such, EBWs may enable local electron temperature measurements and provide local electron heating and current drive. EBWs cannot propagate in vacuum but can couple to electromagnetic waves, so for these applications efficient coupling between the EBWs and electromagnetic waves outside the plasma is needed. In this thesis, EBW emission via the oblique double mode conversion process to the X- and O-modes (B-X-O) is measured with two remotely steered antennas located outside of the vacuum vessel. These emission measurements have been used to determine the EBW transmission efficiency for a wide range of plasma conditions. The antennas collect fundamental (8-18 GHz), second and third (18-40 GHz) harmonic emission. The remote steering capability allowed detailed measurements (as a function of toroidal and poloidal pointing angle) of the B-X-O transmission window. Peak L-mode B-X-O transmission efficiencies of 90% and 35% for fundamental and second harmonic emission, respectively, were measured. The measured and theoretical optimal pointing angles agreed within 5° of the simulated values. Evidence of strong EBW collisional damping near the fundamental and second harmonic B-X-O conversion region was observed in H-mode discharges, reducing the B-X-O transmission efficiency to nearly 0% in some cases. Edge conditioning, via Li evaporation, successfully reduced this EBW damping and increased transmission efficiencies to 50-60%, agreeing with EBW emission (EBE) simulations. These results provide experimental evidence supporting B

  6. Between credit claiming and blame avoidance: the changing politics of priority-setting for Korea's National Health Insurance System.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minah; Reich, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Priority-setting involves diverse parties with intense and often conflicting interests and values. Still, the political aspects of priority-setting are largely unexplored in the literature on health policy. In this paper, we examine how policy makers in Korea changed their strategies as the policy context for priority setting changed from only expanding benefits to a double burden of benefit expansion plus cost containment. This analysis shows that priority-setting is a profoundly political process. The policy context shapes how policy makers choose their political strategies. In particular, we find that policy makers sway between "credit claiming" and "blame avoidance" strategies. Korean policy makers resorted to three types of political strategies when confronted with a double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment: delegating responsibility to other institutions (agency strategies), replacing judgment-based decisions with automatic rules (policy strategies), and focusing on the presentation of how decisions are made (presentational strategies). The paper suggests implications for future studies on priority-setting in the Korean health care system and in other countries that face similar challenges, and concludes that Korean policy makers need to put more effort into developing transparent and systematic priority-setting processes, especially in times of double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment. PMID:24176287

  7. Self-organising maps and correlation analysis as a tool to explore patterns in excitation-emission matrix data sets and to discriminate dissolved organic matter fluorescence components.

    PubMed

    Ejarque-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Butturini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, ubiquitous in marine and freshwater systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy, by means of Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEM), has become an indispensable tool to study DOM sources, transport and fate in aquatic ecosystems. However the statistical treatment of large and heterogeneous EEM data sets still represents an important challenge for biogeochemists. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOM) has been proposed as a tool to explore patterns in large EEM data sets. SOM is a pattern recognition method which clusterizes and reduces the dimensionality of input EEMs without relying on any assumption about the data structure. In this paper, we show how SOM, coupled with a correlation analysis of the component planes, can be used both to explore patterns among samples, as well as to identify individual fluorescence components. We analysed a large and heterogeneous EEM data set, including samples from a river catchment collected under a range of hydrological conditions, along a 60-km downstream gradient, and under the influence of different degrees of anthropogenic impact. According to our results, chemical industry effluents appeared to have unique and distinctive spectral characteristics. On the other hand, river samples collected under flash flood conditions showed homogeneous EEM shapes. The correlation analysis of the component planes suggested the presence of four fluorescence components, consistent with DOM components previously described in the literature. A remarkable strength of this methodology was that outlier samples appeared naturally integrated in the analysis. We conclude that SOM coupled with a correlation analysis procedure is a promising tool for studying large and heterogeneous EEM data sets. PMID:24906009

  8. Self-Organising Maps and Correlation Analysis as a Tool to Explore Patterns in Excitation-Emission Matrix Data Sets and to Discriminate Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Components

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Butturini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, ubiquitous in marine and freshwater systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy, by means of Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEM), has become an indispensable tool to study DOM sources, transport and fate in aquatic ecosystems. However the statistical treatment of large and heterogeneous EEM data sets still represents an important challenge for biogeochemists. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOM) has been proposed as a tool to explore patterns in large EEM data sets. SOM is a pattern recognition method which clusterizes and reduces the dimensionality of input EEMs without relying on any assumption about the data structure. In this paper, we show how SOM, coupled with a correlation analysis of the component planes, can be used both to explore patterns among samples, as well as to identify individual fluorescence components. We analysed a large and heterogeneous EEM data set, including samples from a river catchment collected under a range of hydrological conditions, along a 60-km downstream gradient, and under the influence of different degrees of anthropogenic impact. According to our results, chemical industry effluents appeared to have unique and distinctive spectral characteristics. On the other hand, river samples collected under flash flood conditions showed homogeneous EEM shapes. The correlation analysis of the component planes suggested the presence of four fluorescence components, consistent with DOM components previously described in the literature. A remarkable strength of this methodology was that outlier samples appeared naturally integrated in the analysis. We conclude that SOM coupled with a correlation analysis procedure is a promising tool for studying large and heterogeneous EEM data sets. PMID:24906009

  9. Motherhood and Work–Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: Mentors and the Female Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Eason, Christianne M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Context: One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the responsibility of mentorship and professional role models as it relates to female ATs' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Objective: To evaluate perceptions of motherhood and retention in relation to mentorship and role models among female ATs currently employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Female athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting volunteered. Average age of the participants was 35 ± 9 years. All were full-time ATs with an average of 11 ± 8 years of clinical experience. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. Results: Male and female role models and mentors can positively or negatively influence the career and work–life balance perceptions of female ATs working in the Division I setting. Female ATs have a desire to see more women in the profession handle the demands of motherhood and the demands of their clinical setting. Women who have had female mentors are more positive about the prospect of balancing the rigors of motherhood and job demands. Conclusions: Role models and mentors are valuable resources for promoting perseverance in the profession in the highly demanding clinical settings. As more female ATs remain in the profession who are able to maintain work–life balance and are available to serve as role models, the

  10. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  11. Setting the Direction. Partnerships in Action: First Nations, Metis and Inuit Learning Access and Success. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…

  12. Chapter 1: Setting the Stage--Research into Physical Activity Relationships and Children's Progress toward Achievement of the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive and self-determination theory, one purpose of the large-scale investigation reported in this volume was to determine whether elementary-aged children (7-12 years old) are progressing toward attainment of the psychomotor assessments that have been recommended for predicting achievement of National Association for Sport…

  13. Culturally Responsive Teaching in Yukon First Nation Settings: What Does It Look Like and What Is Its Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Owen, Thomas; Doiron, Ashley; Renaud, Robert; McMillan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a pedagogical framework to inform culturally responsive teaching in a Yukon First Nations community. The paper describes the community-based processes used to develop the framework, and presents accounts from teachers who have used the framework to inform their teaching. Preliminary indications of the adjusted teaching…

  14. The Status and Challenges of Higher Education Curricula Reforms in Four Highly Developed Regional/National Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article (part one of two) I will consider, using the dramatistic model pioneered by Kenneth Burke, the "scene" or historical cultural ground of each "highly developed' national/regional area (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong [SAR], and Singapore) in terms of their Higher Education (HE) systems. After these analyses, then I look to…

  15. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  16. Assessing N emissions in surface water at the national level: comparison of country-wide vs. regionalized models.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Rémi; Curie, Florence; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Moatar, Florentina; Delmas, Magalie; Parnaudeau, Virginie; Durand, Patrick

    2013-01-15

    Many countries are developing models to estimate N emissions in rivers as part of national-scale water quality assessments. Generally, models are applied with national databases, while at the regional scale, more detailed databases are sometimes available. This paper discusses pros and cons of developing regionalized models versus applying countrywide models. A case study is used to support the discussion. The model used, called Nutting-N (NUTrient Transfer modelING-Nitrogen), relies on a statistical approach linking nitrogen sources and watershed land and river characteristics and aims to evaluate the risk of water bodies failing to reach quality objectives defined by national and federal policies. After calibration and evaluation at the national scale (France), the predictive quality of the model was compared with two regionalized models in a crystalline massif (Brittany, western France, 27,000 km(2)) and in a sedimentary basin (Seine, Paris basin, 78,000 km(2)), where detailed regional databases are available. The national-scale model provided robust predictions in most conditions encountered in France (efficiency=0.69). Terrestrial retention was related mainly to specific runoff, and its median value was estimated at 49% of the N surplus, whereas median river retention represented 18% of incoming N discharge. Regionalizing the model generally improved goodness-of-fit, as the root mean squared error was reduced by 6-24%. However, precision of parameter estimates degraded when too few monitoring basins were available or when variability in land and river characteristics was too low in the calibration dataset. Hence, regional-scale models should be advocated only after the trade-off between improvement of fit and degradation of parameter estimates is examined. PMID:23183226

  17. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), (54 FR 38044, September 14, 1989), described in the next...., 100-in-1 million]'' (54 FR 38045). In the second step of the process, the EPA sets the standard at a... considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum individual lifetime cancer risk as being...

  18. A novel 15N tracer approach for the quantification of N2 and N2O emissions from soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro-ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification has received great interest by biogeochemists in the last decades, the magnitude of N2lossesand related N2:N2O ratios from soils still are largely unknown due to methodical constraints. We present a novel 15N tracer approach, based on a previous developed tracer method to study denitrification in pure bacterial cultures which was modified for the use on soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up. The method uses a background air in the incubation vessels that is replaced with a helium-oxygen gas mixture with a 50-fold reduced N2 background (2 % v/v). This method allows for a direct and sensitive quantification of the N2 and N2O emissions from the soil with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry after 15N labelling of denitrification N substrates and minimises the sensitivity to the intrusion of atmospheric N2 at the same time. The incubation set up was used to determine the influence of different soil moisture levels on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture soil in Queensland/Australia. The soil was labelled with an equivalent of 50 μg-N per gram dry soil by broadcast application of KNO3solution (4 at.% 15N) and incubated for 3 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. The headspace of the incubation vessel was sampled automatically over 12hrs each day and 3 samples (0, 6, and 12 hrs after incubation start) of headspace gas analysed for N2 and N2O with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DELTA V Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany(. In addition, the soil was analysed for 15N NO3- and NH4+ using the 15N diffusion method, which enabled us to obtain a complete N balance. The method proved to be highly sensitive for N2 and N2O emissions detecting N2O emissions ranging from 20 to 627 μN kg

  19. Radial forearm flaps as durable soft tissue coverage for local nationals being treated in the field hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Kh; Jeffery, Sla

    2013-03-01

    The current conflict in Afghanistan has seen the increasing use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) in insurgency attacks. In addition to the coalition forces killed and injured from these devices, local national civilians are also injured. Injuries often include amputations, open fractures and large areas of skin affected by fragmentation. Local national access to long-term care after an IED injury is limited, and often when the patient leaves a coalition hospital this concludes the care the patient will receive. Definitive, durable treatment options are needed for these patients. In the IED-injured patient with open extremity wounds and open metacarpal fractures, pedicled radial forearm flaps offer a suitable soft tissue coverage option. Four cases are reported on IED- injured Afghan patients treated at a Role 3 hospital facility. PMID:23720555

  20. Analysis of Diagnostic Angiography and Angioembolization in the Acute Management of Renal Trauma Using a National Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, James M.; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Smith, Thomas G.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To our knowledge data on diagnostic angiography and angioembolization after renal trauma have been limited to single institution series with small numbers. We used the National Trauma Data Bank® to investigate national patterns of diagnostic angiography and angioembolization after blunt and penetrating renal trauma. Materials and Methods All renal injuries treated between 2002 and 2007 were identified in the National Trauma Data Bank by Abbreviated Injury Scale codes and converted to American Association for the Surgery of Trauma renal injury grades. Diagnostic angiography and angioembolization were identified by ICD-9 codes and examined. Initial angioembolization was considered a failure if subsequent therapy was needed. Repeat diagnostic angiography was not considered a failure. Results A total of 9,002 renal injuries were available for analysis. A total of 165 patients (2%) underwent diagnostic angiography after renal injury, including 77 (47%) who underwent concomitant angioembolization. Of the patients 78% sustained grade III–V renal injuries. Of the 77 patients with initial angioembolization 68 required successive therapy. Repeat angioembolization was the most common management choice (29% of patients). Secondary angioembolization was durable during the index hospitalization with success in 35 of 36 cases. Successive therapy was required after initial angioembolization for all grade IV and V renal injuries in 48 patients. The overall renal salvage rate was 92%, including 88% for grade IV and V injuries. Conclusions Successive therapy is common after initial management of renal injury by angioembolization. Close observation is highly recommended after initial angioembolization for grade IV–V renal injuries. National agreement on the use of diagnostic angiography and angioembolization is needed since these procedures may be overused after grade I–III renal injuries. PMID:21334643

