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Sample records for severe acute pancreatitis

  1. Severe Acute Pancreatitis and Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Rahul; Subramanian, Ram M

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis results in nearly 250,000 admissions annually. Acute pancreatitis varies widely in its clinical presentation. Pancreatic necrosis accounts for substantial additional morbidity, with mortality rates remaining as high as 10% to 20% despite advances in critical care. The extent of necrosis correlates well with the incidence of infected necrosis, multiorgan failure, need for pancreatic debridement, and morbidity and mortality. Having established the diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis, goals of appropriately aggressive resuscitation should be established and adhered to in a multidisciplinary approach involving both medical and surgical critical care. PMID:27016168

  2. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

  3. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  4. Metabolic management of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Windsor, J A; Hammodat, H

    2000-06-01

    The metabolic management of severe acute pancreatitis involves early identification of patients with severe pancreatitis, aggressive fluid resuscitation, organ support, and careful monitoring in an intensive care environment. Recent evidence has helped to define the roles of enteral feeding, prophylactic antibiotics, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, computed tomography, and fine-needle aspiration for bacteriology. The most difficult decision in the management of these patients is whether surgery is required and which of the complementary approaches to necrosectomy and drainage is appropriate. Key metabolic events in the acinar cell, pancreas, and intestines are now being unraveled, as is the basis for the systemic manifestations and organ dysfunction associated with pancreatitis. This gives hope for the development of more specific metabolic interventions, which will likely target the maintenance of intestinal integrity and function, preservation of pancreatic microcirculation, and balanced modulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:10773118

  5. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  6. Laboratory markers predicting severity of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Staubli, Sebastian Manuel; Oertli, Daniel; Nebiker, Christian Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of highly variable severity, ranging from mild cases with low mortality to severe cases with high mortality. Numerous biomarkers have been studied as potential early predictors of the severity of this disease so that treatment can be optimally tailored to prevent complications. We aim to present and discuss the most relevant biomarkers for early severity assessment in AP that have been studied to date. We review the current literature on biomarkers that have been used to predict the severity in AP. C-reactive protein (CRP) is still considered to be the gold standard, with a cut-off value of 150 mg/ml 48 h after disease onset. Other markers, including procalcitonin (PCT) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been implemented in some hospitals, but are not used on a routine basis. Most other markers, including acute phase proteins (LBP, SAA, PTX3), cytokines (Il-8, TNF-a, MIF), activation peptides of pancreatic proteases (TAP, CAPAP, PLAP), antiproteases (AAT, a2M), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, selectins, E-cadherin) and leukocyte-derived enzymes (PA2, PMN-E) have shown some promising results but have not been routinely implemented. Furthermore, new and interesting biomarkers (Copeptin, TRX-1, Ang-2, E-2) have shown good results, but more research is needed to determine if they could play a role in the future. Various reasons why new markers for disease severity have not been adopted in daily routine include low accuracy, cumbersome laboratory techniques and high cost. Despite these difficulties, research is still very active in finding new markers to predict the severity of AP. PMID:26173077

  7. Timing of cholecystectomy after acute severe pancreatitis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TALEBI-BAKHSHAYESH, Mousa; MOHAMMADZADEH, Alireza; ZARGAR, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and is usually caused by gallstones; its occurrence in pregnancy is rare. Cholecystectomy for biliary pancreatitis during pregnancy is unavoidable, but its timing is controversial. We herein present the case of a patient who underwent termination of pregnancy due to deteriorated acute severe pancreatitis during the 27th week of gestation. Cholecystectomy was performed because of the relapse of acute biliary pancreatitis 10 days after being discharged. The interval from pancreatitis to cholecystectomy varies with its severity; in mild pancreatitis the interval may be one week, but in severe cases it maybe up to three weeks. Because pancreatitis may relapse during this interval, as occurred in the present case, a better solution for the timing of cholecystectomy must be sought. PMID:26715899

  8. [Principles of intensive care in severe acute pancreatitis in 2008].

    PubMed

    Darvas, Katalin; Fut, Judit; Okrs, Ilona; Gondos, Tibor; Csoms, Akos; Kupcsulik, Pter

    2008-11-23

    Acute pancreatitis is a dynamic, often progressive disease; 14-20% require intensive care in its severe form due to multiorgan dysfunction and/or failure. This review was created using systematic literature review of articles published on this subject in the last 5 years. The outcome of severe acute pancreatitis is determined by the inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction - the prognostic scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Glasgow Prognostic Index, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Scale, Ranson Scale) can be used to determine outcome. Clinical signs (age, coexisting diseases, confusion, obesity) and biochemistry values (serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatinine, urea, calcium) have important prognostic roles as well. Early organ failure increases the risk of late abdominal complications and mortality. Intensive care can provide appropriate multi-function patient monitoring which helps in early recognition of complications and appropriate target-controlled treatment. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis aims at reducing systemic inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction and, on the other side, at increasing the anti-inflammatory response. Oral starvation for 24-48 hours is effective in reducing the exocrine activity of the pancreas; the efficacy of protease inhibitors is questionable. Early intravascular volume resuscitation and stable haemodynamics improve microcirculation. Early oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation provide adequate oxygenation. Electrolyte and acid-base control can be as important as tight glucose control. Adequate pain relief can be achieved by thoracic epidural catheterization. Early enteral nutrition with immunonutrition should be used. There is evidence that affecting the coagulation cascade by activated protein C can play a role in reducing the inflammatory response. The complex therapy of acute pancreatitis includes appropriate antibiotics, thrombo-embolic prophylaxis and in certain cases plasmapheresis and/or haemofiltration. Reducing intraabdominal pressure may be necessary in the acute phase. Intensive care multidisciplinary teamwork can reduce the mortality of severe acute pancreatitis from 30% to 10%. PMID:19004743

  9. Decreased mortality of severe acute pancreatitis after proximal cytokine blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, J G; Franz, M G; Fink, G S; Messina, J; Fabri, P J; Gower, W R; Carey, L C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined the ability of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) to decrease the mortality of experimental acute pancreatitis. The response of the inflammatory cytokine cascade and its subsequent effects on pancreatic morphology were measured to determine the role of these peptides in mediating pancreatic injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines are produced in large amounts during acute pancreatitis and that blockade at the level of the IL-1 receptor significantly decreases intrinsic pancreatic damage. The subsequent effect on survival is not known. METHODS: A lethal form of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in young female mice by feeding a choline-deficient, ethionine supplemented (CDE) diet for 72 hours. For determination of mortality, the animals were divided into 3 groups of 45 animals each: control subjects received 100/microL normal saline intraperitoneally every 6 hours for 5 days; IL-1ra early mice received recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally every 6 hours for 5 days beginning at time 0; IL-1ra late mice received IL-1ra 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally every 6 hours for 3.5 days beginning 1.5 days after introduction of the CDE diet. A parallel experiment was conducted simultaneously with a minimum of 29 animals per group, which were sacrificed daily for comparisons of serum amylase, lipase, IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1ra, pancreatic wet weight, and blind histopathologic grading. RESULTS: The 10-day mortality in the untreated control group was 73%. Early and late IL-1ra administration resulted in decreases of mortality to 44% and 51%, respectively (both p < 0.001). Interleukin-1 antagonism also was associated with a significant attenuation in the rise in pancreatic wet weight and serum amylase and lipase in both early and late IL-1ra groups (all p < 0.05). All control animals developed a rapid elevation of the inflammatory cytokines, with maximal levels reached on day 3. The IL-1ra-treated animals, however, demonstrated a blunted rise of these mediators (all p < 0.05). Blind histologic grading revealed an overall decrease in the severity of pancreatitis in those animals receiving the antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Early or late blockade of the cytokine cascade at the level of the IL-1 receptor significantly decreases the mortality of severe acute pancreatitis. The mechanism by which this is accomplished appears to include attenuation of systemic inflammatory cytokines and decreased pancreatic destruction. PMID:7794067

  10. Pancreatic and synovial type phospholipases A2 in serum samples from patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Nevalainen, T J; Grönroos, J M; Kortesuo, P T

    1993-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the rate limiting enzyme in the formation of prostaglandins and probably plays a key part in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases. In acute pancreatitis, the catalytic activity of PLA2 in serum correlates with the severity of the disease. The cellular source of the catalytically active PLA2 in serum of patients suffering from acute pancreatitis and other diseases is unknown. Immunoassays for the measurement of pancreatic group I PLA2 and nonpancreatic synovial type group II PLA2 have recently been developed and the present study investigated the presence of group I and group II PLA2s in serum samples from 36 patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The catalytic activity of PLA2 showed a highly significant correlation with the concentration of synovial type PLA2 (r = 0.939, p = 0.001) but not with the concentration of pancreatic PLA2 (r = 0.067, p = 0.698). The results suggest that pancreatic PLA2 circulates mostly as inactive enzyme in patients with acute pancreatitis whereas synovial type PLA2 is responsible for the increased catalytic activity of the enzyme and thus might be associated with the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:8174968

  11. Severe acute pancreatitis: Pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim A Al

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis develop a severe disease associated with complications and high risk of mortality. The purpose of this study is to review pathogenesis and prognostic factors of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). An extensive medline search was undertaken with focusing on pathogenesis, complications and prognostic evaluation of SAP. Cytokines and other inflammatory markers play a major role in the pathogenesis and course of SAP and can be used as prognostic markers in its early phase. Other markers such as simple prognostic scores have been found to be as effective as multifactorial scoring systems (MFSS) at 48 h with the advantage of simplicity, efficacy, low cost, accuracy and early prediction of SAP. Recently, several laboratory markers including hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and serum amyloid A (SAA) have been used as early predictors of severity within the first 24 h. The last few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in understanding the pathogenesis and predicting the outcome of SAP. In this review we classified the prognostic markers into predictors of severity, pancreatic necrosis (PN), infected PN (IPN) and mortality. PMID:18205255

  12. Prediction of Severe Acute Pancreatitis Using a Decision Tree Model Based on the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yushun; Yang, Chong; Gou, Shanmiao; Li, Yongfeng; Xiong, Jiongxin; Wu, Heshui; Wang, Chunyou

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a model for the early prediction of severe acute pancreatitis based on the revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis. Methods Clinical data of 1308 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) were included in the retrospective study. A total of 603 patients who were admitted to the hospital within 36 hours of the onset of the disease were included at last according to the inclusion criteria. The clinical data were collected within 12 hours after admission. All the patients were classified as having mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) based on the revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis. All the 603 patients were randomly divided into training group (402 cases) and test group (201 cases). Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors for the development of SAP in the training group. Then the prediction model was constructed using the decision tree method, and this model was applied to the test group to evaluate its validity. Results The decision tree model was developed using creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and oxygenation index to predict SAP. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of SAP in the training group were 80.9% and 90.0%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity in the test group were 88.6% and 90.4%, respectively. Conclusions The decision tree model based on creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and oxygenation index is more likely to predict the occurrence of SAP. PMID:26580397

  13. Severe acute pancreatitis in the elderly: Etiology and clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ming-Jun; Chen, Hong; Luo, Bin; Sun, Jia-Bang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the etiology and clinical characteristics of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age). METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively all the SAP cases treated in Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing between 2000 and 2007. RESULTS: In 169 patients with SAP, 94 were elderly and 16 died. Biliary and idiopathic etiologies were the first two causes that accounted for over 90% of SAP in the elderly. Biliary, hyperlipemic and alcoholic etiologies were the first three causes in the young. The proportion of co-morbidity of cholelithiasis, biliary infection, hypertension and coronary heart disease in the aged was significantly higher than that in their young partners. The scores of APACHE II and Ranson were also significantly higher in the elderly except the CT score. Organ failures were more common in the elderly, but the local pancreatic complications were not different between the two groups. Mortality of the aged was correlated with the severity of SAP, multiple co-morbidity and incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS was the main cause of death. CONCLUSION: The etiology of SAP in the elderly is quite different from that in the young. Biliary and unknown factors are main causes in the aged. The elderly are subject to major organ failures but there is no difference in the occurrence of local pancreatic complications between the elderly and the young. It is crucial to monitor and improve the functions of major organs so as to prevent MODS in the aged with SAP. PMID:18442198

  14. Relaxin prevents the development of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosen-Binker, Laura Iris; Binker, Marcelo Gustavo; Cosen, Rodica; Negri, Gustavo; Tiscornia, Osvaldo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated to the intensity of leukocyte activation, inflammatory up-regulation and microcirculatory disruption associated to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Microvascular integrity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators are key-factors in the evolution of AP. Relaxin is an insulin-like hormone that has been attributed vasorelaxant properties via the nitric oxide pathway while behaving as a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. METHODS: AP was induced by the bilio-pancreatic duct-outlet-exclusion closed-duodenal-loops model. Treatment with relaxin was done at different time-points. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-NAME and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) blockage by mifepristone was considered. AP severity was assessed by biochemical and histopathological analyses. RESULTS: Treatment with relaxin reduced serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-10, hsp72, LDH and 8-isoprostane as well as pancreatic and lung myeloperoxidase. Acinar and fat necrosis, hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrate were also decreased. ATP depletion and ADP/ATP ratio were reduced while caspases 2-3-8 and 9 activities were increased. L-NAME and mifepristone decreased the efficiency of relaxin. CONCLUSION: Relaxin resulted beneficial in the treatment of AP combining the properties of a GR agonist while preserving the microcirculation and favoring apoptosis over necrosis. PMID:16570348

  15. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with severe acute pancreatitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira; Moreira, Alecsandro; Baima, Julio P; Franzoni, Leticia de C; Lima, Talles B; Yamashiro, Fabio da S; Coelho, Kunie Yabuki Rabelo; Sassaki, Ligia Y; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Romeiro, Fernando G; Silva, Giovanni F

    2014-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare disease that affects women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Although infrequent, the disease can cause maternal mortality. The diagnosis is not always clear until the pregnancy is terminated, and significant complications, such as acute pancreatitis, can occur. Pancreatic involvement typically only occurs in severe cases after the development of hepatic and renal impairment. To date, little knowledge is available regarding how the disease causes pancreatitis. Treatment involves supportive measures and pregnancy interruption. In this report, we describe a case of a previously healthy 26-year-old woman at a gestational age of 27 wk and 6 d who was admitted with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. This case illustrates the clinical and laboratory overlap between acute fatty liver of pregnancy and pancreatitis, highlighting the difficulties in differentiating each disease. Furthermore, the hypothesis for this overlapping is presented, and the therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:25068005

  16. Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hotz, H G; Reber, H A

    1999-09-01

    Efforts to unravel the intracellular processes that occur in acute pancreatitis continue. In cerulein pancreatitis, new evidence supports the idea that a very early event is premature trypsinogen activation triggered by lysosomal cathepsin B. Clinicians persist in trying to identify more sensitive and specific prognostic signs of the severity of attacks of pancreatitis; one study suggests that computer-based neural networks may be an alternative to biochemical markers and clinical scoring systems. The systemic severity of episodes of pancreatitis seems to be related to a multitude of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines acting at sites distant from the pancreas. Selective blockade of some of these peptides (eg, endothelin-1 and platelet-activating factor) has decreased mortality and distant organ damage in animal models and may deserve clinical evaluation. Gene therapy may be more efficient than pharmacologic therapy in increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) levels. Clinical studies have further underlined the usefulness of prophylactic antibiotics in severe acute pancreatitis. Radiologic and endoscopic techniques may be alternatives to surgery for certain complications of pancreatitis (eg, infected necrosis and pseudocysts) in particular subsets of patients. PMID:17023979

  17. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver

    2014-10-14

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder. PMID:25320523

  18. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Buildup of fluid in the abdomen ( ascites ) Cysts or abscesses in the pancreas Heart failure Low blood pressure Repeat episodes of acute ...

  19. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  20. Perioperative factors determine outcome after surgery for severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    De Waele, Jan J; Hoste, Eric; Blot, Stijn I; Hesse, Uwe; Pattyn, Piet; de Hemptinne, Bernard; Decruyenaere, Johan; Vogelaers, Dirk; Colardyn, Francis

    2004-01-01

    Introduction There is evidence that postponing surgery in critically ill patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) leads to improved survival, but previous reports included patients with both sterile and infected pancreatic necrosis who were operated on for various indications and with different degrees of organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, which might be an important bias. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of timing of surgery and perioperative factors (severity of organ dysfunction and microbiological status of the necrosis) on mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergoing surgery for SAP. Methods We retrospectively (January 1994 to March 2003) analyzed patients admitted to the ICU with SAP. Of 124 patients, 56 were treated surgically; these are the subject of this analysis. We recorded demographic characteristics and predictors of mortality at admission, timing of and indications for surgery, and outcome. We also studied the microbiological status of the necrosis and organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery. Results Patients' characteristics were comparable in patients undergoing early and late surgery, and there was a trend toward a higher mortality in patients who underwent early surgery (55% versus 29%, P = 0.06). In univariate analysis, patients who died were older, had higher organ dysfunction scores at the day of surgery, and had sterile necrosis more often; there was a trend toward earlier surgery in these patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that only age, organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, and the presence of sterile necrosis were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of critically ill patients operated on for SAP, there was a trend toward higher mortality in patients operated on early in the course of the disease, but in multivariate analysis, only greater age, severity of organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, and the presence of sterile necrosis, but not the timing of the surgical intervention, were independently associated with an increased risk for mortality. PMID:15566598

  1. Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Lee, Gyeong Bok; Shin, Dong Gue; Park, Sang Su; Yun, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog

    2014-01-01

    The side effects of tamoxifen are generally mild, including the effect on lipoprotein metabolism. However, there are few cases of severe tamoxifen induced hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is a marked risk factor for acute pancreatitis and approximately 2% to 5% of cases of acute pancreatitis are related to drugs. We report on tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a 40 years old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus occurred by dexamethasone. She was treated with insulin infusion and fenofibrate, and goserelin acetate was started instead of tamoxifen after discharge from the hospital. Also, probable pathogenic hypotheses about the correlation between tamoxifen and dexamethasone induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on severe acute pancreatitis are provided. Clinicians should take care of risks of severe acute pancreatitis on using tamoxifen, especially for patients with dexamethasone induced diabetes mellitus. These individuals should undergo pre-post tamoxifen lipid screening and careful history taking of drugs, including dexamethasone. PMID:25035662

  2. Acute pancreatitis and severe hypertriglyceridaemia masking unsuspected underlying diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Aboulhosn, Kewan; Arnason, Terra

    2013-01-01

    A healthy 18-year-old girl presented to a local emergency room with 48 h of abdominal pain and vomiting. A radiological and biochemical diagnosis of moderate acute pancreatitis was made. Bloodwork demonstrated prominent hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) of 19.5 mmol/L (severe HTG: 11.2–22.4), detectable urine ketones and a random blood glucose of 13 mmol/L dropping to 10.5 mmol/L on repeat (normal random <11). Ketone levels were deemed consistent with fasting ketosis after 48 h of vomiting. There was no known history of diabetes in the patient. Management included aggressive rehydration and pain control, yet the patient rapidly decompensated into shock requiring intensive care unit support. Blood gases revealed severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.99) and unsuspected underlying diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed. The HTG gradually resolved following intravenous fluids and insulin infusion with slower correction of the metabolic acidosis. Importantly, her glycated haemoglobin was 12%, indicating the silent presence of chronic glucose elevations. PMID:24005972

  3. Early Nasogastric Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Eckerwall, Gunilla E.; Axelsson, Jakob B.; Andersson, Roland G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early, nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Summary Background Data: In SAP, the magnitude of the inflammatory response as well as increased intestinal permeability correlates with outcome. Enteral feeding has been suggested superior to parenteral feeding due to a proposed beneficial effect on the gut barrier. Methods: Fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to TPN or EN groups. The nutritional regimen was started within 24 hours from admission and EN was provided through a nasogastric tube. The observation period was 10 days. Intestinal permeability was measured by excretion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrations of antiendotoxin core antibodies (Endocab). Interleukins (IL)-6 IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the systemic inflammatory response. Morbidity and feasibility of the nutritional route were evaluated by the frequency of complications, gastrointestinal symptoms, and abdominal pain. Results: PEG, Endocab, CRP, IL-6, APACHE II score, severity according to the Atlanta classification (22 patients), and gastrointestinal symptoms or abdominal pain did not significantly differ between the groups. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN patients (21 of 26 vs. 7 of 23; P < 0.001). Total complications (25 vs. 52; P = 0.04) and pulmonary complications (10 vs. 21; P = 0.04) were significantly more frequent in EN patients, although complications were diagnosed dominantly within the first 3 days. Conclusion: In predicted SAP, nasogastric early EN was feasible and resulted in better control of blood glucose levels, although the overall early complication rate was higher in the EN group. No beneficial effects on intestinal permeability or the inflammatory response were seen by EN treatment. PMID:17122621

  4. Severe Transient Hyperglycemia in a Prediabetic Patient during Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Reghina, Aura Diana; Craciun, Silvia; Fica, Simona

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old obese male patient had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus due to acute hyperglycemia and ketonuria. He also presented with severe hypertriglyceridemia and high levels of serum lipase. He was initially misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes and treated with insulin for one month. At two months from first presentation, pancreatic antibodies were negative, and the C-peptide level was normal. A1c level was 5.9% without insulin treatment. The association between diabetes mellitus and acute pancreatitis is well established. We reported a case of severe transient hyperglycemia during mild acute pancreatitis in a metabolically ill patient. PMID:25918533

  5. Acute Lipotoxicity Regulates Severity of Biliary Acute Pancreatitis without Affecting Its Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Cline, Rachel; Trivedi, Ram N.; DeLany, James P.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Lee, Kenneth; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Navina, Sarah; Murad, Faris; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O–positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate–induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction. PMID:24854864

  6. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  7. A study of the clinical profile of acute pancreatitis and its correlation with severity indices

    PubMed Central

    Vengadakrishnan, K.; Koushik, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a common disease with wide clinical variation and its incidence is increasing. Acute pancreatitis may vary in severity, from mild self-limiting pancreatic inflammation to pancreatic necrosis with life-threatening sequelae. Severity of acute pancreatitis is linked to the presence of systemic organ dysfunctions and/or necrotizing pancreatitis. Aim and objectives The present study was aimed to assess the clinical profile of acute pancreatitis and to assess the efficacy of various severity indices in predicting the outcome of patients. Methodology This was a prospective study done in Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital from April 2012–September 2014. All patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were included in this study. Along with routine lab parameters, serum amylase, lipase, lipid profile, calcium, CRP, LDH, CT abdomen, CXR and 2D Echo was done for all patients. Results A total of 110 patients were analysed. 50 patients required Intensive care, among them 9 patients (18%) died. 20 patients (18.2%) had MODS, 15 patients (13.6%) had pleural effusion, 9 patients (8.2%) had pseudocyst, 2 patients(1.8%) had hypotension, 2 patients(1.8%) had ARDS and 2 patients(1.8%) had DKA. In relation to various severity indices, high score of CRP, LDH and CT severity index was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. 15 patients (13.6%) underwent open necrosectomy surgery, 3 patients (2.7%) underwent laparoscopic necrosectomy and 7 patients (6.4%) were tried step up approach but could not avoid surgery. Step up approach and surgery did not have a significant reduction in the mortality. Conclusion Initial assessment of severity by CRP, LDH and lipase could be reliable indicators of outcome in acute pancreatitis PMID:26715920

  8. Effects of Local Pancreatic Renin-Angiotensin System on the Microcirculation of Rat with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ling; Long, Haocheng; Wang, Hui; Feng, Jiarui; Chen, Feixiang

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is normally related to multiorgan dysfunction and local complications. Studies have found that local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was significantly upregulated in drug-induced SAP. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II receptors inhibitor valsartan on dual role of RAS in SAP in a rat model and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. 3.8% sodium taurocholate (1 ml/kg) was injected to the pancreatic capsule in order for pancreatitis induction. Rats in the sham group were injected with normal saline in identical locations. We also investigated the regulation of experimentally induced SAP on local RAS expression in the pancreas through determination of the activities of serum amylase, lipase and myeloperoxidase, histological and biochemical analysis, radioimmunoassay, fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. The results indicated that valsartan could effectively suppress the local RAS to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis through inhibition of microcirculation disturbances and inflammation. The results suggest that pancreatic RAS plays a critical role in the regulation of pancreatic functions and demonstrates application potential as AT1 receptor antagonists. Moreover, other RAS inhibitors could be a new therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26170733

  9. Epidural anesthesia improves pancreatic perfusion and decreases the severity of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Samira M; Andres, Axel; Morel, Philippe; Schiffer, Eduardo; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Bühler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety of epidural anesthesia (EA), its effect on pancreatic perfusion and the outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: From 2005 to August 2010, patients with predicted severe AP [Ranson score ≥ 2, C-reactive protein > 100 or necrosis on computed tomography (CT)] were prospectively randomized to either a group receiving EA or a control group treated by patient controlled intravenous analgesia. Pain management was evaluated in the two groups every eight hours using the visual analog pain scale (VAS). Parameters for clinical severity such as length of hospital stay, use of antibiotics, admission to the intensive care unit, radiological/clinical complications and the need for surgical necrosectomy including biochemical data were recorded. A CT scan using a perfusion protocol was performed on admission and at 72 h to evaluate pancreatic blood flow. A significant variation in blood flow was defined as a 20% difference in pancreatic perfusion between admission and 72 h and was measured in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. RESULTS: We enrolled 35 patients. Thirteen were randomized to the EA group and 22 to the control group. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups. The Balthazar radiological severity score on admission was higher in the EA group than in the control group (mean score 4.15 ± 2.54 vs 3.38 ± 1.75, respectively, P = 0.347) and the median Ranson scores were 3.4 and 2.7 respectively (P = NS). The median duration of EA was 5.7 d, and no complications of the epidural procedure were reported. An improvement in perfusion of the pancreas was observed in 13/30 (43%) of measurements in the EA group vs 2/27 (7%) in the control group (P = 0.0025). Necrosectomy was performed in 1/13 patients in the EA group vs 4/22 patients in the control group (P = 0.63). The VAS improved during the first ten days in the EA group compared to the control group (0.2 vs 2.33, P = 0.034 at 10 d). Length of stay and mortality were not statistically different between the 2 groups (26 d vs 30 d, P = 0.65, and 0% for both respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that EA increases arterial perfusion of the pancreas and improves the clinical outcome of patients with AP. PMID:26604652

  10. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  11. Failure to follow evidence-based best practice guidelines in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vlada, Adrian C; Schmit, Bradley; Perry, Andrew; Trevino, Jose G; Behrns, Kevin E; Hughes, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis have been established. This study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that deviation from guidelines occurs frequently. Methods With institutional review board approval, the outside medical records of patients with severe pancreatitis who were transferred to the study institution during the period from July 2005 to May 2012 were reviewed. Severe pancreatitis was defined using the Atlanta Classification criteria. Records were reviewed with respect to published guidelines defining the appropriate use of imaging, antibiotics and nutritional support. Results A total of 538 patients with acute pancreatitis were identified. Of 67 patients with severe acute pancreatitis, 44 (66%) were male. The mean age of the patients was 55 years. Forty-five of 61 (74%) patients for whom relevant data were available were imaged upon admission, but only 15 (31%) patients were imaged appropriately by computerized tomography with i.v. contrast to assess the presence of necrosis or other complications. In patients for whom relevant data were available, prophylactic antibiotics were initiated in the absence of culture data or a specific infectious target in 26 (53%) patients. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was administered to 38 (60%) of 63 patients for whom relevant data were available; only 10 (17%) patients received enteric feeding. No nutritional support was provided to 15 (23%) patients. Conclusions Adherence to best practice guidelines in the treatment of severe pancreatitis is poor. The consistent application of current knowledge might improve outcomes in these patients. PMID:24028271

  12. The role of the intestine in the pathophysiology and management of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Flint, RS

    2003-01-01

    Background The outcome of severe acute pancreatitis has scarcely improved in 10 years. Further impact will require new paradigms in pathophysiology and treatment. There is accumulating evidence to support the concept that the intestine has a key role in the pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis which goes beyond the notion of secondary pancreatic infection. Intestinal ischaemia and reperfusion and barrier failure are implicated in the development of multiple organ failure. Discussion Conventional management of severe acute pancreatitis has tended to ignore the intestine. More recent attempts to rectify this problem have included 1) resuscitation aimed at restoring intestinal blood flow through the use of appropriate fluids and splanchnic-sparing vasoconstrictors or inotropes; 2) enteral nutrition to help maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier; 3) selective gut decontamination and prophylactic antibiotics to reduce bacterial translocation and secondary infection. Novel therapies are being developed to limit intestinal injury, and these include antioxidants and anti-cytokine agents. This paper focuses on the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis and reviews the implications for management. PMID:18332961

  13. High-mobility group box 1 protein and its role in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Wei-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which belongs to the subfamily of HMG-1/-2, is a highly conserved single peptide chain consisting of 215 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of approximately 24894 Da. HMGB1 is a ubiquitous nuclear protein in mammals and plays a vital role in inflammatory diseases. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain with a poor prognosis. Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas (duration of less than six months), for which the severe form is called severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). More and more studies have shown that HMGB1 has a bidirectional effect in the pathogenesis of SAP. Extracellular HMGB1 can aggravate the pancreatic inflammatory process, whereas intracellular HMGB1 has a protective effect against pancreatitis. The mechanism of HMGB1 is multiple, mainly through the nuclear factor-?B pathway. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptors (TLR), especially TLR-2 and TLR-4, are two major types of receptors mediating the inflammatory process triggered by HMGB1 and may be also the main mediators in the pathogenesis of SAP. HMGB1 inhibitors, such as ethyl pyruvate, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, can decrease the level of extracellular HMGB1 and are the promising targets in the treatment of SAP. PMID:25663762

  14. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, A; Kanwar, S; Li, A; Barnes, E; Guthrie, J; Spark, J; Welsh, F; Guillou, P; Reynolds, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. 
Aims—To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. 
Methods—Glasgow score, Apache II, computed tomography (CT) scan score, C reactive protein (CRP), serum IgM antiendotoxin antibodies (EndoCAb), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined on admission in 34 patients with acute pancreatitis. Patients were stratified according to disease severity and randomised to receive either TPN or TEN for seven days and then re-evaluated. 
Results—SIRS, sepsis, organ failure, and ITU stay, were globally improved in the enterally fed patients. The acute phase response and disease severity scores were significantly improved following enteral nutrition (CRP: 156 (117-222) to 84 (50-141), p<0.005; APACHE II scores 8 (6-10) to 6 (4-8), p<0.0001) without change in the CT scan scores. In parenterally fed patients these parameters did not change but there was an increase in EndoCAb antibody levels and a fall in TAC. Enterally fed patients showed no change in the level of EndoCAb antibodies and an increase in TAC. 
Conclusion—TEN moderates the acute phase response, and improves disease severity and clinical outcome despite unchanged pancreatic injury on CT scan. Reduced systemic exposure to endotoxin and reduced oxidant stress also occurred in the TEN group. Enteral feeding modulates the inflammatory and sepsis response in acute pancreatitis and is clinically beneficial. 