  1. Addressing malnutrition in young children in South Africa. Setting the national context for paediatric food-based dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Lesley T; Hendricks, Michael K; Marais, Debbie; Eley, Brian

    2007-10-01

    Despite various national nutrition and primary healthcare programmes being initiated in South Africa over the last decade, child health has deteriorated. This is seen by the rise in infant and child mortality rates, the high prevalence of preventable childhood diseases, e.g. diarrhoea and lower respiratory tract infections, and the coexistence of under-nutrition along with HIV/AIDS. Poor dietary intake, food insecurity and poor quality of basic services prevail within this precarious causal web. The national Integrated Nutrition Programme is a comprehensive nutrition strategy that focuses on children below 6 years old, at-risk pregnant and lactating women, and those affected by communicable and non-communicable diseases. Focus areas relevant to pre-school children include disease-specific nutrition treatment, support and counselling; growth monitoring and promotion (GMP); micronutrient malnutrition control; breastfeeding promotion, protection and support; contributions to household food security; nutrition interventions among HIV-infected children; and nutrition promotion, education and advocacy. Progress towards this includes the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; mandatory fortification of maize meal and wheat flour with multiple micronutrients; vitamin A supplementation coverage and mandatory iodization of salt by legislation; the provision of free road-to-health charts for GMP; and the National School Nutrition Programme. Since 2003, the basis of the nutrition education strategy has been the locally developed food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), directed at adults and school-going children. This review sketches the backdrop to and motivation for the introduction of specifically targeted paediatric FBDGs, for mothers and caregivers of children from birth to age 7 years, as a national initiative. PMID:17824851

  2. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  3. Assessment of Microphysical Models in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for Aircraft Particulate Emissions: Particle Loss in Sampling Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2008-01-01

    This paper at first describes the fluid network approach recently implemented into the National Combustion Code (NCC) for the simulation of transport of aerosols (volatile particles and soot) in the particulate sampling systems. This network-based approach complements the other two approaches already in the NCC, namely, the lower-order temporal approach and the CFD-based approach. The accuracy and the computational costs of these three approaches are then investigated in terms of their application to the prediction of particle losses through sample transmission and distribution lines. Their predictive capabilities are assessed by comparing the computed results with the experimental data. The present work will help establish standard methodologies for measuring the size and concentration of particles in high-temperature, high-velocity jet engine exhaust. Furthermore, the present work also represents the first step of a long term effort of validating physics-based tools for the prediction of aircraft particulate emissions.

  4. Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the community (SIVE): protocol for a cohort study exploiting a unique national linked data set

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Colin; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Robertson, Chris; McMenamin, Jim; Ritchie, Lewis; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65 years and over and in individuals younger than 65 years with comorbidities. There is good evidence of vaccine effectiveness (VE) in young healthy individuals but less robust evidence for effectiveness in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. Undertaking a randomised controlled trial to assess VE is now impractical due to the presence of national vaccination programmes. Quasi-experimental designs offer the potential to advance the evidence base in such scenarios, and the authors have therefore been commissioned to undertake a naturalistic national evaluation of seasonal influenza VE by using data derived from linkage of a number of Scottish health databases. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the seasonal influenza vaccination in the Scottish population. Methods and analysis A cohort study design will be used pooling data over nine seasons. A primary care database covering 4% of the Scottish population for the period 2000–2009 has been linked to the national database of hospital admissions and the death register and is being linked to the Health Protection Scotland virology database. The primary outcome is VE measured in terms of rate of hospital admissions due to respiratory illness. Multivariable regression will be used to produce estimates of VE adjusted for confounders. The major challenge of this approach is addressing the strong effect of confounding due to vaccinated individuals being systematically different from unvaccinated individuals. Analyses using propensity scores and instrumental variables will be undertaken, and the effect of an unknown confounder will be modelled in a sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of the estimates. Ethics and dissemination The West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee has classified this project as surveillance. The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and

  5. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  6. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  7. Modeling the effects of changes in new source review on national SO2 and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units.

    PubMed

    Evans, David A; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Oren, Craig; Palmer, Karen L

    2008-01-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to construction or modification of major stationary sources. In 2002 and 2003, EPA revised its rules to narrow NSR's coverage of renovations. Congress mandated a National Research Council study of the revisions' impacts. In that study, we used an electricity-sector model to explore possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change directed at power plants. We find that, assuming implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), tight enforcement of the prerevision NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. However, emissions might shift forward in time because the previous NSR rules would depress allowance prices, discouraging banking and encouraging allowance use. Only under the most aggressive prerevision NSR enforcement scenario, in which essentially all coal capacity is compelled to retrofit controls by 2020, do NOx emissions fall below ERP levels. Even then, total 2007-2020 SO2 emissions are unaffected. Further decreases in national emissions could be accomplished more cheaply by tighter emissions caps than through NSR because caps provide incentives for efficient operating strategies, such as fuel switching, as well as retrofits. PMID:18284129

  8. Emissions averaging top option for HON compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, S. )

    1993-05-01

    In one of its first major rule-setting directives under the CAA Amendments, EPA recently proposed tough new emissions controls for nearly two-thirds of the commercial chemical substances produced by the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI). However, the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HON) also affects several non-SOCMI processes. The author discusses proposed compliance deadlines, emissions averaging, and basic operating and administrative requirements.

  9. Estimating nitrate emissions to surface water at regional and national scale: comparison of models using detailed regional and national-wide databases (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Durand, P.; Parnaudeau, V.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires River Basin District managers to carry out an analysis of nutrient pressures and impacts, in order to evaluate the risk of water bodies failing to reach "good ecological status" and to identify those catchments where prioritized nonpoint-source control measures should be implemented. A model has been developed to estimate nitrate nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data in France. It was inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen sources and catchments' land and rivers characteristics. The N-nitrate load (L) at the outlet of a catchment is expressed as: L= R*(B*Lsgw+Ldgw+PS)-denitlake Where denitlake is a denitrification factor for lakes and reservoirs, Lsgw is the shallow groundwater discharge to streams (derived from the base flow index and N surplus in kgN.ha-1.yr-1), Ldgw is the deep groundwater discharge to streams (derived from total runoff, the base flow index and deep groundwater N concentration), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kgN.ha-1.yr-1) and R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively. Besides calibrating and evaluating the model at a national scale, its predictive quality was compared with those of regionalized models in Brittany (Western France) and in the Seine river basin (Paris basin), where detailed regional databases are available. The national-scale model proved to provide robust predictions in most conditions encountered in France, as it fitted observed N-nitrate load with an efficiency of 0.69. Regionalization of the model reduced the standard error in the prediction of N-nitrate loads by about 19 Hence, the development of regionalized models should be advocated only after the trade-off between improvement of fit and degradation of parameters' estimation has come under scrutiny.

  10. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia: comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set.

    PubMed Central

    Hautvast, J. L.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J. J.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L. A.; van Staveren, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting). A total of 518 infants who were attending mother-and-child health clinics were included. Age, weight and length were recorded. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated in two ways: by applying the NCHS growth reference and by using the WHO breastfed data set. Anthropometric Z-scores calculated using the breastfed data set were lower during the first 6-7 months of life compared with those calculated by applying the NCHS growth reference. This resulted in a higher proportion of children aged 0-6 months being classified as stunted and underweight using the breastfed data set versus the NCHS growth reference. After the age of 7 months, similar prevalences of stunting or underweight were observed. Relatively few infants were classified as wasted. In order to adequately assess the prevalence of stunting and underweight in breastfed infants, it is recommended that a new growth reference be developed, as has been initiated by WHO. PMID:10885182

  11. Improved mapping of National Atmospheric Deposition Program wet-deposition in complex terrain using PRISM-gridded data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory Alan

    2012-01-01

    High-elevation regions in the United States lack detailed atmospheric wet-deposition data. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) measures and reports precipitation amounts and chemical constituent concentration and deposition data for the United States on annual isopleth maps using inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation methods. This interpolation for unsampled areas does not account for topographic influences. Therefore, NADP/NTN isopleth maps lack detail and potentially underestimate wet deposition in high-elevation regions. The NADP/NTN wet-deposition maps may be improved using precipitation grids generated by other networks. The Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) produces digital grids of precipitation estimates from many precipitation-monitoring networks and incorporates influences of topographical and geographical features. Because NADP/NTN ion concentrations do not vary with elevation as much as precipitation depths, PRISM is used with unadjusted NADP/NTN data in this paper to calculate ion wet deposition in complex terrain to yield more accurate and detailed isopleth deposition maps in complex terrain. PRISM precipitation estimates generally exceed NADP/NTN precipitation estimates for coastal and mountainous regions in the western United States. NADP/NTN precipitation estimates generally exceed PRISM precipitation estimates for leeward mountainous regions in Washington, Oregon, and Nevada, where abrupt changes in precipitation depths induced by topography are not depicted by IDW interpolation. PRISM-based deposition estimates for nitrate can exceed NADP/NTN estimates by more than 100% for mountainous regions in the western United States.

  12. Experiences of Work-Life Conflict for the Athletic Trainer Employed Outside the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context The intercollegiate setting receives much of the scholarly attention related to work-life conflict (WLC). However research has been focused on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Multiple factors can lead to WLC for the athletic trainer (AT), including hours, travel, and lack of flexibility in work schedules. Objective To investigate the experiences of WLC among ATs working in the non-Division I collegiate setting and to identify factors that contribute to fulfillment of work-life balance in this setting. Design Qualitative study. Setting Institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, and the National Junior College Athletic Association. Patients or Other Participants A total of 244 ATs (128 women, 114 men; age = 37.5 ± 13.3 years, experience = 14 ± 12 years) completed phase I. Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men; age = 38 ± 13 years, experience = 13.1 ± 11.4 years) completed phase II. Data Collection and Analysis For phase I, participants completed a previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α > .90) Web-based survey measuring their levels of WLC and work-family conflict (WFC). This phase included 2 WFC scales defining family; scale 1 defined family as having a partner or spouse with or without children, and scale 2 defined family as those individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life. Phase II consisted of an interview. Qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis. Data source and multiple-analyst triangulation secured credibility. Results The WFC scores were 26.33 ± 7.37 for scale 1 and 20.46 ± 10.14 for scale 2, indicating a moderate level of WFC for scale 1 and a low level of WFC for scale 2. Qualitative analyses revealed that organizational dimensions, such as job demands and staffing issues, can negatively affect WLC, whereas a combination of

  13. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  14. Efforts to Find, Recover and Restore "A National Treasure", The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Neal, C. R.; Chi, P. J.; Williams, D. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Currie, D. G.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Dyal, P.; Freeman, J. W.; Reiff, P. H.; Bates, J.; Hager, M. A.; Kiefer, W. S.; Perkins, D.

    2014-12-01

    ALSEP science stations were deployed by Apollo astronauts at 5 Apollo lunar landing sites and were comprised of 13 active science experiments which were flown 4 to 8 at a time. All ALSEPs were turned-off on 9-30-1977, after they had generated a data set of 31 system data years and an experiment data set of over 100 data years. The 3 passive laser retroreflector experiments are still providing useable return signals. The plan was for NASA to archive the raw data, while PI Teams archived their processed data in GSFC-NSSDC. In 1975 funding for science experiments was drastically reduced. Archiving of experiments data was incomplete and in other cases experiment years of data were never analyzed. JSC's ALSEP operations manager at-end-mission stressed that the 10s of 1,000s of pages of ALSEP operational and background materals be archived in Lunar and Planetary Library for future use. In 2004 there was a renewed interest in old ALSEP science data. However, current investigators found ALSEP data very difficult to use because of its archaic formats, rerecording artifacts, and lack of suitable playback tape transports. In 2007 a group of original ALSEP personnel, current lunar investigators, and personnel from NSSDC began an effort to help solve ALSEP data availability problems. NSSDC PDS established a Lunar Node whose role was to restore the existing ALSEP data into forms which could be used by current lunar investigators. Excellent progress was achieved in several areas*. In 2010 NLSI made the Recovery of Missing ALSEP Data, a NLSI Focus Group. The group estimated 50 percent of ALSEP processed data and 80 percent of ALSEP experiments raw data were never archived with NSSDC. We suspect archival raw data tapes for the first 44 ALSEP mission months (AMM) were degaussed and reused, those for AMM 45 to 79 were lost, misplaced or destroyed in a complex system of NASA, government, industrial storage facilities (except for ~450 tapes located by S. Nagihara). The last 19 AMMs of

  15. Who Shall Not Be Treated: Public Attitudes on Setting Health Care Priorities by Person-Based Criteria in 28 Nations

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, Jana; Kittel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The principle of distributing health care according to medical need is being challenged by increasing costs. As a result, many countries have initiated a debate on the introduction of explicit priority regulations based on medical, economic and person-based criteria, or have already established such regulations. Previous research on individual attitudes towards setting health care priorities based on medical and economic criteria has revealed consistent results, whereas studies on the use of person-based criteria have generated controversial findings. This paper examines citizens’ attitudes towards three person-based priority criteria, patients’ smoking habits, age and being the parent of a young child. Using data from the ISSP Health Module (2011) in 28 countries, logistic regression analysis demonstrates that self-interest as well as socio-demographic predictors significantly influence respondents’ attitudes towards the use of person-based criteria for health care prioritization. This study contributes to resolving the controversial findings on person-based criteria by using a larger country sample and by controlling for country-level differences with fixed effects models. PMID:27280775

  16. Community Outreach and Engagement to Prepare for Household Recruitment of National Children’s Study Participants in a Rural Setting

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L.; Wey, Betty; Martin, Ann; Specker, Bonny L.