 Keywords: acute pancreatitis; enteral nutrition; bacterial translocation; oxidative stress PMID:9577354

  15. A Case of Severe Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis after Administration of Sitagliptin

    PubMed Central

    Sue, Mariko; Yoshihara, Aya; Kuboki, Koji; Hiroi, Naoki; Yoshino, Gen

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese man with a 3-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital for upper abdominal pain. Control of diabetes mellitus was good with voglibose and metformin, with sitagliptin added to this regimen 8 months prior. His pancreatic enzyme levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse pancreatic swelling with fluid accumulation and ascites of CT grade 3. The patient was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis. There were no obvious causes for pancreatitis except the recently administered sitagliptin. Since incretin-related drugs entered the market, the number of incretin-related drugs prescriptions rapidly increased and so did the incidence of pancreatitis. There are several reports suggesting the correlation between incretin-related drugs and pancreatitis, such as a report based on data obtained from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which revealed a significant correlation between the administration of exenatide or sitagliptin and pancreatitis. However, there also is a report that denied the evidence for such in a large cohort study. The relation between incretin based drugs and pancreatitis is still controversial. PMID:23467428

  16. [Biochemical markers in assessment of severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Petricusi?, Lidija; Bani?, Marko; Cabrijan, Zeljko; Urek-Crncevi?, Marija; Hulak-Karlak, Vanja; Grgurevi?, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The authors reveal and discuss the role of novel biochemical parameters in early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and assessment of the severity of the disease. These biochemical parameters, beside routinely used amilase and lipase, might enable us to early identify those patients who are at risk of developing severe form of pancreatitis or complications. These parameters include trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP), C-reactive protein (CRP, tripsinogen-2, procalcitonin, phospholipase-A2 (PLA2), carboxypeptidase activation peptide (CAPAP) and interleukin-6 and 8 (IL-6, IL-8). Although these markers are still not incorporated in routine clinical practice, IL-6, IL-10, procalcitonin and trypsinogen activation peptide seem to have a good chance to be used as a new biochemical markers in assessment of severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23120847

  17. Primary angiosarcoma of the pancreas mimicking severe acute pancreatitis--case report.

    PubMed

    Csiszkó, Adrienn; László, István; Palatka, Károly; Szabó, Károly Gábor; Kanyári, Zsolt; Bidiga, László; Csonka, Tamás; Damjanovich, László; Szentkereszty, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the pancreas is an extremely rare neoplasm that often mimicks severe acute pancreatitis. A 58-year-old man was admitted with clinical and laboratory signs of severe acute pancreatitis. Contrast enhanced CT scan demonstrated haemorrhagic necrotizing inflammation of the pancreas involving the pancreatic tail, splenic hilum and small bowels with multiple peripancreatic and free abdominal fluid collection. Percutaneous drainage was performed. After 13 days, laparotomy was indicated because of persistent intra-abdominal bleeding, fever and a palpable, rapidly growing mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. During the operation a necrotic, haemorrhagic mass was found in the pancreatic tail; a frozen section showed malignancy, although the tumour was unresectable. Despite all conservative and surgical therapeutic attempts, the patient died within four weeks after diagnosis. Final histology justified primary angiosarcoma of the pancreas. If a patient with signs of severe acute pancreatitis has fever without elevated PCT, the presence of a malignant tumour of the pancreas should be considered. PMID:25541144

  18. TLR4-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway mediates HMGB1-induced pancreatic injury in mice with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    LI, GANG; WU, XUEJUN; YANG, LE; HE, YUXIANG; LIU, YANG; JIN, XING; YUAN, HAI

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an extremely dangerous acute abdominal disorder which causes multiple complications and has a high mortality rate. Previous research has suggested that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SAP; however, the mechanisms underlying this strong correlation remain unclear. In this study, to further investigate whether HMGB1 acts as a stimulating factor, and whether Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) acts as its major mediator in the development of pancreatic injury during SAP, recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) and TLR4-deficient mice were used. We found that HMGB1 and TLR4 were highly expressed, and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) was activated in our mouse model of SAP. We noted that the rhHMGB1 pancreas-targeted injection activated the TLR4-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway and induced pancreatic injury in wild-type mice. In TLR4-deficient mice, the rhHMGB1-induced activation of NF-?B and pathological changes in the pancreas were less evident than in wild-type mice. Therefore, this study provides evidence that HMGB1 promotes the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, and its downstream TLR4-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway is a potential important mediator in the development of this form of pancreatic injury. PMID:26719855

  19. Central role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-wen; Meng, Xiao-xiao; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an acute abdominal disease with the strong systemic inflammatory response, and rapidly progressesfrom a local pancreatic damage into multiple organ dysfunction. For many decades, the contributions of neutrophils to the pathology of SAP were traditionally thought to be the chemokine and cytokine cascades that accompany inflammation. In this review, we focus mainly on those recently recognized aspects of neutrophils in SAP processes. First, emerging evidence suggests that therapeutic interventions targeting neutrophils significantly lower tissue damage and protect against the occurrence of pancreatitis. Second, trypsin activation promotes the initial neutrophils recruitment into local pancreas, and subsequently neutrophils infiltration in turn triggers trypsin production. Finally, neutrophils have the unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. PMID:26249268

  20. Central role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Wen; Meng, Xiao-Xiao; Xu, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an acute abdominal disease with the strong systemic inflammatory response, and rapidly progresses from a local pancreatic damage into multiple organ dysfunction. For many decades, the contributions of neutrophils to the pathology of SAP were traditionally thought to be the chemokine and cytokine cascades that accompany inflammation. In this review, we focus mainly on those recently recognized aspects of neutrophils in SAP processes. First, emerging evidence suggests that therapeutic interventions targeting neutrophils significantly lower tissue damage and protect against the occurrence of pancreatitis. Second, trypsin activation promotes the initial neutrophils recruitment into local pancreas, and subsequently neutrophils infiltration in turn triggers trypsin production. Finally, neutrophils have the unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. PMID:26249268

  1. [Multiple organ failure complicating a severe acute necrotising pancreatitis secondary of a severe hypertriglyceridemia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Degardin, J; Pons, B; Ardisson, F; Gallego, J-P; Thiery, G

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man admitted for a multi-organ failure with a coma, a hemodynamic instability, a respiratory distress syndrome, an acute renal failure and a thrombocytopenia. The blood samples highlighted a milky serum and allowed to diagnose an acute pancreatitis associated with a major dyslipidemia: hypertriglyceridemia 11,800 mg/dL and hypercholesterolemia 1195 mg/dL. The CT-scans do not reveal any cerebral abnormalities but highlighted pancreatic lesions without biliary obstruction. A multi-organ failure complicating a severe acute pancreatitis secondary of a major hypertriglyceridemia was mentioned. Despite the absence of clear guidelines, a session of plasma exchange was started in emergency. Symptomatic treatment with protective ventilation, vasopressors, continuous heparin and insulin was continued. The clinical and biological course was good in parallel of the normalization of lipid abnormalities. The patient was discharged at day 17 with a lipid-lowering therapy. We discuss the various treatments available for the management of acute pancreatitis complicating a severe hypertriglyceridemia and their actual relevance in the absence of clear recommendations. PMID:23948029

  2. A simple taurocholate-induced model of severe acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Hui; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Li, Chu-Jun; Yang, Zu-Li; Xiang, Jun; Song, Hu; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, Jun-Rong; Diao, De-Chang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gut barrier damage and intestinal bacteria translocation in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), a simple rat model of SAP was induced and studied. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced by uniformly distributed injection of 3.8% Na taurocholate (1 mL/kg) beneath the pancreatic capsule. Rats in the control group were injected with normal saline in the identical location. RESULTS: Serum amylase, plasma endotoxin, intestinal permeability, and pancreatitis pathology scores were all markedly higher in the pancreatitis group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The bacterial infection rate was significantly higher in the SAP group than in the control group (P < 0.01), observed in parallel by both bacterial culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Acute damage of the pancreas was observed histologically in SAP rats, showing interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, acinar cell necrosis and hemorrhage. The microstructure of the intestinal mucosa of SAP rats appeared to be destroyed with loose, shortened microvilli and rupture of the intercellular junction, as shown by electron microscopy. CONCLUSION: Significant gut barrier damage and intestinal bacterial translocation were definitely observed with few potential study confounders in this SAP rat model, suggesting that it may be an appropriate animal model for study of gut barrier damage and bacterial translocation in SAP. PMID:19960573

  3. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide modulates the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    DENG, YUAN-YUAN; SHAMOON, MUHAMMAD; HE, YUE; BHATIA, MADHAV; SUN, JIA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). AP is a common clinical condition characterized by acute abdominal inflammation. Innate immune cells and mediators are intrinsically linked to the pathogenesis of AP. Cathelicidins are innate immunity-derived antimicrobial peptides that exert immunomodulatory effects on various host cells. However, how cathelicidins are involved and modulate the severity and inflammatory responses of AP remains unclear. In the present study, the mouse CRAMP gene-deficient cnlp−/− mice and their wild-type C57BL/6J littermates were induced with AP by multiple hourly injections of supramaximal doses of caerulein. Serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and histological examination were performed in order to determine the disease severity and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease severity and inflammatory markers were subsequently evaluated in the control mice, cnlp−/− C57BL/6J mice with AP, and wild-type C57BL/6J mice with AP. The results demonstrated that cnlp−/− mice exhibited a more severe phenotype and inflammatory response following AP induction compared with the wild-type mice, as evidenced by increased serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase release, and early inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α production. Histological examination confirmed that CRAMP deficiency worsened the pancreatic inflammatory condition. These results indicate that CRAMP may be considered a novel modulatory mediator in mouse experimental AP. PMID:27035328

  4. Endotoxaemia and serum tumour necrosis factor as prognostic markers in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Exley, A R; Leese, T; Holliday, M P; Swann, R A; Cohen, J

    1992-01-01

    Endotoxaemia and circulating tumour necrosis factor are important prognostic factors in severe sepsis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Because clinical and pathological features in acute pancreatitis are similar to septic shock this study sought to determine whether endotoxin and tumour necrosis factor were prognostic factors in 38 patients with prognostically severe acute pancreatitis. Endotoxaemia, present in 19/37 (51%) patients on day 1, was more common in nonsurvivors than survivors (10/11, 91% v 9/26, 35%, p = 0.003). Day 1 serum endotoxin concentrations were higher in patients with a severe outcome (median (interquartile range) 314 (173-563) pg/ml v 0 (0-185) pg/ml, p<0.01) and in non-survivors (266 (173-586) pg/ml v 0 (0-165) pg/ml, p<0.01). Serum tumour necrosis factor was detectable in 47 of 109 samples (43%) from 38 patients (median 35 pg/ml, range 5-943 pg/ml). Day 1 serum tumour necrosis factor correlated with a worse prognostic score and a severe outcome in all patients (n = 38, r = 0.36, p = 0.027; r = 0.33, p<0.05) and with mortality in patients with gall stones (n = 23, r = 0.50, p = 0.02). Our data suggest that endotoxin and tumour necrosis factor could be prognostic factors in severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:1398241

  5. [Acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Chvez, R

    1991-01-01

    This article review newer concepts of diagnosis and therapy for patients with acute pancreatitis. Although the pathogenesis are incompletely understood, much progress has recently been made in treatment of symptoms and medical support of the critically ill patients. The most common associate factors include: biliary tract disease (lithiasis), alcohol abuse, trauma and hyperlipoproteinemia. Most patients have abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, abdominal tenderness and hypovolemia of varying degrees. Renal clearance of amilase is increased, the ratio of renal clearance to that of creatinine is very important in patients with hypovolemia or an underlying renal disease. The definition of risk factors, with regard to morbility or mortality. Those patients at great risk require critical care treatment in an ICU and meticulous pulmonary, cardiac, hematological and metabolic monitoring and treatment of any the abdominal complications. PMID:1820183

  6. [The role of jejunal feeding in the treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and in recurrence of chronic pancreatitis with severe necrosis].

    PubMed

    Hamvas, J; Pap, A

    1998-04-19

    Acute necrotising is the most serious form of pancreatic inflammatory diseases leading to multiorgan failure and high (15-20%) mortality. The poor nutritional and metabolic condition of the patient and secondary bacterial translocation further rise the mortality. A recently introduced method of continuous nasojejunal feeding putting the pancreas into rest with basal pattern of secretion resulted in lower mortality rate by using adequate nutrition into the second loop of jejunum bypassing duodenopancreatic stimulations via an endoscopically placed feeding tube. The better nutritional and immunological states of the patients, the restored absorption and intestinal motility promote the recovery of pancreatitis, prevent bacterial translocation, resulting in time and in financial spares. Although surgery is occasionally inevitable because of progression of pancreatitis, nasojejunal feeding improves the general condition of patients more efficiently than parenteral nutrition and makes the scheduling of the operation optimal. The authors retrospectively analyse the results of treatment in 56 patients suffering from acute necrotising pancreatitis, as well as in 30 patients with chronic pancreatitis accompanied with more than 20% of necrosis in the pancreas and admitted to their gastroenterological medical department during 5 years. The effect of parenteral nutrition were less beneficial than that of jejunal feeding regarding the mortality and the necessity of operative interventions. Chronic pancreatitis with severe necrosis behaved similarly to the acute necrotising pancreatitis. The continuous nasojejunal feeding seems to be a promising new method for acute necrotising pancreatitis preventing complications and severe catabolic state of the disease by a cost--effective manner. PMID:9595928

  7. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770

  8. Acute Pancreatitis (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pancreatitis. (See "Patient information: Gallstones (Beyond the Basics)" .) Alcoholic pancreatitis — Alcohol is a common cause of acute pancreatitis. Alcoholic pancreatitis is more common in individuals who have ...

  9. Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients. PMID:27076730

  10. Characterization and Predictive Value of Near Infrared 2-Deoxyglucose Optical Imaging in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane; Patel, Krutika; Mishra, Vivek; Trivedi, Ram N.; Noel, Pawan; Singh, Abhilasha; Yaron, Jordan R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studying the uptake of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) analogs such as 2-Deoxy-2-[18F] fluoroglucose (FDG) is a common approach to identify and monitor malignancies and more recently chronic inflammation. While pancreatitis is a common cause for false positive results in human studies on pancreatic cancer using FDG, the relevance of these findings to acute pancreatitis (AP) is unknown. FDG has a short half-life. Thus, with an aim to accurately characterize the metabolic demand of the pancreas during AP in real-time, we studied the uptake of the non-radioactive, near infrared fluorescence labelled 2-deoxyglucose analog, IRDye® 800CW 2-DG probe (NIR 2-DG; Li-Cor) during mild and severe biliary AP. Methods Wistar rats (300 g; 8–12/group) were administered NIR 2-DG (10 nM; I.V.). Mild and severe biliary AP were respectively induced by biliopancreatic duct ligation (DL) alone or along with infusing glyceryl trilinoleate (GTL; 50 μL/100 g) within 10 minutes of giving NIR 2-DG. Controls (CON) only received NIR 2-DG. Imaging was done every 5–10 minutes over 3 hrs. Average Radiant Efficiency [p/s/cm²/sr]/[μW/cm²] was measured over the pancreas using the IVIS 200 in-vivo imaging system (PerkinElmer) using the Living Image® software and verified in ex vivo pancreata. Blood amylase, lipase and pancreatic edema, necrosis were measured over the course of AP. Results NIR 2-DG uptake over the first hour was not influenced by AP induction. However, while the signal declined in controls and rats with mild AP, there was significantly higher retention of NIR 2-DG in the pancreas after 1 hour in those with GTL pancreatitis. The increase was > 3 fold over controls in the GTL group and was verified to be in the pancreas ex vivo. In vitro, pancreatic acini exposed to GTL had a similar increase in NIR 2-DG uptake which was followed by progressively worse acinar necrosis. Greater retention of NIR 2-DG in vivo was associated with worse pancreatic necrosis, reduced ATP concentrations and mortality, which were not predicted by the blood parameters. Conclusion In-vivo fluorescent imaging of a non-radioactive near infrared 2-DG optical probe can predict the AP severity early during the disease. PMID:26901564

  11. Resveratrol suppresses microcirculatory disturbance in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sha, Huanchen; Ma, Qingyong; Jha, Rajiv Kumar; Wu, Zheng; Qingyuan, Zhang; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Zhenhua; Luo, Xianhua; Liu, Cui

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to understand the mechanisms of attenuation of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) by resveratrol (RES). SAP was experimentally induced in rats by injection of 4% sodium taurocholate in the retrograde pancreatic duct. Three study groups were evaluated: Group I (sham-operated animals), Group II (SAP animals), and Group III (SAP animals treated with RES at 20 mg/kg/body weight, 5 min after induction of SAP). The study outcomes were histopathologic changes and alterations in biochemical markers: plasma renin activity and levels of angiotensin II, endothelin, and nitric oxide in plasma. Biochemical markers were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 h after induction of SAP. SAP was associated with significant (p < 0.05) histopathologic changes (saponification spots in the intraperitoneal cavity, severe pancreatic edema, blood congestion, varying degrees of necrosis, etc.), as well as with elevation of biochemical markers in blood plasma. RES treatment significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated changes of both histopathologic and biochemical markers induced by SAP. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that RES treatment is a promising therapeutic approach to suppress microcirculatory disturbance in SAP. PMID:23546938

  12. Severe acute pancreatitis with abscess after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chu-Hao; Ho, Pei-Yin; Tsai, Chia-Chi; Hsu, Jong-Ming; Chen, Marcelo; Lin, Wun-Rong

    2013-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a widely accepted procedure for urolithiasis. However, the shock waves do not pass through the body without damage. Here, we reported a 57-year-old man who underwent ESWL four times before, and immediately developed acute pancreatitis and peritoneal abscess after ESWL for a right renal stone. Although the possibility of post-ESWL acute pancreatitis is extremely low, urologists must be aware of this vital complication. PMID:23503874

  13. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang; Liu, Wen Wu; Xiang, Hong Gang; Fan, Lie Ying; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Xin Yun; Cai, Jian Mei; Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin; Sun, Xue Jun; Wang, Qiang

    2010-03-05

    Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

  14. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. PMID:26520203

  15. Upregulation of PIAS1 protects against sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis associated with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Huang, Liya; Sun, Yunwei; Yuan, Yaozong

    2011-06-01

    The regulator of cytokine signaling known as protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is increasingly understood to have diverse regulatory functions for inflammation, but its effect in inflammatory conditions such as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upregulation of PIAS1 on SAP associated with acute lung injury (ALI), and its subsequent effect on disease severity. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IV injection of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)/F35-PIAS1, Ad5/F35-vector or saline before induction of SAP. The control group received only a sham operation. Lung and pancreas samples were harvested 16h after induction. The protein levels of PIAS1 in tissue were investigated. The severity of pancreatic injury was determined by a histological score of pancreatic injury, serum amylase, and pancreatic water content. The lung injury was evaluated by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels. The survival rates of rats were also analyzed. The results found that in Ad5/F35-PIAS1 treated rats, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels were decreased but showed no influence on the levels of IL-10, and the severity of pancreatic tissue injury was less compared with either untreated SAP or Ad5/F35-vector treated rats (P<0.01). The administration of Ad5/F35-PIAS1 in SAP-induced rats downregulated the activity of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) pathway and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein in lung. Thus, compared with the untreated SAP rats, the inflammatory response and the severity of ALI decreased, and the survival rates increased (P<0.01). These findings suggest that PIAS1 could augment anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting STAT1, thus attenuating the severity of SAP associated with ALI. PMID:21419645

  16. Sequential blood purification therapy for critical patients with hyperlipidemic severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Liang; Yu, Kai-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of sequential blood purification therapy in the treatment of critical patients with hyperlipidemic severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Thirty-one intensive care unit (ICU) patients with hyperlipidemic severe acute pancreatitis treated at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were divided into either a study group (n = 15; July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2014) or a control group (n = 16; July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2012) based on the implementation of sequential blood purification therapy. The control group received continuous venous-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on the basis of conventional treatments, and the therapeutic dose of CVVH was 30 mL/kg per hour. The study group received sequential plasma exchange and CVVH on the basis of conventional treatments. The anticoagulation regimen of CVVH is the regional citrate anticoagulation. Mortality rate on day 28, rates of systemic and local complications, duration of ICU, and time to target serum lipid level, as well as physiologic and laboratory indices were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The mortality rate on day 28 was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (13.33% vs 37.50%; P < 0.05). The duration of ICU stay was significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (7.4 ± 1.35 d vs 9.19 ± 2.99 d, P < 0.05). The time to target serum lipid level was significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (3.47 ± 0.52 d vs 7.90 ± 1.14 d, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of systemic complications and local complications between the two groups (60% vs 50% and 80% vs 81%, respectively). In the comparisons of physiologic and laboratory indices, serum albumin and C-reactive protein were significantly better in the study group than in the control group after treatment (37.8 ± 4.6 g/L vs 38.9 ± 5.7 g/L, and 20.5 ± 6.4 mg/L vs 28.5 ± 7.1 mg/L, respectively, both P < 0.05). With the exception of plateletcrit, no other indices showed significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Sequential blood purification therapy is effective in the treatment of ICU patients with hyperlipidemic severe acute pancreatitis and can improve patient prognosis. PMID:26034366

  17. Resistin is not an appropriate biochemical marker to predict severity of acute pancreatitis: A case-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maramhy, Hamdi; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I; Sawalhi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess levels of serum resistin upon hospital admission as a predictor of acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. METHODS: AP is both a common and serious disease, with severe cases resulting in a high mortality rate. Several predictive inflammatory markers have been used clinically to assess severity. This prospective study collected data from 102 patients who were diagnosed with an initial acute biliary pancreatitis between March 2010 and February 2013. Measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were obtained and serum resistin levels were analyzed at the time of hospital admission using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, resistin levels were measured from a control group after matching gender, BMI and age. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (60 females and 42 males) were diagnosed with acute gallstone-induced pancreatitis. The mean age was 45 years, and mean BMI value was 30.5 kg/m2 (Obese, class I). Twenty-two patients (21.6%) had severe AP, while eighty-eight patients had mild pancreatitis (78.4%). Our results showed that BMI significantly correlated with pancreatitis severity (P = 0.007). Serum resistin did not correlate with BMI, weight or WC. Furthermore, serum resistin was significantly higher in patients with AP compared to control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean resistin values upon admission were 17.5 ng/mL in the severe acute biliary pancreatitis group and 16.82 ng/mL in the mild AP group (P = 0.188), indicating that resistin is not an appropriate predictive marker of clinical severity. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for developing severe AP. Further, although there is a correlation between serum resistin levels and AP at the time of hospital admission, resistin does not adequately serve as a predictive marker of clinical severity. PMID:25386084

  18. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Radenkovic, Dejan V.; Johnson, Colin D.; Milic, Natasa; Gregoric, Pavle; Ivancevic, Nenad; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Cijan, Vladimir; Antic, Andrija; Bajec, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment. PMID:26839539

  19. Influence of Fatty Liver on the Severity and Clinical Outcome in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongda; Zhang, Deqing; Jia, Zhenyu; Zhuang, Xiaohui; Shi, Yuqi; Xu, Ting; Xing, Lihua; Shen, Jiaqing

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease in the department of gastroenterology with variable severity, from being mild and self-limited to severe and fatal. The early diagnosis and accurate prediction of AP severity are of great importance. Our primary observation showed that fatty liver (FL) was frequently detected in patients with AP. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the relation between FL and the severity and outcomes of AP. The medical records of 2671 patients with AP were reviewed retrospectively, and characteristics of AP patients were recorded. FL was assessed by abdominal CT scan, and AP patients were categorized by the occurrence of FL for the analysis. The variation of mortality, clinical severity and the appearance of CT were analyzed between the non-FL group and FL groups. Compared with patients without FL, an obviously higher rate of death and higher frequency of severe AP (SAP) and necrotizing AP (ANP) were observed in patients with FL, as well as the incidence of local complications and systemic complications. Taking obesity into consideration, a higher rate of death and more severe AP were found in patients with FL, no matter whether they were obese or not. Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) were also separated for comparison in this study; the incidence of ANP and the clinical severity had no significant difference between the AFL and NAFL groups. In conclusion, FL could influence the severity and clinical outcome and may play a prognostic role in AP. This study is of clinical significance, because few reports have been previously issued on FL and AP. PMID:26571385

  20. Azathioprine-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel DiseasesA Prospective Study on Incidence and Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mohl, Wolfgang; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Bndgens, Burkhard; Bning, Jrgen; Miehlke, Stephan; Hppe, Dietrich; Maaser, Christian; Klugmann, Tobias; Kruis, Wolfgang; Siegmund, Britta; Helwig, Ulf; Weismller, Joseph; Drabik, Attyla; Stallmach, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Azathioprine [AZA] is recommended for maintenance of steroid-free remission in inflammatory bowel disease IBD. The aim of this study has been to establish the incidence and severity of AZA-induced pancreatitis, an idiosyncratic and major side effect, and to identify specific risk factors. Methods: We studied 510 IBD patients [338 Crohns disease, 157 ulcerative colitis, 15 indeterminate colitis] with initiation of AZA treatment in a prospective multicentre registry study. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in accordance with international guidelines. Results: AZA was continued by 324 [63.5%] and stopped by 186 [36.5%] patients. The most common cause of discontinuation was nausea [12.2%]. AZA-induced pancreatitis occurred in 37 patients [7.3%]. Of these: 43% were hospitalised with a median inpatient time period of 5 days; 10% had peripancreatic fluid collections; 24% had vomiting; and 14% had fever. No patient had to undergo nonsurgical or surgical interventions. Smoking was the strongest risk factor for AZA-induced acute pancreatitis [p < 0.0002] in univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions: AZA-induced acute pancreatitis is a common adverse event in IBD patients, but in this study had a mild course in all patients. Smoking is the most important risk factor. PMID:26468141

  1. Efficacy of glucocorticoids in rodents of severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Yang, Zhen; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nonghua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of corticosteroid in the management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains contentious and is still being debated despite many pre-clinical studies demonstrating benefits. The limitations of clinical research on corticosteroid in SAP are disparities with regard to benefit, a lack of adequate safety data and insufficient understanding of its mechanisms of action. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroid in experimental SAP and take a closer look at the relation between the animal studies and prospective trials. Methods: Studies investigating corticosteroid use in rodent animal models of SAP were identified by searching multiple three electronic databases through October 2013, and by reviewing references lists of obtained articles. Data on mortality, changes of ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas were extracted. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled efficacy. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: We identified 15 published papers which met our inclusion criteria. Corticosteroid prolonged survival by a factor of 0.35 (95% CI 0.21-0.59). Prophylactic use of corticosteroid showed efficacy with regards to ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas, whereas therapeutic use did not. Efficacy was higher in large dose and dexamethasone groups. Study characteristics, namely type of steroids, rout of delivery, genders and strains of animal, accounted for a significant proportion of between-study heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was observed. Conclusions: On the whole, corticosteroids have showed beneficial effects in rodent animal models of SAP. Prophylactic use of corticosteroid has failed to validate usefulness in prophylaxis of postendoscopic retrogradcholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Further appropriate and informative animal experiments should be performed before conducting clinical trials investigating therapeutic use in SAP. PMID:25120741

  2. Effects of early enteral nutrition on immune function of severe acute pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Kui; Mu, Xin-Wei; Li, Wei-Qin; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Shu-Yun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the immune function and clinical outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive EEN or delayed enteral nutrition (DEN). Enteral nutrition was started within 48 h after admission in EEN group, whereas from the 8th day in DEN group. All the immunologic parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after admission. The clinical outcome variables were also recorded. RESULTS: Sixty SAP patients were enrolled to this study. The CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the CRP levels in EEN group became significantly lower than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. In contrast, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in EEN group became significantly higher than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. No difference of CD8+ T-lymphocyte percentage, IgM and IgA levels was found between the two groups. The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and pancreatic infection as well as the duration of intensive care unit stay were significantly lower in EEN group than in DEN group. However, there was no difference of hospital mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EEN moderates the excessive immune response during the early stage of SAP without leading to subsequent immunosuppression. EEN can improve the clinical outcome, but not decrease the hospital mortality of SAP patients. PMID:23431120

  3. Canagliflozin-Associated Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajanshu

    2016-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a new drug in class of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We describe a patient who developed moderately severe acute pancreatitis as an untoward consequence after being initiated on this drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canagliflozin-associated acute pancreatitis in clinical literature. PMID:25187092

  4. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  5. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  6. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  7. Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Berenson; Wyllie

    1995-10-01

    Pancreatitis, once thought to be almost exclusively a disease of adults, is increasingly being found as the cause of abdominal pain in adolescents. The authors review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, managment, and complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis, noting that a high index of suspicion is needed to properly diagnose and provide optimal care to these patients. PMID:10358323

  8. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education Events Helpful Links Stories of Courage Cycle of Courage Share Your Story State Chapters Northern ... acute pancreatitis. These include gallstone disease, high blood calcium, high blood triglycerides, and abnormalities of the bile ...