    2012-01-01

    Context The National Children’s Study (NCS) is a longitudinal study of environmental influences on children’s health. Recruitment of a representative birth cohort that will be followed until 21 years of age requires unique approaches across the nationwide study communities. Purpose To describe community outreach and engagement in preparation for household recruitment of women of childbearing age at a rural-classified NCS location that includes 4 adjacent Northern Plains counties spanning 2,500 square miles. Methods Outreach and engagement methods focused on rural community characteristics. The team established an advisory council, conducted outreach meetings with agencies and groups, participated in local events, and collaborated with stakeholders. Study awareness was raised using radio announcements, local television stories, and widespread distribution of print materials through churches, businesses and childcare centers. Impact evaluation examined the number of stakeholder events by type. Outcome evaluation examined the number of households contacted for recruitment, numbers of age-eligible women who completed the screening, and exploration of whether women had heard about the study. Findings Over 300 outreach events occurred, ranging from tribal council meetings to parade entries. Recruitment outcomes were as follows: (a) 80% of 14,700 non-vacant households were reached for potential recruitment, (b) screening interviews were conducted with 89% of the 5,800 age-eligible women identified; (c) 53% of women who completed the screening had heard about the study. Conclusions Outreach targeted to rural communities facilitated strong recruitment outcomes. Collaboration with the cooperative extension service was a unique rural asset that facilitated relevant activities. Participant retention is an ongoing priority. PMID:23289656

  17. Retention and Attrition Factors for Female Certified Athletic Trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Setting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M.; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E.; Mitchell, Murray F.; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. Objective: To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n  =  12) or former full-time ATs (n  =  11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. Conclusions: A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered

  18. Evaluation of on-road vehicle CO and NOx National Emission Inventories using an urban-scale source-oriented air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Sri Harsha; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Schade, Gunnar W.; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The MOBILE6.2 model was replaced by the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) in 2012 as an official tool recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to predict vehicular pollutant emission factors. In this study, on-road vehicle emission inventories of CO and NOx for Southeast Texas generated by MOVES and MOBILE6.2 in two versions of the 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI) were studied by comparing predicted CO and NOx using the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model incorporated with a source-oriented gas phase chemical mechanism with measurements made at six urban and industrial sites in Southeast Texas. The source tracing technique allows direct determination of contributions of on-road vehicles to overall CO and NOx concentrations and identification of ambient concentration measurements which are mostly impacted by vehicle emissions. By grouping the fractional bias (FB) values of the hourly predictions based on vehicle contributions to total CO or NOx concentrations, clear trends in the FB were observed, indicating systematic biases in the emission inventory for these species. Data points dominated by vehicle emissions suggest that surface CO concentrations due to vehicle exhaust are significantly over-estimated by a factor of 2 using either MOVES or MOBILE6.2. NOx concentrations are overestimated by approximately 20-35% and 70% by using the MOBILE6.2 and MOVES emissions, respectively. Emission scaling runs show that a domain-wide reduction of MOBILE6.2 CO emissions by 60% and NOx emissions by 15-25% leads to better model performance of exhaust CO and NOx concentrations in the current study.

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  20. Global Warming and the Neglected Greenhouse Gas: A Cross-National Study of the Social Causes of Methane Emissions Intensity, 1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The human dimensions of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming attract considerable attention in macrosociology. However, cross-national analyses generally neglect greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. The current study addresses this paucity through the testing of theoretically derived models for the social structural causes of the…

  1. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  2. The Spanish Translation and Adaptation of the Uniform Data Set of the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Disease Centers

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Amarilis; Krueger, Kristin R.; Navarro, Ellen; Ortiz, Freddy; Manly, Jennifer J.; Padilla-Vélez, Margarita M.; Weintraub, Sandra; López, Oscar L.; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from Alzheimer’s Disease Centers (ADCs) across the United States with expertise in the assessment of Spanish-speaking elderly collaborated to create the official Spanish version of measures in the Uniform Data Set of the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Disease Center Program. The present article describes this project, whose primary goal was to create Spanish instruments with cultural and linguistic equivalence to the English versions. The resulting Spanish versions make provisions for variations among Spanish-speaking groups in the United States of different nationalities, socio-cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds. A consensus-based translation and adaptation approach was used, and guiding principles and specific components of this process are summarized. The Spanish translation and adaptation of the Uniform Data Set measures became available online to ADCs in April 2007. Its creation is important, as the resulting effort provides standardized measures for the collection of cross-sectional and longitudinal data on a large cohort of Spanish-speaking elders across the country and facilitates collaborative research among ADCs. PMID:19474568

  3. Metabolic control in a nationally representative diabetic elderly sample in Costa Rica: patients at community health centers vs. patients at other health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Background Costa Rica, like other developing countries, is experiencing an increasing burden of chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM), especially among its elderly population. This article has two goals: (1) to assess the level of metabolic control among the diabetic population age ≥ 60 years old in Costa Rica, and (2) to test whether diabetic elderly patients of community health centers differ from patients in other health care settings in terms of the level of metabolic control. Methods Data come from the project CRELES, a nationally representative study of people aged 60 and over in Costa Rica. This article analyzes a subsample of 542 participants in CRELES with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Odds ratios of poor levels of metabolic control at different health care settings are computed using logistic regressions. Results Lack of metabolic control among elderly diabetic population in Costa Rica is described as follows: 37% have glycated hemoglobin ≥ 7%; 78% have systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg; 66% have diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg; 48% have triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl; 78% have LDL ≥ 100 mg/dl; 70% have HDL ≤ 40 mg/dl. Elevated levels of triglycerides and LDL were higher in patients of community health centers than in patients of other clinical settings. There were no statistical differences in the other metabolic control indicators across health care settings. Conclusion Levels of metabolic control among elderly population with DM in Costa Rica are not that different from those observed in industrialized countries. Elevated levels of triglycerides and LDL at community health centers may indicate problems of dyslipidemia treatment among diabetic patients; these problems are not observed in other health care settings. The Costa Rican health care system should address this problem, given that community health centers constitute a means of democratizing access to primary health care to underserved and poor areas. PMID

  4. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Smith, D.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff.

  5. Model Developments for Development of Improved Emissions Scenarios: Developing Purchasing-Power Parity Models, Analyzing Uncertainty, and Developing Data Sets for Gridded Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zili; Nordhaus, William

    2009-03-19

    In the duration of this project, we finished the main tasks set up in the initial proposal. These tasks include: setting up the basic platform in GAMS language for the new RICE 2007 model; testing various model structure of RICE 2007; incorporating PPP data set in the new RICE model; developing gridded data set for IA modeling.

  6. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  7. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  8. Patient-centredness as a quality domain in Swedish healthcare: results from the first national surveys in different Swedish healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Kandelaki, Ketevan; Marrone, Gaetano; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Schmidt, Ingrid; Björkman, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients’ perception of the quality and patient-centredness of healthcare has gained increasing interest in the last decade in Sweden, as in other countries. The purpose of the study was to evaluate to what extent patients perceived Swedish healthcare as patient-centred and to explore the satisfaction levels related to gender, education level and to having or not having Swedish as one's mother tongue. Design and settings This study has a cross-sectional design. Analyses were based on the first national patient surveys in Sweden, conducted between 2009 and 2010. The surveys included responses from 232 518 patients who had been in contact with primary, outpatient, inpatient, or emergency care units. Survey questions related to indicators of patient-centred care and sociodemographic variables were selected for the analysis. The patients’ level of satisfaction in the selected indicators was analysed and compared by sociodemographic and background factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used for analysis. Results The patients expressed high levels of satisfaction in questions related to the ‘Respect’ indicator (81–96% satisfied) but lower levels in most of the other indicators of patient-centred care. Only 25–30% of the patients reported they had been told about possible warning signs of their condition or treatment and 58–66% said they had received enough information about their condition. Group differences were detected. The most satisfied patient groups were men, individuals with low levels of education and those with Swedish as their mother tongue. Conclusions According to these first national patient surveys, achieving patient-centred healthcare for all citizens is a challenge for Swedish healthcare authorities. Future analyses of national patient surveys should show whether national efforts to encourage acceptance of patient-centred approaches and strategies for equal care will give intended results. PMID:26747031

  9. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part I: Background, emission scenarios and evaluation of meteorological predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010) for national environmental protection by the Chinese government, the overarching goal for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) controls is to achieve a total national emissions level of SO 2 in 2010 10% lower than the level in 2005. A similar nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions control plan is currently under development and could be enforced during the 12th FYP (2011-2015). In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) modeling system was applied to assess the air quality improvement that would result from the targeted SO 2 and NO x emission controls in China. Four emission scenarios — the base year 2005, the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, the 2010 SO 2 control scenario, and the 2010 NO x control scenario—were constructed and simulated to assess the air quality change from the national control plan. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) was applied to generate the meteorological fields for the CMAQ simulations. In this Part I paper, the model performance for the simulated meteorology was evaluated against observations for the base case in terms of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation. It is shown that MM5 model gives an overall good performance for these meteorological variables. The generated meteorological fields are acceptable for using in the CMAQ modeling.

  10. Retrospective Review of Positron Emission Tomography With Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography in the Posttreatment Setting in Human Papillomavirus–Associated Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason Y. K.; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Marur, Shanthi; Gourin, Christine G.; Koch, Wayne; Chung, Christine H.; Quon, Harry; Bishop, Justin A.; Aygun, Nafi; Agrawal, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of positron emission tomography (PET) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in assessing the need for neck dissection by retrospectively reviewing the pathology reports of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)- associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Patients Seventy-seven patients with HPV-related SCC. Main Outcome Measures Seventy-seven consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HPV-related SCC who were treated with radiotherapy as the primary treatment between August 2007 and October 2010 were retrospectively evaluated for radiologic and pathologic rate of persistence of nodal metastasis after completion of definitive radiotherapy. Pretreatment and posttreatment imaging included contrast-enhanced CT and PET. Response to treatment was measured on CT, PET at standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds of 2 and 2.5, and PET/CT by a neuroradiologist in a blinded fashion. Then, the pathology report of the patients who underwent neck dissections was reviewed for nodal status after resection and correlated with the imaging findings. Results Of the 77 patients, 67 met the study criteria, with an average follow-up PET/CT scan at 90.5 days after completion of radiotherapy. Ten patients did not undergo follow-up PET/CT imaging. Twenty patients underwent neck dissections after completion of radiation therapy. Of these 20 patients, 4 had persistent tumor and 16 did not have viable tumor. Using the final pathology report to correlate with imaging responses, CT had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85.7% (95% CI, 48.7%-97.4%), PET with SUV thresholds of 2 had an NPV of 91.7% (95% CI, 64.6%-98.5%), PET with a cutoff SUV of 2.5 had an NPV of 85.7% (95% CI, 60.1%-96.0%), PET/CT with an SUV of 2 had an NPV of 100% (95% CI, 59.8%-100.0%), and PET/CT with an SUV of 2.5 had an NPV of 85.7% (95% CI, 48.7%-97.4%). The 47 patients who did not undergo neck

  11. Assessment of NOx and O3 forecasting performances in the U.S. National Air Quality Forecasting Capability before and after the 2012 major emissions updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li; Tong, Daniel; Lee, Pius; Kim, H.-C.; Chai, Tianfeng

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we address outdated emissions inventory problems in air quality forecasting systems. The National Emissions Inventory for NOx from area and mobile sources is projected from 2005 to 2012 and NOx from point sources is projected from 2010 to 2012, in which we find that NOx emissions from area, mobile and point sources reduce by 8.1%, 37.8% and 4.1%, respectively. The majority of the NOx emissions reduction occurs in megacities over the CONtiguous U.S. (CONUS), in which the spatial distribution pattern is generally supported by the NO2 column result retrieved from the GOME-2 satellite data. The CMAQ-predicted NOx and O3 concentrations using updated NOx emissions were then compared to Air Quality System (AQS) ground observations in order to evaluate the updated NOx emissions inventory. The comparison showed an improvement in NOx and O3 predictions over the CONUS. The NOx bias, in July 2011, for urban, suburban and rural land-use types was reduced by 2.34 ppb, 2.09 ppb and 0.57 ppb, respectively. Meanwhile, the O3 bias is reduced by 0.92 ppb, 1.26 ppb and 1.87 ppb, respectively. However, problems remain in CMAQ for NOx and O3 simulations despite undertaking this emissions adjustment. For example, the O3 overestimation in CMAQ during the daytime over the CONUS decreases when the NOx underestimation increases, suggesting that in addition to the NOx emissions inventory, further study of VOC emissions, NOx chemical and physical mechanisms as well as meteorology parameters in the NAQFC is necessary.

  12. Pollutant Emissions and Energy Efficiency under Controlled Conditions for Household Biomass Cookstoves and Implications for Metrics Useful in Setting International Test Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and...

  13. Clinical excellence: evidence on the assessment of senior doctors' applications to the UK Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards. Analysis of complete national data set

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John L; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To inform the rational deployment of assessor resource in the evaluation of applications to the UK Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards (ACCEA). Setting ACCEA are responsible for a scheme to financially reward senior doctors in England and Wales who are assessed to be working over and above the standard expected of their role. Participants Anonymised applications of consultants and senior academic GPs for awards were considered by members of 14 regional subcommittees and 2 national assessing committees during the 2014–2015 round of applications. Design It involved secondary analysis of complete anonymised national data set. Primary and secondary outcome measures We analysed scores for each of 1916 applications for a clinical excellence award across 4 levels of award. Scores were provided by members of 16 subcommittees. We assessed the reliability of assessments and described the variance in the assessment of scores. Results Members of regional subcommittees assessed 1529 new applications and 387 renewal applications. Average scores increased with the level of application being made. On average, applications were assessed by 9.5 assessors. The highest contributions to the variance in individual assessors' assessments of applications were attributable to assessors or to residual variance. The applicant accounted for around a quarter of the variance in scores for new bronze applications, with this proportion decreasing for higher award levels. Reliability in excess of 0.7 can be attained where 4 assessors score bronze applications, with twice as many assessors being required for higher levels of application. Conclusions Assessment processes pertaining in the competitive allocation of public funds need to be credible and efficient. The present arrangements for assessing and scoring applications are defensible, depending on the level of reliability judged to be required in the assessment process. Some relatively minor reconfiguration in

  14. Assessing Strategies to Manage Work and Life Balance of Athletic Trainers Working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Casa, Douglas J.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) working at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level experience challenges balancing their professional and personal lives. However, an understanding of the strategies ATs use to promote a balance between their professional and personal lives is lacking. Objective: To identify the strategies ATs employed in the Division I setting use to establish a balance between their professional and personal lives. Design: Qualitative investigation using inductive content analysis. Setting: Athletic trainers employed at Division I schools from 5 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 28 (15 women, 13 men) ATs aged 35 ± 9 years volunteered for the study. Data Collection and Analysis: Asynchronous electronic interviews with follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review, member checking, and data-source triangulation were conducted to establish trustworthiness. Results: Three higher-order themes emerged from the analysis. The initial theme, antecedents of work–family conflict, focused on the demands of the profession, flexibility of work schedules, and staffing patterns as contributing to work–life conflict for this group of ATs. The other 2 emergent higher-order themes, professional factors and personal factors, describe the components of a balanced lifestyle. The second-order theme of constructing the professional factors included both organizational policies and individual strategies, whereas the second-order theme of personal factors was separation of work and life and a supportive personal network. Conclusions: Long work hours, lack of control over work schedules, and unbalanced athlete-to-AT ratios can facilitate conflicts. However, as demonstrated by our results, several organizational and personal strategies can be helpful in creating a balanced lifestyle. PMID:21391805

  15. Organizational Influences and Quality-of-Life Issues During the Professional Socialization of Certified Athletic Trainers Working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A

    2006-01-01

    Context: Health professionals are exposed to critical influences and pressures when socialized into their work environments. Little is known about the organizational socialization of certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate context. Objective: To discuss the organizational influences and quality-of-life issues as each relates to the professional socialization of ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: A qualitative design of in-depth interviews and follow-up electronic interviews was used to examine the organizational socialization of ATs. Setting: Participants associated with Division I athletic programs from 4 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts volunteered for the study. Participants: A total of 11 men and 5 women participated in the study, consisting of 14 ATs and 2 athletic directors. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. A peer review, member checks, and data source triangulation were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: Two categories emerged that provide insight into the experiences that affected the professional socialization of the ATs: organizational influences and quality-of-life issues. The data indicate that the participants in this study were heavily influenced by the bureaucratic tendencies of the Division I athletic organizations in which they worked. The participants were extremely concerned about the diminished quality of life that may result from being an AT in this context. They were, however, able to maintain a commitment to delivering quality care to the student-athletes despite these influences. High work volume and low administrative support were commonly cited as problems, thus creating concern about diminished quality of life and the fear of burnout. Conclusions: The AT's role appears not only rewarding but also challenging. The reward is working closely with patients and developing an interpersonal

  16. Achieving Work-Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting, Part I: The Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Supervisor support has been identified as key to the fulfillment of work-life balance for the athletic trainer (AT), yet limited literature exists on the perspectives of supervisors. Objective: To investigate how the head AT facilitates work-life balance among staff members within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered for an asynchronous, Web-based interview. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. We included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data via a general inductive approach. Results: Four prevailing themes emerged from the data: modeling work-life balance, encouraging disengagement from the AT role, cooperation and community workplace, and administrative support and understanding. Conclusions: Head ATs at the Division I level recognized the need to promote work-life balance among their staffs. They not only were supportive of policies that promote work-life balance, including spending time away from the role of the AT and teamwork among staff members, but also modeled and practiced the strategies that they promoted. PMID:25343530

  17. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  18. Use of a Monte Carlo technique to complete a fragmented set of H2S emission rates from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Schauberger, Günther; Piringer, Martin; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin

    2013-12-15

    The impact of ambient concentrations in the vicinity of a plant can only be assessed if the emission rate is known. In this study, based on measurements of ambient H2S concentrations and meteorological parameters, the a priori unknown emission rates of a tannery wastewater treatment plant are calculated by an inverse dispersion technique. The calculations are determined using the Gaussian Austrian regulatory dispersion model. Following this method, emission data can be obtained, though only for a measurement station that is positioned such that the wind direction at the measurement station is leeward of the plant. Using the inverse transform sampling, which is a Monte Carlo technique, the dataset can also be completed for those wind directions for which no ambient concentration measurements are available. For the model validation, the measured ambient concentrations are compared with the calculated ambient concentrations obtained from the synthetic emission data of the Monte Carlo model. The cumulative frequency distribution of this new dataset agrees well with the empirical data. This inverse transform sampling method is thus a useful supplement for calculating emission rates using the inverse dispersion technique. PMID:24231321

  19. Towards a measurement-based national verification system for GHG emissions: UK emission estimates of CO2 from the GAUGE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzi, Siegfried; Palmer, Paul; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Stanley, Kieran; Stavert, Ann; Grant, Aoife; Helfter, Carole; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Bösch, Hartmut; Sembhi, Harjinder; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Parker, Robert; Bauguitte, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    Robust quantification of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is central to the success of ongoing international efforts to slow current emissions and mitigate future climate change. The Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project aims to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of country-scale emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using concentration measurements from a network of tall towers and mobile platforms (aircraft and ferry) distributed across the UK. The GAUGE measurement programme includes: (a) GHG measurements on a regular ferry route down the North Sea aimed at sampling UK outflow; (b) campaign deployment of the UK BAe-146 research aircraft to provide vertical profile measurements of GHG over and around the UK; (c) a high-density GHG measurement network over East Anglia that is primarily focused on the agricultural sector; and (d) regular measurements of CO2 and CH4 isotopologues used for GHG source attribution. We also use satellite observations from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to provide continental-scale constraints on GHG flux estimates. We present CO2 flux estimates for the UK inferred from GAUGE measurements using a nested, high-resolution (25 km) version of the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry and transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter. We will present our current best estimate for CO2 fluxes and a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of individual GAUGE data sources to spatially resolve CO2 flux estimates over the UK. We will also discuss how flux estimates inferred from the different models used within GAUGE can help to assess the role of transport model error and to determine an ensemble CO2 flux estimate for the UK.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  1. Assessment of first wall damage from target x-ray emission and scattered laser light for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.T.; Anderson, A.; Burnham, A.; Bernat, T.

    1996-05-29

    Predictions for NIF ICF target x-ray emission are presented. Validation experiments confirm the key features of the x-ray emissions and their effects on the NIF chamber B{sub 4}C first wall. Predictions of a possible first wall 0.35-{mu}m laser radiation compared to more experimental results conducted to determine B{sub 4}C response all suggest B{sub 4}C is an acceptable first wall material.

  2. Design Document for 12th Grade NAEP Preparedness Research Judgmental Standard Setting Studies: Setting Standards on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in Reading and Mathematics for 12th Grade Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board adopted a Program of Preparedness Research in March 2009. Several categories of research studies were recommended to produce results for reporting 12th grade preparedness for the 2009 grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The categories included content…

  3. A statistical model and national data set for partioning fish-tissue mercury concentration variation between spatiotemporal and sample characteristic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wente, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    Many Federal, Tribal, State, and local agencies monitor mercury in fish-tissue samples to identify sites with elevated fish-tissue mercury (fish-mercury) concentrations, track changes in fish-mercury concentrations over time, and produce fish-consumption advisories. Interpretation of such monitoring data commonly is impeded by difficulties in separating the effects of sample characteristics (species, tissues sampled, and sizes of fish) from the effects of spatial and temporal trends on fish-mercury concentrations. Without such a separation, variation in fish-mercury concentrations due to differences in the characteristics of samples collected over time or across space can be misattributed to temporal or spatial trends; and/or actual trends in fish-mercury concentration can be misattributed to differences in sample characteristics. This report describes a statistical model and national data set (31,813 samples) for calibrating the aforementioned statistical model that can separate spatiotemporal and sample characteristic effects in fish-mercury concentration data. This model could be useful for evaluating spatial and temporal trends in fishmercury concentrations and developing fish-consumption advisories. The observed fish-mercury concentration data and model predictions can be accessed, displayed geospatially, and downloaded via the World Wide Web (http://emmma.usgs.gov). This report and the associated web site may assist in the interpretation of large amounts of data from widespread fishmercury monitoring efforts.

  4. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  5. Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

    2012-12-01

    Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel

  6. Influence of ship emissions on air quality and input of contaminants in southern Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas during the 2006 tourist season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölders, Nicole; Porter, Stacy E.; Cahill, Catherine F.; Grell, Georg A.

    2010-04-01

    The impact of ship emissions on air quality in Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem). The visibility and deposition of atmospheric contaminants was analyzed for the length of the 2006 tourist season. WRF/Chem reproduced the meteorological situation well. It seems to have captured the temporal behavior of aerosol concentrations when compared with the few data available. Air quality follows certain predetermined patterns associated with local meteorological conditions and ship emissions. Ship emissions have maximum impacts in Prince William Sound where topography and decaying lows trap pollutants. Along sea-lanes and adjacent coastal areas, NO x, SO 2, O 3, PAN, HNO 3, and PM 2.5 increase up to 650 pptv, 325 pptv, 900 pptv, 18 pptv, 10 pptv, and 100 ng m -3. Some of these increases are significant (95% confidence). Enhanced particulate matter concentrations from ship emissions reduce visibility up to 30% in Prince William Sound and 5-25% along sea-lanes.