  9. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Abou-Assi, S; O'Keefe, S J

    2001-03-01

    The majority of patients (80%) admitted with acute pancreatitis recovers after a few days of bowel rest and intravenous fluids. However, some cases progress to a fulminant disease complicated by a severe systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure, a condition in which mortality is related to the degree of negative nitrogen balance. The goal of nutrition support in this situation is to cover the increased metabolic demands without stimulating pancreatic secretion and exacerbating the "autodigestion" that characterizes the condition. Although human and animal studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effect of composition and location of feeding on pancreatic enzyme secretion, there is consensus that total parenteral nutrition (TPN), given at moderate infusion rates, does not significantly stimulate secretion in humans and that enteral diets stimulate enzyme secretion unless delivered below the jejunum. Consequently, until recently TPN has been the standard of therapy. The fact that the cost and complications of TPN can often outweigh its benefits (catheter sepsis, hyperglycemia) has led to a series of recent controlled clinical trials of modified enteral diets in which the diet is delivered by nasojejunal tube. Results have demonstrated that enteral nutrition, with either elemental or polymeric formulas, was cheaper, safer, and at the same time more effective in reducing the systemic inflammatory response. The pathophysiologic explanation for these observations needs further investigation. PMID:11246344

  10. Therapeutic effect of Qingyi decoction in severe acute pancreatitis-induced intestinal barrier injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Chen, Hai-Long; Liu, Ge-Liang; Owusu, Lawrence; Wang, Yu-Xi; Wang, Guan-Yu; Xu, Cai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Qingyi decoction on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in intestinal barrier injury. METHODS: Fifty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), Qingyi decoction-treated (QYT), dexamethasone-treated (DEX), and verapamil-treated (VER) groups. The SAP model was induced by retrograde infusion of 1.5% sodium deoxycholate into the biliopancreatic duct of the rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h post-SAP induction. Arterial blood, intestine, and pancreas from each rat were harvested for investigations. The levels of serum amylase (AMY) and diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined using biochemical methods, and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Pathologic changes in the harvested tissues were investigated by microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. The expressions of sPLA2 at mRNA and protein levels were detected by reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot, respectively. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay was used to investigate apoptosis of epithelial cells in the intestinal tissues. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the expression of sPLA2 at both the mRNA and protein levels increased significantly in the SAP group (0.36 ± 0.13 vs 0.90 ± 0.38, and 0.16 ± 0.05 vs 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively; Ps < 0.01). The levels of AMY, TNF-α and DAO in serum were also significantly increased (917 ± 62 U/L vs 6870 ± 810 U/L, 59.7 ± 14.3 ng/L vs 180.5 ± 20.1 ng/L, and 10.37 ± 2.44 U/L vs 37.89 ± 5.86 U/L, respectively; Ps < 0.01). The apoptosis index of intestinal epithelial cells also differed significantly between the SAP and control rats (0.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.26 ± 0.06; P < 0.01). The serum levels of DAO and TNF-α, and the intestinal apoptosis index significantly correlated with sPLA2 expression in the intestine (r = 0.895, 0.893 and 0.926, respectively; Ps < 0.05). The levels of sPLA2, AMY, TNF-α, and DAO in the QYT, VER, and DEX groups were all decreased compared with the SAP group, but not the control group. Qingyi decoction intervention, however, gave the most therapeutic effect against intestinal barrier damage, although the onset of its therapeutic effect was slower. CONCLUSION: Qingyi decoction ameliorates acute pancreatitis-induced intestinal barrier injury by inhibiting the overexpression of intestinal sPLA2. This mechanism may be similar to that of verapamil. PMID:25834318

  11. Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Sai, Jin Kan; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often different than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Several scoring systems have been proposed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly differ between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our understanding of the pathology, optimal treatment, assessment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pancreatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severe acute pancreatitis in children is becoming better understood and more controllable. PMID:25400985

  12. Blood tests for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basnayake, Chamara; Ratnam, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Summary The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis requires the presence of at least two of the three diagnostic criteria – characteristic abdominal pain, elevated serum amylase or lipase, and radiological evidence of pancreatitis. Serum concentrations of amylase and lipase rise within hours of the pancreatic injury. A threshold concentration 2–4 times the upper limit of normal is recommended for diagnosis. Serum lipase is now the preferred test due to its improved sensitivity, particularly in alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Its prolonged elevation creates a wider diagnostic window than amylase. Neither enzyme is useful in monitoring or predicting the severity of an episode of pancreatitis in adults. New biomarkers including trypsinogen and elastase have no significant advantage over amylase or lipase. PMID:26648641

  13. Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Wang, Tao; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Tao; Xu, Chuan; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zheng-cai; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied. Methods Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid. Results Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD (P = -0.008) were all independent predictors of PCD. Conclusions Infected (peri)pancreatic collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease. PMID:25659143

  14. Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 2: complications of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türkoğlu, M A; Seçil, M; Yüce, G

    2015-02-01

    The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Major changes include subdividing acute fluid collections into "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" and "acute post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collection (acute necrotic collection)" based on the presence of necrotic debris. Delayed fluid collections have been similarly subdivided into "pseudocyst" and "walled of pancreatic necrosis". Appropriate use of the new terms describing the fluid collections is important for management decision-making in patients with acute pancreatitis. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of complications of the acute pancreatitis with emphasis on their prognostic significance and impact on clinical management and to clarify confusing terminology for pancreatic fluid collections. PMID:24703377

  15. Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation by preventing damage to the intestinal mucosa in an experimental severe acute pancreatitis rat model

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUECHENG; SHAO, YINGYING; JIN, YIN; HUAI, JIAPING; ZHOU, QIONG; HUANG, ZHIMING; WU, JIANSHENG

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased all studied acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory parameters, in addition to reducing apoptosis and necrosis associated with pancreatic injury. However, the effect of melatonin on gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on intestinal integrity in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) to evaluate whether melatonin prevented intestine barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 8 rats in the sham operation (SO) group, 18 rats in the SAP group and 14 SAP rats in the melatonin treatment (MT) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 4% taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Melatonin was administered 30 min prior to taurocholate injection in the melatonin-treated rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h subsequent to pancreatitis induction. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and quantify Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 in postcava blood. The microvilli structure was also analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. The level of E. coli DNA in the MT group was significantly lower than in rats in the SAP group. No E. coli DNA was detected in the control group. Villus height and crypt depth in the ileum were significantly higher in the MT and control groups compared to the SAP group, and were significantly higher in the MT group than in the SAP group. These results suggested that melatonin prevented gut barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation, resulting in reduced pancreatic-associated infections and decreased early mortality rates. PMID:24255660

  16. Clinical effects of laparotomy with perioperative continuous peritoneal lavage and postoperative hemofiltration in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The elevated serum and peritoneal cytokine concentrations responsible for the systemic response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. Prompted by reports underlining the importance of reducing circulating inflammatory mediators in severe acute pancreatitis, we designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of laparotomy followed by continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage combined with postoperative continuous venovenous diahemofiltration (CVVDH) in managing critically ill patients refractory to intensive care therapy. As the major clinical outcome variables we measured morbidity, mortality and changes in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and cytokine concentrations in serum and peritoneal lavage fluid over time. Methods From a consecutive group of 23 patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis, we studied 6 patients all with Apache II scores ≥19, who underwent emergency surgery for acute complications (5 for an abdominal compartment syndrome and 1 for septic shock) followed by continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage and postoperative CVVDH. CVVDH was started within 12 hours after surgery and maintained for at least 72 hours, until the multiorgan dysfunction syndrome improved. Samples were collected from serum, peritoneal lavage fluid and CVVDH dialysate for cytokine assay. Apache II scores were measured daily and their association with cytokine levels was assessed. Results All six patients tolerated CVVDH well, and the procedure lasted a mean 6 days (range, 3-12). Five patients survived and one died of Acinetobacter infection after surgery (mortality rate 16.6%). The mean APACHE II score was ≥ 19 (range 19-22) before laparotomy and decreased significantly during peritoneal lavage and postoperative CVVDH (P = 0.013 by matched-pairs Students t-test). The decrease in cytokine concentrations in serum and lavage fluid was associated with the decrease in APACHE II scores and high interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) concentrations in the hemofiltrate. Conclusion In critically ill patients with abdominal compartment syndrome, septic shock or high APACHE II scores related to severe acute pancreatitis, combining emergency laparotomy with continuous perioperative peritoneal lavage followed by postoperative CVVHD effectively reduces the local and systemic cytokines responsible for multiorgan dysfunction syndrome thus improving patients' outcome. PMID:20015376

  17. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  18. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  19. The Value of BISAP Score for Predicting Mortality and Severity in Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng-En

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score has been developed to identify patients at high risk for mortality or severe disease early during the course of acute pancreatitis. We aimed to undertake a meta-analysis to quantify the accuracy of BISAP score for predicting mortality and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Materials and Methods We searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies using the BISAP score to predict mortality or SAP. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated from each study and were compared with the traditional scoring systems. Results Twelve cohorts from 10 studies were included. The overall sensitivity of a BISAP score of ≥3 for mortality was 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%), with a specificity of 91% (95% CI, 90%-91%). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.65 (95% CI, 4.23-7.55) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.41-0.56), respectively. Regarding the outcome of SAP, the pooled sensitivity was 51% (43%-60%), and the specificity was 91% (89%-92%). The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.23 (4.21-12.42) and 0.56 (0.44-0.71), respectively. Compared with BISAP score, the Ranson criteria and APACHEⅡscore showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity for both outcomes. Conclusions The BISAP score was a reliable tool to identify AP patients at high risk for unfavorable outcomes. Compared with the Ranson criteria and APACHEⅡscore, BISAP score outperformed in specificity, but having a suboptimal sensitivity for mortality as well as SAP. PMID:26091293

  20. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Seema; Shaffer, Lemuel; Cavens, Paula; Blankstein, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term and was successfully treated with postpartum therapeutic plasma exchange. Patient also developed several other complications related to her substantial hypertriglyceridemia including preeclampsia, chylous ascites, retinal detachment, pleural effusion, and chronic pericarditis. This patient had no previous family or personal history of lipid abnormality and had four successful prior pregnancies without developing gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Such a severe hypertriglyceridemia is usually seen in patients with familial chylomicronemia syndromes where hypertriglyceridemia is exacerbated by the pregnancy, leading to fatal complications such as acute pancreatitis. PMID:24995138

  1. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

  2. [Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Mössner, J; Teich, N

    2008-08-01

    Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoints. In an recently published study, prebiotics were associated with a high complication rate. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:18759203

  3. Valsartan-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Can, Burak; Sali, Mursel; Batman, Adnan; Yilmaz, Hasan; Korkmaz, Ugur; Celebi, Altay; Senturk, Omer; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is uncommon among patients treated with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. A 58-year-old man presented with nausea, vomiting and constant pain in the epigastrium that radiated to the flanks. He received treatment with valsartan (160 mg daily) for hypertension. The clinical, biochemical and radiological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. After the patient achieved a clinical and biochemical recovery, the valsartan therapy was started again. Six weeks later, he returned to the hospital with an attack of pancreatitis. Subsequently, he returned with repeated attacks of pancreatitis twice, and the valsartan was discontinued. Ten months after the treatment, the patient had no complaints. When severe abdominal symptoms occur for no apparent reason during treatment with valsartan, a diagnosis of pancreatitis should be considered. PMID:24694480

  4. Compatibility of carbapenem antibiotics with nafamostat mesilate in arterial infusion therapy for severe acute pancreatitis: stabilities of carbapenem antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Shirou; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Souma, Kazui; Koizumi, Wasaburou; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Kuroyama, Masakazu

    2012-08-01

    The effectiveness of continuous regional arterial infusion therapy using protease inhibitors and antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis has been previously reported. Carbapenem antibiotics, which have a broad antibacterial spectrum, and nafamostat mesilate are often used for this therapeutic approach. We investigated the compatibility of various carbapenem antibiotics with nafamostat mesilate. Carbapenem antibiotics were dissolved in 30 mL of saline or 5% glucose and the appearance, pH, and stability of the solutions were determined. The changes in each carbapenem antibiotic solution after mixing with nafamostat mesilate were then investigated. Biapenem and doripenem showed a residual rate of > or = 90% at 8 hours after dissolution in saline or 5% glucose and exhibited an appropriate appearance and residual rate (> or = 90%). After mixing with nafamostat mesilate, biapenem maintained a residual rate of > or = 90% for the longest time period (8 hours) and exhibited a slight coloration, followed by doripenem (6 hours) and meropenem dissolved in saline. The other carbapenem antibiotics that were tested exhibited changes in appearance or their residual rate. Biapenem and doripenem, which exert their effects in a time-dependent manner, can be infused for prolonged periods for the treatment of not only severe acute pancreatitis, but also other severe infections. PMID:23259254

  5. An unreported complication of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumarasamy, G; Shanmugam, V; Yule, SR; Ravindran, R

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis constitutes 3% of all admissions with abdominal pain. There are reports of osteal fat necrosis leading to periosteal reactions and osteolytic lesions following severe pancreatitis, particularly in long bones. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute pancretitis, who later developed spinal discitis secondary to necrotizing pancreatitis. He was treated conservatively with antibiotics and after a month he recovered completely without any neurological deficit. This case is reported for its unusual and unreported spinal complications after acute pancreatitis. PMID:17659740

  6. Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 1: acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türkoğlu, M A; Seçil, M; Yener, Ö

    2015-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas that may also involve surrounding tissues or remote organs. The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Generally, imaging is recommended to confirm the clinical diagnosis, investigate the etiology, and grade the extend and severity of the acute pancreatitis. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality in most centers for the confirmation of the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and the ruling out of other causes of acute abdomen, but it has limitations in the acute clinical setting. Computed tomography not only establishes the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but also enables to stage severity of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging has earned an ever more important role in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. It is especially useful for imaging of patients with iodine allergies, characterizing collections and assessment of an abnormal or disconnected pancreatic duct. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the acute pancreatitis, clarify confusing terminology, underline the role of ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging according to the proper clinical context and compare the advantages and limitations of each modality. PMID:24512896

  7. [Acute pancreatitis: an overview of the management].

    PubMed

    Rebours, V

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decades, the incidence and the number of hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis have increased in the Western countries. The two most common etiological factors of acute pancreatitis are gallstones (including small gallstones or microlithiasis) and alcohol abuse. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant mortality (4-10%) and 25% in case of pancreatic necrosis, especially. Edematous pancreatitis is benign and oral feeding can be restarted once abdominal pain is decreasing and inflammatory markers are improving. Enteral tube feeding should be the primary therapy in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis who require nutritional support. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis can be administered via either the nasojejunal or nasogastric route. In case of necrosis, preventive antibiotics are not recommended. The single indication is infected necrosis confirmed by fine needle aspiration. The incidence trends of acute pancreatitis possibly reflect a change in the prevalence of main etiological factors (e.g. gallstones and alcohol consumption) and cofactors such as tobacco, obesity and genetic susceptibility. Priority is to search for associated causes, especially in cases with atypical symptoms. In case of first acute pancreatitis in patients older than 50 years, the presence of a tumor (benign or malignant) has to be specifically ruled out, using CT-scan, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:24837648

  8. NSAIDs and Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The resulting pain is the main symptom of acute pancreatitis and it should be alleviated as soon as possible. NSAIDs are the first line therapy for pain and they are generally administered to acute pancreatitis patients upon admission to the hospital. In addition, these drugs have also been used to prevent post-endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, there are several reports indicating that NSAIDs may be the actual cause of acute pancreatitis. We carried out a literature search on PubMed/MEDLINE; all full text papers published in from January 1966 to November 2009 on the use of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis were collected; the literature search was also supplemented by a review of the bibliographies of the papers evaluated. Thus, in this article, we will systematically review the current literature in order to better illustrate the role of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis, in particular: i) NSAIDs as a cause of acute pancreatitis; ii) their use to prevent post-retrograde ERCP pancreatitis and iii) their efficacy for pain relief in the acute illness of the pancreas.

  9. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  10. Severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with lipoprotein lipase deficiency in childhood.

    PubMed

    van Walraven, L A; de Klerk, J B C; Postema, R R

    2003-09-01

    An 11-year-old girl with lipoprotein lipase deficiency experienced recurring episodes of abdominal pain. She initially underwent appendectomy for suspected appendicitis; however, the appendix was normal. Pancreatitis was subsequently identified as the cause of her pain. PMID:14523833

  11. Acute pancreatitis and subdural haematoma in a patient with severe falciparum malaria: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Pratibha; Dev, Anand Vimal; Viggeswarpu, Surekha; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Peter, John Victor

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection is known to be associated with a spectrum of systemic complications ranging from mild and self-limiting to life-threatening. This case report illustrates a patient who had a protracted course in hospital due to several rare complications of falciparum malaria. A 21-year old man presented with a five-day history of high-grade fever, jaundice and abdominal pain and a two-day history of altered conscious state. A diagnosis of severe falciparum malaria was made based on the clinical presentation and a positive blood smear with parasitaemia of 45%. Despite adequate anti-malarial therapy with artesunate, the patient had persistent and worsening abdominal pain. Investigations suggested a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, a rare association with falciparum malaria. However, in spite of supportive therapy for acute pancreatitis and a 10-day course of intravenous artesunate and oral doxycycline at recommended doses, he continued to be febrile with peripheral blood smear showing persistence of ring forms. Antimalarial therapy was, therefore, changed to quinine on the suspicion of possible artesunate resistance. On the 17th day of stay in hospital, the patient developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Computerized tomography of the brain showed bilateral fronto-parietal subdural haematomas that were surgically drained. His fever persisted beyond 30-days despite broad-spectrum antibiotics, quinine therapy and negative malarial smears. A possibility of drug fever was considered and all drugs were ceased. He subsequently became afebrile and was discharged on the 38th hospital admission day. Recognition of complications and appropriate management at each stage facilitated successful outcome. This report has been presented to highlight the occurrence of several rare complications of falciparum malaria in the same patient. PMID:18510778

  12. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Huoxue Qingyi Decoction, Promotes Rehabilitation of Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chao Hui; Tang, Cheng Wu; Feng, Wen Ming; Bao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) still remains an important surgical problem with high morbidity and mortality. The utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine shows good prospects in therapy of SAP since it has advantages of more extensive pharmacological effects and fewer adverse effects. In this retrospective study, 38 patients received standardized treatment (control group) and 37 patients received Chinese herbal decoction, Huoxue Qingyi Decoction (HQD group), in addition to standard treatment for SAP. We found that the HQD group had a shorter hospital stay and lower initial expense than the control group (P < 0.05). The duration of hyperamylasemia and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were significantly shorter in HQD group (P < 0.05). The percentage of patients having any complication was much lower in HQD group than control group (27/38 versus 17/37, P < 0.05), especially pancreatic pseudocyst (10/38 versus 2/37, P < 0.05). No adverse effect induced by HQD was found. We concluded that the HQD was effective, safe, and economic for reduction of complication, for early recovery from systemic inflammation, and for promoting earlier rehabilitation from SAP.

  13. Embryonic natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis complicated by abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui-ming; Guo, Shao-qing; Liao, Xiu-min; Zhang, Li; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study aimed to estimate the value of embryonal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (ENOTES) in treating severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The patients, who were randomized into an ENOTES group and an operative group, underwent ENOTES and laparotomy, respectively. The results and complications of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Enterocinesia was observed earlier in the ENOTES group than in the operative group. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of patients in the ENOTES group was lower than that of the operative group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th post-operative day (P<0.05). The cure rate was 96.87% in the ENOTES group, which was statistically different from 78.12% in the operative group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in complications and mortality between the two groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with surgical decompression, ENOTES associated with flexible endoscope therapy is an effective and minimal invasive procedure with less complications. PMID:25802562

  14. Protective effect of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on severe acute pancreatitis-induced myocardial injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    LI, NAN; TIAN, YING; WANG, CHUNLI; ZHANG, PENG; YOU, SHENGYI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on myocardial injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In total, 30 rats were randomly divided into sham, SAP and decoction treatment groups. SAP was induced by a retrograde pancreatic duct injection of 5% sodium taurocholate in the SAP and decoction treatment groups. Rats in decoction treatment group also received intragastric administration of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction. The serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, myocardial Na+-K+-ATPase activity was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry. Myocardial apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay and pathological changes to the heart and pancreas were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared with the rats in the sham group, rats in the SAP and decoction treatment groups exhibited significantly higher levels of serum CK-MB and LDH, apoptosis index and pathological scores, and had significantly lower levels of Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. However, when compared with the SAP group, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH, the pathological scores of the pancreas and heart, and the myocardial cell apoptosis index in the decoction treatment group were significantly lower. Furthermore, the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly increased in the decoction treatment group when compared with the SAP group. Therefore, Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction was shown to exert a protective effect on myocardial injury induced by SAP in rats. PMID:25780399

  15. Retrocrural Space Involvement on Computed Tomography as a Predictor of Mortality and Disease Severity in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haotong; Ebner, Lukas; Jiang, Shiming; Wu, Yi; Christe, Andreas; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Luo, Zhulin; Tian, Fuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Background Because computed tomography (CT) has advantages for visualizing the manifestation of necrosis and local complications, a series of scoring systems based on CT manifestations have been developed for assessing the clinical outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP), including the CT severity index (CTSI), modified CTSI, etc. Despite the internationally accepted CTSI having been successfully used to predict the overall mortality and disease severity of AP, recent literature has revealed the limitations of the CTSI. Using the Delphi method, we establish a new scoring system based on retrocrural space involvement (RCSI), and compared its effectiveness at evaluating the mortality and severity of AP with that of the CTSI. Methods We reviewed CT images of 257 patients with AP taken within 3–5 days of admission in 2012. The RCSI scoring system, which includes assessment of infectious conditions involving the retrocrural space and the adjacent pleural cavity, was established using the Delphi method. Two radiologists independently assessed the RCSI and CTSI scores. The predictive points of the RCSI and CTSI scoring systems in evaluating the mortality and severity of AP were estimated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Principal Findings The RCSI score can accurately predict the mortality and disease severity. The area under the ROC curve for the RCSI versus CTSI score was 0.962±0.011 versus 0.900±0.021 for predicting the mortality, and 0.888±0.025 versus 0.904±0.020 for predicting the severity of AP. Applying ROC analysis to our data showed that a RCSI score of 4 was the best cutoff value, above which mortality could be identified. Conclusion The Delphi method was innovatively adopted to establish a scoring system to predict the clinical outcome of AP. The RCSI scoring system can predict the mortality of AP better than the CTSI system, and the severity of AP equally as well. PMID:25222846

  16. Metabolomic analysis to discover candidate therapeutic agents against acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Aya; Nishiumi, Shin; Shiomi, Yuuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Hayakumo, Takanobu; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2012-06-15

    Novel and effective drugs against acute pancreatitis are required. Therefore, we examined the changes in the metabolite levels in the serum and pancreatic tissue of mice with cerulein- and arginine-induced pancreatitis using gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and investigated whether these alterations affected the severity of acute pancreatitis. In the cerulein-induced pancreatitis model, 93 and 129 metabolites were detected in the serum and pancreatic tissue, respectively. In the L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis model, 120 and 133 metabolites were detected in the serum and pancreatic tissue, respectively. Among the metabolites, the concentrations of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids were altered in pancreatitis, and in pancreatic tissue, the levels of the intermediates involved in the initial part of the TCA cycle were increased and those of the intermediates involved in the latter part of the TCA cycle were decreased. Some metabolites exhibited similar changes in both pancreatitis mouse models, e.g., the levels of glutamic acid and O-phosphoethanolamine were significantly decreased in the pancreatic tissue. Supplementation with glutamic acid and O-phosphoethanolamine attenuated the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Our results suggest that GC/MS-based metabolomics is capable of accurately representing the status of acute pancreatitis, leading to the discovery of therapeutic agents for pancreatitis. PMID:22483684

  17. The Decrease of Peripheral Blood CD4+ T Cells Indicates Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhifang; Zhao, Peng; Peng, Cijun; Zhao, Lijin; Wan, Chidan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few data are available on the role of T lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We conducted a retrospective study to assess the risk factors associated with ACS in SAP. Methods A total of 76 SAP patients who were admitted within 24 hours after symptom onset in our study. There were 36 patients suffering from ACS and 40 from intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). On the 1st, 3rd and 7th days after hospital admission, the following variables were assessed: serum value of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the proportions of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and computed tomography severity index (CTSI) score were assessed on days 1 and 7 after hospitalization. Results Compared with the patients with IAH, ACS patients showed statistically higher CRP value on 7th day after hospital admission, proportions of CD4+ T cells on days 1, 3, 7 and CD4+ / CD8+ ratio on day 1 were significantly lower (P < 0.05, respectively). A CD4+ T cell proportion of 30.3% on the 1st day indicated ACS with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.774, a sensitivity with 82.5% and specificity with 72.0%, respectively. Sensitivity / specificity for predicting ACS in SAP patients on day 1 was 70.0% / 68.0% for CD4+ / CD8+ ratio, 72.2% / 65.0% for APACHE II score. Conclusions The reduction of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes is associated with ACS in SAP, and may act as a potential predictor of ACS in SAP. PMID:26287969

  18. Efficacy of thymosin α1 and interferon α for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Shan; Chen, Wei; Guo, Xuan

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of treatment with thymosin α1 (TA1) or interferon α (IFNα) following the establishment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. A total of 144 Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. The rats in all four groups were celiotomized, and the rats in the control group were administered with an intravenous injection of saline. The three other groups were administered with 5% 1 ml/kg sodium taurocholate via the cholangiopancreatic duct. SAP group rats were administered with an intravenous injection of saline; TA1 group rats received 26.7 µg/kg TA1; and interferon α (INFα) group rats received 4.0x105 U/kg IFNα. The rats were anesthetized and blood samples were collected from the animals 3, 12 and 24 h after surgery. The levels of T cell subsets, serum enzyme indicators, cytokines and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured. The general conditions of the rats were observed until sacrifice, and pancreatic and lung tissue samples were sampled for hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological scoring. The expression levels of aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, α‑amylase (AMY), P‑type‑amylase, lipase, PCT, tumor‑necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)‑4, IL‑5, and IL‑18 in the TA1 and IFNα‑treated rats were significantly lower, compared with those of the SAP rats within the first 24 h of model establishment (P<0.05). The TA1 and IFNα‑treated rats exhibited significantly increased levels of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and an increased ratio of CD4+/CD8+ cells, compared with SAP rats. Histological analysis revealed that the TA1 and IFNα‑treated rats exhibited significantly ameliorated pancreas and lung damage, and mortality rates were reduced from 50.0% (6/12) to 25.0% (3/12) and 33.3% (4/12), respectively. The immunomodulatory agents TA1 and IFNα reduced acute inflammation, decreasing cell damage and enhancing immune function and survival rates in the SAP rats. PMID:26330363

  19. Efficacy of thymosin α1 and interferon α for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XIAOQIN; ZENG, XIAOYAN; YANG, BO; ZHAO, SHAN; CHEN, WEI; GUO, XUAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of treatment with thymosin α1 (TA1) or interferon α (IFNα) following the establishment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. The rats in all four groups were celiotomized, and the rats in the control group were administered with an intravenous injection of saline. The three other groups were administered with 5% 1 ml/kg sodium taurocholate via the cholangiopancreatic duct. SAP group rats were administered with an intravenous injection of saline; TA1 group rats received 26.7 µg/kg TA1; and interferon α (INFα) group rats received 4.0×105 U/kg IFNα. The rats were anesthetized and blood samples were collected from the animals 3, 12 and 24 h after surgery. The levels of T cell subsets, serum enzyme indicators, cytokines and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured. The general conditions of the rats were observed until sacrifice, and pancreatic and lung tissue samples were sampled for hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological scoring. The expression levels of aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, α-amylase (AMY), P-type-amylase, lipase, PCT, tumor-necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-18 in the TA1 and IFNα-treated rats were significantly lower, compared with those of the SAP rats within the first 24 h of model establishment (P<0.05). The TA1 and IFNα-treated rats exhibited significantly increased levels of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and an increased ratio of CD4+/CD8+ cells, compared with SAP rats. Histological analysis revealed that the TA1 and IFNα-treated rats exhibited significantly ameliorated pancreas and lung damage, and mortality rates were reduced from 50.0% (6/12) to 25.0% (3/12) and 33.3% (4/12), respectively. The immunomodulatory agents TA1 and IFNα reduced acute inflammation, decreasing cell damage and enhancing immune function and survival rates in the SAP rats. PMID:26330363

  20. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; On Behalf Of The Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group

    2016-05-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26823272

  1. Lung ultrasonography as a direct measure of evolving respiratory dysfunction and disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Skouras, Christos; Davis, Zoe A.; Sharkey, Joanne; Parks, Rowan W.; Garden, O. James; Murchison, John T.; Mole, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The value of lung ultrasonography in the diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction and severity stratification in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) was investigated. Methods Over a 3-month period, 41 patients (median age: 59.1 years; 21 males) presenting with a diagnosis of potential AP were prospectively recruited. Each participant underwent lung ultrasonography and the number of comet tails was linked with contemporaneous clinical data. Group comparisons, areas under the curve (AUC) and respective measures of diagnostic accuracy were investigated. Results A greater number of comet tails were evident in patients with respiratory dysfunction (P = 0.021), those with severe disease (P < 0.001) and when contemporaneous and maximum CRP exceeded 100 mg/L (P = 0.048 and P = 0.003 respectively). Receiver-operator characteristic plot area under the curve (AUC) was greater when examining upper lung quadrants, using respiratory dysfunction and AP severity as variables of interest (AUC = 0.783, 95% C.I.: 0.544–0.962, and AUC = 0.996, 95% C.I.: 0.982–1.000, respectively). Examining all lung quadrants except for the lower lateral resulted in greater AUCs for contemporaneous and maximum CRP (AUC = 0.708, 95% C.I.: 0.510–0.883, and AUC = 0.800, 95% C.I.: 0.640–0.929). Discussion Ultrasonography of non-dependent lung parenchyma can reliably detect evolving respiratory dysfunction in AP. This simple bedside technique shows promise as an adjunct to severity stratification. PMID:26902135

  2. Acute Scorpion Pancreatitis in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Courtenay

    1970-01-01

    Over a two-month period 30 patients were admitted to hospital following stings of the scorpion of Trinidad, the Tityus trinitatis. In 24 cases acute pancreatitis developed soon after the sting, but in nine of these no abdominal pain occurred. All the patients made an uneventful recovery. Although such complications have been reported no pseudocyst formations or acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis occurred in this series. PMID:5443968

  3. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  4. Probiotic prophylaxis in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (PROPATRIA): design and rationale of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised multicenter trial [ISRCTN38327949

    PubMed Central

    Besselink, Marc GH; Timmerman, Harro M; Buskens, Erik; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Akkermans, Louis MA; Gooszen, Hein G

    2004-01-01

    Background Infectious complications are the major cause of death in acute pancreatitis. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth and subsequent bacterial translocation are held responsible for the vast majority of these infections. Goal of this study is to determine whether selected probiotics are capable of preventing infectious complications without the disadvantages of antibiotic prophylaxis; antibiotic resistance and fungal overgrowth. Methods/design PROPATRIA is a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised multicenter trial in which 200 patients will be randomly allocated to a multispecies probiotic preparation (Ecologic 641) or placebo. The study is performed in all 8 Dutch University Hospitals and 7 non-University hospitals. The study-product is administered twice daily through a nasojejunal tube for 28 days or until discharge. Patients eligible for randomisation are adult patients with a first onset of predicted severe acute pancreatitis: Imrie criteria 3 or more, CRP 150 mg/L or more, APACHE II score 8 or more. Exclusion criteria are post-ERCP pancreatitis, malignancy, infection/sepsis caused by a second disease, intra-operative diagnosis of pancreatitis and use of probiotics during the study. Administration of the study product is started within 72 hours after onset of abdominal pain. The primary endpoint is the total number of infectious complications. Secondary endpoints are mortality, necrosectomy, antibiotic resistance, hospital stay and adverse events. To demonstrate that probiotic prophylaxis reduces the proportion of patients with infectious complications from 50% to 30%, with alpha 0,05 and power 80%, a total sample size of 200 patients was calculated. Conclusion The PROPATRIA study is aimed to show a reduction in infectious complications due to early enteral use of multispecies probiotics in severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:15456517

  5. Double balloon enteroscopy and acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kopacova, Marcela; Tacheci, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bartova, Jolana; Bures, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a new technique, first published and introduced into clinical practice in 2001 by Yamamoto, the inventor of this outstanding method. DBE allows complete visualization, biopsy and treatment of the small bowel. Nowadays, we have some experience of this method for evaluation of the complication rate. Severe complications are described in 1%-1.7% of patients. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication of the investigation. The incidence of acute pancreatitis after diagnostic DBE is 0.3% in most studies. More than 50 cases of acute pancreatitis have been described in the literature so far. On the contrary, hyperamylasemia after DBE seems to be a rather common condition. Association with acute pancreatitis is supposed to be possible, but not obligatory. The causal mechanism of post-DBE acute pancreatitis is uncertain, and there are several theories in the literature. The most probable cause seems to be a mechanical straining of the endoscope with over-tube on the pancreas or in the papillary area. PMID:20480517

  6. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated. PMID:23988650

  7. An audit of fatal acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A. K.; Kaul, A.; Bache, E.; Parberry, A. C.; Doran, J.; Nicholson, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a mortality of about 10%: this figure has not changed over the last 20 years. A retrospective audit of fatal acute pancreatitis was performed in a teaching hospital with a catchment population of about 750,000 patients to examine patient characteristics. Using Hospital Activity Analysis code 577.0, all fatal cases of acute pancreatitis were studied in a six-year period 1987-93. Additionally, all post mortem diagnoses of acute pancreatitis were traced. The overall post mortem rate in Nottingham at the time of the study was about 35%. All available records, X-ray and biochemical data were studied and appropriate information recorded and analysed for 65 fatal cases. Only 15% were post mortem diagnoses, lower than in previous series; 72% had respiratory and 67% had renal complications. Only 34% had been admitted to the intensive care unit. A third of patients had had surgery; 67% of these was some form of external drainage. Of the 14 patients with proven gallstone pancreatitis only three had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; 42% of patients had idiopathic disease. Not all the patients diagnosed ante mortem had the full biochemical predicted severity criteria analysed: pO2 and calcium analysis was performed in about 80%. Pre-mortem diagnoses of pancreatitis was achieved more frequently than in other comparable series. PMID:7567753

  8. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guillou, P J

    1999-07-01

    Conventional wisdom has previously dictated that, in order to avoid stimulation of pancreatic secretion during acute pancreatitis, and thus avoid the perpetuation of the enzymatic activation from which the pancreatitis originated, enteral feeding should be avoided. With greater understanding of the potential role of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of a systemic inflammatory response within a number of scenarios, this dogma has recently been challenged. Moreover, there is some evidence to suggest that starving the gastrointestinal tract and providing nutritional support via the parenteral route may be associated with an increased incidence of septic complications. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that feeding the gut may diminish intestinal permeability to endotoxin and diminish bacterial translocation, thus reducing the cytokine drive to the generalized inflammatory response and preventing organ dysfunction. Preliminary experience suggests that the institution of jejunal (but not gastric or duodenal) nutrition within 48 hours of the onset of severe acute pancreatitis diminishes endotoxic exposure, diminishes the cytokine and systemic inflammatory responses, avoids antioxidant consumption and does not cause the radiological appearances of the pancreas to deteriorate. These observations are paralleled by improvements in clinical outcome measures such as intensive care unit stay, septic complications and mortality. Whist parenteral nutrition continues to have a role in the management of acute pancreatitis particularly when complicated by fistulae or prolonged ileus, the early introduction of jejunal nutrition merits further investigation in acute pancreatitis. PMID:11030611

  9. Reversible severe bilateral visual loss in an unusual case of bilateral lateral geniculate myelinolysis during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Viloria, Alejandro; Jimenez, Beatriz; Palacn, Marta

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with pancreatitis following cholecystectomy. During hospitalisation, he reported bilateral acute vision loss. His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye. Ocular fundus examination and optical coherence tomography revealed a slight alteration in the retinal nerve fibres in the nasal macular region. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral visual field defects affecting both temporal and nasal hemifields in a predominantly nasal distribution, and brain MRI confirmed symmetrical lesions within both lateral geniculate nuclei. BCVA was gradually recovered, reaching 20/20 within 6?weeks. PMID:26718705

  10. Minimally Invasive Necrosectomy Techniques in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Role of Percutaneous Necrosectomy and Video-Assisted Retroperitoneal Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Jennifer A.; Carter, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Consensus advocating a principle of early organ support, nutritional optimisation, followed ideally by delayed minimally invasive intervention within a “step-up” framework where possible has radically changed the surgical approach to complications of acute pancreatitis in the last 20 years. The 2012 revision of the Atlanta Classification incorporates these changes, and provides a background which underpins the complexities of individual patient management decisions. This paper discusses the place for delayed minimally invasive surgical intervention (percutaneous necrosectomy, video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD)), and the rationale for opting to adopt a percutaneous approach over endoscopic or laparoscopic approaches in different clinical situations. PMID:26587018

  11. Acute pancreatitis and fibromyalgia: Cytokine link

    PubMed Central

    Muzammil, Sadat; Cooper, Helen Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, and has both genetic and environmental contribution. Acute pancreatitis is a severe condition and in most cases gallstones disease represents approximately half of the cases of acute pancreatitis, and 20-25% are related to alcohol abuse. Small numbers of cases are caused by a variety of other reasons but a few cases have no obvious cause, referred to as ‘idiopathic’. Here we present a case where fibromyalgia might be linked to acute pancreatitis. We believe this has not been reported in this context in literature. Case Report: Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, and has both genetic and environmental contribution. Patient had a cholecystectomy eight years previously. Patient feels tired almost all the time due to her fibromyalgia and requires family support for daily routine. Patient's blood results showed alanine transaminase 527 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 604 IU/L, bilirubin 34 μmol/L, amylase 2257 IU/L, C-reactive protein 19 mg/L, Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase 851 IU/L, renal function and electrolytes were within normal limits. The patient was admitted to the high dependency unit with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: There is a known increase in levels of cytokines in patients with fibromyalgia. Part of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis is related to raised cytokines and immune deregulations. We hypothesize that elevated levels of cytokines in fibromyalgia has led to acute pancreatitis in our patient. Further epidemiological research on the incidence of pancreatitis in cytokine mediated conditions such as fibromyalgia is required. PMID:22540093

  12. Protective effect of exogenous IGF-I on the intestinalmucosal barrier in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-zhen; Wang, Shi-wen; Zhang, You-cheng; Sun, Zhi-jiang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can result in intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) dysfunction. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effect of IGF-I on the intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with SAP and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a sham operation (SO group, n=24), a SAP group not treated with IGF-I (SAP group, n=24), and a SAP group treated with IGF-I (IGF-I group, n=24). SAP was induced in the rats by injecting 5.0% sodium taurocholate into the biliary-pancreatic duct. The SO rats were given an infusion of normal saline instead. The rats in the IGF-I group underwent the SAP procedure and were given a subcutaneous injection of IGF-I at 30 minutes before the operation and at 3 hours after the operation. Eight rats in each group were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 24 hours after operation. Apoptosis of mucosal cells in the small intestine was determined by TUNEL. The levels of endotoxin and DAO and serum amylase were also measured. Pathologic changes in the small intestine were monitored. Changes of bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression in the small intestine were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The levels of serum amylase were lower in the IGF-I group than in the SAP group at all three time points (P<0.05). The levels of endotoxin in the IGF-I group were higher than those in the SAP group at 6 hours, but lower in the IGF-I group than in the SAP group at 12 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The levels of diamine oxidase were higher in the IGF-I group at 6 hours but lower than those in the SAP group at 12 and 24 hours. The pathological score of the small intestine was lower in the IGF-I group than in the SAP group, and the difference was statistically significant at 12 and 24 hours. The pathologic changes observed under electron microscopy were better in the IGF-I group than those in the SAP group. The apoptosis index of intestinal epithelial cells was significantly decreased in the IGF-I group compared with the SAP group. Compared with the SO group, the mRNA expression levels of bax were increased at each time point in the SAP group, and were significantly decreased in the IGF-I group as compared with the SAP group at each time point (P<0.05). The expression levels of bcl-2 were weak and not different between the SO group and the SAP group (P>0.05). They were significantly increased in the IGF-I group versus the SO and SAP groups (P<0.05). The ratio of bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression levels at each time point in the SAP group were significantly higher than those in the SO group, but they were obviously decreased in the IGF-I group. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous IGF-I seems to protect mucosal cells in the small intestine against SAP-induced apoptosis and could alleviate SAP-induced injury of the intestinal mucosa. The underlying mechanisms include enhanced mRNA expression of bcl-2 and inhibition of bax mRNA expression. PMID:25215066

  13. Somatostatin prevents acute pancreatitis after pancreatic duct sphincter hydrostatic balloon dilation in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guelrud, M; Mendoza, S; Viera, L; Gelrud, D

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether prophylactic somatostatin infusion can prevent pancreatitis after hydrostatic balloon dilation of the pancreatic duct sphincter segment in 16 patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. This study demonstrated that prophylactic administration of somatostatin before, during, and after the procedure diminished the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis. We recommend consideration of such prophylaxis in patients undergoing this procedure. PMID:1672278

  14. Clinical effects of continuous high volume hemofiltration on severe acute pancreatitis complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Li, Wei-Qin; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of continuous high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: A total of 28 SAP patients with an average of 14.36 ± 3.96 APACHE II score were involved. Diagnostic criteria for SAP standardized by the Chinese Medical Association and diagnostic criteria for MODS standardized by American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) were applied for inclusion. HVHF was started 6.0 ± 6.1 (1-30) days after onset of the disease and sustained for at least 72 h, AN69 hemofilter (1.2 m2) was changed every 24 h. The ultrafiltration rate during HVHF was 4000 mL/h, blood flow rate was 250-300 mL/min, and the substitute fluid was infused with pre-dilution. Low molecular weight heparin was used for anticoagulation. RESULTS: HVHF was well tolerated in all the patients, and lasted for 4.04 ± 3.99 (3-24) days. 20 of the patients survived, 6 patients died and 2 of the patients quited for financial reason. The ICU mortality was 21.4%. Body temperature, heart rate and breath rate decreased significantly after HVHF. APACHE II score was 14.4 ± 3.9 before HVHF, and 9.9 ± 4.3 after HVHF, which decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood before HVHF was 68.5 ± 19.5 mmHg, and increased significantly after HVHF, which was 91.9 ± 25 mmHg (P < 0.01). During HVHF the hemodynamics was stable, and serum potassium, sodium, chlorine, glucose and pH were at normal level. CONCLUSION: HVHF is technically possible in SAP patients complicated with MODS. It does not appear to have detrimental effects and may have beneficial effects. Continuous HVHF, which seldom disturbs the hemodynamics and causes few side-effects, is expected to become a beneficial adjunct therapy for SAP complicated with MODS. PMID:12970914

  15. Development of acute pancreatitis after Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Okigami, Masato; Maji, Tomoaki; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis subsequent to Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an extremely rare adverse event. We describe a pediatric case of acute pancreatitis resulting from superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) and gas bloat after fundoplication. Gas bloat is one of the known postoperative complications after Nissen fundoplication. Poor nutrition status, which is often associated with severe pediatric GERD, is a risk factor for SMAS. In this case, development of gas bloat and SMAS led to the formation of a closed loop and increased intraluminal pressure of the duodenum and pancreatic duct. Many pediatric patients who need anti-reflux surgery face the risk of developing this entity. Preventive measures, such as treatment with prokinetics and frequent small-volume meals, should be considered until improvement of nutritional status after fundoplication. PMID:25868962

  16. Respiratory failure in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A. K.; Haggie, S. J.; Jones, R. B.; Basran, G. S.

    1995-01-01

    There are a number of important pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis which make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality of the condition. The pathophysiology and management guidelines are given for each and approaches towards better treatment in the future are discussed. PMID:7644392

  17. Acute pancreatitis following kidney transplantation - role of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjay; Jha, Ratan; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Narayan, Girish

    2003-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis following renal transplantation is an unusual complication that carries a high mortality. Over the last 10 yr, five of 185 patients at our center developed acute pancreatitis. All had live related donors and were on conventional triple drug immunosuppression. Pancreatitis was classified according to the computed tomography scan based on Atlanta Classification. All five patients who developed acute pancreatitis had evidence of symptomatic or serologically active viral infection (chicken pox in two, cytomegalovirus infection in two, hepatitis E virus in one) and no patient without viral infection developed pancreatitis. Overall, 45 patients developed symptomatic or serologically active viral infection. There was a significant association between viral infection and pancreatitis (chi-square test, p < 0.001). Three patients with severe acute pancreatitis died while both patients with mild pancreatitis survived. An active search for viral infections should be made in all patients with acute pancreatitis. Specific antiviral measures may help reduce the mortality of acute pancreatitis in these patients. Consideration must be given to varicella immunization in patients with renal failure. PMID:12588319

  18. [The clinical relevance of experimental acute pancreatitis models].

    PubMed

    Takács, Tamás; Szabolcs, Anna; Biczó, György; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2008-10-19

    The clinical diagnostics and therapeutic standards applied in the routine management of human acute pancreatitis are based on the results of animal experiments and human studies performed in the past several decades. During this time period, a number of experimental acute pancreatitis models have been developed, which allowed us to study the etiopathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, analyzing the local and remote complications of the inflammatory processes and also the preclinical testing of potentially effective drugs and agents. Only animal models are suitable to examine the very early phase of the pathogenetic processes in acute pancreatitis. In recent years, the progress in molecular genetic methods allowed us to create genetically engineered animal models to clarify the role of different mediators in the pathogenetic process. There is no doubt that the results gained from experimental animal studies are of limited value concerning human pancreatitis. Nevertheless, experimental studies seem to be indispensable in the progress of management of human pancreatic disorders. PMID:18842550

  19. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN ALBANIAN POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Floreta; Shpata, Vjollca; Kuqo, Altin; Duni, Albana; Roshi, Enver; Basho, Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute Pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory pathology with large regional variations in incidence and etiology Aim: The aim of the study was to provide a description of the epidemiologic situation of AP in Albanian population, regarding incidence, etiology and severity of the disease Methods: We have studied all the files of all patients with acute pancreatitis admitted at the UHC ‘Mother Theresa” during an eight year period (2005-2012). The results: We had 964 admissions with the diagnosis acute pancreatitis, making an incidence of 5.64 per 100 000 inhabitants per year. Mean age of patients was 54.5 ± 16.93 years old. Among risk factors, alcohol consumption was found in 382 patients (39.6%), gallstone in 362 patients (37.6%), and others in 220 patients (22.8%). Conclusion: The incidence of acute pancreatitis in Albania ranges from 3.6 – 5.64 new cases per 100 000 inhabitants per year, with an increasing trend during the last years. The incidence of AP among females almost doubles during 2005-2012. Alcohol consumption is the predominating etiologic factor among young males. PMID:26889094

  20. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and its relative factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Shan, Hong-Chao; Gu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the causes and the relative factors of recurrent acute pancreatitis. METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, acute pancreatitis relapsed in 77 of 245 acute pancreatitis patients. By reviewing the clinical treatment results and the follow-up data, we analyzed the recurrent factors of acute pancreatitis using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of the 245 acute pancreatitis patients, 77 were patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. Of them, 56 patients relapsed two times, 19 relapsed three times, each patient relapsed three and four times. Forty-seven patients relapsed in hospital and the other 30 patients relapsed after discharge. Eighteen patients relapsed in 1 year, eight relapsed in 1-3 years, and four relapsed after 3 years. There were 48 cases of biliary pancreatitis, 3 of alcohol pancreatitis, 5 of hyperlipidemia pancreatitis, 21 of idiopathic pancreatitis. Univariate analysis showed that the patients with local complications of pancreas, obstructive jaundice and hepatic function injury were easy to recur during the treatment period of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.022<0.05, P = 0.012<0.05 and P = 0.002<0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that there was no single factor related to recurrence. Of the 47 patients who had recurrence in hospital, 16 had recurrence in a fast period, 31 after refeeding. CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis is easy to recur even during treatment. The factors such as changes of pancreas structure and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction are responsible for the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Early refeeding increases the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Defining the etiology is essential for reducing the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. PMID:15902746

  1. Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Complicated Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic. PMID:26894117

  2. Intra-abdominal hypertension and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mifkovic, A; Skultety, J; Sykora, P; Prochotsky, A; Okolicany, R

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) contributes to organ dysfunction and leads to the development of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). IAH and ACS are relatively frequent findings in patiens with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and are associated with deterioration in organ functions. The most affected are cardiovascular, respiratory and renal functions. The incidence of IAH in patients with SAP is approximately 60-80%. There is an accumulating evidence in human and animal studies that changes of perfusion, particularly to the microvasculature, are crucial events in the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). The perfusion of the small and large intestine is impaired due to reduced arterial pressure, increased vascular resistence and diminished portal blood flow. Bacterial translocation has been described in patients with ACS, and this may apply to patients with SAP. Approximately 30-40% of SAP patients develop ACS because of pancreatic (retroperitoneal) inflammation, peripancreatic tissue edema, formation of fluid collections or abdominal distension. Surgical debridement was the preferred treatment to control necrotizing pancreatitis in the past. However, the management of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed over the last decade. The main objective of this article is to describe the association between IAH and AP and to emphasize this situation in clinical praxis as well (Fig. 1, Ref. 38). PMID:23406186

  3. [Diagnostic and management algorithm of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Rybakov, G S; Dibirov, M D; Briskin, B S; Khalidov, O Kh; Barsukov, M G; Prosperov, M A; Kuznetsova, M A; Mikhaĭlin, A A; Ramazanova, Iu I; Larichev, D V; Kuz'mina, I D

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of diagnostics and treatment of 602 patients with destructive pancreatitis has shown that definition of etiological and pathogenetic forms of pancreatitis defines strategy of treatment. In this way, patients with biliary pancreatitis require emergency operative treatment with use of endoscopic interventions without dependence from a stage of disease. To patients with alcoholic or alimentary pancreatitis in the stage of enzymatic toxemia conservative treatment should be spent only, until shock and/or delirium won't be reduced. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography + endoscopic papillosphincterotomy with concrement removal from common bile duct--is the operation of choice in case of acute biliary pancreatitis at the first stage. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the operation of choice at the second stage of disease. At destructive pancreatitis of other origin in a stage of the infection or necrotic suppurative inflammation use of open and closed small invasive methods of intervention is most proved. Given tactics of treatment has allowed to lower severity of clinical course, frequency of complications and lethality. PMID:18454103

  4. Energetic etiologies of acute pancreatitis: A report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Shmelev, Artem; Abdo, Alain; Sachdev, Sarina; Shah, Urvi; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    There are several common causes of acute pancreatitis, principally excessive alcohol intake and gallstones, and there are many rare causes. However, cases of pancreatitis still occur in the absence of any recognizable factors, and these cases of idiopathic pancreatitis suggest the presence of unrecognized etiologies. Five cases of acute pancreatitis in four patients came to attention due to a strong temporal association with exposure to nerve stimulators and energy drinks. Given that these cases of pancreatitis were otherwise unexplained, and given that these exposures were not clearly known to be associated with pancreatitis, we performed a search for precedent cases and for mechanistic bases. No clear precedent cases were found in PubMed and only scant, weak precedent cases were found in public-health databases. However, there was a coherent body of intriguing literature in support of a mechanistic basis for these exposures playing a role in the etiology of pancreatitis. PMID:26600983

  5. Energetic etiologies of acute pancreatitis: A report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Shmelev, Artem; Abdo, Alain; Sachdev, Sarina; Shah, Urvi; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-11-15

    There are several common causes of acute pancreatitis, principally excessive alcohol intake and gallstones, and there are many rare causes. However, cases of pancreatitis still occur in the absence of any recognizable factors, and these cases of idiopathic pancreatitis suggest the presence of unrecognized etiologies. Five cases of acute pancreatitis in four patients came to attention due to a strong temporal association with exposure to nerve stimulators and energy drinks. Given that these cases of pancreatitis were otherwise unexplained, and given that these exposures were not clearly known to be associated with pancreatitis, we performed a search for precedent cases and for mechanistic bases. No clear precedent cases were found in PubMed and only scant, weak precedent cases were found in public-health databases. However, there was a coherent body of intriguing literature in support of a mechanistic basis for these exposures playing a role in the etiology of pancreatitis. PMID:26600983

  6. Tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Prasad, Mahendranath S.; Kandasamy, Arun K.; Dharanipragada, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen has both antagonistic and agonistic tissue-specific actions. It can have a paradoxical estrogenic effect on lipid metabolism resulting in elevated triglyceride and chylomicron levels. This can cause life-threatening complications like acute pancreatitis. To our knowledge, very few cases of tamoxifen-induced pancreatitis have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis following tamoxifen use. A 50-year-old diabetic lady was on tamoxifen (20mg/day) hormonal therapy for breast cancer. Within 3 months of starting therapy, she developed hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Laboratory values include: Serum amylase 778 IU/L, total cholesterol 785 mg/dL, triglycerides 4568 mg/dL and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) 12 mg/dL. Tamoxifen was substituted with letrozole and atorvastatin started. There was a prompt reversal of the adverse effects. Effects on lipid profile must be considered while initiating tamoxifen in predisposed individuals as the consequences are life threatening.

  7. Tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Prasad, Mahendranath S; Kandasamy, Arun K; Dharanipragada, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen has both antagonistic and agonistic tissue-specific actions. It can have a paradoxical estrogenic effect on lipid metabolism resulting in elevated triglyceride and chylomicron levels. This can cause life-threatening complications like acute pancreatitis. To our knowledge, very few cases of tamoxifen-induced pancreatitis have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis following tamoxifen use. A 50-year-old diabetic lady was on tamoxifen (20mg/day) hormonal therapy for breast cancer. Within 3 months of starting therapy, she developed hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Laboratory values include: Serum amylase 778 IU/L, total cholesterol 785 mg/dL, triglycerides 4568 mg/dL and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) 12 mg/dL. Tamoxifen was substituted with letrozole and atorvastatin started. There was a prompt reversal of the adverse effects. Effects on lipid profile must be considered while initiating tamoxifen in predisposed individuals as the consequences are life threatening. PMID:27127396

  8. Acute Pancreatitis: Landmark Studies, Management Decisions, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the last 50 years in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Many landmark studies have been published and have focused on the classification of acute pancreatitis, markers of severity, important roles of imaging and endoscopy, and improvements in our treatment. This report will review several landmark studies, describe ongoing controversies in management decisions including standards of early fluid resuscitation and appropriate use of enteral feeding, and outline what will be required in the future to improve the care of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27077712

  9. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  10. Hereditary Angioedema Presenting as Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Tal D; Garty, Ben-Zion

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) may manifest with swelling of the face, extremities, and upper airways. Gastrointestinal symptoms are also common and may include abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, pancreatic involvement is rare and has been reported only in a few adults with previously diagnosed HAE. We describe a 6-year-old boy who presented with recurrent severe abdominal pain accompanied by an elevation in pancreatic enzyme levels, without subcutaneous or cutaneous angioedema. His symptoms had begun 18 months earlier, and he was hospitalized several times before the present admission with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. More comprehensive analysis yielded low levels of C2, C4, CH50, and C1 esterase inhibitor, establishing the diagnosis of HAE. One year after diagnosis, swelling of the extremities appeared for the first time. This is the first report of a child in whom pancreatic disease was the presenting symptom of HAE. HAE should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent pancreatitis in children. PMID:26812927

  11. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Jeroen I; Jacobs, Jimmy M; Op de Beeck, Bart; Huyghe, Ivan A; Pelckmans, Paul A; Moreels, Tom G

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a female patient with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with hypercalcemia as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a benign parathyroid adenoma. Initially the acute pancreatitis was treated conservatively. The patient subsequently underwent surgical resection of the parathyroid adenoma and surgical clearance of a large infected pancreatic pseudocyst. Although the association of parathyroid adenoma-induced hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis is a known medical entity, it is very uncommon. The pathophysiology of hypercalcemia-induced acute pancreatitis is therefore not well known, although some mechanisms have been proposed. It is important to treat the provoking factor. Therefore, the cause of hypercalcemia should be identified early. Surgical resection of the parathyroid adenoma is the ultimate therapy. PMID:20556845

  12. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  13. Plasmablastic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Cheema, Ahmad R.; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Background. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case of a 37-year-old HIV-positive male who presented with acute pancreatitis secondary to multiple peripancreatic masses compressing the pancreas. Histopathological examination of the lesions showed diffuse and cohesive pattern of large B-cells resembling immunoblasts or plasmablasts. The neoplastic cells were positive for BOB1 and MUM1, partially positive for CD79a, and negative for CD20, CD56, CD138, CD3, CD5, AE1/AE3, and HHV8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive. These features were consistent with PBL. The patient was initiated on cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, demonstrating a striking response. Conclusion. To our research, this is the first report of PBL with the initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. PMID:27034868

  14. Plasmablastic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Cheema, Ahmad R; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Background. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case of a 37-year-old HIV-positive male who presented with acute pancreatitis secondary to multiple peripancreatic masses compressing the pancreas. Histopathological examination of the lesions showed diffuse and cohesive pattern of large B-cells resembling immunoblasts or plasmablasts. The neoplastic cells were positive for BOB1 and MUM1, partially positive for CD79a, and negative for CD20, CD56, CD138, CD3, CD5, AE1/AE3, and HHV8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive. These features were consistent with PBL. The patient was initiated on cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, demonstrating a striking response. Conclusion. To our research, this is the first report of PBL with the initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. PMID:27034868

  15. [Unusual presentation of hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis in a child].

    PubMed

    Boutbaoucht, M; Mouaffak, Y; Dilai, M-O; Najib, M; Jalal, H; El Adib, A-G; Younous, S

    2012-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis in children is rare and is characterized by clinical, biological, and etiological polymorphism. We report the case of a 6-year-old child who underwent surgery for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made after the surgical exploration. Initial laboratory tests showed hyperlipasemia and mild hypertriglyceridemia. After 2 weeks of hospitalization, we found severe hypertriglyceridemia, which was considered the cause of acute pancreatitis. Based on a review of the literature, we emphasize the importance of considering acute pancreatitis in the diagnosis of abdominal pain in children. Hypertriglyceridemia is one of its rare causes and must be detected because specific treatments are needed. Blood triglyceride concentration in the initial phase can be misleading and the assay should be repeated after the acute episode. PMID:22269915

  16. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Acute pancreatitis associated with omeprazole.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Youssef SS; Iskandar SB; Scruggs J; Roy TM

    2005-12-01

    Since their introduction in the late 1980s, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have demonstrated gastric acid suppression superior to that of histamine H2-receptor blockers. This class of drugs has improved the treatment of various acid-peptic disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy. PPIs have minimal side effects and few significant drug interactions. They are generally considered safe for long-term treatment. We present a rare side effect, acute pancreatitis, occurring in a patient who was treated with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole.

  18. Acute pancreatitis associated with omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Youssef, S S; Iskandar, S B; Scruggs, J; Roy, T M

    2005-12-01

    Since their introduction in the late 1980s, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have demonstrated gastric acid suppression superior to that of histamine H2-receptor blockers. This class of drugs has improved the treatment of various acid-peptic disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy. PPIs have minimal side effects and few significant drug interactions. They are generally considered safe for long-term treatment. We present a rare side effect, acute pancreatitis, occurring in a patient who was treated with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. PMID:16372517

  19. Acute pancreatitis in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Kandasami, P; Harunarashid, Hanafiah; Kaur, Harjit

    2002-06-01

    There is very little information in literature describing ethnic variations in etiologic and clinical outcome of acute pancreatitis in the Asian population. This study describes the demographic, etiologic and clinical course of acute pancreatitis among the three main races in Malaysia namely, the Malays, Chinese and Indians. One hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients were admitted for acute pancreatitis for the period January 1994 to July 1999 and they consisted of 77 males and 56 females with a mean age of 43.5 years (SD+/- 14.7). The racial breakdown of acute pancreatitis was: Malays 38 (28.6%), Chinese 19 (14.3%), Indians 75 (56.4%) and 1 (0.8%) patient was an orang asli. The incidence of alcohol association with acute pancreatitis was significantly increased in the males, while gallstone pancreatitis was principally a disease of the female. Alcohol was identified as the predominant factor associated with acute pancreatitis among the Indians (73.3%) and in contrast, gallstone was the commonest associated etiologic factor for the Malays and Chinese. No etiologic factor could be identified in a substantial proportion of the Malay patients (60.5%) when compared to the Chinese (36.8%) and Indians (35%). Severe disease developed in 25% of the cases reviewed but there was no difference in of the rate of severe pancreatitis in terms of ethnic groupings or etiologic factors. The overall mortality rate was 7.5% and the commonest cause of death was multi-organ failure. The study recognises that there are differences in the characteristics of acute pancreatitis among the three major races in the country and this divergence is primarily due to sociocultural habits. PMID:12380724

  20. Trypsin activity. A new marker of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Le Moine, O; Devaster, J M; Devière, J; Thiry, P; Cremer, M; Ooms, H A

    1994-12-01

    A normal serum amylase level is found in up to 32% of patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis. This underlines the need for more sensitive diagnostic tests in this frequent cause of pancreatitis. Animal and human studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption leads to important modifications in trypsinogen metabolism. The present work has prospectively analyzed admission serum trypsin activity with a new biochemical test and usual markers such as amylase, lipase, and immunoreactive trypsin in 32 attacks of acute pancreatitis. Seventeen were due to alcohol and 15 to other causes, including 11 with gallstone pancreatitis. High trypsin activity (median: 235 units/liter; range: 165-853) was found in all patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis even when the amylase level was normal on admission (3/17: 18%). Trypsin activity did not differ between nonalcoholic pancreatitis (N = 15): 84 units/liter (42-98), alcoholic controls (N = 15): 77 units/liter (40-122), and healthy controls (N = 62): 81 units/liter (15-143). The difference was not related to the severity of disease or circulating alpha 2-macroglobulin, alpha 1-protease inhibitor, or immunoreactive trypsinogen levels. Lipase/amylase ratio was less discriminant than trypsin activity between alcoholic and nonalcoholic diseases. We conclude that serum trypsin activity seems specific to acute alcoholic pancreatitis and should be included in new prospective studies assessing biochemical testing of alcohol-related pancreatic diseases. PMID:7527752

  1. Acute mediastinitis arising from pancreatic mediastinal fistula in recurrent pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choe, In Soo; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Sun Moon; Song, Kyung Ho; Koo, Hoon Sup; Park, Jung Ho; Pyo, Jin Sil; Kim, Ji Yeong; Choi, In Seok

    2014-01-01

    Acute mediastinitis is a fatal disease that usually originates from esophageal perforation and surgical infection. Rare cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis can occur following oral cavity and pharynx infection or can be a complication of pancreatitis. The most common thoracic complications of pancreatic disease are reactive pleural effusion and pneumonia, while rare complications include thoracic conditions, such as pancreaticopleural fistula with massive pleural effusion or hemothorax and extension of pseudocyst into the mediastinum. There have been no reports of acute mediastinitis originating from pancreatitis in South Korea. In this report, we present the case of a 50-year-old female suffering from acute mediastinitis with pleural effusion arising from recurrent pancreatitis that improved after surgical intervention. PMID:25356062

  2. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: An autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this review article, we will briefly describe the main characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis and then we will concentrate on our aim, namely, evaluating the clinical characteristics of patients having recurrence of pain from the disease. In fact, the open question is to evaluate the possible presence of autoimmune pancreatitis in patients with an undefined etiology of acute pancreatitis and for this reason we carried out a search in the literature in order to explore this issue. In cases of recurrent attacks of pain in patients with “diopathic”pancreatitis, we need to keep in mind the possibility that our patients may have autoimmune pancreatitis. Even though the frequency of this disease seems to be quite low, we believe that in the future, by increasing our knowledge on the subject, we will be able to diagnose an ever-increasing number of patients having acute recurrence of pain from autoimmune pancreatitis. PMID:18286678

  3. Comparison of early enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis with prebiotic fiber supplementation versus standard enteral solution: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Karakan, Tarkan; Ergun, Meltem; Dogan, Ibrahim; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Unal, Selahattin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition (EN) with prebiotic fiber supplementation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with severe AP, who required stoppage of oral feeding for 48 h, were randomly assigned to nasojejunal EN with or without prebiotics. APACHE II score, Balthazar’s CT score and CRP were assessed daily during the study period. RESULTS: The median duration of hospital stay was shorter in the study group [10 ± 4 (8-14) d vs 15 ± 6 (7-26) d] (P < 0.05). The median value of days in intensive care unit was also similar in both groups [6 ± 2 (5-8) d vs 6 ± 2 (5-7) d]. The median duration of EN was 8 ± 4 (6-12) d vs 10 ± 4 (6-13) d in the study and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). Deaths occurred in 6 patients (20%), 2 in the study group and 4 in the control group. The mean duration of APACHE II normalization (APACHE II score < 8) was shorter in the study group than in the control group (4 ± 2 d vs 6.5 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). The mean duration of CRP normalization was also shorter in the study group than in the control group (7 ± 2 d vs 10 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nasojejunal EN with prebiotic fiber supplementation in severe AP improves hospital stay, duration nutrition therapy, acute phase response and overall complications compared to standard EN therapy. PMID:17569144