  7. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy. PMID:24520699

  8. The effect of basis set and exchange-correlation functional on time-dependent density functional theory calculations within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation of the x-ray emission spectroscopy of transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Roper, Ian P E; Besley, Nicholas A

    2016-03-21

    The simulation of X-ray emission spectra of transition metal complexes with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is investigated. X-ray emission spectra can be computed within TDDFT in conjunction with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation by using a reference determinant with a vacancy in the relevant core orbital, and these calculations can be performed using the frozen orbital approximation or with the relaxation of the orbitals of the intermediate core-ionised state included. Both standard exchange-correlation functionals and functionals specifically designed for X-ray emission spectroscopy are studied, and it is shown that the computed spectral band profiles are sensitive to the exchange-correlation functional used. The computed intensities of the spectral bands can be rationalised by considering the metal p orbital character of the valence molecular orbitals. To compute X-ray emission spectra with the correct energy scale allowing a direct comparison with experiment requires the relaxation of the core-ionised state to be included and the use of specifically designed functionals with increased amounts of Hartree-Fock exchange in conjunction with high quality basis sets. A range-corrected functional with increased Hartree-Fock exchange in the short range provides transition energies close to experiment and spectral band profiles that have a similar accuracy to those from standard functionals. PMID:27004859

  9. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  10. How emissions, climate, and land use change will impact mid-century air quality over the United States: a focus on effects at national parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Emmons, L. K.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2015-03-01

    We use a global coupled chemistry-climate-land model (CESM) to assess the integrated effect of climate, emissions and land use changes on annual surface O3 and PM2.5 in the United States with a focus on national parks (NPs) and wilderness areas, using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections. We show that, when stringent domestic emission controls are applied, air quality is predicted to improve across the US, except surface O3 over the western and central US under RCP8.5 conditions, where rising background ozone counteracts domestic emission reductions. Under the RCP4.5 scenario, surface O3 is substantially reduced (about 5 ppb), with daily maximum 8 h averages below the primary US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of 75 ppb (and even 65 ppb) in all the NPs. PM2.5 is significantly reduced in both scenarios (4 μg m-3; ~50%), with levels below the annual US EPA NAAQS of 12 μg m-3 across all the NPs; visibility is also improved (10-15 dv; >75 km in visibility range), although some western US parks with Class I status (40-74 % of total sites in the US) are still above the 2050 planned target level to reach the goal of natural visibility conditions by 2064. We estimate that climate-driven increases in fire activity may dominate summertime PM2.5 over the western US, potentially offsetting the large PM2.5 reductions from domestic emission controls, and keeping visibility at present-day levels in many parks. Our study indicates that anthropogenic emission patterns will be important for air quality in 2050. However, climate and land use changes alone may lead to a substantial increase in surface O3 (2-3 ppb) with important consequences for O3 air quality and ecosystem degradation at the US NPs. Our study illustrates the need to consider the effects of changes in climate, vegetation, and fires in future air quality management and planning and emission policy making.

  11. TARA diagnostic set

    SciTech Connect

    Sevillano, E.; Brau, K.; Goodrich, P.; Irby, J.; Mauel, M.; Post, R.S.; Smith, D.K.; Sullivan, J.

    1985-05-01

    The TARA Tandem Mirror Experiment has recently begun operation. The set of diagnostics available at this time is discussed. The following diagnostics are now in use: diamagnetic loops, a multichord microwave interferometer, Langmuir and emissive probes, pick-up loops, and secondary-emission detectors. End-loss diagnostics include net current detector arrays, Faraday cup arrays, swept particle analyzer arrays, and calorimetry. Light-emission measurements are made in the visible and VUV regions. A multichord fiber-optic array for plasma position detection is also used. In addition, a three-channel charge exchange analyzer, a hard x-ray system, and fast pressure gauges are available.

  12. Reissue of the American National Standard N42.14-1998: Calibration and use of germanium spectrometers for the measurement of gamma-ray emission rate of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Koskelo, M.; Montgomery, D.M.; Schima, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    The American National Standard entitled, Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides has been reissued as N42-14-1998 and is now available from either the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) or the American National Standards Institute. This performance standard contains the same information and tests of hardware and software as the previous edition but has been updated and reorganized to simplify its use by practitioners of gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, a number of typographical and technical errors were identified and corrected. Not only does this standard find use in testing the performance of germanium gamma-ray spectrometer hardware, it is also used to test spectral analysis programs. In addition, it has been used as an aid in writing specifications in the procurement of germanium detectors and as a monograph in the teaching of gamma-ray spectrometry.

  13. Building capacity for national level carbon Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) systems for a ``Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'' (REDD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Goetz, S. J.; Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Ndunda, P.; Mekui, P.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Knight, D.

    2010-12-01

    An international policy mechanism is under negotiation for compensating tropical nations that succeed in lowering their greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation, responsible for approximately one-fifth of worldwide carbon emissions. One of the barriers to its success is the adoption of a unique MRV system and the participation of developing countries in carbon monitoring. A successful REDD policy must rely on a robust, scalable, cost effective method that will allow the Measurement Reporting and Verification from local to national scales, while also developing well-trained technical personnel to implement national REDD carbon monitoring systems. Participation of governments and forest stakeholders in forest and carbon monitoring methods at WHRC is achieved through ongoing technical workshops which include training of participants to collect field data to calibrate biomass models, and an annual Scholar’s Program where forest officers from the tropical regions of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia work with Woods Hole Research Center scientsts to improve skills in forest measurement and remote sensing monitoring techniques . Capacity building activities focus on technical aspects and approaches to forest-cover and carbon mapping and the use of satellite imagery together with ground-based measurement techniques in the development of forest cover and carbon-stock maps. After two years, the three-year project has involved more than 200 forest specialists from governments and NGOs in Bolivia, Cambodia, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Kenya, Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia, among others with participation of ten scholars actively participating in the developement of National REDD plans for forest mapping and monitoring. Field Training Mbandaka- DR Congo 2010

  14. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  15. Cost-efficiency of specialist inpatient rehabilitation for working-aged adults with complex neurological disabilities: a multicentre cohort analysis of a national clinical data set

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Williams, Heather; Bill, Alan; Bassett, Paul; Sephton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of specialist rehabilitation for a multicentre cohort of inpatients with complex neurological disability, comparing different diagnostic groups across 3 levels of dependency. Design A multicentre cohort analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national clinical database, 2010–2015. Setting All 62 specialist (levels 1 and 2) rehabilitation services in England. Participants Working-aged adults (16–65 years) with complex neurological disability. Inclusion criteria: all episodes with length of stay (LOS) 8–400 days and complete outcome measures recorded on admission and discharge. Total N=5739: acquired brain injury n=4182 (73%); spinal cord injury n=506 (9%); peripheral neurological conditions n=282 (5%); progressive conditions n=769 (13%). Intervention Specialist inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Outcome measures Dependency and care costs: Northwick Park Dependency Scale/Care Needs Assessment (NPDS/NPCNA). Functional independence: UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK Functional Independence Measure (FIM)+FAM). Cost-efficiency: (1) time taken to offset rehabilitation costs by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of ongoing care, (2) FIM efficiency (FIM gain/LOS days), (3) FIM+FAM efficiency (FIM+FAM gain/LOS days). Patients were analysed in 3 groups of dependency. Results Mean LOS 90.1 (SD 66) days. All groups showed significant reduction in dependency between admission and discharge on all measures (paired t tests: p<0.001). Mean reduction in ‘weekly care costs’ was greatest in the high-dependency group at £760/week (95% CI 726 to 794)), compared with the medium-dependency (£408/week (95% CI 370 to 445)), and low-dependency (£130/week (95% CI 82 to 178)), groups. Despite longer LOS, time taken to offset the cost of rehabilitation was 14.2 (95% CI 9.9 to 18.8) months in the high-dependency group, compared

  16. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  17. Options in Education, Transcript for February 16, 1976: National Commitment to Equal Rights & Equal Educational Opportunity, Racial Conflict in the Classroom, Setting Up a Publishing Business, and Women in Education (Mathematics and Sex).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of the national commitment to desegregated education, racial conflict in the classroom, learning how to set up a publishing business, women in education (mathematics and sex) and education news highlights.…

  18. How emissions, climate, and land use change will impact mid-century air quality over the United States: a focus on effects at National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Emmons, L. K.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2014-10-01

    We use a global coupled chemistry-climate-land model (CESM) to assess the integrated effect of climate, emissions and land use changes on annual surface O3 and PM2.5 on the United States with a focus on National Parks (NPs) and wilderness areas, using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections. We show that, when stringent domestic emission controls are applied, air quality is predicted to improve across the US, except surface O3 over the western and central US under RCP8.5 conditions, where rising background ozone counteracts domestic emissions reductions. Under the RCP4.5, surface O3 is substantially reduced (about 5 ppb), with daily maximum 8 h averages below the primary US EPA NAAQS of 75 ppb (and even 65 ppb) in all the NPs. PM2.5 is significantly reduced in both scenarios (4 μg m-3; ~50%), with levels below the annual US EPA NAAQS of 12 μg m-3 across all the NPs; visibility is also improved (10-15 deciviews; >75 km in visibility range), although some parks over the western US (40-74% of total sites in the US) may not reach the 2050 target to restore visibility to natural conditions by 2064. We estimate that climate-driven increases in fire activity may dominate summertime PM2.5 over the western US, potentially offsetting the large PM2.5 reductions from domestic emission controls, and keeping visibility at present-day levels in many parks. Our study suggests that air quality in 2050 will be primarily controlled by anthropogenic emission patterns. However, climate and land use changes alone may lead to a substantial increase in surface O3 (2-3 ppb) with important consequences for O3 air quality and ecosystem degradation at the US NPs. Our study illustrates the need to consider the effects of changes in climate, vegetation, and fires in future air quality management and planning and emission policy making.

  19. Analysis of National Pollutant Release Inventory data on toxic emissions by industry. Working paper Number 97-16

    SciTech Connect

    Olewiler, N.; Dawson, K.

    1998-12-31

    There are 230 substances of varying toxicity listed on the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). This paper describes a methodology for analyzing the NPRI data to provide a preliminary estimate of the toxic intensity of Canadian industries. Several indicators of toxic intensity of releases from each industry relative to employment or the value of output are calculated.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 109 Stat. 568, 605; 49 CFR 1.48(b). § 772.1 Purpose. To provide procedures for noise studies and noise... Impact (FONSI), or the Record of Decision (ROD), as defined in 23 CFR part 771. Design year. The future...) of title 5, U.S.C. and part 51 of title 1, CFR, and are on file at the National Archives and...

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. Marine nitrous oxide emissions: An unknown liability for the international water sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable estimates of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are essential for setting effective climate policy at both the sector and national level. Current IPCC Guidelines for calculating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from sewage management are both highly uncertain and ...

  3. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  4. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  5. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  6. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  7. Technology Being Developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Ultra-Low- Emission Combustion Technologies for Heat and Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Technologies Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed simple, low-cost, yet robust combustion technologies that may change the fundamental design concept of burners for boilers and furnaces, and injectors for gas turbine combustors. The new technologies utilize lean premixed combustion and could bring about significant pollution reductions from commercial and industrial combustion processes and may also improve efficiency. The technologies are spinoffs of two fundamental research projects: An inner-ring burner insert for lean flame stabilization developed for NASA- sponsored reduced-gravity combustion experiments. A low-swirl burner developed for Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences research on turbulent combustion.

  8. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2011: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education. PMID:21546893

  9. Electron Density Measurements in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Detached Divertor Region Using Stark Broadening of Deuterium Infrared Paschen Emission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Johnson, D W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L

    2007-04-27

    Spatially resolved measurements of deuterium Balmer and Paschen line emission have been performed in the divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment using a commercial 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrometer. While the Balmer emission lines, Balmer and Paschen continua in the ultraviolet and visible regions have been extensively used for tokamak divertor plasma temperature and density measurements, the diagnostic potential of infrared Paschen lines has been largely overlooked. We analyze Stark broadening of the lines corresponding to 2-n and 3-m transitions with principle quantum numbers n = 7-12 and m = 10-12 using recent Model Microfield Method calculations (C. Stehle and R. Hutcheon, Astron. Astrophys. Supl. Ser. 140, 93 (1999)). Densities in the range (5-50) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} are obtained in the recombining inner divertor plasma in 2-6 MW NBI H-mode discharges. The measured Paschen line profiles show good sensitivity to Stark effects, and low sensitivity to instrumental and Doppler broadening. The lines are situated in the near-infrared wavelength domain, where optical signal extraction schemes for harsh nuclear environments are practically realizable, and where a recombining divertor plasma is optically thin. These properties make them an attractive recombining divertor density diagnostic for a burning plasma experiment.

  10. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  11. A Specific Response to the National Institute of Education Under the Requirements as Set Forth Within Their Document Entitled: "Scope of Work."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, T. R.