  4. Lupeol Protects Against Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jun; Bae, Gi-Sang; Choi, Sun Bok; Jo, Il-Joo; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Kon; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Lupeol is a triterpenoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antiinflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effects of lupeol on acute pancreatitis specifically have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated the effects of lupeol on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Acute pancreatitis was induced via an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 µg/kg). In the lupeol treatment group, lupeol was administered intraperitoneally (10, 25, or 50 mg/kg) 1 h before the first cerulein injection. Blood samples were taken to determine serum cytokine and amylase levels. The pancreas was rapidly removed for morphological examination and used in the myeloperoxidase assay, trypsin activity assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we isolated pancreatic acinar cells using a collagenase method to examine the acinar cell viability. Lupeol administration significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis, as was shown by reduced pancreatic edema, and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, lupeol inhibited elevation of digestive enzymes and cytokine levels, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, lupeol inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death. In conclusion, these results suggest that lupeol exhibits protective effects on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26179197

  5. Effects of PDTC on NF-κB expression and apoptosis in rats with severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Shihai; Zhou, Hongying; Jin, Changzhu; Yang, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on intrapulmonary expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and apoptosis in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We induced SAP, then used immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining, quantitative PCR assays and western blotting to examine PDTC effects. Treatment with PDTC resulted in interstitial edema and widening of the basement membrane, with swollen mitochondria and aggregation of nuclear chromatin. Expression of NF-κB, Fas, Bcl-2 and TNF-α in lung tissues of SAP rats was increased, with NF-κB, Fas and TNF-α levels maximal after 6 h. PDTC appeared to ameliorate pathological changes, with low levels of NF-κB, Fas, TNF-α, and Caspase-3 mRNA observed and a lower apoptosis index compared with that seen in SAP rats. Expression of NF-κB could be involved in lung tissue apoptosis during SAP. We postulate that PDTC inhibits the activation of NF-κB and apoptosis, effectively alleviating the severity of lung injury. PMID:26064215

  6. Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2011-07-01

    The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1½ day there were 169 different abstracts and a "How do I do it session." Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted - all abstracts are similarly presented - and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way) to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered - and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them …) in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as "just another little abstract" - and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall.Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a "clinical highlight section" of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor's choices are the highlighted ones.The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this "abstract of abstracts", it was worth the efforts - and without efforts there will be little progress. PMID:22555122

  7. Misdiagnosis of Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  8. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  9. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  10. Quetiapine-induced hypertriglyceridaemia causing acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Franco, John Mark; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Griffin, Timothy John

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics have well-known metabolic side effects such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. A middle-aged man presented with epigastric and flank pain associated with nausea, and was noted to have elevated triglycerides (3590 mg/dL or 40.53 mmol/L), lipase and glucose. Haematological parameters revealed neutropenia with pancytopaenia. The patient was started on conservative management for acute pancreatitis, and on intravenous insulin and oral gemfibrozil for lowering of his triglycerides. He gradually improved and was transitioned to oral atorvastatin and fenofibrate. His triglycerides, glucose and leucocyte counts normalised at discharge and he was transitioned to ziprasidone. The combination of hypertriglyceridaemia, worsening hyperglycaemia and neutropenia made us suspect quetiapine as the causative agent. Medications cause only 0.1-7% of acute pancreatitis cases, with quetiapine implicated in only five-reported cases. Hypertriglyceridaemia (>600 mg/dL or 6.77 mmol/L) is frequently reported with quetiapine use, but severe hypertriglyceridaemia (>1000 mg/dL or 11.29 mmol/L) has been reported in <10 patients. PMID:25976202

  11. Endotoxaemia and complement activation in acute pancreatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Foulis, A K; Murray, W R; Galloway, D; McCartney, A C; Lang, E; Veitch, J; Whaley, K

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-four patients who experienced 26 attacks of acute pancreatitis were studied. Endotoxaemia, as measured by the limulus lysate assay, was present in 13 of the attacks. Six out of seven patients with systemic complications of the disease had endotoxaemia. C3 catabolism was increased in all 26 attacks of pancreatitis, and a falling level of C3 during attacks of severe pancreatitis was associated with a fatal outcome. There was statistical evidence of more complement activation in serum samples taken when patients had positive limulus lysate tests than when endotoxin was not detected in their blood. PMID:7095560

  12. Pegaspargase Induced Hypertriglyceridemia Resulting in Severe Fatal Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Neil; Ching Companioni, Rafael; Tiba, Melik; Alkhawam, Hassan; Walfish, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Pegaspargase is used to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Pegaspargase definitely has its benefits in treating ALL; however we cannot lose sight of one of its very rare but potentially deadly complications, acute pancreatitis. Clinicians should monitor triglycerides while the patient is on treatment with Pegaspargase and suspect acute pancreatitis if the patient develops abdominal pain. If pancreatitis occurs, therapy should be stopped immediately and not reinstituted. For patients with hypertriglyceridemia without pancreatitis, discontinuation of therapy should be considered. PMID:26693361

  13. Effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production on pancreatic infection in experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Maria M.; Sampietre, Sandra; Patzina, Rosely; Jukemura, Jose; Cunha, Jose Eduardo M.; Machado, Marcel C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Acute pancreatitis is one the important causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS results in gut barrier dysfunction that allows bacterial translocation and pancreatic infection to occur. Indomethacin has been used to reduce inflammatory process and bacterial translocation in experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production on pancreatic infection. Materials and methods. An experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) was utilized. The animals were divided into three groups: sham (surgical procedure without AP induction); pancreatitis (AP induction); and indomethacin (AP induction plus administration of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin). Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, PGE2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured 2 h after the induction of AP. We analyzed the occurrence of pancreatic infection with bacterial cultures performed 24 h after the induction of AP. The occurrence of pancreatic infection (considered positive when the CFU/g was >105), pancreatic histologic analysis, and mortality rate were studied. Results. In spite of the reduction of IL-6, IL-10, and PGE2 levels in the indomethacin group, TNF-α level, bacterial translocation, and pancreatic infection were not influenced by administration of indomethacin. The inhibition of PGE2 production did not reduce pancreatic infection, histologic score, or mortality rate. Conclusion. The inhibition of PGE2 production was not able to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic infection and does not have any beneficial effect in this experimental model. Further investigations will be necessary to discover a specific inhibitor that would make it possible to develop an anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:18345325

  14. Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karakayali, Feza Y

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

  15. Use of probiotics in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Necrotic tissue infection can worsen the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and probiotics have been shown to be beneficial in reducing the infection rate in animal experiments and primary clinical trials. However, the results of multicenter randomized clinical trials have been contradictory. Our aim in this study was to systematically review and quantitatively analyze all randomized controlled trials with regard to important outcomes in patients with predicted SAP who received probiotics. Methods A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted using specific search terms. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of probiotic with placebo treatment in patients with predicted SAP. Mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed- and random-effects models. A meta-analysis on the use of probiotics in the treatment of critically ill patients was also performed to serve as a reference. Results In this study, 6 trials comprising an aggregate total of 536 patients were analyzed. Significant heterogeneities were observed in the type, dose, treatment duration and clinical effects of probiotics in these trials. Systematic analysis showed that probiotics did not significantly affect the pancreatic infection rate (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.93; P = 0.47), total infections (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.48; P = 0.57), operation rate (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.43 to 3.47; P = 0.71), length of hospital stay (MD = 2.45, 95% CI = −2.71 to 7.60; P = 0.35) or mortality (RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.42 to 1.45; P = 0.25). Conclusions Probiotics showed neither beneficial nor adverse effects on the clinical outcomes of patients with predicted SAP. However, significant heterogeneity was noted between the trials reviewed with regard to the type, dose and treatment duration of probiotics, which may have contributed to the heterogeneity of the clinical outcomes. The current data are not sufficient to draw a conclusion regarding the effects of probiotics on patients with predicted SAP. Carefully designed clinical trials are needed to validate the effects of particular probiotics given at specific dosages and for specific treatment durations. PMID:24684832

  16. Inverted U-Shaped Relationship between Central Venous Pressure and Intra-Abdominal Pressure in the Early Phase of Severe Acute Pancreatitis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinglin; Liu, Tao; Gou, Shanmiao; Chen, Changzhong; Xiao, Jun; Jin, Xin; He, Zhiqiang; Dong, Liming; Zhang, Yushun; Luo, Na; Wu, Heshui; Wang, Chunyou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many studies have indicated that intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is positively correlated with central venous pressure (CVP) in severe cases. However, although elevated IAP is common in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), its relationship with CVP remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the association of IAP with CVP in early-phase SAP patients. Methods In total, 116 SAP patients were included in this retrospective study. On the first day of hospitalization, blood samples were collected for biochemical examination and cytokine concentration monitoring. Additionally, a urinary catheter and right subclavian vein catheter were inserted for IAP and CVP measurement, respectively. Other routine clinical data were also recorded. Results Within 24 hours after hospitalization, CVP fluctuated and increased with increasing IAP up to 15.7 mmHg (P = 0.054) but decreased with increasing IAP when the IAP was > 15.7 mmHg (P < 0.001). After adjusting for abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), a similar distribution was observed. An inverted U-shaped trend between IAP and CVP was also present in the groups classified according to the patients sex, local complications, ascites, and serum amylase levels. Conclusions CVP and IAP have an inverted U-shaped relationship, with a peak at an IAP of 15.7 mmHg in the early phase of SAP. After this peak, CVP decreases as IAP increases. These results have crucial implications for clinical fluid resuscitation in SAP patients. In particular, because one CVP value might be correlated with different IAP values in patients with the same CVP, the volume of fluid needed might be different. PMID:26053865

  17. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Tiffany J.; Sentongo, Timothy A.; Mak, Grace Z.; Kahn, Stacy A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  18. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  19. The clinical analysis of acute pancreatitis in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy after operation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanlei; Han, Zhen; Shao, Limei; Li, Yunling; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Yuehuan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication in postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin + calcium folinate +5-FU [5-fluorouracil]) chemotherapy. In this paper, a total of 62 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were observed after the burst of acute pancreatitis. Surgery of the 62 cases of colorectal cancer patients was completed successfully. But when they underwent FOLFOX6 chemotherapy, five patients got acute pancreatitis (8.06%), four (6.45%) had mild acute pancreatitis, and one (1.61%) had severe acute pancreatitis, of which two were males (3.23%) and three females (4.84%). No patients (0.00%) had acute pancreatitis on the 1st day after chemotherapy; one patient (1.61%) got it in the first 2 and 3 days after chemotherapy; and three others (4.83%) got it in the first 4 days after chemotherapy. In the 62 patients with malignant tumors, the body mass index (BMI) was less than 18 (underweight) in six of them, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (33.33%); the BMI was 18–25 (normal weight) in 34 cases, with one case (2.94%) of acute pancreatitis; the BMI was 25–30 (overweight) in 13 cases, with 0 cases (0.00%) of acute pancreatitis; and the BMI was ≥30 (obese) in nine patients, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (22.22%). After symptomatic treatment, four patients were cured and one died; the mortality rate was 1.61%. Most of them appeared in the first 4 days after chemotherapy; the probability of this complication is significantly higher in slim and obese patients than in normal weight patients. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 chemotherapy have a sudden onset of acute pancreatitis occult, especially in patients with severe acute pancreatitis; the symptoms are difficult to control, there is high mortality and it is worthy of clinician’s attention. PMID:26392780

  20. Eruptive xanthomas and acute pancreatitis in a patient with hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Desirée Pérez; Díaz, Juan Oscar Fernández; Bobes, Carmen Maciá

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and eruptive xanthomas are the only recognised direct complications of severe hypertriglyceridaemia. We present the case of a 33-years old male patient in whom the onset of a type 2 diabetes, added to an unknown familial hyperlipidemia, precipitated a dramatic raise of serum triglyceride levels, that cause in turn an acute pancreatitis and the appearance of dermic eruptive xanthomas. TRANSLATION: This article is translated from Spanish, originally published in Archivos de Medicina. The original work is at doi:10.3823/001. PMID:18474088

  1. Eruptive xanthomas and acute pancreatitis in a patient with hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Desirée Pérez; Díaz, Juan Óscar Fernández; Bobes, Carmen Maciá

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and eruptive xanthomas are the only recognised direct complications of severe hypertriglyceridaemia. We present the case of a 33-years old male patient in whom the onset of a type 2 diabetes, added to an unknown familial hyperlipidemia, precipitated a dramatic raise of serum triglyceride levels, that cause in turn an acute pancreatitis and the appearance of dermic eruptive xanthomas. Translation This article is translated from Spanish, originally published in Archivos de Medicina. The original work is at doi:10.3823/001 PMID:18474088

  2. Enhancement of ICAM-1 via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    HAN, XIAO; WANG, YUXI; CHEN, HAILONG; ZHANG, JINGWEN; XU, CAIMING; LI, JIAN; LI, MINGYUE

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), which is associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), results from damage to the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs), which in turn leads to high levels of inflammatory cytokines that destroy PMVECs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SAP-associated ALI (SAP-ALI) are currently not well understood. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the persistent migration and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages, which in turn has been associated with the increased permeability of microvascular endothelial cells. Signal transduction via the Janus kinase-2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) transcription factors has been shown to be involved in inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of ICAM-1 and JAK2/STAT3 signaling components in a rat model of SAP-ALI. SAP was induced in the rat model, and dexamethasone (DEX) was administered to the treatment group. Subsequently, ICAM-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, JAK2, STAT3 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB mRNA expression levels were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; ICAM-1 protein expression levels were determined using western blotting; and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, an immunohistochemical analysis of ICAM-1, NF-κB, JAK2 and STAT3 was conducted, and the protein expression and cell morphology of the lungs in all rats was analyzed. ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased following induction of SAP, and were significantly decreased in the DEX-treated group. Furthermore, treatment with DEX significantly reduced serum expression levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and decreased expression levels of NF-κB, JAK2 and STAT3 in the lung tissue, as compared with the untreated SAP group. The present study demonstrated that DEX treatment was able to suppress ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in a rat model of SAP-ALI via the inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-α-induced JAK2/STAT3 activation; thus suggesting that DEX treatment may be considered a potential strategy in the treatment of patients with SAP-ALI. PMID:26997994

  3. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits protective and regenerative effects in some organs including the stomach, kidney, and the brain. In the pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. However, no studies investigated the effect of obestatin administration following the onset of experimental acute pancreatitis. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obestatin therapy in the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, we tested the influence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and administration of obestatin on daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the pancreas. Obestatin (8nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day, starting 24 hours after the beginning of reperfusion. The effect of obestatin in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed between 2 and 14 days, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Secretory studies were performed on the third day after sham-operation or induction of acute pancreatitis in conscious rats equipped with chronic pancreatic fistula. Results Treatment with obestatin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland, and led to earlier pancreatic regeneration. Structural changes were accompanied by biochemical and functional improvements manifested by accelerated normalization of interleukin-1β level and activity of myeloperoxidase and lipase, attenuation of the decrease in pancreatic DNA synthesis, and by an improvement of pancreatic blood flow. Induction of acute pancreatitis by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion significantly decreased daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Administration of obestatin at doses used was without significant effect with regard to daily food intake or pancreatic exocrine secretion in sham-operated rats, as well as in rats with acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, obestatin abolished a statistical significance of difference in food intake between animals with AP and control animals without pancreatic fistula and induction of AP. Conclusion Treatment with the exogenous obestatin reduces severity of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and accelerates recovery in this disease. The involved mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, and are mediated, at least in part, by anti-inflammatory properties of obestatin. PMID:26226277

  4. Cell Death and DAMPs in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Billiar, Timothy R; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and inflammation are key pathologic responses of acute pancreatitis (AP), the leading cause of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of AP by linking local tissue damage to systemic inflammation syndrome. Endogenous DAMPs released from dead, dying or injured cells initiate and extend sterile inflammation via specific pattern recognition receptors. Inhibition of the release and activity of DAMPs (for example, high mobility group box 1, DNA, histones and adenosine triphosphate) provides significant protection against experimental AP. Moreover, increased serum levels of DAMPs in patients with AP correlate with disease severity. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanism, diagnosis and management of AP. DAMPs might be an attractive therapeutic target in AP. PMID:25105302

  5. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Tonsi, Alfredo F; Bacchion, Matilde; Crippa, Stefano; Malleo, Giuseppe; Bassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century. PMID:19554647

  6. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation and by increasing VEGF and leukocyte infiltration into the lung. PMID:25157787

  7. Acetaminophen Poisoning and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess whether acetaminophen poisoning is associated with a higher risk of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using the longitudinal population-based database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) program between 2000 and 2011. The acetaminophen cohort comprised patients aged ≥20 years with newly identified acetaminophen poisoning (N = 2958). The comparison cohort comprised randomly selected patients with no history of acetaminophen poisoning. The acetaminophen and comparison cohorts were frequency matched by age, sex, and index year (N = 11,832) at a 1:4 ratio. Each patient was followed up from the index date until the date an acute pancreatitis diagnosis was made, withdrawal from the NHI program, or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effects of acetaminophen on the risk of acute pancreatitis. The risk of acute pancreatitis was 3.11-fold higher in the acetaminophen cohort than in the comparison cohort (11.2 vs 3.61 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–4.47). The incidence rate was considerably high in patients who were aged 35 to 49 years, men, those who had comorbidities, and within the first year of follow-up. Acetaminophen poisoning is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Additional prospective studies are necessary to verify how acetaminophen poisoning affects the risk of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26200631

  8. Recent Advances in Managing Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Janisch, Nigeen; Gardner, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the recent advances in managing acute pancreatitis. Supportive care has long been the standard of treatment for this disease despite extensive, but ultimately unsuccessful, efforts to develop disease-specific pharmacologic therapies. The primary interventions center on aggressive fluid resuscitation, initiation of early enteral nutrition, targeted antibiotic therapy, and the management of complications. In this article, we will detail treatment of acute pancreatitis with a focus on intravenous fluid resuscitation, enteral feeding, and the current evidence behind the use of antibiotics and other pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26918139

  9. [Can the L/A ratio identify acute alcoholic pancreatitis?].

    PubMed

    Deltenre, P; Ghilain, J M; Maisin, J M; Schapira, M; Henrion, J; Heller, F R

    1995-01-01

    Early distinction between acute alcoholic pancreatitis is important, because of possible emergency endoscopic sphincterotomy in case of biliary pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of L/A ratio in the diagnosis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. From 1990 to end 1993, 133 patients with acute pancreatitis were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: 1) abdominal pain, 2) pathological serum amylase or serum lipase on admission or within 24 hours after beginning or abdominal pain, 3) acute pancreatitis at the echography or CT scan within 48 hours after admission. 60 patients met the inclusion criteria (31 alcoholic pancreatitis, 19 biliary pancreatitis and 10 pancreatitis of other causes). L/A ratio was studied in terms of delay from beginning of abdominal pain. There was no statistical difference between alcoholic and biliary pancreatitis at any time of the study, with the exception of admission. AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase were higher in biliary pancreatitis than in alcoholic pancreatitis. AST and ALT were the best biochemical tests to diagnose biliary pancreatitis. Blamey's criteria can also contribute to diagnose biliary pancreatitis. These biochemical tests are the most helpful if they are collected very soon in the evolution of acute pancreatitis. It is concluded that L/A ratio is not helpful in the diagnosis of alcoholic acute pancreatitis. PMID:7571983

  10. Acute pancreatitis in slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Naples, Lisa M; Lacasse, Claude; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Langan, Jennifer N; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2010-06-01

    Four adult, full-sibling slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The incident case presented with lethargy, anorexia, abdominal guarding, and a cranial abdominal mass. Serum was grossly lipemic, with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increased amylase and lipase activity. An exploratory laparotomy confirmed chylous peritonitis and included excision of a saponified spleno-duodenal mass, a partial pancreatectomy, and a splenectomy. Histopathology revealed severe, multifocal, subacute necrotizing and granulomatous pancreatitis. Within 13 days of the incident case, the second meerkat was identified with essentially identical clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. During subsequent physical examinations of apparently unaffected cohorts (n=12), physical and hematologic findings suggestive of pancreatitis were identified in the two remaining siblings of the first two cases. The definitive cause for these four cases is undetermined; however, common risk factors identified were obesity and hyperlipidemia, a change to a higher-fat diet, and genetic predisposition. To assess its usefulness in the diagnosis of meerkat pancreatitis, serum canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI and fPLI) concentrations were measured in serum samples (n=61) from two unrelated meerkat populations. Although these assays are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in domestic carnivores, similar correlation was not apparent for meerkats. In addition, hyperlipidemia was inconsistently present in many meerkats, with no apparent correlation to the development of clinical illness. Based on these observations, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for pancreatitis in meerkats are currently unavailable. PMID:20597219

  11. A Case of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis due to Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Kyoung; Kwak, Min Sun; Kim, Jai Hwan; Jang, Eun Sun; Hwang, Sung Wook; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Joo, Li Jin; Yoon, Yoo Seok; Kim, Hae Ryoung

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an extremely rare condition with various clinical manifestations. We report herein a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic AVM in a 49-year-old man. This patient presented with epigastric pain that had developed after consuming alcohol 2 days prior to admission. Serum amylase and lipase levels were elevated and computed tomography revealed focal low-attenuation lesions with peripancreatic infiltrations in the pancreatic tail and multiple collateral vessels around the low-attenuation lesions. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis and pancreatic AVM. Although he had stopped drinking after the first attack of acute pancreatitis, his pancreatitis recurred twice within 3 months. He underwent a distal pancreatectomy after the third attack of acute pancreatitis. He was free of symptoms for 2 years after the pancreatectomy. PMID:20479928

  12. [A case of acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis caused by ingestion of Ceramium kondoi].

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-bin; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Song, Hyun Joo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    In Korea, the use of herbal remedies is a common cause of drug-induced liver injury. However, the occurrence of both acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis after taking herbal remedies has rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis associated with Ceramium kondoi ingestion. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer 7 months ago. Total gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed without complications. The patient had been well until recently, when she presented with severe abdominal pain after ingestion of Ceramium kondoifor 4 weeks. The laboratory findings demonstrated elevated liver enzymes and lipase, and abdominal computed tomography revealed pancreas swelling with fat infiltration. The diagnosis was made based on the diagnostic criteria for drug induced pancreatitis and the Russel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale for drug-induced liver injury. After cessation of Ceramium kondoi, she showed clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:24262598

  13. Parenteral nutrition in the treatment of acute pancreatitis: effect on complications and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Goodgame, J T; Fischer, J E

    1977-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of 46 cases of acute pancreatitis treated with total parenteral nutrition were examined. Hyperalimentation may be used in these severely ill patients with minimal technical or metabolic morbidity. This method of nutritional support can maintain patients with nonfunctional gastrointestinal tracts for several months. Catheter-related sepsis was more common than expected early in the course of acute pancreatitis but caused minimal morbidity. The incidence of catheter-related sepsis late in disease was minor. Hyperalimentation had little if any effect on the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis as judged by the overall mortality and the incidence and severity of the complications of acute respiratory failure and acute renal failure. It is not clear that parenteral hyperalimentation alters the course of acute pancreatitis but it is a useful adjunct for nutritional support in this illness. PMID:411429

  14. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  15. [Acute secundary abdomen to pancreatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Rincón Rodera, P; González Díez, G

    2005-01-01

    The hydatidosis is a frequent zoonosis in Spain, but isolated location in pancreas and their onset as acute abdomen is excepcional. We present a boy 14 years old, with abdominal pain and low-grade fever since 1 month. Hemogram shows eosinophilia, and echography an anechoic mass in tail of pancreas beside of free peritoneal liquid. At surgery procedure: a broken hydatid cyst is verified, surrounded of tissues inflammatory reaction that evolved to pancreatic fistula. The differents forms from clinical presentation of the pancreatic hydatid cyst, as well as the complications related to their location are analyzed. PMID:15901107

  16. Hiatus Hernia: A Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti; Jawairia, Mahreema; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Mustacchia, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hiatal hernia (HH) is the herniation of elements of the abdominal cavity through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. A giant HH with pancreatic prolapse is very rare and its causing pancreatitis is an even more extraordinary condition. We describe a case of a 65-year-old man diagnosed with acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic herniation. In these cases, acute pancreatitis may be caused by the diaphragmatic crura impinging upon the pancreas and leading to repetitive trauma as it crosses the hernia; intermittent folding of the main pancreatic duct; ischemia associated with stretching at its vascular pedicle; or total pancreatic incarceration. Asymptomatic hernia may not require any treatment, while multiple studies have supported the recommendation of early elective repair as a safer route in symptomatic patients. In summary, though rare, pancreatic herniation should be considered as a cause of acute pancreatitis. A high index of suspicion for complications is warranted in cases like these. PMID:27066077

  17. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir. PMID:23781673

  18. Acute pancreatitis associated with pegylated interferon-alpha-2a therapy in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Wook; Lee, June Sung; Paik, Woo Hyun; Song, Tae Jun; Kim, Jung Wook; Bae, Won Ki; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Jung Gon

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) is a current standard treatment for chronic HCV infection in Korea, which has considerable adverse effects. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication of PEG-IFN-α administration. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who experienced acute pancreatitis after 4 weeks of PEG-IFN-α-2a and RBV combination therapy for chronic HCV infection. The main cause of the acute pancreatitis in this case was probably PEG-IFN-α rather than RBV for several reasons. A few cases have been reported in which acute pancreatitis occurred during treatment with PEG-IFN-α-2b. This is the first report of acute pancreatitis associated with PEG-IFN-α-2a in Korea. PMID:27044768

  19. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in acute biliary pancreatitis: A question of anesthesiological risk

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2009-01-01

    Two consecutive surveys of acute pancreatitis in Italy, based on more than 1000 patients with acute pancreatitis, reported that the etiology of the disease indicates biliary origin in about 60% of the cases. The United Kingdom guidelines report that severe gallstone pancreatitis in the presence of increasingly deranged liver function tests and signs of cholangitis (fever, rigors, and positive blood cultures) requires an immediate and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). These guidelines also recommend that patients with gallstone pancreatitis should undergo prompt cholecystectomy, possibly during the same hospitalization. However, a certain percentage of patients are unfit for cholecystectomy because advanced age and presence of comorbidity. We evaluated the early and long-term results of endoscopic intervention in relation to the anesthesiological risk for 87 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis. All patients underwent ERCP and were evaluated according to the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) criteria immediately before the operative procedure. The severity of acute pancreatitis was positively related to the anesthesiological grade. There was no significant relationship between the frequency of biliopancreatic complications during the follow-up and the ASA grade. The frequency of cholecystectomy was inversely related to the ASA grade and multivariate analysis showed that the ASA grade and age were significantly related to survival. Finally, endoscopic treatment also appeared to be safe and effective in patients at high anesthesiological risk with acute pancreatitis. These results further support the hypothesis that endoscopic sphincterotomy might be considered a definitive treatment for patients with acute biliary pancreatitis and an elevated ASA grade. PMID:21160646

  20. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  1. Resolvin D1 protects against inflammation in experimental acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Dan; Long, Fei-Wu; Chen, Ke-Ling; Yang, Hong-Wei; Lv, Zhao-Yin; Zhou, Bin; Peng, Zhi-Hai; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that may lead to multisystemic organ failure with considerable mortality. Recently, resolvin D1 (RvD1) as an endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid mediator has been confirmed to protect against many inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to investigate the effects of RvD1 in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. Acute pancreatitis varying from mild to severe was induced by cerulein or cerulein combined with LPS, respectively. Mice were pretreated with RvD1 at a dose of 300 ng/mouse 30 min before the first injection of cerulein. Severity of AP was assessed by biochemical markers and histology. Serum cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in pancreas and lung were determined for assessing the extent of inflammatory response. NF-κB activation was determined by Western blotting. The injection of cerulein or cerulein combined with LPS resulted in local injury in the pancreas and corresponding systemic inflammatory changes with pronounced severity in the cerulein and LPS group. Pretreated RvD1 significantly reduced the degree of amylase, lipase, TNF-α, and IL-6 serum levels; the MPO activities in the pancreas and the lungs; the pancreatic NF-κB activation; and the severity of pancreatic injury and associated lung injury, especially in the severe acute pancreatitis model. These results suggest that RvD1 is capable of improving injury of pancreas and lung and exerting anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in experimental acute pancreatitis, with more notable protective effect in severe acute pancreatitis. These findings indicate that RvD1 may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:26702138

  2. A new source of drug-induced acute pancreatitis: codeine.

    PubMed

    Hastier, P; Buckley, M J; Peten, E P; Demuth, N; Dumas, R; Demarquay, J F; Caroli-Bosc, F X; Delmont, J P

    2000-11-01

    A variety of drugs have been reported to cause acute pancreatitis during the past 40 years. We report the first series of four cases of acute pancreatitis related to codeine ingestion. Four patients (three female, mean age 50.2 yr) presented with clinical, biochemical, and radiological evidence of acute pancreatitis. All four had ingested a therapeutic dose of codeine 1-3 h before the onset of abdominal symptoms. Unintentional rechallenge occurred in three cases and was followed by recurrence of acute pancreatitis in all three. All patients made a full recovery. All four patients had had a previous cholecystectomy. The likely underlying pathophysiological mechanism is codeine-induced spasm of the sphincter of Oddi combined with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction related to a previous cholecystectomy. Codeine ingestion leads to acute pancreatitis in some individuals. Previous cholecystectomy seems to predispose to codeine-induced pancreatitis. PMID:11095359

  3. Effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and matrix metalloproteinase-9 on alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema in rat models of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Qi, Bing; Chen, Hai-Long; Shang, Dong; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Yu, Lei

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema in rat models of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (PALI). A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham surgery group (n=10) and three PALI groups, in which acute pancreatitis was induced by the retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate (1 ml/kg). The PALI groups were as follows: i) Untreated PALI group (n=10); ii) 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) group (5 mg/kg body mass; n=10); and iii) 2ME2 group (15 mg/kg body mass; n=10). In the two 2ME2 groups, the HIF-1? inhibitor 2ME2 was administered intraperitoneally 1 h after the induction of AP. The severity of the pancreatitis was evaluated by the serum amylase levels and pathology. The severity of the lung injury was evaluated by the wet/dry ratio, blood gas analysis and pathology. The alveolar-capillary barrier disruption was assessed by Evans blue dye extravasation. The protein and mRNA expression levels of HIF-1? and MMP-9 were studied using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The active tumor necrosis factor-? levels were measured using an ELISA. The HIF-1? inhibitor 2ME2 attenuated the severity of the pancreatitis and PALI, while the lung edema and alveolar-capillary barrier disruption were significantly ameliorated compared with those in the untreated PALI group. Administration of the higher dose of 2ME2 significantly suppressed the protein expression of MMP-9 in the lung tissues. The results indicate that HIF-1? has a major function in alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema in PALI via a molecular pathway cascade involving MMP-9. Inhibition of HIF-1? by 2ME2 attenuates alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema. Pharmacological blockade of this pathway in patients with PALI may provide a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:25120621

  4. Effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and matrix metalloproteinase-9 on alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema in rat models of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    QI, BING; CHEN, HAI-LONG; SHANG, DONG; DONG, YING; ZHANG, GUI-XIN; YU, LEI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema in rat models of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (PALI). A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham surgery group (n=10) and three PALI groups, in which acute pancreatitis was induced by the retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate (1 ml/kg). The PALI groups were as follows: i) Untreated PALI group (n=10); ii) 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) group (5 mg/kg body mass; n=10); and iii) 2ME2 group (15 mg/kg body mass; n=10). In the two 2ME2 groups, the HIF-1? inhibitor 2ME2 was administered intraperitoneally 1 h after the induction of AP. The severity of the pancreatitis was evaluated by the serum amylase levels and pathology. The severity of the lung injury was evaluated by the wet/dry ratio, blood gas analysis and pathology. The alveolar-capillary barrier disruption was assessed by Evans blue dye extravasation. The protein and mRNA expression levels of HIF-1? and MMP-9 were studied using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The active tumor necrosis factor-? levels were measured using an ELISA. The HIF-1? inhibitor 2ME2 attenuated the severity of the pancreatitis and PALI, while the lung edema and alveolar-capillary barrier disruption were significantly ameliorated compared with those in the untreated PALI group. Administration of the higher dose of 2ME2 significantly suppressed the protein expression of MMP-9 in the lung tissues. The results indicate that HIF-1? has a major function in alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema in PALI via a molecular pathway cascade involving MMP-9. Inhibition of HIF-1? by 2ME2 attenuates alveolar-capillary barrier disruption and lung edema. Pharmacological blockade of this pathway in patients with PALI may provide a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:25120621

  5. Bidirectional Relationship Between Diabetes and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The proposed bidirectional relationship between acute pancreatitis (AP) and diabetes has never been examined with the same source of data. Furthermore, the effects of disease severity on this relationship have not been fully evaluated. The present study employed the findings from a single database to measure the strength of the association between AP and diabetes. Findings from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were utilized. Two cohort studies with this database were selected to evaluate the linkage between diabetes and AP. The first cohort analysis addressed the risk of AP among diabetic patients and was comprised of 42,080 diabetic patients and 672,146 unexposed subjects. The second cohort analysis considered the risk of diabetes among patients with AP and enrolled 3187 patients with AP and 709259 unexposed subjects. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2012 to identify outcomes of interest. Cox regression models were applied to compare hazards adjusted for potential confounders. For the first cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of AP was significantly increased by the presence of diabetes (1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–1.96). In diabetic patients with a history of hyperglycemic crisis episodes (HCEs), the HR was even higher (6.32; 95% CI, 4.54–8.81). For the second cohort, the adjusted HR of diabetes in patients with AP was increased compared to the general population (2.15; 95% CI, 1.92–2.41). For patients with severe AP, the HR was also higher (2.22; 95% CI, 1.50–3.29) but did not differ significantly from that for patients with nonsevere AP. The 2 cohort studies provided evidence for the bidirectional relationship between diabetes and AP. Moreover, diabetic patients with history of HCEs may be associated with higher risk of AP. PMID:26765434

  6. [Acute pancreatitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Veny, A; Romeu, J; Raventós, A; López, M P; Sirera, G; Clotet, B

    1995-09-01

    This study was designed to define the etiological spectrum of acute pancreatitis in patients infected with HIV in our environment and to evaluate the relevance of cytomegalovirus as etiological agent. A retrospective analysis was first made of clinical, analytical, radiological and pathological findings of patients infected with HIV clinically diagnosed of acute pancreatitis (period 1984-1993). Then, clinical records of patients with necropsy proven CMV pancreatic involvement were retrospectively analyzed (period 1985-1992) to evaluate whether they had been diagnosed of acute pancreatitis when alive. Nine cases were diagnosed of acute pancreatitis. A presumptive etiology (didanosine) was considered in seven cases and idiopathic in two. Five patients died, two from causes directly related to acute pancreatitis. Necropsy was performed in two cases. Mortality was associated with the development of renal insufficiency or the appearance of three or more complications (p = 0.039). With regard to the second phase of the study CMV pancreatic involvement was demonstrated in 4 necropsies out of a total of 22 with evidence of CMV infection in one or more organs. None of these patients was diagnosed of acute pancreatitis when alive. Acute pancreatitis is an uncommon entity in patients infected with HIV. Presumptively, it could be attributed to didanosine therapy in most of our cases. The mortality rate was high, particularly when renal failure developed. In no case was CMV involved as etiologic agent when the patient was alive, although necropsy showed that pancreas can be subclinically involved in the context of a CMV disseminated infection. PMID:7481004

  7. Acute Pancreatitis: The Role of Imaging and Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, Michael M.; Lucey, Brian C.; Gervais, Debra A.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2004-09-15

    Acute pancreatitis can manifest as a benign condition with minimal abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia or can have a fulminant course, which can be life-threatening usually due to the development of infected pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Fortunately, 70-80% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a benign self-limiting course. The initial 24-48 hours after the initial diagnosis is usually the period that determines the subsequent course, and for many of the 20-30% of patients who subsequently have a fulminant course, this becomes apparent within this time frame. With reference to long-term outcome following acute pancreatitis, most cases recover without long-term sequelae with only a minority of cases progressing to chronic pancreatitis. In the initial management of acute pancreatitis, assessment of metabolic disturbances and systemic organ dysfunction is critical. However, the advent and continued refinement of cross-sectional imaging modalities over the past two decades has led to a prominent role for diagnostic imaging in assessing acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, these cross-sectional imaging modalities have enabled the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventional techniques in the hands of radiologists. In this article we review the diagnostic features of acute pancreatitis, the clinical staging systems, complications and the role of imaging. The role of interventional radiology techniques in the management of acute pancreatitis will be discussed as well as potential complications associated with these treatments.

  8. Aprotinin revisited: formulation, characterization, biodistribution and therapeutic potential of new aprotinin microemulsion in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karasulu, H Yeşim; Oruç, Nevin; Üstündağ-Okur, Neslihan; İlem Özdemir, Derya; Ay Şenyiğit, Zeynep; Barbet Yılmaz, Funda; Aşıkoğlu, Makbule; Özkılıç, Hayal; Akçiçek, Eren; Güneri, Tamer; Özütemiz, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop aprotinin-loaded microemulsion (MA) for intravenous administration and evaluate the biodistribution and therapeutic potential of developed formulation in acute pancreatitis models in rats. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify microemulsion region and the optimal microemulsion was evaluated for physicochemical properties and treatment effect in rats, and comparisons made with the solution of aprotinin (SA). To evaluate the biodistribution of the drug by gamma scintigraphy aprotinin was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc radionuclide. Mild and severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injections of cerulein and introductal infusion of 3% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. In addition, serum amylase and pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase activities were measured to evaluate the pancreatic damage. According to gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution studies, accumulation times and distribution of (99m)Tc-MA and SA were different. While MA was highly uptake by reticuloendothelial system, SA was mostly excreted by kidneys and bladder. Compared with the mild acute pancreatitis group, treatment with MA significantly decreased the serum amylase activity and pancreas myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, the protease inhibitor molecule aprotinin has therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis. Finally, MA may be suggested as a promising alternative for treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25738992

  9. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  10. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Radtke, Catherine L.; Russell, Lauren A.; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  11. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Diego E; Radtke, Catherine L; Russell, Lauren A; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W

    2015-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  12. Acute Pancreatitis as the Initial Presentation of Systematic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yi; Ortiz, Arleen; Mccallum, Richard; Salameh, Hasan; Serrato, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease, including the gastrointestinal system in about half of SLE patients. As a rare complication of SLE, acute pancreatitis presents as generalized flare-ups in most cases of patients previously diagnosed with SLE. Here we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis as the initial presentation with later diagnosis of SLE. PMID:25197582

  13. Successful Plasma Exchange for Acute Pancreatitis Complicated With Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Takahira, Shuji; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kin, Hunsook; Ooya, Yoshitaka; Sekine, Yasumasa; Sonoda, Kenichiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yushi; Takane, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Youhei; Tsukamoto, Isao; Nemoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia had problems during treatment with plasma exchange. The hypercoagulable state was prevented by introducing innovative methods for cleaning and warming of the circuit and dialyzer. This enabled successful therapy, and the patient fully recovered from life-threatening acute pancreatitis. PMID:26904702

  14. Severe acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    The experiences of acute mountain sickness (AMS) as it has presented to a physician working in a general hospital at 1370 m in Kathmandu, nepal, are described. The features of 39 cases are analysed. It is suggested that AMS should be classified into benign and malignant forms. PMID:493196

  15. Role of the gut barrier in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Capurso, Gabriele; Zerboni, Giulia; Signoretti, Marianna; Valente, Roberto; Stigliano, Serena; Piciucchi, Matteo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2012-10-01

    The small intestine is one of the distant organs that become damaged during severe acute pancreatitis, due to microcirculation disturbance associated with loss of fluids in the "third space," hypovolemia, splanchnic vasoconstriction, and finally an ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this scenario, the gut acts as the starter for severe systemic complications, as the failure of the intestinal barrier is associated with translocation of bacteria and inflammatory and toxic products produced in the intestinal wall, which can be responsible for sepsis and infection of the necrotic pancreas and for systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, one of the main goals of treatment in the early phases of severe acute pancreatitis should be to maintain the integrity of the gut barrier in the small intestine. These strategies include appropriate fluid resuscitation to limit the damage due to the relative hypovolemia and early enteral feeding. The role of intravenous antibiotics to prevent infection of the pancreatic necrosis is controversial and the role of probiotics, which seemed a promising tool in vitro and in early clinical trials, needs to be further investigated to better understand the effects of the single specific strains at various doses and timing before designing new clinical trials. PMID:22955357

  16. Scrub typhus masquerading as acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Amit; Gupta, Monica; Bhardwaj, Shweta; Handa, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of scrub typhus ranges from mild to fatal depending on the virulence of bacterial strain, susceptibility of the host and promptness with which treatment is started. We report a case of a 14-year-old child with scrub typhus who developed acute pancreatitis. On serological confirmation, doxycycline therapy was started. The patient responded well and had no complications on follow-up. This case report highlights the importance of recognising an uncommon presentation of this common tropical disease, and its prompt diagnosis and early treatment for prevention of serious complications of the condition. PMID:27161204

  17. Study on acute recent stage pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ye-Chen; Wang, Min; Zhu, Feng; Qin, Ren-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which involves the pancreas and surrounding tissue, and systemic inflammation with a characteristic systemic increase of vascular permeability and increased risk of multiple organ dysfunction. Currently, the pathogenesis of AP is fuzzy, and the diagnosis and treatment need to be standardized. Nevertheless, increased knowledge of AP may achieve more thorough understanding of the pathogenesis. The use of further advanced diagnostic tools and superior treatment, potentially will help clinicians to manage AP at an appropriate stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical manifestations, the management of patients with AP is also remaining areas for improvement. PMID:25473166

  18. Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complicated by an episode of severe hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Denecker, Nathalie; Decochez, Katelijn

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and non-compliance presented to the emergency department with abdominal epigastric pain and nausea. Laboratory examination revealed a mild ketoacidosis while an abdominal CT scan performed the following day demonstrated a severe acute pancreatitis of the body and tail (Balthazar grade E) despite normal amylase serum levels on admission. The presence of a lactescent serum was the clue to an extremely high triglyceride level (>10 000 mg/dl) causing the pancreatitis. The hypertriglyceridaemia itself was attributed mainly to the diabetic ketoacidosis. There was no family history of hypertriglyceridaemia. The triad consisting of diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis is an unusual presentation of poorly controlled diabetes which can occur in type 1 as well as type 2 diabetic adults and children. Treatment with intravenous insulin and hydration successfully resolved the ketoacidosis and hypertriglyceridaemia and reversed the episode of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23632173

  19. Differences in Severity and Outcomes Between Hypertriglyceridemia and Alcohol-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Hemant; Smith, Betsy; Bayer, Chelsey; Rutherford, Carla; Shelnut, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) are among the most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) after gallstones. However, differences in severity at the time of presentation and outcomes have not been well-studied. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the differences between severity at presentation and outcomes of AP of hypertriglyceridemic and alcoholic origins. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 177 patients who were discharged with diagnosis of AP was performed. Severity at presentation was identified by the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, bedside index for severity in AP (BISAP) score, and Balthazar index. Outcomes were measured by the length of stay, intensive care unit care, surgical intervention, and mortality. Results: We found 147 patients with alcoholic pancreatitis and 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. A larger percentage of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis patients (23.33%) had a BISAP score of ≥2 compared to the alcoholic group (12.24%). Only 32.65% of the patients with alcoholic pancreatitis but 60% of the patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis had the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at admission (P = 0.0067). There were 73.34% hypertriglyceridemic pancreatits patients and only 40.28% alcoholic pancreatitis patients with Balthazar index C or greater, suggesting a higher disease burden at admission for hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis patients (P = 0.0047). There was a statistically significant difference in the relative number of hypertriglyceridemic and alcoholic pancreatitis patients receiving intensive care (P = 0.00030) and in receiving surgical interventions related to pancreatitis (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Our study found that patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis have a greater severity of disease and they experience less favorable outcomes than patients with alcoholic pancreatitis.

  20. B Cell Activating Factor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family (BAFF) Behaves as an Acute Phase Reactant in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pongratz, Georg; Hochrinner, Hannah; Straub, Rainer H.; Lang, Stefanie; Brünnler, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) acts as an acute phase reactant and predicts severity of acute pancreatitis. Methods 40 patients with acute pancreatitis were included in this single center cohort pilot study. Whole blood and serum was analyzed on day of admission and nine consecutive days for BAFF, c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and leucocyte numbers. Different severity Scores (Ranson, APACHE II, SAPS II, SAPS III) and the clinical course of the patient (treatment, duration of stay, duration ICU) were recorded. Results Serum BAFF correlates with CRP, an established marker of severity in acute pancreatitis at day of admission with a timecourse profil similar to IL-6 over the first nine days. Serum BAFF increases with Ranson score (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 10.8; p = 0.03) similar to CRP (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 9.4; p = 0.05 ). Serum BAFF, IL-6, and CRP levels are elevated in patients that need intensive care for more than seven days and in patients with complicated necrotizing pancreatitis. Discriminant analysis and receiver operator characteristics show that CRP (wilks-lambda = 0.549; ROC: AUC 0.948) and BAFF (wilks-lambda = 0.907; ROC: AUC 0.843) serum levels at day of admission best predict severe necrotizing pancreatitis or death, outperforming IL-6, PCT, and number of leucocytes. Conclusion This study establishes for the first time BAFF as an acute phase reactant with predictive value for the course of acute pancreatitis. BAFF outperforms established markers in acute pancreatitis, like IL-6 and PCT underscoring the important role of BAFF in the acute inflammatory response. PMID:23342125

  1. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Motoo Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2009-05-15

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  2. Loss of Bace1 in Mice Does Not Alter the Severity of Caerulein Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Heindl, Mario; Tuennemann, Jan; Sommerer, Ines; Mössner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Context Beta-site alpha-amyloid protein cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Additional to its moderate expression in the brain, high levels of BACE1 mRNA were found in the pancreas. Murine Bace1 has been immunohistochemicaly detected at the apical pole of acinar cells within the exocrine pancreas of mice and Bace1 activity was observed in pancreatic juice. In vitro experiments revealed enteropeptidase as a putative substrate for Bace1 suggesting a role in acute pancreatitis. Objective The aim of this study was to address a protective mechanism of Bace1 in acute experimental pancreatitis in mice. Methods Acute experimental pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of caerulein in homozygote Bace1-/- mice and wild type mice. Serum and tissue analyses were carried out after 4 h, 8 h and 24 h. Measurement of plasma amylase and lipase was performed to confirm pancreatitis induction. In order to assess the severity of pancreatitis H&E stained pancreatic sections were examined regarding edema, inflammation and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical detection of myeloperoxidase (MPO) positive cells was carried out to further quantify the extent of inflammation. Expression of Bace2 within the pancreas was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Results We demonstrate that total loss of Bace1 in mice leads to no alterations in the course of acute experimental caerulein-pancreatitis. Bace1-/- mice develop a moderate pancreatitis that is comparable in histomorphological and serological features with those seen in wild type mice. Discussion We discuss the results in the context of the applied caerulein induced edematous pancreatitis model and possible compensatory mechanisms via Bace2 that might be responsible for the observed results. PMID:25961820

  3. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

  4. [Acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia--an underestimated disease?].

    PubMed

    Wild, Wolfgang; Tajjiou, Morad; Ferschke, Melanie; Bormann, Fabian; Dörr, Pius; Schwarzbach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare, but since a long time well known etiology for acute pancreatitis. It could occure alone or coactive with other triggers like alcohlic excess. Nevertheless it found no approach to the current classifications and parameters of prognosis of the acute pancreatitis. We refer about two patients with hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis, whose initial disease was limited on the tail of the pancreas with just a circumscripted or--in the other case--no necrosis. However, in both cases and although a consequent treatment started immediately, a serious process developed including a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in one case, which necessitated an extracorporal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26710203

  5. Relationship between the exocrine and endocrine pancreas after acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Stephanie L M; Kennedy, James I C; Murphy, Rinki; Phillips, Anthony R J; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and time course of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Relevant literature cited in three major biomedical journal databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was reviewed independently by two authors. There were no language constraints but the search was limited to human studies. Studies included were cohort studies of adult patients who were discharged after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age or had a previous diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or chronic pancreatitis. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Subgroup analysis was conducted for patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes only and those who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus only. Subgroup analysis looking at the time course of concomitant pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was also conducted. Pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all outcome measures and P-values < 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Eight clinical studies comprising of 234 patients met all eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 43% (95%CI: 30%-56%). The pooled prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 29% (95%CI: 19%-39%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes was 40% (95%CI: 25%-55%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency among individuals with prediabetes alone and diabetes mellitus alone was 41% (95%CI: 12%-75%) and 39% (95%CI: 28%-51%), respectively. Further analysis showed that the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with prediabetes or diabetes decreases over time after an attack of acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency occurs in 40% of individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenesis of diabetes in this setting. PMID:25493036

  6. Role of Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Prognostic Evaluation of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Susanta; Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Rath, Satyajit; Sharma, Rakesh; Rout, Bikram; Sahu, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life threatening disease. The spectrum of severity of the illness ranges from mild self-limiting disease to a highly fatal severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Despite intensive research and improved patient care, overall mortality still remains high, reaching up to 3040% in cases with infected pancreatic necrosis. Although little is known about the exact pathogenesis, it has been widely accepted that premature activation of digestive enzymes within the pancreatic acinar cell is the trigger that leads to autodigestion of pancreatic tissue which is followed by infiltration and activation of leukocytes. Extensive research has been done over the past few decades regarding their role in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of severe acute pancreatitis. Although many standalone biochemical markers have been studied for early assessment of severity, C-reactive protein still remains the most frequently used along with Interleukin-6. In this review we have discussed briefly the pathogenesis and the role of different biochemical markers in the diagnosis and severity evaluation in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26345247

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mark E; Nelson, Rendon C; Rosen, Max P; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Hindman, Nicole M; Kamel, Ihab R; Kaur, Harmeet; Piorkowski, Robert J; Qayyum, Aliya; Yarmish, Gail M

    2014-12-01

    The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. The Atlanta Classification by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group recently modified the terminology for the clinical course and the morphologic changes identified on imaging, primarily contrast- enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The two distinct clinical courses of the disease are classified as (1) early phase, which lasts approximately 1 week, and (2) late phase, which starts after the first week and can last for months after the initial episode. The two, primary, morphologic changes are acute, interstitial edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis. Timing of imaging, primarily MDCT, is based on the clinical phases and is, therefore, important for these imaging guidelines. Ultrasound's role is to detect gallstones after the first episode. MDCT plays a primary role in the management of acutely ill patients, only after a minimum of 48-72 hours and generally after one week. MR plays a supplementary role to MDCT. Follow-up MDCT guides management and therapy: percutaneous aspiration of fluid collections and/or placement of large caliber catheters in infected necrosis. PMID:25364960

  8. A Case of Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis in the First Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tomomi; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Oride, Aki; Ishihara, Tomoko; Kyo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is rare in pregnancy, with an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 1000 to 1 in 10,000 pregnancies. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy usually occurs in the third trimester. Here, we report a case of acute pancreatitis in the first trimester. A 36-year-old primigravida at 11 weeks of gestation complained of severe lower abdominal pain. The pain gradually worsened and migrated toward the epigastric region. She had no history of chronic alcoholism. Blood investigations showed elevated level of C-reactive protein (9.58 mg/dL), pancreatic amylase (170 IU/L), and lipase (332 IU/L). There was no gallstone and no abnormality in the pancreatic and biliary ducts on ultrasonography. Antinuclear antibody and IgG4 were negative and no evidence of hyperlipidemia or diabetes was found. There was also no evidence of viral infection. On the third day of hospitalization, she was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis on magnetic resonance imaging. Medical interventions were initiated with nafamostat mesilate and ulinastatin, and parenteral nutrition was administered through a central venous catheter. On the eighth day of hospitalization, her condition gradually improved with a decreased level of pancreatic amylase and the pain subsided. After conservative management, she did not have any recurrence during her pregnancy. PMID:26843995

  9. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and serum nutritional markers after acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Tepes, Bojan; Makuc, Jana; Rudolf, Sasa; Zaletel, Jelka; Vidmar, Tjasa; Seruga, Maja; Birsa, Bostjan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate impairment and clinical significance of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in patients after acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Patients with AP were invited to participate in the study. Severity of AP was determined by the Atlanta classification and definitions revised in 2012. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1. An additional work-up, including laboratory testing of serum nutritional markers for determination of malnutrition, was offered to all patients with low levels of fecal elastase-1 FE. Hemoglobin A1c or oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in patients without prior diabetes mellitus, and type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included in the study: 75% (75/100) of patients had one attack of AP and 25% (25/100) had two or more attacks. The most common etiology was alcohol. Mild, moderately severe and severe AP were present in 67, 15 and 18% of patients, respectively. The mean time from attack of AP to inclusion in the study was 2.7 years. PEI was diagnosed in 21% (21/100) of patients and T3cDM in 14% (14/100) of patients. In all patients with PEI, at least one serologic nutritional marker was below the lower limit of normal. T3cDM was more frequently present in patients with severe AP (P = 0.031), but was also present in some patients with mild and moderately severe AP. PEI was present in all degrees of severity of AP. There were no statistically significantly differences according to gender, etiology and number of AP attacks. CONCLUSION: As exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop after AP, routine follow-up of patients is necessary, for which serum nutritional panel measurements can be useful. PMID:25561813

  10. The Role of Eugenol in the Prevention of Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Markakis, Charalampos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra; Papalois, Apostolos E; Lambropoulou, Maria; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Tsigalou, Christina; Romanidis, Konstantinos; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory intra-abdominal disease, which takes a severe form in 15-20% of patients and can result in high mortality especially when complicated by acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to assess the possible reduction in the extent of acute kidney injury after administration of eugenol in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Materials and Methods. 106 male Wistar rats weighing 220-350 g were divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham, with sham surgery; (2) Control, with induction of acute pancreatitis, through ligation of the biliopancreatic duct; and (3) Eugenol, with induction of acute pancreatitis and eugenol administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Serum urea and creatinine, histopathological changes, TNF-α, IL-6, and MPO activity in the kidneys were evaluated at predetermined time intervals. Results. The group that was administered eugenol showed milder histopathological changes than the Control group, TNF-α activity was milder in the Eugenol group, and there was no difference in activity for MPO and IL-6. Serum urea and creatinine levels were lower in the Eugenol group than in the Control group. Conclusions. Eugenol administration was protective for the kidneys in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats. PMID:26884642

  11. The Role of Eugenol in the Prevention of Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Markakis, Charalampos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra; Papalois, Apostolos E.; Lambropoulou, Maria; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Tsigalou, Christina; Romanidis, Konstantinos; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory intra-abdominal disease, which takes a severe form in 15–20% of patients and can result in high mortality especially when complicated by acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to assess the possible reduction in the extent of acute kidney injury after administration of eugenol in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Materials and Methods. 106 male Wistar rats weighing 220–350 g were divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham, with sham surgery; (2) Control, with induction of acute pancreatitis, through ligation of the biliopancreatic duct; and (3) Eugenol, with induction of acute pancreatitis and eugenol administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Serum urea and creatinine, histopathological changes, TNF-α, IL-6, and MPO activity in the kidneys were evaluated at predetermined time intervals. Results. The group that was administered eugenol showed milder histopathological changes than the Control group, TNF-α activity was milder in the Eugenol group, and there was no difference in activity for MPO and IL-6. Serum urea and creatinine levels were lower in the Eugenol group than in the Control group. Conclusions. Eugenol administration was protective for the kidneys in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats. PMID:26884642

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causing maternal death

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hae Rin; Cho, Yoon Jin; Chon, Seung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 3 in 10,000 pregnancies. It rarely complicates pregnancy, and can occur during any trimester, however over half (52%) of cases occur during the third trimester and during the post-partum period. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia due to increase of estrogen during the gestational period is very unusual, but complication carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the fetus. We experienced a case of pregnant woman who died of acute exacerbation of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis at 23 weeks of gestation. We report on progress and management of this case along with literature reviews. PMID:27004207

  13. Acute pancreatitis after spine surgery: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, Ryoji; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hirano, Kenichi; Ukai, Junichi; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Muramoto, Akio; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-07-01

    Although acute postoperative pancreatitis is a relatively frequent complication after open biliary tract surgery and gastric surgery, acute pancreatitis after spine surgery is a rare complication. We report the first case of acute pancreatitis after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for spondylolisthesis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 53-year-old female patient received a PLIF from L3 to L5. The patient presented with persistent mild abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting several hours after the surgery. An abdominal CT revealed swelling of the head of the pancreas and free fluid around the pancreas. A gastroenterologist diagnosed acute pancreatitis and prescribed nafamostat mesilate, antibiotics and intravenous fluid therapy. The patient recovered gradually, and clinical symptoms disappeared. At 6 months after the operation, she had experienced no recurrence of abdominal symptoms, and solid spinal fusion was achieved. In previous studies, acute pancreatitis was reported as a complication after spine surgery for various spine diseases such as scoliosis and lumbar disorders. The procedures performed included anterior/posterior scoliosis surgery and anterior/posterior lumbar fusion surgery. We must consider the possibility of acute pancreatitis when unusual abdominal symptoms with elevated serum amylase levels occur after spine surgery. Prompt diagnosis and supportive therapy are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:24318308

  14. [Immune and enzyme disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Briskin, B S; Iarovaia, G A; Savchenko, Z I; Rybakov, G S; Khalidov, O Kh; Mkhitarova, L A; Suplotova, A A

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of immune and enzyme disorders in 85 patients with acute pancreatitis shows that persistent imbalance of immunoregulatory T-lymphocytes with suppression predominance; reduction of all immunoglobulines number, imbalance in phagocytic immunity with height of absorbing activity of neutropils and stimultaneous decrease of their digestive capacity are prognostically unfavourable for high risk of pyonecrotic complications and lethal outcome. It is necessary to include immunocorrectors in combined therapy. Direct assessment of leukocytic elastase activity and alpha-IP level in blood plasma permits to evaluate spreading of inflammatory process and it severity, efficacy and prognosis of treatment. PMID:11521303

  15. Imaging and Percutaneous Management of Acute Complicated Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Sridhar; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal; Banks, Peter A.

    2004-11-15

    Acute pancreatitis varies from a mild, self-limited disease to one with significant morbidity and mortality in its most severe forms. While clinical criteria abound, imaging has become indispensable to diagnose the extent of the disease and its complications, as well as to guide and monitor therapy. Percutaneous interventional techniques offer options that can be life-saving, surgery-sparing or important adjuncts to operation. Close cooperation and communication between the surgeon, gastroenterologist and interventional radiologist enhance the likelihood of successful patient care.

  16. [Early prognosis of acute pancreatitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Borda, F; Garca Carasusan, M; Burusco, M J; Arin, A; Ayensa, C; Rivero Puente, A

    1979-03-25

    One hundred patients with acute pancreatitis are studied. The results in 90 cases were "favorable or very favorable", in ten cases "unfavorable or death". Various different characterisitics were analyzed statistically in relationship to the two types of outcome: sex, clinical histories, and results of physical examination. Furthermore, the individual relationships between age, main initial analytic parameters, and later development were determined. In our experience neither age nor sex, considered individually, showed a significant relationship to the seriousness of the disease. Having had pancreatitis previously proved to be a favorable factor (p less than 0.005). None of the other factors in the case histories showed any bearing of the later course of the condition. Findings in physical examination which were signs of unfavorable prognosis included jaundice (p less than 0.001), low blood pressure (p less than 0.001), tachycardia (p less than 0.005), intestinal paresia (p less than 0.001), pain following decompression (p less than 0.025), and abdominal tenderness (p less than 0.05). Abnormalities in ECG (p less than 0.005), marked leukocytosis (p less than 0.0005), hyperglycemia (p less than 0.02), hypocalcemia (p less than 0.05), and high values for the coefficient of amilase/creatinine clearance (p less than 0.01) also suggested an unfavorable course. PMID:459591

  17. Transcatheter embolization of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Bhatia, Vikram; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is extremely rare; even rarer is its association with pancreatitis. The authors report a case of PAVM causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a 46-year-old male. Patient refused surgery and was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using liquid embolic agent (mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and lipiodol), which resulted in a significant decrease in the size of the PAVM. PMID:27081231

  18. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  19. Revised Atlanta Classification for Acute Pancreatitis: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Foster, Bryan R; Jensen, Kyle K; Bakis, Gene; Shaaban, Akram M; Coakley, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The 2012 revised Atlanta classification is an update of the original 1992 Atlanta classification, a standardized clinical and radiologic nomenclature for acute pancreatitis and associated complications based on research advances made over the past 2 decades. Acute pancreatitis is now divided into two distinct subtypes, necrotizing pancreatitis and interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IEP), based on the presence or absence of necrosis, respectively. The revised classification system also updates confusing and sometimes inaccurate terminology that was previously used to describe pancreatic and peripancreatic collections. As such, use of the terms acute pseudocyst and pancreatic abscess is now discouraged. Instead, four distinct collection subtypes are identified on the basis of the presence of pancreatic necrosis and time elapsed since the onset of pancreatitis. Acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFCs) and pseudocysts occur in IEP and contain fluid only. Acute necrotic collections (ANCs) and walled-off necrosis (WON) occur only in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and contain variable amounts of fluid and necrotic debris. APFCs and ANCs occur within 4 weeks of disease onset. After this time, APFCs or ANCs may either resolve or persist, developing a mature wall to become a pseudocyst or a WON, respectively. Any collection subtype may become infected and manifest as internal gas, though this occurs most commonly in necrotic collections. In this review, the authors present a practical image-rich guide to the revised Atlanta classification system, with the goal of fostering implementation of the revised system into radiology practice, thereby facilitating accurate communication among clinicians and reinforcing the radiologist's role as a key member of a multidisciplinary team in treating patients with acute pancreatitis. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163588

  20. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: can tigecycline be included in a therapeutic strategy?