    The study sought to document how the National Institute of Education sponsored Mountain-Plains Career Education Model Four (CEM4) is improving on the advancing the family residential approach. This was accomplished by comparing aspects of the seven programs by way of: (1) a collection and review of available literature and reports, (2) site…

  12. A Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness in National Blue Ribbon Schools and Matched Sets of Selected Non-Blue Ribbon Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffing, Ryan Robert

    2010-01-01

    With a focus on leadership, this study examines the leadership characteristics of principals in schools that are recognized as National Blue Ribbon Schools by the United States Department of Education. This mixed methodology study utilizes the causal comparative method to compare what teachers consider to be effective leadership characteristics of…

  13. A Comparison of the Wellbeing of Orphans and Abandoned Children Ages 6–12 in Institutional and Community-Based Care Settings in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

    PubMed Central

    Whetten, Kathryn; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel A.; Pence, Brian W.; O'Donnell, Karen; Messer, Lynne C.; Thielman, Nathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leaders are struggling to care for the estimated 143,000,000 orphans and millions more abandoned children worldwide. Global policy makers are advocating that institution-living orphans and abandoned children (OAC) be moved as quickly as possible to a residential family setting and that institutional care be used as a last resort. This analysis tests the hypothesis that institutional care for OAC aged 6–12 is associated with worse health and wellbeing than community residential care using conservative two-tail tests. Methodology The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed two-stage random sampling survey methodology in 6 sites across 5 countries to identify 1,357 institution-living and 1,480 community-living OAC ages 6–12, 658 of whom were double-orphans or abandoned by both biological parents. Survey analytic techniques were used to compare cognitive functioning, emotion, behavior, physical health, and growth. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the proportion of variability in child outcomes attributable to the study site, care setting, and child levels and institutional versus community care settings. Conservative analyses limited the community living children to double-orphans or abandoned children. Principal Findings Health, emotional and cognitive functioning, and physical growth were no worse for institution-living than community-living OAC, and generally better than for community-living OAC cared for by persons other than a biological parent. Differences between study sites explained 2–23% of the total variability in child outcomes, while differences between care settings within sites explained 8–21%. Differences among children within care settings explained 64–87%. After adjusting for sites, age, and gender, institution vs. community-living explained only 0.3–7% of the variability in child outcomes. Conclusion This study does not support the hypothesis that institutional care is systematically associated with

  14. Reconciliation of Measured and TRANSP-calculated Neutron Emission Rates in the National Spherical Torus Experiment: Circa 2002-2005

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore

    2005-06-15

    A change in the response of the neutron detectors on the National Spherical Torus Experiment occurred between the 2002-2003 and 2004 experimental run periods. An analysis of this behavior by investigating the neutron diagnostic operating conditions and comparing measured and TRANSP-calculated neutron rates is presented. Also a revised procedure for cross calibration of the neutron scintillator detectors with the fission chamber detectors was implemented that delivers good agreement amongst the measured neutron rates for all neutron detectors and all run periods. For L-mode discharges, the measured and TRANSP-calculated neutron rates now match closely for all run years. For H-mode discharges over the entire 2002-2004 period, the 2FG scintillator and fission chamber measurements match each other but imply a neutron deficit of 11.5% relative to the TRANSP-calculated neutron. The results of this report impose a modification on all of the previously used calibration factors for the entire neutron detector suite over the 2002-2004 period. A tabular summary of the new calibration factors is provided including certified calibration factors for the 2005 run.

  15. The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, P.; Guenther, A. B.; Granier, C.; Mieville, A.

    2010-12-01

    GEIA aims to bring together people, analyses, data, and tools to quantify the anthropogenic emissions and natural exchanges of trace gases and aerosols that drive earth system changes and to facilitate use of this information by the research, assessment and policy communities. This presentation provides an overview of the current activities of GEIA. The GEIA network currently includes over 1000 people around the globe, and the plan is to extend this network to different communities working on environmental changes issues. The GEIA Center (www.geiacenter.org) hosts a comprehensive set of emissions related information, and plans to maintain a new database of scientific papers as well as national and international reports dealing with emissions issues. Conclusions from the recent GEIA conference, held in October 2009, also are summarized. Given the differences often found among data sets, the formation of a GEIA working group composed of emission developers and modelers who will compare data sets and implications for modeling is discussed. It has been recognized that consistent information on emissions at the global and regional scale is required, as well as an accurate quantification of emissions in the different megacities of the world. In order to develop these perspectives, GEIA plans to begin strengthening links with different key regions through creation of regional centers in corporation with other entities and individuals working in these regions.

  16. The Mapmark Standard Setting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

    2005-01-01

    A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…

  17. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards....

  18. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  20. 40 CFR 63.843 - Emission limits for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Aluminum Reduction...

  1. Setting Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  2. The Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders and Trauma Exposures in Urban and Rural Settings: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

    PubMed Central

    McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S.; Mukherjee, Sucharita; Lehman, Erik B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum. Methods The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC), which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates. Results 75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%). Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018), compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural) participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78–0.95). Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure. Discussion/Conclusions Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities. PMID:25380277

  3. Uncertainties of modelling emissions from road transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühlwein, J.; Friedrich, R.

    To determine emission data from road transport, complex methods and models are applied. Emission data are characterized by a huge variety of source types as well as a high resolution of the spatial allocation and temporal variation. So far, the uncertainties of such calculated emission data have been largely unknown. As emission data is used to aid policy decisions, the accuracy of the data should be known. So, in the following, the determination of uncertainties of emission data is described. Using the IER emission model for generating regional or national emission data, the uncertainties of model input data and the total errors on different aggregation levels are exemplarily investigated for the pollutants NO x and NMHC in 1994 for the area of West Germany. The results of statistical error analysis carried out for annual emissions on road sections show variation coefficients (68.3% confidence interval) of 15-25%. In addition, systematic errors of common input data sets have been identified especially affecting emissions on motorway sections. The statistical errors of urban emissions with warm engine on town level amount to 35%. Therefore they are considerably higher than the errors outside towns. Error ranges of additional cold start emissions determined so far have been found in the same order. Additional uncertainties of temporally highly resolved (hourly) emission data depend strongly on the daytime, the weekday and the road category. Variation coefficients have been determined in the range between 10 and 70% for light-duty vehicles and between 15 and 100% for heavy-duty vehicles. All total errors determined here have to be regarded as lower limits of the real total errors.

  4. Cermet Filters for Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter Chuen Sun

    2001-08-01

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.

  5. SETS. Set Equation Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Worrel, R.B.

    1992-01-13

    SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.

  6. Awareness of the Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad Program and Education Regarding Pharmaceutical Advertising: A National Survey of Prescribers in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Geisen, Emily; Betts, Kevin R; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad program educates health care professionals about false or misleading advertising and marketing and provides a pathway to report suspect materials. To assess familiarity with this program and the extent of training about pharmaceutical marketing, a sample of 2,008 health care professionals, weighted to be nationally representative, responded to an online survey. Approximately equal numbers of primary care physicians, specialists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners answered questions concerning Bad Ad program awareness and its usefulness, as well as their likelihood of reporting false or misleading advertising, confidence in identifying such advertising, and training about pharmaceutical marketing. Results showed that fewer than a quarter reported any awareness of the Bad Ad program. Nonetheless, a substantial percentage (43%) thought it seemed useful and 50% reported being at least somewhat likely to report false or misleading advertising in the future. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants expressed more openness to the program and reported receiving more training about pharmaceutical marketing. Bad Ad program awareness is low, but opportunity exists to solicit assistance from health care professionals and to help health care professionals recognize false and misleading advertising. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are perhaps the most likely contributors to the program. PMID:26176326

  7. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical characterization of high-altitude karst aquifers in complex geological settings. The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Northern Spain) case study.

    PubMed

    Lambán, L J; Jódar, J; Custodio, E; Soler, A; Sapriza, G; Soto, R

    2015-02-15

    The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, located in the Southern Pyrenees, constitutes the highest karst system in Western Europe. No previous studies regarding its geochemical and isotopic groundwater characterization are available in this area. This work presents the results of field and sampling campaigns carried out between July 2007 and September 2013. The groundwater presents high calcium bicarbonate contents due to the occurrence of upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene-Eocene carbonate materials in the studied area. Other relevant processes include dissolution of anhydrite and/or gypsum and incongruent dissolution of Mg-limestone and dolomite. The water stable isotopes (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) show that the oceanic fronts from the Atlantic Ocean are responsible for the high levels of precipitation. In autumn, winter, and spring, a deuterium excess is found in the recharge water, which could be related to local atmospheric transport of low-altitude snow sublimation vapour and its later condensation on the snow surface at higher altitude, where recharge is mostly produced. The recharge zones are mainly between 2500m and 3200ma.s.l. The tritium content of the water suggests short groundwater transit times. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate points to the existence of regional fluxes mixed with local discharge in some of the springs. This work highlights the major role played by the altitude difference between the recharge and discharge zones in controlling the chemistry and the vertical variability of the isotopic composition in high-altitude karst aquifers. PMID:25437764

  8. Optical Alignment Techniques for Line-Imaging Velocity Interferometry and Line-Imaging Self-Emission of Targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Frogget, B .; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M I; Lee, T L; MacGowan, B J; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W

    2007-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 meters. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  9. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert; Celeste, John; Celliers, Peter; Frogget, Brent; Robert Guyton,,; Kaufman, Morris; Lee, Tony; MacGowan, Brian; Ng, Edmend; Reinbachs, Imants; Robinson, Ronald; Tunnell, Thomas; Watts, Phillip

    2007-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  10. Air/superfund national technical guidance study series. Air emissions from area sources: Estimating soil and soil-gas sample number requirements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, W.

    1993-03-01

    The document provides guidance regarding the necessary number of soil gas or soil samples needed to estimate air emissions from area sources. The Manual relies heavily on statistical methods discussed in Appendix C of Volume II of Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study Series (EPA 1990) and Chapter 9 of SW-846 (EPA 1986). The techniques in the manual are based on recognizing the inhomgeniety of an area, by observation or screening samples, before samples are taken. Each of the identified zones are then sampled, using random sampling techniques, and statistics calculated separately for each zone before combining the statistics to provide an estimate for the entire area. The statistical techniques presented may also be used to analyze other types of data and provide measures such as mean, variance, and standard deviation. The methods presented in the Manual are based on small sample methods. Application of the methods to data which are appropriately analyzed by large sample methods or to data which is not normally distributed will give erroneous results.

  11. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine: Remote access and distribution of a multi-gigabyte data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the 1986 Long-Range Plan for the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the Planning Panel on Medical Education wrote that NLM should '...thoroughly and systematically investigate the technical requirements for and feasibility of instituting a biomedical images library.' The panel noted the increasing use of images in clinical practice and biomedical research. An image library would complement NLM's existing bibliographic and factual database services and would ideally be available through the same computer networks as are these current NLM services. Early in 1989, NLM's Board of Regents convened an ad hoc planning panel to explore possible roles for the NLM in the area of electronic image libraries. In its report to the Board of Regents, the NLM Planning Panel on Electronic Image Libraries recommended that 'NLM should undertake a first project building a digital image library of volumetric data representing a complete, normal adult male and female. This Visible Human Project will include digitized photographic images for cryosectioning, digital images derived from computerized tomography, and digital magnetic resonance images of cadavers.' The technologies needed to support digital high resolution image libraries, including rapid development; and that NLM encourage investigator-initiated research into methods for representing and linking spatial and textual information, structural informatics. The first part of the Visible Human Project is the acquisition of cross-sectional CT and MRI digital images and cross-sectional cryosectional photographic images of a representative male and female cadaver at an average of one millimeter intervals. The corresponding cross-sections in each of the three modalities are to be registerable with one another.

  12. Influence of the National Trauma Data Bank on the Study of Trauma Outcomes: Is it Time to Set Research Best Practices to Further Enhance Its Impact?

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Adil H; Saleem, Taimur; Leow, Jeffrey J; Villegas, Cassandra V; Kisat, Mehreen; Schneider, Eric B; Haut, Elliott R; Stevens, Kent A; Cornwell, Edward E; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Efron, David T

    2012-01-01

    Background Risk-adjusted analyses are critical in evaluating trauma outcomes. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) is a statistically robust registry that allows such analyses; however, analytical techniques are not yet standardized. In this study, we examine peer-reviewed manuscripts published using NTDB data, with particular attention to characteristics strongly associated with trauma outcomes. Our objective is to determine if there are substantial variations in the methodology and quality of risk-adjusted analyses and thus, whether the development of best practices for risk-adjusted analyses is warranted. Study Design A database of all studies utilizing NTDB data published through December 2010 was created by searching Pubmed and Embase. Studies with multivariate risk-adjusted analyses were examined for their central question, main outcome measures, analytical techniques, the co-variates in adjusted analyses, and handling of missing data. Results Of 286 NTDB publications, 122 performed a multivariable adjusted analysis. These studies focused on Clinical Outcomes (51), Public Health Policy or Injury Prevention (30), Quality (16), Disparities (15), Trauma Center Designation (6) or Scoring Systems (4). Mortality was the main outcome in 98 of these studies. There were considerable differences in the co-variates used for case adjustment. The three most frequently controlled for co-variates were age (95%), Injury Severity Score (85%) and gender (78%). Up to 43% of studies did not control for the five basic covariates necessary to conduct a risk-adjusted analysis of trauma mortality. Less than 10% of studies used clustering to adjust for facility differences or imputation to handle missing data. Conclusions There is significant variability in how risk-adjusted analyses using data from the NTDB are performed. Best practices are needed to further improve the quality of research from the NTDB. PMID:22321521

  13. HCB, PCB, PCDD and PCDF emissions from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Since current estimates of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from ships are based on a relatively limited and old data set, an update of these emission factors has been outlined as a target towards improved Swedish emission inventories. Consequently, a comprehensive study was undertaken focusing on these emissions from three different ships during December 2003 to March 2004. Analyses were performed on 12 exhaust samples, three fuel oil samples and three lubricating oil samples from a representative selection of diesel engine models, fuel types and during different "real-world" operating conditions. The determined emissions corresponded reasonably well with previous measurements. The data suggest however that previous PCDD/PCDF emission factors are somewhat higher than those measured here. As expected the greatest emissions were observed during main engine start-up periods and for engines using heavier fuel oils. Total emissions for 2002, using revised emission factors, have been calculated based on Swedish sold marine fuels and also for geographical areas of national importance. In terms of their toxic equivalence (WHO-TEQ), the PCDD/PCDF emissions from ships using Swedish fuels are small (0.37-0.85 g TEQ) in comparison to recent estimates for the national total (ca. 45 g TEQ). Emissions from other land-based diesel engines (road vehicles, off-road machinery, military vehicles and locomotives) are estimated to contribute a further 0.18-0.42 g TEQ. Similarly, HCB and PCB emissions from these sources are small compared to 1995 national emission inventories.

  14. MOBILE EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION TEAM (HANDOUT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The handout describes the Mobile Emissions Characterization Team of EPA's Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division. The team conducts research to characterize and evaluate emissions of volatile...

  15. Profile of subjective quality of life and its correlates in a nation-wide sample of high school students in an Arab setting using the WHOQOL-Bref

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The upsurge of interest in the quality of life (QOL) of children is in line with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stressed the child's right to adequate circumstances for physical, mental, and social development. The study's objectives were to: (i) highlight how satisfied Kuwaiti high school students were with life circumstances as in the WHOQOL-Bref; (ii) assess the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL and establish the QOL domain normative values; and (iii) examine the relationship of QOL with personal, parental, and socio-environmental factors. Method A nation-wide sample of students in senior classes in government high schools (N = 4467, 48.6% boys; aged 14-23 years) completed questionnaires that included the WHOQOL-Bref. Results Using Cummins' norm of 70% - 80%, we found that, as a group, they barely achieved the well-being threshold score for physical health (70%), social relations (72.8%), environment (70.8%) and general facet (70.2%), but not for psychological health (61.9%). These scores were lower than those reported from other countries. Using the recommended cut-off of <1SD of population mean, the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL was 12.9% - 18.8% (population age-adjusted: 15.9% - 21.1%). In all domains, boys had significantly higher QOL than girls, mediated by anxiety/depression; while the younger ones had significantly higher QOL (p < 0.001), mediated by difficulty with studies and social relations. Although poorer QOL was significantly associated with parental divorce and father's low socio-economic status, the most important predictors of poorer QOL were perception of poor emotional relationship between the parents, poor self-esteem and difficulty with studies. Conclusion Poorer QOL seemed to reflect a circumstance of social disadvantage and poor psychosocial well-being in which girls fared worse than boys. The findings indicate that programs that address parental harmony and school programs that

  16. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Boney, Oliver; Bell, Madeline; Bell, Natalie; Conquest, Ann; Cumbers, Marion; Drake, Sharon; Galsworthy, Mike; Gath, Jacqui; Grocott, Michael P W; Harris, Emma; Howell, Simon; Ingold, Anthony; Nathanson, Michael H; Pinkney, Thomas; Metcalf, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Design Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. Setting UK. Participants 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. Outcomes First ‘ideas-gathering’ survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second ‘prioritisation’ survey: Shortlist of ‘summary’ research questions (derived from the first survey) ranked by respondents in order of priority. Final ‘top ten’: Agreed by consensus at a final prioritisation workshop. Results First survey: 1420 suggestions received from 623 respondents (49% patients/public) were refined into a shortlist of 92 ‘summary’ questions. Second survey: 1718 respondents each nominated up to 10 questions as research priorities. Top ten: The 25 highest-ranked questions advanced to the final workshop, where 23 stakeholders (13 professional, 10 patient/carer) agreed the 10 most important questions: ▸ What can we do to stop patients developing chronic pain after surgery? ▸ How can patient care around the time of emergency surgery be improved? ▸ What long-term harm may result from anaesthesia, particularly following repeated anaesthetics? ▸ What outcomes should we use to measure the ‘success’ of anaesthesia and perioperative care? ▸ How can we improve recovery from surgery for elderly patients? ▸ For which patients does regional anaesthesia give better outcomes than general anaesthesia? ▸ What are the effects of anaesthesia on the developing brain? ▸ Do enhanced recovery programmes improve short and long-term outcomes? ▸ How can preoperative exercise or fitness training, including physiotherapy, improve outcomes after surgery? ▸ How can we improve communication between the teams looking after patients throughout their surgical journey? Conclusions Almost 2000 stakeholders contributed their views

  17. Set of Comparable Carbon Footprints for Highway Travel in Metropolitan America

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a set of carbon dioxide emissions estimates for highway travel by automobile, truck, bus and other public transit vehicle movements within the nation s 100 largest metropolitan areas, in calendar year 2005. Considerable variability is found to exist across metropolitan areas when these greenhouse gas emissions are measured on a per capita and a per gross metropolitan product (GMP) basis. Least square regression modeling shows a relationship between emissions per capita and per GMP with truck traffic share, transit share, employment density, population dispersion within the metro area, and GMP per capita. As a result many of the nation s largest metropolitan areas tend to have lower CO2 emissions per capita and per GMP than smaller and more recently developed metro areas.

  18. The use (or rather the non-use) of cost-effectiveness data in priority setting decisions - are we underestimating the barriers to using health economics in real world priority setting decisions?: Comment on "Use of cost-effectiveness data in priority setting decisions: experiences from the national guidelines for heart diseases in Sweden".

    PubMed

    Erntoft, Sandra T

    2015-03-01

    After having practicing and researching health economics for nearly 15 years now, it has become clear to me that the use of cost-effectiveness data in priority setting decisions is rather a rare than a common practice. The Eckard et al. article though, describes a wonderful exception to this rule and a very good example of how it can be used when the conditions are right. However, do we fully understand what these conditions are? In this commentary article I will address some of the institutional and cultural conditions that need to be fulfilled in order for cost-effectiveness data to actually be used in priority setting decisions. PMID:25774375

  19. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  20. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  1. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  2. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  3. Assessment of surface water chloride and conductivity trends in areas of unconventional oil and gas development-Why existing national data sets cannot tell us what we would like to know

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Cade, Brian S.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Farag, Aida M.; Mott, David N.; Potter, Christopher J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Clark, Melanie L.; Kappel, William M.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Paschke, Suzanne; Susong, David D.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened concern regarding the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas development on regional water quality has emerged, but the few studies on this topic are limited in geographic scope. Here we evaluate the potential utility of national and publicly available water-quality data sets for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development. We used existing U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data sets to increase understanding of the spatial distribution of unconventional oil and gas development in the U.S. and broadly assess surface water quality trends in these areas. Based on sample size limitations, we were able to estimate trends in specific conductance (SC) and chloride (Cl-) from 1970 to 2010 in 16% (n=155) of the watersheds with unconventional oil and gas resources. We assessed these trends relative to spatiotemporal distributions of hydraulically fractured wells. Results from this limited analysis suggest no consistent and widespread trends in surface water quality for SC and Cl- in areas with increasing unconventional oil and gas development and highlight limitations of existing national databases for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development and water quality.

  4. Regional and National Estimates of the PotentialEnergy Use, Energy Cost, and CO{sub 2} Emissions Associated with Radon Mitigation by Sub-slab Depressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1996-03-01

    Active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) systems are an effective means of reducing indoor radon concentrations in residential buildings. However, energy is required to operate the system fan and to heat or cool the resulting increased building ventilation. We present regional and national estimates of the energy requirements, operating expenses, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with using SSD systems at saturation (i.e., in all U.S. homes with radon concentrations above the EPA remediation guideline and either basement or slab-on-grade construction). The primary source of uncertainty in these estimates is the impact of the SSD system on house ventilation rate. Overall, individual SSD system operating expenses are highest in the Northeast and Midwest at about $99 y{sup -1}, and lowest in the South and West at about $66 y{sup -1}. The fan consumes, on average, about 40% of the end-use energy used to operate the SSD system and accounts for about 60% of the annual expense. At saturation, regional impacts are largest in the Midwest because this area has a large number of mitigable houses and a relatively high heating load. We estimate that operating SSD systems in U.S. houses where it is both appropriate and possible (about 2.6 million houses), will annually consume 1.7 x 10{sup 4} (6.4 x 10{sup 3} to 3.9 x 10{sup 4}) TJ of end-use energy, cost $230 (130 to 400) million (at current energy prices), and generate 2.0 x 10{sup 9} (1.2 x 10{sup 9} to 3.5 x 10{sup 9}) kg of CO{sub 2}. Passive or energy efficient radon mitigation systems currently being developed offer opportunities to substantially reduce these impacts.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this subpart, emissions shall be vented through a closed vent system meeting the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  6. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... device requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (3) The specifications and requirements listed in paragraphs (c)(1...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage...

  7. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (3) The specifications and requirements listed in paragraphs (c)(1...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage...

  8. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... device requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (3) The specifications and requirements listed in paragraphs (c)(1...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage...

  9. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... device requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (3) The specifications and requirements listed in paragraphs (c)(1...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage...

  10. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... device requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (3) The specifications and requirements listed in paragraphs (c)(1...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage...

  11. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63.483 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions:...

  12. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63.483 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions:...

  13. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63.483 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions:...

  14. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63.483 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions:...

  15. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl...

  16. 40 CFR 61.107 - Emission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission determination. 61.107 Section 61.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Federal Facilities Other...

  17. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  18. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  19. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  20. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  1. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission tests. 61.67 Section 61.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.67 Emission tests. (a) Unless a waiver of...

  2. Antecedents to agenda setting and framing in health news: an examination of priority, angle, source, and resource usage from a national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    The influence of news media on audience cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors in the realm of politics, race relations, science, and health has been extensively documented.Agenda setting and framing studies show that news media influence how people develop schema and place priorities on issues, with media stories serving as a major source of issue frames. Although news media are an important intermediary in the translation of scientific knowledge to different publics, little has been documented about the production of health news and factors that may predict media agenda setting and framing in health journalism. We used data from a 2005 national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors to examine predictors of source, resource, story angle, and frame usage among reporters and editors by variables such as organizational structure, individual characteristics of respondents (such as education and years working as a journalist),and perceptions of occupational autonomy. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed several differences among U.S. health reports and editors in the likelihood of using a variety of news sources, resources, priorities, and angles in reporting. Media agenda setting and framing theories suggest that practitioners familiar with media processes can work with journalists to frame messages, thereby increasing the probability of accurate and effective reporting. Results from this study may help to inform interactions between public health and medical practitioners and the press [corrected]. PMID:20390978

  3. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY: AREA SOURCES-WINTER SUNDAY, PRODUCT V (VERSION 5.3)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory 5.2 area source emissions data for the 48 contiguous United States and Canada (from 50 degrees to 125 degrees W. Longitude and from 25 degrees to 60 degrees N. Latitude) are contained in the data file. Temporally, spatially, and species-resolved...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY: AREA SOURCES-SPRING WEEKDAY, PRODUCT W (VERSION 5.3)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory 5.3 area source emissions data for the 48 contiguous United States and Canada (from 50 degrees to 125 degrees W. Longitude and from 25 degrees to 60 degrees N. Latitude) are contained in the data file. Temporally, spatially, and species-resolved ...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY: AREA SOURCES. FALL SATURDAY, PRODUCT DD (VERSION 5.3)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory 5.2 area source emissions data for the 48 contiguous United States and Canada (from 50 degrees to 125 degrees W. Longitude and from 25 degrees to 60 degrees N. Latitude) are contained in the data file. Temporally, spatially, and species-resolved...

  7. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  8. Setting National Priorities: The 1974 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Edward R.; And Others

    This book attempts to make the problem of budgetary choice at the federal level more intelligible by classifying, analyzing, and projecting into the future the components of the budget in a way which makes it possible to put together several comprehensive alternative budgets, each illustrating from a different view how the Federal Government could…

  9. Unit: Cells, Inspection Set, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of a unit is the series being produced by the Australian Science Education Project provides instructions for students to prepare a variety of cell types and examine them with microscopes. It also gives some information about the variety and function of cells. The core of the unit, which all students are expected to complete,…

  10. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  11. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  12. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 61.42 Section 61.42... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  13. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  14. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  15. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  16. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  17. Does depression screening have an effect on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in general medical settings?: an instrumental variable analysis of the national ambulatory medical care survey.