    PubMed Central

    OCCHIONORELLI, S.; MORGANTI, L.; CULTRERA, R.; ANDREOTTI, D.; MACCATROZZO, S.; CAPPELLARI, L.; STANO, R.; VASQUEZ, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe and life-threatening disease. Infection, which occurs in about 30% of cases, is the most feared complication. Antibiotic therapy is still discussed and there are no clear recommendation in literature. These clinical series underline the importance of having a clear antibiotic protocol, including tigecycline, in the management of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Clinical series Six patients with clinical and radiological diagnosis of necrotizing acute pancreatitis are treated in Emergency Surgery Department, following a conservative management, which includes fluid resuscitation, intensive care unit and radiological monitoring, ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage and an antibiotic treatment protocol, that includes tigecycline. No one of the six patient undergo surgery (mean hospital stay: 44 days). In a six months follow-up all patients are alive and in good clinical conditions. Discussion Infection is the most important factor which determinate prognosis and outcome of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Antibiotic prophylaxis is still discussed and there are no clear antibiotic treatment guidelines in literature. Despite its side effects on pancreatic gland, tigecycline is successful in resolution of sepsis, caused by infected pancreatic necrosis. Conclusions Collaboration with infectivologist and a clear antibiotic protocol is fundamental to solve infected necrosis. Antibiotic treatment, set up as soon as possible, is successful in our six patients, as they recover without undergoing surgical procedures. Tigecycline offers broad coverage and efficacy against resistant pathogens for the treatment of documented pancreatic necrosis infection. However, further studies are necessary to fully understand the safety profile and efficacy of tigecycline. PMID:25827664

  1. Active interleukin-1 receptor required for maximal progression of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, J G; Fink, G; Franz, M; Guffey, J; Carter, G; Davison, B; Sexton, C; Glaccum, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' aim was to determine the requirement for an active interleukin (IL)-1 receptor during the development and progression of acute pancreatitis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Interleukin-1 is a pro- inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to be produced during acute pancreatitis. Earlier animal studies of moderate and severe pancreatitis have shown that blockade of this powerful mediator is associated with attenuated pancreatic destruction and dramatic increases in survival. The exact role played by IL-1 and the requirement for activation of its receptor in the initiation and progression of pancreatitis is unknown. METHODS: Conventional and IL-1 receptor knockout animals were used in parallel experiments of acute pancreatitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of cerulean (50 microg/kg every 1 hour X 4). The conventional mouse strain had the IL-1 receptor blocked prophylactically by means of a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (10 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally every 2 hours). The second mouse strain was genetically engineered by means of gene targeting in murine embryonic stem cells to be devoid of type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1 receptor knockout). Animals were killed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours, with the severity of pancreatitis determined by serum amylase, lipase, and IL-6 levels and blind histologic grading. Strain-specific controls were used for comparison. RESULTS: The genetic absence of the IL-1 receptor or its pharmacologic blockade resulted in significantly attenuated pancreatic vacuolization, edema, necrosis, inflammation, and enzyme release. Serum IL-6, a marker of inflammation severity, was dramatically decreased in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the IL-1 receptor is not required for the development of pancreatitis but apparently is necessary for the maximal propagation of pancreatic injury and its associated inflammation. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8597510

  2. Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: Fact or fiction

    PubMed Central

    Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069

  3. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  4. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    MedlinePlus

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia . It is caused by a virus that was first identified ... chap 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe ... syndrome (SARS)and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In: ...

  5. Acute pancreatitis at its centenary. The contribution of Reginald Fitz.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, S D; Gorelick, F S; Modlin, I M

    1990-01-01

    1989 represents the 100th anniversary of Reginald Fitz's initial characterization of acute pancreatitis. Our current understanding of this disease has advanced little beyond Fitz's early description. While survival from pancreatitis has improved largely through advancements in critical care techniques, no medical or surgical therapy exists that can limit pancreatic autodigestion and inflammation. Recent investigations have suggested that pancreatitis may result from a disruption of normal stimulus-secretion coupling within the acinar cell. Future research based on these observations may ultimately result in successful therapy for this disease. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2194439

  6. Acute Pancreatitis after Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberger, Richard C. Bornak, Arash; Aulivola, Bernadette; Mannava, Krishna

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: We describe a case of severe acute pancreatitis after percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) and review the literature for the occurrence of this complication. Materials and Methods: A 53-year-old man with a history of bilateral external iliac artery stent placement sought care for acute onset of lifestyle-limiting left claudication. Angiography confirmed left external iliac stent occlusion, and PMT with the AngioJet Xpeedior catheter (Possis Medical, Minneapolis MN) was performed. Results: After PMT of the occluded external iliac artery, a residual in-stent stenosis required the placement of a second iliac stent. The procedure was complicated by severe acute pancreatitis. Other causes of pancreatitis were eliminated during the patient's hospital stay. A literature review revealed nine cases of acute pancreatitis after PMT. Conclusion: Although rare, pancreatitis can be a devastating complication of PMT. The development of pancreatitis seems to be related to the products of extensive hemolysis triggering an inflammatory process. To prevent this complication, we recommend that close attention be paid to the duration and extent of PMT, thereby avoiding extensive hemolysis and subsequent complications.

  7. Apoptotic Mechanisms of Peroxisome ProliferatorActivated Receptor-? Activation in Acinar Cells During Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Lou, Xiao-Li; Chen, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which activation of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-? promotes apoptosis of acinar cells in pancreatitis. Methods AR42j cells pretreated with the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-? agonist pioglitazone were activated by cerulein as an in vitro model of acute pancreatitis. Inflammatory cytokines and amylase were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. Activity of caspases was determined. Bax and Bcl-2 levels were assayed by Western blot. Results Cytokines, amylase, and cellular proliferation decreased in pioglitazone-pretreated cells. Pioglitazone increased the activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 in cerulein-activated AR42j cells as well as in the pancreas of rats 3 hours after induction of severe acute pancreatitis. Acinar cell apoptosis was induced by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential in the pioglitazone group. Pioglitazone increased expression of proapoptotic Bax proteins and decreased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in cerulein-induced AR42j cells and decreased Bcl-2 levels in pancreatic tissue of severe acute pancreatitis rats 1 and 3 hours after induction. Conclusion Pioglitazone may promote apoptosis of acinar cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26495791

  8. [TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN A PREGNANT PATIENT WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS AND LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Bolívar, Victoria; González-Molero, Inmaculada; Valdivieso, Pedro; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia secondary to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a pregnant patient with gestational diabetes, initially maneged with diet but it was later necessary to carry out artificial nutricional support measures: total parenteral nutrition. LPL deficiency might cause severe hypertriglyceridemia, repetition acute pancreatitis which is an unwieldy and severe situation during pregnancy. Acute familial hypertriglyceridemia pancreatitis accounts for 5% of cases, including LPL deficiency. The goal of treatment is to reach triglycerides levels below 500 mg/dl, being very low fat diet the treatment of choice, drugs or plasmapheresis techniques can also be associated. TPN enriched in ω3 fatty acids and glutamine was safe and effective in our patient with significant decrease in triglyceride levels. PMID:26545559

  9. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. PMID:25917334

  10. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-04-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics. PMID:26878214

  11. Acute abdomen due to acute pancreatitis--a rare presentation of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Baburaj, P; Antony, T; Louis, Francy; Harikrishnan, B L

    2008-11-01

    Even though, Leptospiral infection is not uncommon, it can have different rare presentations. Acute pancreatitis is one such rare gastrointestinal manifestation of acute pancreatitis. Apart from the typical clinical features; elevated serum lipase or elastase-1, along with radiological evidence and positive leptospiral serology confirms this rare association. PMID:19263694

  12. Update on pathogenesis and clinical management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Santamaría, Dulce M; Taxonera, Carlos; Giner, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), defined as the acute nonbacterial inflammatory condition of the pancreas, is derived from the early activation of digestive enzymes found inside the acinar cells, with variable compromise of the gland itself, nearby tissues and other organs. So, it is an event that begins with pancreatic injury, elicits an acute inflammatory response, encompasses a variety of complications and generally resolves over time. Different conditions are known to induce this disorder, although the innermost mechanisms and how they act to develop the disease are still unknown. We summarize some well established aspects. A phase sequence has been proposed: etiology factors generate other conditions inside acinar cells that favor the AP development with some systemic events; genetic factors could be involved as susceptibility and modifying elements. AP is a disease with extremely different clinical expressions. Most patients suffer a mild and limited disease, but about one fifth of cases develop multi organ failure, accompanied by high mortality. This great variability in presentation, clinical course and complications has given rise to the confusion related to AP related terminology. However, consensus meetings have provided uniform definitions, including the severity of the illness. The clinical management is mainly based on the disease´s severity and must be directed to correct the underlying predisposing factors and control the inflammatory process itself. The first step is to determine if it is mild or severe. We review the principal aspects to be considered in this treatment, as reflected in several clinical practice guidelines. For the last 25 years, there has been a global increase in incidence of AP, along with many advances in diagnosis and treatment. However, progress in knowledge of its pathogenesis is scarce. PMID:22737590

  13. Management of severe pancreatitis in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Slakey, D P; Johnson, C P; Cziperle, D J; Roza, A M; Wittmann, D H; Gray, D W; Roake, J A; Britton, J; Morris, P J; Adams, M B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determine if any aspects of the treatment of renal transplant patients with pancreatitis were of particular benefit with regard to graft and patient survival. BACKGROUND: The incidence of pancreatitis in renal transplant patients is low (1%-2%), but the mortality of the disease approaches 100%. Although several descriptive reports have been published, there is no consensus-regarding management. METHODS: The authors conduct a retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were identified with posttransplant pancreatitis (1.3% incidence). The cause of pancreatitis was presumed to be maintenance immunosuppression in all cases. Patients were classified by dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans having 1) mild/edematous disease (4 patients), 2) localized abscess or pseudocyst (6 patients), or 3) severe disease (11 patients). Patients with mild/edematous pancreatitis did well with medical management. The six patients with localized abscess or pseudocyst were successfully treated with standard operative intervention. Of the 11 patients with severe disease, 6 had several days of intensive medical management before operation, and all died. The other five patients underwent early operative intervention based principally on CT scan findings, and all survived. The latter group had multiple operations and four of five had functioning renal allografts at discharge. CONCLUSION: The severity of pancreatitis in the posttranplant patients may be difficult to assess by clinical criteria. Dynamic CT scanning is, therefore, essential in defining the extent of disease. Early, and perhaps repeated, operations may be lifesaving in those patients having CT scan findings of severe pancreatitis. PMID:9065299

  14. The role of fat and alcohol in acute pancreatitis: A dangerous liaison.

    PubMed

    Criddle, David N

    2015-07-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major trigger for severe acute pancreatitis which may lead to multi-organ dysfunction and premature death of the individual. Hyperlipidaemia is a risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis and the role of fatty acids in mediating damage has received increasing attention in recent years. In the pancreas ethanol is metabolised by both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways. The latter, predominant route generates fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from fatty acid substrates via the action of diverse enzymes called FAEE synthases, including carboxylester lipase an enzyme synthesized and secreted by the acinar cells. Inhibition of the oxidative pathway promotes formation of FAEEs which induce sustained elevations of cytosolic calcium leading to inhibition of mitochondrial function, loss of ATP and necrosis of isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Furthermore, FAEEs undergo hydrolysis in the mitochondria releasing free fatty acids that exert toxic effects. Our recent work has shown that pharmacological inhibition of carboxylester lipase ameliorated detrimental effects of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in vitro and in a new in vivo experimental model of alcoholic acute pancreatitis, revealing a specific enzyme target for ethanol-induced injury. Strategies that prevent FAEE synthesis, protect mitochondria, reduce calcium overload or sustain calcium homeostasis by ATP provision may provide promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of alcoholic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25845855

  15. Surgical management of acute pancreatitis in Italy: lessons from a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    De Rai, Paolo; Zerbi, Alessandro; Castoldi, Laura; Bassi, Claudio; Frulloni, Luca; Uomo, Generoso; Gabbrielli, Armando; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Cavallini, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy and to assess compliance with international guidelines. Methods A series of 1173 patients in 56 hospitals were prospectively enrolled and their data analysed. Results Twenty-nine patients with severe pancreatitis underwent surgical intervention. Necrosectomy was performed in 26 patients, associated with postoperative lavage in 70% of cases. A feeding jejunostomy was added in 37% of cases. Mortality was 21%. Of the patients with mild pancreatitis, 714 patients with a biliary aetiology were evaluated. Prophylactic treatment of relapses was carried out in 212 patients (36%) by cholecystectomy and in 161 using a laparoscopic approach. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was associated with cholecystectomy in 83 patients (39%). Forty-seven patients (22%) were treated at a second admission, with a median delay of 31 days from the onset of pancreatitis. Eighteen patients with severe pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy 37.9 days after the first admission. There were no deaths. Discussion The results indicate poor compliance with published guidelines. In severe pancreatitis, early surgical intervention is frequently performed and enteral feeding is seldom used. Only a small number of patients with mild biliary pancreatitis undergo definitive treatment (i.e. cholecystectomy) within 4 weeks of the onset of pancreatitis. PMID:20961367

  16. Controversial role of toll-like receptors in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Juan; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Andersson, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical condition with an incidence of about 300 or more patients per million annually. About 10%-15% of patients will develop severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and of those, 10%-30% may die due to SAP-associated complications. Despite the improvements done in the diagnosis and management of AP, the mortality rate has not significantly declined during the last decades. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that seem to play a major role in the development of numerous diseases, which make these molecules attractive as potential therapeutic targets. TLRs are involved in the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, a potentially lethal complication in SAP. In the present review, we explore the current knowledge about the role of different TLRs that have been described associated with AP. The main candidate for targeting seems to be TLR4, which recognizes numerous damage-associated molecular patterns related to AP. TLR2 has also been linked with AP, but there are only limited studies that exclusively studied its role in AP. There is also data suggesting that TLR9 may play a role in AP. PMID:23431068

  17. Increased intestinal production of α-defensins in aged rats with acute pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Débora Maria Gomes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Hamasaki, Mike Yoshio; Coelho Neto, Guilherme Tude; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César; da Silva, Fabiano Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening situation, frequently associated with uncontrolled local and systemic inflammation, and aging is associated with a worst prognosis. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient molecules that belong to innate immunity, produced by epithelial and immune cells, and are able to trigger a myriad of effector responses. We have hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play an important role during serious pancreatic injury. To investigate our hypothesis, α-defensin-5, α-defensin-7 and CRAMP gene expression levels were measured in the intestinal tissue of old and young rats submitted to chemical pancreatic damage. We found significantly higher levels of α-defensin-5 and α-defensin-7, but not CRAMP, in the samples from old mice. This increase was not associated with a worse systemic inflammatory response. We conclude that α-defensins may have a pivotal role during acute pancreatitis and that the elderly develops a more severe local, but not systemic inflammatory process. PMID:25449854

  18. Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Juan; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance. In the present study, upon the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol (10-50 mg/kg), the severity of acute pancreatitis in the cerulein-treated rats was significantly ameliorated as evidenced by decreased α-amylase activities in the plasma and lessened oedema formation in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, the generation of intracellular reactive oxidative products, including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, was accordingly reduced, so as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While inhibiting the activities of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, the depletion of glutathione was considerably restored. Importantly, the attenuation of pancreatic oxidative damage by dihydro-resveratrol was associated with a down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the solubility of dihydro-resveratrol was at least 5 times higher than trans-resveratrol whilst exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity. Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains. PMID:26971398

  19. Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Juan; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance. In the present study, upon the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol (10–50 mg/kg), the severity of acute pancreatitis in the cerulein-treated rats was significantly ameliorated as evidenced by decreased α-amylase activities in the plasma and lessened oedema formation in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, the generation of intracellular reactive oxidative products, including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, was accordingly reduced, so as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While inhibiting the activities of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, the depletion of glutathione was considerably restored. Importantly, the attenuation of pancreatic oxidative damage by dihydro-resveratrol was associated with a down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the solubility of dihydro-resveratrol was at least 5 times higher than trans-resveratrol whilst exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity. Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains. PMID:26971398

  20. Angiopoietin-2 Is an Early Indicator of Acute Pancreatic-Renal Syndrome in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sporek, Mateusz; Dumnicka, Paulina; Gala-Bladzinska, Agnieszka; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembinski, Artur; Stepien, Ewa; Walocha, Jerzy; Drozdz, Ryszard; Kuzniewski, Marek; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Within the first week of the disease, acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the most common causes of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). Recently, serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has been associated with hyperdynamic state of the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between Ang-2 and the clinical AP severity during the first 72 hours of the disease, and organ disfunction, including AKI. Methods. Study included patients admitted to the surgery ward, diagnosed with AP. AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO guidelines and renal failure according to modified Marshall scoring system. Ang-2 was determined in serum with ELISA. Results. AP was classified as mild (MAP) in 71% of patients, moderately severe (MSAP) in 22%, and severe (SAP) in 8%. During the first 72 hours of AP, 11 patients developed AKI and 6 developed renal failure. Ang-2 at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the onset of AP symptoms significantly predicted SAP and MSAP, as well as AKI and renal failure. Also, Ang-2 significantly correlated with acute phase proteins as well as with the indicators of renal disfunction. Conclusions. Serum Ang-2 may be a relevant predictor of AP severity, in particular of the development of AP-renal syndrome. PMID:27022209

  1. ERCP in acute pancreatitis: What takes place in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbrielli, Armando; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Uomo, Generoso; Zerbi, Alessandro; Frulloni, Luca; Rai, Paolo De; Castoldi, Laura; Costamagna, Guido; Bassi, Claudio; Carlo, Valerio Di

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the data from a survey carried out in Italy regarding the endoscopic approach to acute pancreatitis in order to obtain a picture of what takes place after the release of an educational project on acute pancreatitis sponsored by the Italian Association for the Study of the Pancreas. METHODS: Of the 1 173 patients enrolled in our survey, the most frequent etiological category was biliary forms (69.3%) and most patients had mild pancreatitis (85.8%). RESULTS: 344/1 173 (29.3%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The mean interval between the onset of symptoms and ERCP was 6.7 ± 5.0 d; only 89 examinations (25.9%) were performed within 72 h from the onset of symptoms. The main indications for ERCP were suspicion of common bile duct stones (90.3%), jaundice (44.5%), clinical worsening of acute pancreatitis (14.2%) and cholangitis (6.1%). Biliary and pancreatic ducts were visualized in 305 patients (88.7%) and in 93 patients (27.0%) respectively. The success rate in obtaining a cholangiogram was statistically higher (P = 0.003) in patients with mild acute pancreatitis (90.6%) than in patients with severe disease (72.2%). Biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed in 295 of the 305 patients (96.7%) with no difference between mild and severe disease (P = 0.985). ERCP morbidity was 6.1% and mortality was 1.7%; the mortality was due to the complications of acute pancreatitis and not the endoscopic procedure. CONCLUSION: The results of this survey, as with those carried out in other countries, indicate a lack of compliance with the guidelines for the indications for interventional endoscopy. PMID:21160762

  2. Fatal hypertriglyceridaemia, acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis possibly induced by quetiapine

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Kristian Roerbaek

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old man treated with quetiapine for anxiety disorder developed hypertriglyceridaemia-induced acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis. He was otherwise physically healthy with no family history of hyperlipidaemia. Despite aggressive intensive therapy he died of multiorgan failure within 36 h from initial presentation. While second-generation antipsychotics are well known to be causally linked to diabetes and hyperlipidaemia, this is to my knowledge the first-described case of a fatal triad of extreme hypertriglyceridaemia, acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis possibly induced by quetiapine. Clinicians should be aware of this rare clinical presentation since rapid progression to multiorgan failure can occur. Early supportive therapy should be initiated. Lactescent serum and ketoacidosis in severe acute pancreatitis should not be overlooked—initiate insulin therapy and possibly plasmapheresis in case of extreme hypertriglyceridaemia. PMID:24403385

  3. Hypertriglyceridemia, acute pancreatitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis possibly associated with mirtazapine therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Julie L; Spinowitz, Noam; Karwa, Manoj

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old woman with a history of major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder was prescribed mirtazapine. She came to the emergency department approximately 2 months after starting therapy; severe hypertriglyceridemia, acute pancreatitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis were diagnosed. Although these adverse effects have been reported in early clinical trials, we found only three published cases of subclinical pancreatitis possibly associated with mirtazapine therapy. We suspect that mirtazapine-associated hypertriglyceridemia had contributed to the development of acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis in our patient. All these problems resolved with supportive care and discontinuation of mirtazapine. Her serum amylase, lipase, and lipid levels were normal 2 months after the acute event occurred. Health care providers should be aware of these possible adverse effects. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels should be measured at baseline and monitored regularly thereafter in all patients receiving mirtazapine therapy. PMID:12885107

  4. Relationship Between Acute Benzodiazepine Poisoning and Acute Pancreatitis Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Geng-Wang; Hung, Dong-Zong; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    We designed a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between the event of benzodiazepine (BZD) poisoning and the risk of acute pancreatitis.In the present study, 12,893 patients with BZD poisoning during 2000 to 2011 were enrolled and matched with 4 comparison patients according to mean age and sex. We determined the cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratios of acute pancreatitis.A significant association was observed between BZD poisoning and acute pancreatitis. After adjustment for potential risk factors, the patients with BZD poisoning had a 5.33-fold increased risk of acute pancreatitis compared with the controls without BZD poisoning (HR?=?5.33, 95% CI?=?2.26-12.60). The results revealed that acute pancreatitis in patients with BZD poisoning occurred in a follow-up time of ?1 month (HR?=?50.0, P?acute pancreatitis was no different between the patients with and without BZD poisoning when the follow-up time was?>1 month (HR?=?1.07, P?>?.05).This population-based study revealed the positive correlation between the event of BZD poisoning and an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. The findings warrant further large-scale and in-depth investigation. PMID:26717383

  5. Burkitt lymphoma with unusual presentation: Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Koca, Tugba; Aslan, Nagehan; Dereci, Selim; Akcam, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatitis due to malignant infiltration is an uncommon condition in childhood. Pancreatic lymphomas constitute <2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Only six reported cases with various clinical presentation have been documented in the literature. Described herein is the case of a nine-year-old boy with abdominal pain, jaundice, emesis, weight loss, diarrhea, who developed hyperlipidemia and cholestasis. Pancreatitis was suspected due to high amylase and lipase. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas. This sausage pancreas imaging was suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis, but the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma on bone marrow aspiration, and rapidly improved with chemotherapy. Burkitt lymphoma should be kept in mind when patients present with pancreatitis, especially with diffuse enlarged pancreas. PMID:26031558

  6. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  7. Loss of Ifnar1 in Pancreatic Acinar Cells Ameliorates the Disease Course of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katharina J.; Raulefs, Susanne; Kong, Bo; Steiger, Katja; Regel, Ivonne; Gewies, Andreas; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W.

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferon constitutes an essential component of the combinational therapy against viral disease. Acute pancreatitis is one side effect of type I interferon-based therapy, implying that activation of type I interferon signaling affects the homeostasis and integrity of pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we investigated the role of type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells using a caerulein-induced murine model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas-specific ablation of interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) partially protected animals from caerulein-induced pancreatitis, as demonstrated by reduced tissue damage. Profiling of infiltrating immune cells revealed that this dampened tissue damage response correlated with the number of macrophages in the pancreas. Pharmacologic depletion of macrophages reversed the protective effect of Ifnar1 deficiency. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), a potent factor for macrophage recruitment, was significantly increased in the Ifnar1-deficient pancreas. Thus, type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells controls pancreatic homeostasis by affecting the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response in the pancreas. PMID:26618925

  8. Serine proteases mediate inflammatory pain in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ceppa, Eugene P.; Lyo, Victoria; Grady, Eileen F.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Grahn, Sarah; Peterson, Anders; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Cattaruzza, Fiore

    2011-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening inflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain of unknown etiology. Trypsin, a key mediator of pancreatitis, causes inflammation and pain by activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), but the isoforms of trypsin that cause pancreatitis and pancreatic pain are unknown. We hypothesized that human trypsin IV and rat P23, which activate PAR2 and are resistant to pancreatic trypsin inhibitors, contribute to pancreatic inflammation and pain. Injections of a subinflammatory dose of exogenous trypsin increased c-Fos immunoreactivity, indicative of spinal nociceptive activation, but did not cause inflammation, as assessed by measuring serum amylase and myeloperoxidase activity and by histology. The same dose of trypsin IV and P23 increased some inflammatory end points and caused a more robust effect on nociception, which was blocked by melagatran, a trypsin inhibitor that also inhibits polypeptide-resistant trypsin isoforms. To determine the contribution of endogenous activation of trypsin and its minor isoforms, recombinant enterokinase (ENK), which activates trypsins in the duodenum, was administered into the pancreas. Intraductal ENK caused nociception and inflammation that were diminished by polypeptide inhibitors, including soybean trypsin inhibitor and a specific trypsin inhibitor (type I-P), and by melagatran. Finally, the secretagogue cerulein induced pancreatic nociceptive activation and nocifensive behavior that were reversed by melagatran. Thus trypsin and its minor isoforms mediate pancreatic pain and inflammation. In particular, the inhibitor-resistant isoforms trypsin IV and P23 may be important in mediating prolonged pancreatic inflammatory pain in pancreatitis. Our results suggest that inhibitors of these isoforms could be novel therapies for pancreatitis pain. PMID:21436316

  9. [Invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for evaluation of hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gundling, F; Teich, N; Pehl, C; Schepp, W

    2006-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis leads to a dramatic fluid loss in the intraperitoneal space which may result in circulatory decompensation. Sequestration of fluid can amount up to 40 percent of the circulating blood volume. The amount of fluid and electrolyte replacement is often misjudged leading to a higher rate of complications and a higher mortality rate of the disease. Furthermore, subsequent and adequate fluid resuscitation seems to influence the prognostic course of the disease by improving the perfusion and oxygenation of the pancreas. Otherwise volume overload may cause cardiopulmonary decompensation in the case of synchronous cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Therefore, an important part of treatment relies on careful haemodynamic monitoring, if necessary managed in an intensive care unit. Usually most patients with acute pancreatitis will be treated on a non-intensive medical ward which allows a differentiated and continuous haemodynamic monitoring only to a limited extent. Apart from monitoring circulatory parameters and measuring central venous pressure, there are other clinical methods, laboratory tests and radiological diagnostic procedures to determine the amount of intravascular fluid deficit and the individual volume demand of patients with acute pancreatitis. Prospective clinical trials for evaluation of pancreatitis-specific volume management do not exist so far. The aim of this review is to provide background information on invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods for detection of circulatory hypovolemia in acute pancreatitis. PMID:17163376

  10. Acute Pancreatitis and Gastroduodenal Intussusception Induced by an Underlying Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mehmet Siddik; Doğan, Ahmet; Koparan, Ibrahim Halil; Adin, Mehmet Emin

    2016-03-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal system and comprise only 1% to 3% of all gastrointestinal tract tumors, with the majority of them arising in the stomach. In this report, we present the unique findings of a case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by an underlying gastric GIST and complicated with severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27104028

  11. Acute Pancreatitis and Gastroduodenal Intussusception Induced by an Underlying Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Ahmet; Koparan, Ibrahim Halil; Adin, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal system and comprise only 1% to 3% of all gastrointestinal tract tumors, with the majority of them arising in the stomach. In this report, we present the unique findings of a case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by an underlying gastric GIST and complicated with severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27104028

  12. Fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Erden, Ayşe; Seçil, Mustafa; Türkoğlu, Mehmet A

    2014-08-01

    The terminology and classification scheme of acute pancreatitis proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium was reviewed, and a new consensus statement was recently proposed. Major changes include subdividing acute fluid collections in the first 4 weeks into "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" and "acute necrotic collection" based on the presence of necrotic debris. Delayed fluid collections have been similarly subdivided into "pseudocyst" and "walled-off necrosis." Correct use of the new terms that describe these collections is important because they lead to different treatment decisions. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis, with an emphasis on their prognostic significance and impact on clinical management, and to illustrate the new terminology. PMID:24650871

  13. Waterlow score as a surrogate marker for predicting adverse outcome in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gillick, K; Elbeltagi, H; Bhattacharya, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Introduced originally to stratify risk for developing decubitus ulcers, the Waterlow scoring system is recorded routinely for surgical admissions. It is a composite score, reflecting patients' general condition and co-morbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Waterlow score can be used as an independent surrogate marker to predict severity and adverse outcome in acute pancreatitis. Methods In this retrospective analysis, a consecutive cohort was studied of 250 patients presenting with acute pancreatitis, all of whom had their Waterlow score calculated on admission. Primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay and mortality. Secondary outcome measures included rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and development of complications such as peripancreatic free fluid, pancreatic necrosis and pseudocyst formation. Correlation of the Waterlow score with some known markers of disease severity and outcomes was also analysed. Results The Waterlow score correlated strongly with the most commonly used marker of disease severity, the Glasgow score (analysis of variance, p=0.0012). Inpatient mortality, rate of ICU admission and length of hospital stay increased with a higher Waterlow score (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.0007, p=0.049 and p=0.0002 respectively). There was, however, no significant association between the Waterlow score and the incidence of three known complications of pancreatitis: presence of peripancreatic fluid, pancreatic pseudocyst formation and pancreatic necrosis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated good predictive power of the Waterlow score for mortality (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.73), ICU admission (AUC: 0.65) and length of stay >7 days (AUC: 0.64). This is comparable with the predictive power of the Glasgow score and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The Waterlow score for patients admitted with acute pancreatitis could provide a useful tool in prospective assessment of disease severity, help clinicians with appropriate resource management and inform patients. PMID:26688403

  14. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of developing pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis already on the first day of the onset of symptoms and can be used for treatment planning and monitoring of therapy of acute pancreatitis. Early suspicion of possible pancreatic necrosis both on the basis of scores based on clinical status and laboratory tests have low predictive value. PMID:26784348

  15. Chylous ascites caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Eun

    2011-01-01

    Chylous ascites is defined as the accumulation of chyle in the peritoneum due to obstruction or rupture of the peritoneal or retroperitoneal lymphatic glands. Chylous ascites that arises from acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis is very rare. We report here on a case of chylous ascite that was caused by acute pancreatitis with portal vein thrombosis, in which the patient showed an impressive response to conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and octerotide. We also review the relevant literature about chylous ascites with particular reference to the management of this rare disease. PMID:22319743

  16. [Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)].

    PubMed

    Hoheisel, G; Wu, A; Lee, N; Chan, C H; Wong, K T; Ahuja, A; Joynt, G M; Chung, S C; Sung, J J Y; Hui, D S

    2003-06-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly infectious respiratory disease, to the best of our knowledge caused by a hitherto unknown corona virus. The virus has spread from South East Asia to many countries of the world. Three case reports of patients from the Prince of Wales Hospital of The Chinese University of Hong Kong demonstrate typical clinical courses. Fever, cough, in most cases non-productive, myalgia, chills, and rigor are the leading symptoms. Leucopenia and thrombocytopenia are the most prominent laboratory parameters, increased values for lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) reflect a more severe clinical course. Advanced age and coexisting conditions seem to influence the prognosis unfavourably. The chest roentgenogram may be normal initially but at a later stage progressive consolidations in the majority of peripheral parts of the lung are observed, which cannot be differentiated from pneumonias of other origin. Even young patients can enter a stage of respiratory compromise rather fast. A therapy against the cause of the disease is not known. Empirical therapy with ribavirin in combination with high dose corticosteroids have proved successful. The disease may progress into respiratory failure comparable with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mortality is around five to ten per cent. Stringent hygiene and quarantine measures are mandatory to prevent the further spread of this threatening disease. PMID:12813666

  17. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  18. The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis: its importance for the radiologist and its effect on treatment.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2012-03-01

    An international working group has modified the Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis to update the terminology and provide simple functional clinical and morphologic classifications. The modifications (a) address the clinical course and severity of disease, (b) divide acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis, (c) distinguish an early phase (1st week) and a late phase (after the 1st week), and (d) emphasize systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multisystem organ failure. In the 1st week, only clinical parameters are important for treatment planning. After the 1st week, morphologic criteria defined on the basis of computed tomographic findings are combined with clinical parameters to help determine care. This revised classification introduces new terminology for pancreatic fluid collections. Depending on presence or absence of necrosis, acute collections in the first 4 weeks are called acute necrotic collections or acute peripancreatic fluid collections. Once an enhancing capsule develops, persistent acute peripancreatic fluid collections are referred to as pseudocysts; and acute necrotic collections, as walled-off necroses. All can be sterile or infected. Terms such as pancreatic abscess and intrapancreatic pseudocyst have been abandoned. The goal is for radiologists, gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pathologists to use the revised classifications to standardize imaging terminology to facilitate treatment planning and enable precise comparison of results among different departments and institutions. PMID:22357880

  19. [Clinical manifestation of acute pancreatitis in children with caustic ingestion injury - the role of oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Brankov, O; Shivachev, Kh; Drebov, R; Dumanov, K

    2007-01-01

    For a 10 years period (1996-2005) 66 children with severe caustic injuries of the esophagus and stomach were admitted at the Department of Pediatric Surgery. Subject of this article are 17 children with clinical, laboratory and intraoperative proven acute pancreatitis. The patients were admitted at the clinic 12 hours to 12 days after the ingestion of the corrosive agent. Fifteen of them underwent surgery and different surgical procedures were performed - gastric resection, transhiatal esophagectomy, gastrectomy, gastrostomy. In all patients were found elevated levels of alpha-amilase in blood serum and urine as well as elevated CRP in blood serum. Clinically manifested acute pancreatitis was diagnosed on ultrasound studies and laparotomy. The newest theories about the genesis of acute pancreatitis emphasize on the role of oxidative stress. Experimental models suggest that burn trauma (thermal or chemical) cause critical increase of free oxygen radicals and lipid peroxydation products in the tissue of the damaged organ and the bloodstream. The local tissue damage leads to release of inflammatory mediators which enter the bloodstream and cause distant organs damage of - lung, liver, kidneys and pancreas. In this preliminary report the authors discuss the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in children with acute corrosive ingestion injury of the esophagus and stomach. We call this phenomenon " caustic " oxidative stress. This is the first scientific report on this topic in the reviewed literature. PMID:18437101

  20. Cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Veron Esquivel, Daniel; Aello, Gerardo; Batiz, Fernando; Fernandez Barrera, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old Hispanic man was admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia. During his stay, he developed sudden haemodynamic instability and clinical presentation suggestive of cardiac tamponade. A transthoracic echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis. Echocardiography-guided pericardiocentesis was performed with immediate haemodynamic improvement. The patient's condition underwent favourable evolution. The pancreatitis was resolved and a control transthoracic echocardiography was performed showing no pericardial effusion. The pathophysiology of this rare entity is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Although pericardiocentesis is the treatment of choice, there have been a few reports of medical treatment with encouraging results. Although the association of acute pancreatitis and tamponade are anecdotal in literature, medics should be aware of this association in order to perform prompt diagnosis. PMID:26969361

  1. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  2. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy in newly diagnosed pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bala, Asif; Ali, Butool; Khan, Husna; Bracamonte, Erika; Sussman, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy can occur due to primary hyperoxaluria and secondary hyperoxaluria. The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of autosomal recessive disorders of endogenous oxalate overproduction. Secondary hyperoxaluria may occur as a result of excess dietary intake, poisoning with oxalate precursors (ethylene glycol), or enteric hyperoxaluria. The differential diagnosis of enteric hyperoxaluria includes inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, bariatric surgery (with jejunoileal bypass or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), celiac disease, partial colectomy, and chronic pancreatitis. The common etiology in all these processes is fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, saponification of calcium, and absorption of free oxalate. Hyperoxaluria causes increased urinary oxalate excretion, urolithiasis (promoted by hypovolemia, decreased urinary pH caused by metabolic acidosis, and decreased citrate and magnesium concentrations in urine), tubulointerstitial oxalate deposits, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a rare case of acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy and exocrine insufficiency caused by newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer. PMID:26614399

  3. Multiple roles for TGFβ receptor type II in regulating the pancreatic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gittes, George K

    2016-04-01

    In their recent publication in Journal of Pathology, Grabliauskaite and Sapanora and their colleagues in Zurich use a conditional ablation of the TGFβ type II receptor (TBRII) to analyse its specific role in pancreatic epithelial cells in response to a caerulein-induced model of acute pancreatitis. These experiments help to clarify some confusion that has existed in the literature stemming from the use of a dominant-negative transgenic TBRII mouse. The results point to a central role for TBRII in acinar cells in mitigating the overall response of the pancreas to the damage and inflammation of acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26608971

  4. CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC CORRELATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    MUNHOZ-FILHO, Clewis Henri; BATIGÁLIA, Fernando; FUNES, Hamilton Luiz Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas due to enzymatic autodigestion which can cause necrosis or multiple organ failure; its pathophysiology is not fully known yet. Aim To evaluate the correlation between clinical and therapeutic data in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. Methods A retrospective study in 55 medical records of patients admitted with acute mild pancreatitis was realized to analyze the association between age, leukocytosis, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, antibiotics, time admission and Ranson´s scores. Results There was a positive association between less intensive care (strict hydration, analgesia and monitoring of vital signs), early antibiotic therapy (monotherapy), early return to diet after 48 hours and laboratory control of the serum amylase and lipase (high in the first week and decreasing after 10 days, without any prognostic value). Conclusions Changes in the management of patients with mild acute pancreatitis, such as enteral nutrition, rational use of lower spectrum antibiotics and intensive care, have contributed significantly to the reduction of hospitalization time and mortality. PMID:25861064

  5. Percutaneous Drainage of Suppurative Pylephlebitis Complicating Acute Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Nouira, Kais Bedioui, Haykel; Azaiez, Olfa; Belhiba, Hend; Messaoud, Monia Ben; Ksantini, Rachid; Jouini, Mohamed; Menif, Emna

    2007-11-15

    Suppurative pylephlebitis is a rare condition with a significant mortality rate, ranging from 50% to 80%. We report a case of suppurative pylephlebitis complicating acute pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage in a 40-year-old woman. The patient had an uneventful recovery.

  6. [Suspected azodicarbonamide poisoning in a patient with acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Marcin; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the case of death of a 22-year old man due to acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis. Azodicarbonamide poisoning was suspected in this patient. Autopsy results, data from the literature and the knowledge about mechanisms of azodicarbonamide toxicity allowed for excluding poisoning with this substance as the cause of death. PMID:18432145

  7. Leptin Is Associated With Persistence of Hyperglycemia in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James I.C.; Askelund, Kathryn J.; Premkumar, Rakesh; Phillips, Anthony R.J.; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adipokines have many homeostatic roles, including modulation of glucose metabolism, but their role in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia associated with acute and critical illnesses in general, and acute pancreatitis (AP) in particular, is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a panel of adipokines and hyperglycemia in the early course of AP, as well as the role of adipokines as predictors of AP severity. Adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin were measured on a daily basis in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. A first set of analyses was undertaken with admission glycemia stratified by severity, and a second set of analyses was undertaken based on persistence of early hyperglycemia. All of the analyses were adjusted for confounders. A total of 32 patients with AP were included in this study. None of the studied adipokines was significantly associated with glucose level on admission. Leptin was significantly (P = 0.003) increased in patients with persistent hyperglycemia. Adiponectin was significantly associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.015), visfatin with APACHE II score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.014), and omentin with APACHE II score in all of the patients regardless of the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (P = 0.021). Leptin is significantly associated with persistent hyperglycemia in the early course of AP. Omentin has a potential to become an accurate predictor of AP severity. PMID:26871770

  8. Review of acute severe asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, P K

    1989-01-01

    Status asthmaticus in the 1980s is still occasionally a fatal disorder. Preventable causes appear to be common: failing to appreciate the severity of the illness and undertreatment, particularly with steroids. Thus, an objective data base, early treatment, and frequent reassessment are of paramount importance. Despite intensive therapeutic intervention, mechanical ventilation may be required. In managing the ventilator in these patients, efforts should be directed at minimizing peak airway pressures while vigorous conventional modalities are continued. The need to use mechanical ventilation does not imply that the course of the disease will worsen, and the long-term outlook generally is good. Thus, even a low mortality rate is troubling. Once the acute process has resolved, educating the patient and close follow-up are essential. PMID:2662613

  9. Inhibitory effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia on acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wan; Park, Cheung-Seog; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Song, Bong-keun; Kim, Kyung-Yo; Park, Young-Min; Song, Ho-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) on the cholecystokinin (CCK) octapeptide- induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 240-260 g were divided into three groups: (1) Normal saline-treated group; (2) treatment with PS at 100 mg/kg group, in which PS was administered orally, followed by subcutaneous administration of 75 µg/kg CCK octapeptide three times after 1, 3 and 5 h, and this whole procedure was repeated for 5 d; (3) treatment with saline group, in which the protocols were the same as in treatment group with PS. We determined the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of pancreatic HSP60, HSP72 and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Repeated CCK octapeptide treatment resulted in the typical laboratory findings of experimentally induced pancreatitis. RESULTS: PS reduced the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of serum amylase and lipase, and inhibited expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CCK octapeptide-induced AP. Furthermore, PS pretreatment increased the pancreatic levels of HSP60 and HSP72. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PS has an anti-inflammatory effect on CCK octapeptide-induced AP. PMID:16534854

  10. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = -0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  11. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = −0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  12. Reduced Pancreatic Exocrine Function and Organellar Disarray in a Canine Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Bhugul, Pravin Avinash; Huang, Xince; Liu, Lewei; Pan, Liangliang; Ni, Haizhen; Chen, Bicheng; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Qiyu; Hehir, Michael; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pancreatic exocrine function in a canine model and to analyze the changes in organelles of pancreatic acinar cells during the early stage of acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate (0.5 ml/kg) into the main pancreatic duct of dogs. The induction of AP resulted in serum hyperamylasemia and a marked reduction of amylase activity in the pancreatic fluid (PF). The pancreatic exocrine function was markedly decreased in subjects with AP compared with the control group. After the induction of AP, histological examination showed acinar cell edema, cytoplasmic vacuolization, fibroblasts infiltration, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the interstitium. Electron micrographs after the induction of AP revealed that most of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were dilated and that some of the ribosomes were no longer located on the RER. The mitochondria were swollen, with shortened and broken cristae. The present study demonstrated, in a canine model, a reduced volume of PF secretion with decreased enzyme secretion during the early stage of AP. Injury of mitochondria and dilatation and degranulation of RER may be responsible for the reduced exocrine function in AP. Furthermore, the present model and results may be useful for researching novel therapeutic measures in AP. PMID:26895040

  13. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Tara; Al-Sharief, Khalid; Sethi, Vineeta; Ranger, Gurpreet S.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an unusual condition typified by acute visual impairment caused by sudden, marked parieto-occipital vasogenic edema. Thought to be inflammatory in origin, it has been described in patients undergoing chemotherapy, with autoimmune disease, and in some infections. We report a case of PRES that occurred one week after an episode of acute pancreatitis in an otherwise healthy 40-year-old female. There was progressive visual impairment over a 24-hour period with almost complete visual loss, with characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging. After treatment with steroids, the visual loss recovered. Clinicians should retain an index of suspicion of this rare condition in patients with visual impairment after acute pancreatitis. PMID:26759673

  14. Scrotal Swelling as a Complication of Hydrochlorothiazide Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, Ivan; Mansoora, Qurat; Al-Khalisy, Hassan; Joseph, Sarah; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-01-01

    Background. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis with few reported cases in the literature. In this case report, we present a 59-year-old male with hydrochlorothiazide induced pancreatitis who developed scrotal swelling. Case Presentation. A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency department with sharp epigastric abdominal pain that radiated to the back and chest. On physical examination, he had abdominal tenderness and distention with hypoactive bowel sounds. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed acute pancreatitis. The patient's condition deteriorated and he was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). After he improved and was transferred out of the ICU, the patient developed swelling of the scrotum and penis. Ultrasound (US) of the scrotum showed large hydrocele bilaterally with no varicoceles or testicular masses. Good blood flow was observed for both testicles. The swelling diminished over the next eight days with the addition of Lasix and the patient was discharged home in stable condition. Conclusion. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. It usually resolves spontaneously with conservative medical management such as diuretics and elevation of the legs. PMID:26199765

  15. Varicella zoster virus: a rare cause of acute pancreatitis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Kulasegaran, Suheelan; Wilson, Elizabeth Jane; Vasquez, Leon; Hulme-Moir, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl with a diagnosis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) presented to hospital with severe abdominal pain. This patient was immunocompetent and found to have acute pancreatitis in association with VZV. She responded well to intravenous acyclovir and supportive treatment. A review of the literature for the management of pancreatitis associated with VZV suggests treatment with acyclovir, as it appears to reduce hospital stay and symptoms. The exact benefit is yet to be quantified. Importantly, this diagnosis should be considered in children who have VZV associated with abdominal pain. PMID:26762351

  16. Age-Dependent Effects of UCP2 Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Burkhard; Fitzner, Brit; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively) triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively), suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies) and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies) were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions. PMID:24721982

  17. Acute Pancreatitis and Diabetic Ketoacidosis following L-Asparaginase/Prednisone Therapy in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla-Flores, Dania Lizet; Flores-Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis are unusual adverse events following chemotherapy based on L-asparaginase and prednisone as support treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We present the case of a 16-year-old Hispanic male patient, in remission induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia on treatment with mitoxantrone, vincristine, prednisone, and L-asparaginase. He was hospitalized complaining of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Hyperglycemia, acidosis, ketonuria, low bicarbonate levels, hyperamylasemia, and hyperlipasemia were documented, and the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis was made. Because of uncertainty of the additional diagnosis of acute pancreatitis as the cause of abdominal pain, a contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed resulting in a Balthazar C pancreatitis classification. PMID:24716037

  18. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  19. Cannabinoid HU210 protects isolated rat stomach against impairment caused by serum of rats with experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ming-hua; Li, Yong-yu; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ya-jing; Lin, Xu-hong; Li, Kun; Han, Tong; Chen, Chang-jie

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis often causes extra-pancreatic complications, such as acute gastrointestinal mucosal lesion (AGML) which is accompanied by a considerably high mortality, yet the pathogenesis of AP-induced AGML is still not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the alterations of serum components and gastric endocrine and exocrine functions in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis, and studied the possible contributions of these alterations in the pathogenesis of AGML. In addition, we explored the intervention effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 and antagonist AM251 on isolated and serum-perfused rat stomach. Our results showed that the AGML occurred after 5 h of AP replication, and the body homeostasis was disturbed in AP rat, with increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammtory cytokines and chemokines in the blood, and an imbalance of the gastric secretion function. Perfusing the isolated rat stomach with the AP rat serum caused morphological changes in the stomach, accompanied with a significant increment of pepsin and [H+] release, and increased gastrin and decreased somatostatin secretion. HU210 reversed the AP-serum-induced rat pathological alterations, including the reversal of transformation of the gastric morphology to certain degree. The results from this study prove that the inflammatory responses and the imbalance of the gastric secretion during the development of AP are responsible for the pathogenesis of AGML, and suggest the therapeutic potential of HU210 for AGML associated with acute pancreatitis. PMID:23285225

  20. Mechanisms of interleukin-22's beneficial effects in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Huan, Chongmin; Kim, Daniel; Ou, Peiqi; Alfonso, Antonio; Stanek, Albert

    2016-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterized by parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled by immune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains a significant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specific and effective treatment. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response in AP is needed for the development of new approaches to treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatory cytokines have been recognized to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted by leukocytes, when applied in the severe animal models of AP, protects against the inflammation-mediated acinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenous IL-22 has been found to be a predominantly anti-inflammatory mediator that inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinar cells, but does not protect against acinar injury in the early stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressed IL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused by excessive autophagy through the induction of the anti-autophagic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 plays different roles in AP depending on the severity of the AP model. This review focuses on these recently reported findings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22's regulatory roles in AP which could help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26909233

  1. Pancreatic resection with islet cell autotransplant for the treatment of severe chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Argo, Joshua L; Contreras, Juan L; Wesley, Mary M; Christein, John D

    2008-06-01

    Pancreatic resection can alleviate pain in properly selected patients with severe chronic pancreatitis (CP), although the apancreatic state causes "brittle" diabetes. Islet auto-transplantation (IAT) after resection can decrease diabetes-related morbidity. Twenty-six consecutive patients with CP who underwent 27 pancreatic resections with IAT from April 2005 to December 2007 were evaluated in this retrospective case control study. Data were collected by chart and operative note reviews and query of hospital databases. Subgroup analysis was performed on 21 cases of total pancreatectomy and six cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Mean age was 43.8 years and 46.2 per cent of patients were female. The most common etiology of CP was alcoholism (34.6%), followed by idiopathic causes (30.8%) and pancreatic divisum (23.1%). There was no mortality and the complication rate was 56 per cent. Islet equivalents infused and islet equivalents/gram of pancreas were 82,094 and 2,739 respectively. Mean discharge insulin dose was 10.7 units/day. Mean follow-up was 6.5 months. At 6 months, 80 per cent of patients reporting had decreased or eliminated their use of narcotic medication and all total pancreatectomy patients required insulin (mean 23 units/day). In appropriately selected patients, pancreatic resection with IAT is safe and effective for the treatment of intractable pain associated with CP. PMID:18556996

  2. Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24 h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24 h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNFα expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNFα production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury. PMID:24091659

  3. Marked elevation of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes in severe malnourished male with eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Brucculeri, S; Caimi, G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 45 year old Caucasian malnourished male with an history of eating disorder who developed severe liver and pancreatic damage and multiorgan disfunction. At admission to our department, his body mass index (BMI) was 11.1. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated serum levels of transaminases (AST= 2291 U/L, ALT= 1792 U/L), amylase (3620 U/L), lipase (4102 U/L), CPK= 1370 U/L, LDH= 2082 U/L. No other cause of acute liver and pancreatic damage was evidenced. Haematological disorders (anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia) found on admission seem related to bone marrow hypoplasia and to gelatinous marrow transformation described in severe state of malnutrition. Although a moderate increase in liver and pancreatic enzymes are a common finding in malnourished patients, only a small number of reports describes severe liver injury and multiorgan dysfunction. After a few days of treatment (hydration and nutritional support) a marked decrease of serum transaminases, lipase, amylase, CPK, LDH occurred, despite a transient increase in these levels secondary to refeeding syndrome. The association of chronic malnutrition and a decrease in systemic perfusion may be responsible for multiorgan dysfunction. In our patient the high levels of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes were the most important biochemical abnormalities normalized after refeeding. PMID:24217841

  4. A systematic review of acute pancreatitis as an adverse event of type 2 diabetes drugs: from hard facts to a balanced position.

    PubMed

    Giorda, C B; Nada, E; Tartaglino, B; Marafetti, L; Gnavi, R

    2014-11-01

    The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use. PMID:24702687

  5. The effect of sennosides on bacterial translocation and survival in a model of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Valente, J F; Alexander, J W

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial translocation leading to subsequent infectious complications is a significant determinant of outcome in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (AHP). The colonic ileus and impaired intestinal barrier function that often accompany AHP may predispose to translocation. Sennoside is a naturally occurring cathartic and choleretic agent that stimulates intestinal mucous secretion and has potent promotility effects. The impact of sennoside-induced intestinal motility and secretory function on bacterial translocation and survival was studied in a rat model of AHP. Severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by the intraductal infusion of 2% sodium deoxycholate (DCA, 0.4 ml/kg). A group of sham-operated rats (group A) received intraductal saline, whereas experimental animals were subsequently administered distilled water (group B) or sennoside solution (group C) by gavage every 8 h. After 48 h, intestinal transit of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran, serum endotoxin, and amylase levels, and bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and pancreatic tissue were determined. The pancreas and intestine were sampled for histologic study. All group A animals survived and did not develop pancreatitis or endotoxemia, whereas groups B and C all demonstrated severe hemorrhagic pancreatitis with evidence of necrosis. Mortality at 48 h was 55% in group B versus 12.5% in group C. Inhibition of intestinal motility was noted in 40% versus 20%, and endotoxin levels were 61.36+/-28.26 pg/L versus 5.41+/-3.58 pg/L in group B versus group C rats, respectively (p<0.001). Pancreatic tissue and MLN cultures were positive in 100% of group B survivors versus 14% of group C survivors (p<0.05). Histologic examination of the intestine in group C animals showed increased mucous secretion, proliferation of goblet cells, and evidence of rapid turnover/renewal of enterocytes. Treatment with the cathartic agent, sennoside, reduced translocation of endotoxin and bacteria, restored intestinal motility, increased mucous secretion, and reduced mortality in a model of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in the rat. Other cathartics may have similar properties and may be useful in preventing infectious complications in acute pancreatitis. PMID:9888659

  6. Tissue Pharmacology of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianlin; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Juan; Wan, Meihua; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Hui; Xiang, Jin; Thrower, Edwin C.; Tang, Wenfu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD) can ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the potential pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the potential effective components and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DCQD in target tissue in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Methods. Acute pancreatitis-like symptoms were first induced in rats and then they were given different doses of DCQD (6?g/kg, 12?g/kg, and 24?g/kg body weight) orally. Tissue drug concentration, tissue pathological score, and inflammatory mediators in pancreas, intestine, and lung tissues of rats were examined after 24 hours, respectively. Results. Major components of DCQD could be found in target tissues and their concentrations increased in conjunction with the intake dose of DCQD. The high-dose compounds showed maximal effect on altering levels of anti-inflammatory (interleukin-4 and interleukin-10) and proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-6) and ameliorating the pathological damage in target tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusions. DCQD could alleviate pancreatic, intestinal, and lung injury by altering levels of inflammatory cytokines in AP rats with tissue distribution of its components. PMID:26199633

  7. Acute pancreatitis as a complication of childhood cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Milica; Jazbec, Janez; Lindgren, Fredrik; Bulajić, Milutin; Löhr, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is now well recognized as a possible complication of childhood cancer treatment, interrupting the chemotherapy regimen, and requiring prolonged hospitalization, possibly with intensive care and surgical intervention, thereby compromising the effect of chemotherapy and the remission of the underlying malignant disease. This review summarizes the current literature and presents the various etiological factors for AP during chemotherapy as well as modern trends in the diagnosis and therapy of AP in children. PMID:26872431

  8. Laparoscopic Management of Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Rapunzel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koushk Jalali, Bijan; Bingöl, Alperen; Reyad, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with bilious vomiting and abdominal pain to the surgery department. The history was positive for trichotillomania and trichophagia. A CT scan showed a mass in the stomach, which was highly suspicious for a gastric bezoar. Drooping parts of the bezoar caused a duodenal obstruction with secondary acute pancreatitis. The bezoar was removed via a laparoscopically performed gastrotomy. PMID:27144047

  9. Ischemia-reperfusion rat model of acute pancreatitis: protein carbonyl as a putative early biomarker of pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Schanaider, Alberto; de Carvalho, Thales Penna; de Oliveira Coelho, Simone; Renteria, Juan Miguel; Eleuthério, Elis Cristina Araújo; Castelo-Branco, Morgana Teixeira Lima; Madi, Kalil; Baetas-da-Cruz, Wagner; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder that can affect adjacent and/or remote organs. Some evidence indicates that the production of reactive oxygen species is able to induce AP. Protein carbonyl (PC) derivatives, which can also be generated through oxidative cleavage mechanisms, have been implicated in several diseases, but there is little or no information on this biomarker in AP. We investigated the association between some inflammatory mediators and PC, with the severity of ischemia-reperfusion AP. Wistar rats (n = 56) were randomly assigned in the following groups : control; sham, 15- or 180-min clamping of splenic artery, with 24 or 72 h of follow-up. The relationships between serum level of PC and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in tissue homogenates and to cytokines in culture supernatants of pancreatic samples were analyzed. MPO activity was related to the histology scores and increased in all clamping groups. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 were higher in the 180-min groups. Significant correlations were found between MPO activity and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β. PC levels increased in the 15-min to 24-h group. TBARS levels were not altered substantially. MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations in pancreatic tissue are correlated with AP severity. Serum levels of PC appear to begin to rise early in the course of the ischemia-reperfusion AP and are no longer detected at later stages in the absence of severe pancreatitis. These data suggest that PC can be an efficient tool for the diagnosis of early stages of AP. PMID:24934325

  10. Thoracic epidural analgesia: a new approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Windisch, Olivier; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Giraud, Raphaël; Morel, Philippe; Bühler, Léo

    2016-01-01

    This review article analyzes, through a nonsystematic approach, the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) with a focus on the effects of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the disease. The benefit-risk balance is also discussed. AP has an overall mortality of 1 %, increasing to 30 % in its severe form. The systemic inflammation induces a strong activation of the sympathetic system, with a decrease in the blood flow supply to the gastrointestinal system that can lead to the development of pancreatic necrosis. The current treatment for severe AP is symptomatic and tries to correct the systemic inflammatory response syndrome or the multiorgan dysfunction. Besides the removal of gallstones in biliary pancreatitis, no satisfactory causal treatment exists. TEA is widely used, mainly for its analgesic effect. TEA also induces a targeted sympathectomy in the anesthetized region, which results in splanchnic vasodilatation and an improvement in local microcirculation. Increasing evidence shows benefits of TEA in animal AP: improved splanchnic and pancreatic perfusion, improved pancreatic microcirculation, reduced liver damage, and significantly reduced mortality. Until now, only few clinical studies have been performed on the use of TEA during AP with few available data regarding the effect of TEA on the splanchnic perfusion. Increasing evidence suggests that TEA is a safe procedure and could appear as a new treatment approach for human AP, based on the significant benefits observed in animal studies and safety of use for human. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the clinical benefits observed in animal studies. PMID:27141977

  11. A retrospective study of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Etiological diagnosis is an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Hantavirus infection is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, which is easy to ignore. There is a need to analyze clinical features of acute pancreatitis caused by Hantavirus. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2012 on patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome at our hospital. We reviewed these patients medical records, laboratory results and radiologic examinations to determine the prevalence and summarize clinical features of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Results A total of 218 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during the 6-year study period. Only 2.8% (6/218) of the total hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The first symptom for all six of the patients with acute pancreatitis was fever. All six patients experienced hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia during the disease course, which was different from general acute pancreatitis. In addition, we presented two misdiagnosed clinical cases. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis is not a frequent complication in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when acute pancreatitis patients with epidemiological data have high fever before abdominal pain. PMID:24345089

  12. Postburn pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, C M; Sheridan, R L; Schoenfeld, D A; Warshaw, A L; Tompkins, R G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the prevalence and complications of pancreatitis in severely burned patients. Factors predictive for the development of pancreatitis after burns are considered. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatitis has been documented at necropsy after burns; however, it is not clinically recognized as a common complication of burn injury. Recent improvements in survival rates could yield previously unrecognized complications, such as pancreatitis, particularly in those patients who previously would have not survived. The hypothesis is that pancreatitis is a frequent complication after major burn injury and causes significant morbidity for patients with large burns. METHODS: This retrospective review of adult patients with large burns examines postburn pancreatitis using stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-nine of 121 (40%) patients developed hyperamylasemia or hyperlipasemia well after the admission period (23 +/- 3 days), and all enzyme abnormalities were temporally associated with emerging infections. Most of these patients (40/49, 82%) had symptoms of pancreatitis. Three patients (6%) had pancreatic pseudocysts or abscesses. Inhalation injury (p = 0.0001), associated trauma (p = 0.0311), and escharotomy (p = 0.0415) were risk factors for pancreatitis. Using Fischer's exact test, patients with pancreatitis had increased mortality and length of stay. Patients with high enzyme elevations and > or = 50% body surface area burned were at severe risk of pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess development (43%; 90% confidence interval of 23-77%). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatitis is a frequent complication after large burn injuries. Patients at high risk for pancreatitis complications should receive surveillance examinations during their acute hospitalization. PMID:7543741

  13. Evaluation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis of mild acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Elif; Aksoy, Sema; Akarsu, Cevher; Kones, Osman; Inci, Ercan; Alis, Halil

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the identification of acute mild pancreatitis with low Ranson scores. The study group included 22 healthy subjects and 40 patients with mild acute pancreatitis. Patients with Ranson scores of 1-3 were included in the present study. There was a significant reduction in mean pancreatic apparent diffusion coefficient among the acute pancreatitis patients (1.46±2.80×10(-3)mm(2)/s) relative to the healthy subjects (1.69±2.26×10(-3)mm(2)/s). Diffusion-weighted imaging improves diagnosis of mild acute pancreatitis and enables the differentiation of acute pancreatitis from other diseases involving abdominal pain and other nonspecific findings. PMID:25457519

  14. The Effects of Total Colectomy on Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Şenocak, Rahman; Yigit, Taner; Kılbaş, Zafer; Coşkun, Ali Kağan; Harlak, Ali; Menteş, Mustafa Öner; Kılıç, Abdullah; Günal, Armağan; Kozak, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of secondary infection is currently the main goal of treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Colon was considered as the main origin of secondary infection. Our aim was to investigate whether prophylactic total colectomy would reduce the rate of bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Pancreatitis was created by ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Rats were divided into four groups: group-1, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; group-2, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate; group-3, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; and group-4, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Forty-eight hours later, tissue and blood samples were collected for microbiological and histopathological analysis. Total colectomy caused small bowel bacterial overgrowth with gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Bacterial count of gram-negative rods in the small intestine and pancreatic tissue in rats with colectomy and acute pancreatitis were significantly higher than in rats with acute pancreatitis only (group-2 versus group-4; small bowel, p = <0.001; pancreas, p = 0.002). Significant correlation was found between proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic infection (r = 0,836, p = 0.001). In acute pancreatitis, prophylactic total colectomy (which can mimic colonic cleansing and reduction of colonic flora) induces small bowel bacterial overgrowth, which is associated with increased bacterial translocation to the pancreas. PMID:26730036

  15. ACUTE PANCREATITIS GRAVITY PREDICTIVE FACTORS: WHICH AND WHEN TO USE THEM?

    PubMed Central

    FERREIRA, Alexandre de Figueiredo; BARTELEGA, Janaina Alves; URBANO, Hugo Corrêa de Andrade; de SOUZA, Iure Kalinine Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pancreatitis has as its main causes lithiasic biliary disease and alcohol abuse. Most of the time, the disease shows a self-limiting course, with a rapid recovery, only with supportive treatment. However, in a significant percentage of cases, it runs with important local and systemic complications associated with high mortality rates. Aim: To present the current state of the use of these prognostic factors (predictive scores) of gravity, as the time of application, complexity and specificity. Method: A non-systematic literature review through 28 papers, with emphasis on 13 articles published in indexed journals between 2008 and 2013 using Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed. Results: Several clinical, laboratory analysis, molecular and image variables can predict the development of severe acute pancreatitis. Some of them by themselves can be determinant to the progression of the disease to a more severe form, such as obesity, hematocrit, age and smoking. Hematocrit with a value lower than 44% and serum urea lower than 20 mg/dl, both at admission, appear as risk factors for pancreatic necrosis. But the PCR differentiates mild cases of serious ones in the first 24 h. Multifactorial scores measured on admission and during the first 48 h of hospitalization have been used in intensive care units, being the most ones used: Ranson, Apache II, Glasgow, Iget