    PubMed

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the association of depression screening with the diagnoses of mood disorders and prescription of antidepressants in 73,712 visits to nonpsychiatrist physician offices drawn from the 2005-2007 U.S. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Physicians used depression screening selectively for patients whom they perceived as more likely to have a mood disorder. In bivariate probit analyses with instrumental variables, depression screening did not increase the prevalence of either mood disorder diagnoses or prescription of antidepressants. However, screening was associated with lower rates of antidepressants prescription without a diagnosis of a mood disorder. In visits in which antidepressants were prescribed, 47.4% of the screened visits compared with 16.3% of nonscreened visits had a mood disorder diagnosis. As currently practiced in medical settings, depression screening may help improve targeting and appropriate use of antidepressant medications. Wider use of depression screening may help curb the growing trend of off-label antidepressant prescriptions. PMID:21454246

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH3) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. H3 emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories...

  19. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry. PMID:25639120

  20. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  1. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) county-level alkaline emission estimates for unpaved roads. Dust Devils and wind erosion, 1985 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Masser, C.C.; Barnard, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The two floppy diskettes contain the data summary tables included in Appendices A, B, and C of the report Development of County-Level Wind Erosion and Unpaved Road Alkaline Emission Estimates for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. The data tables are formatted in LOTUS 1-2-3 version 2.01 format (although they were written using Microsoft EXCEL Version 2.1). Each of the files represent one of the Appendices. It should be noted that in the report, only counties that had non-zero Dust Devil emissions were included in Appendix C. The corresponding file provides information for all counties in the continental U.S. even though most counties have Dust Devil emissions equal to zero.

  2. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  3. On-road traffic emissions in a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura E.; Gómez, Darío R.; Osses, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    A new annual bottom-up emission inventory of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases from on-road mobile sources was developed for 2006 for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, within a four-year regional project aimed at providing tools for chemical weather forecast in South America. Under the scarcity of local emission factors, we collected data from measuring campaigns performed in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia and compiled a data set of regional emission factors representative of Latin American fleets and driving conditions. The estimated emissions were validated with respect to downscaled national estimates and the EDGAR global emission database. Our results highlight the role of older technologies accounting in average for almost 80% of the emissions of all species. The area exhibits higher specific emissions than developed countries, with figures two times higher for criteria pollutants. We analyzed the effect on emissions of replacing gasoline by compressed natural gas, occurring in Argentina since 1995. We identified (i) a relationship between number of vehicles and a compound socioeconomic indicator, and (ii) time-lags in vehicle technologies between developed and developing countries, which can be respectively applied for spatial disaggregation and the development of projections for other Latin American cities. The results may also be employed to complement global emission inventories and by local policy makers as an environmental management tool.

  4. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  5. Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  6. Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  7. TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    D OTTAVIO,T.; FU, W.; OTTAVIO, D.P.

    2007-10-15

    Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.

  8. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  9. A Proposed Framework for Synthesis Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, A.; Berliner, M.; Braverman, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Synthesis Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data refers to the “meta-integration” of many sources of GHG emissions data (beyond the standardization of related data required for a data assimilation system). This includes integration of various data types such as, but not limited to: data from multiple data assimilation systems; data from standardized economic-based emissions inventories such as the UNFCCC National Emissions Inventories (NEI) from various Annex I countries; data from non-NEI emissions inventories for sectors specified by UNFCCC as excluded; and ancillary data available from other sources. The term data integration refers to meaningful comparisons between different data sets and associated uncertainties but does not necessarily imply reduction to a single value or set of values. This analysis intends to develop a preliminary framework for development and assessment of the quality and impact of policies and decisions based on Bayesian statistical methods. It will also identify some likely data sources that will need to be synthesized for greenhouse gas emission discussions and policy products. Uncertainties and uncertainty methodologies are explored, along with suggestions for improving reporting of emissions quantities and associated uncertainties to better facilitate future data comparison.

  10. 40 CFR 63.7114 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  11. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7114 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7114 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7114 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7114 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  20. A reassessment of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for soybean biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first comprehensive soybean biodiesel (BD) LCA by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 1998, there have been many technological improvements that could change the LCA results. This study updates the GHG emissions for BD using the most current set of agriculture data from the year 20...

  1. California Natural Disasters - Using NASA Earth Observations to Assess Smoke Emissions, Fuel Loading, Moisture Content, and Vegetation Loss due to the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. L.; Reedy, J.; Moustafa, S.; Brundage, D.; Anderson, K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Swanson, A. J.; Yang, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires are a normal occurrence in the state of California. Evidence of this can be seen in the Station Fire of 2009 (26 August - 16 October), a fire which destroyed over 154,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest and the combined summer fires of 2008 (22 May-29 August), which burned over 1,500,000 acres. In order to understand these fires it is important to consider several factors, including fire suppression, fuel loading, and the California climate. NDVI and NDMI maps for Angeles National forest were developed using Landsat 5 TM. The trend in live vegetation moisture content and vegetation condition for 2009 was found using these maps of Angeles National Forest. The NDMI maps were analyzed to understand changes in live vegetation moisture content that preceded the forest fires. Fuel for the Station fire was mapped using land classification through Landsat 5 TM and ASTER. This classification, along with moisture content levels, allowed for a method to map change in vegetation distribution, condition, and fuel load. The fuel load from these fires produces harmful emissions. These emissions contain large amounts of PM, including PM2.5, which are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller (PM2.5). HYSPLIT trajectories were used to follow emissions from the 2008 summer fires to correlate with ARCTAS CARB data. HYSPLIT dispersion models were also used to show the deposition of particles in surrounding counties. Terra’s ASTER, MODIS, as well as data from EPA’s AirNow system, CARB AQMIS, and ARCTAS CARB flights were used to observe air quality factors such as PM2.5 levels, AOD, trace gases, and UV aerosol index. The results obtained from this study will demonstrate the feasibility of current and future NASA satellites to offer California policy makers assistance with more informed decision making.

  2. An Integrated Modelling Approach to Estimate Urban Traffic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh

    Vehicular emissions contribute significantly to poor air quality in urban areas. An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model, a microscopic emissions model, and two dispersion models. This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions during weekdays for carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with a reasonably good fit. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of total predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Both predicted and observed concentrations are significantly smaller than the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada. Sensitivity analysis is performed on a set of input parameters and horizontal wind speed is found to be the most influential factor in pollutant dispersion.

  3. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  4. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  5. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  6. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  7. EMISSIONS FORECASTS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives national and regional air emissions forecasts from several sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide (SOx and NOx) emissions control Process Model Projection Technique (PROMPT) test runs. PROMPT, one of a number of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission fo...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63.1313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63.1313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63.1313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63.1313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  12. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  13. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall not... public health could occur. (b) If combustion products from the firing of beryllium propellant...

  14. Families & School. Best of "set."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N., Ed.; Richards, Llyn, Ed.

    Published to celebrate the United Nations' International Year of the Family, this special issue presents selected articles from "set," a twice yearly journal of research information for teachers. These articles look at the contribution of educational research on the relationships between schools and families, and families and learning in Australia…

  15. Promoting Literacy in Multilingual Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kimmo; Young, Catherine; Malone, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This compilation of resource papers and findings is from a regional workshop on mother-tongue/bilingual literacy programmes for ethnic and linguistic minorities in multilingual settings. It was organized by Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Bangkok, 6-10 December…

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  17. 45 CFR 605.34 - Educational setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Educational setting. 605.34 Section 605.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.34 Educational setting. (a) Academic setting. A recipient to...

  18. BASELINE EMISSIONS FORECASTS FOR INDUSTRIAL NON-BOILER SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives regional air emission forecasts from three Process Model Projection Technique (PROMPT) runs. These estimates illustrate a range of possible future emissions. PROMPT, one of a number of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission forecasting models, pr...

  19. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1287 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitation. 63.1287 Section 63.1287 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Natural Gas Transmission and...

  1. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  2. 40 CFR 61.273 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation. 61.273 Section 61.273 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene...

  3. 40 CFR 61.93 - Emission monitoring and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring and test procedures. 61.93 Section 61.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than...

  4. 40 CFR 61.273 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation. 61.273 Section 61.273 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene...

  5. 40 CFR 61.273 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation. 61.273 Section 61.273 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene...

  6. 40 CFR 61.273 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation. 61.273 Section 61.273 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4891 - What are my options for demonstrating compliance with the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... emission limits? You must include all coatings, thinners, and cleaning materials used in the...

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2008-09-29

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2009-06-11

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  10. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  11. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and the application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analyzed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emissions from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared a constant emission approach (FLAT), scenario (1) against (2) a dynamic approach based on the Europe-wide default settings (Skjøth et al., 2011, scenario DEFAULT); (3) a dynamic approach that takes into account Polish practice and less regulation compared to Denmark (POLREGUL); (4) a scenario that focuses on emissions from agricultural buildings (NOFERT). The ammonia emission was implemented into the chemical transport model FRAME (Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange) and modelled ammonia concentrations were compared with measurements. The results for an agricultural area suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained at a national scale by replacing the default information on manure

  12. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Power plants were the largest stationary source of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States in 2010, according to data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) GHG Reporting Program, the agency announced on 11 January. The GHG data set, which includes reports from more than 6700 facilities, provides information that the public can search to identify local sources of emissions and that businesses can use to track emissions. Gina McCarthy, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, said the program is “a transparent, powerful data resource available to the public” and that it provides “a critical tool” for businesses and others to find efficiencies to reduce emissions.

  14. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis - the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission - and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  15. Development of national reference energy mean emission levels for the FHWA traffic noise model (FHWA TNM (trade name)), version 1.0. Final report, July 1993-November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, G.G.; Rapoza, A.S.; Lee, C.S.Y.

    1995-11-01

    During the period, July 1993 through November 1995, the U.S. Department of Transportation , Research and Special Programs Administration, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center), Acoustics Facility. This report also presents the results of the study, including the measurement, data reduction and analysis procedures used to develop the Data Base. It discusses data for constant-flow and interrupted-flow roadway traffic, and data related to vehicle subsource heights. This report also presents the statistical methodology used to establish the Data Base for the FHWA TNM. Sound level regressions are presented as a function of several parameters, including vehicle speed, vehicle type, one-third octave-band frequency, roadway pavement type, roadway grade, traffic-flow condition and vehicle subsource height.

  16. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  17. Single-Institution Experience in the Treatment of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Treated With Immunochemotherapy in the Setting of Response Assessment by {sup 18}Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohamed Amin; Costelloe, Colleen; Wogan, Christine F.; Reed, Valerie; Romaguera, Jorge E.; Neelapu, Sattva; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fayad, Luis; Hagemeister, Frederick B.; Nastoupil, Loretta; Turturro, Francesco; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; and others

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed the outcomes in patients treated with 1 of 3 rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT. We also evaluated the ability of positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 97 patients with diagnoses of stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001 and 2013. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether postchemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to a 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned. Results: Among 97 patients (median follow-up time, 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5PS = 3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4 to 5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4 to 5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplantation) was successful in all cases. Conclusion: Combined modality immunochemotherapy and RT is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A postchemotherapy 5PS of 4 to 5, rather than 3 to 5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond

  18. Simulation study of optimizing the 3-5 keV x-ray emission from pure Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, G. E.; Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B.; Patel, M. V.; Scott, H. A.; Marinak, M.; Fisher, J. H.; Davis, J. F.

    2014-10-01

    High-flux x-ray sources are desirable for testing the radiation hardness of materials used in various civilian, space and military applications. For this study, there is an interest to design a source with primarily mid-energy (~ 3 keV) but limited soft (< 1 keV) x-ray contributions; we focus on optimizing the 3--5 keV non-LTE emission from targets consisting of pure Ar (K-shell) or Ag (L-shell) at sub-critical densities (~nc / 10) to ensure supersonic, volumetric laser heating with minimal losses to kinetic energy and thermal x rays. However, K and L-shell sources are expected to optimize at different temperatures and densities and it is a priori unclear under what target and laser conditions this will occur. Using HYDRA, a multi-dimensional, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, radiation-hydrodynamics code, we performed a simulation study by varying initial target density and laser parameters for each material as it would perform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We employ a model, benchmarked against Kr data collected on the NIF, that uses flux-limited Lee-More thermal conductivity and implicit Monte-Carlo photonics with non-LTE, detailed configuration accounting opacities from CRETIN. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

    1993-06-01

    Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

  20. SETS reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis.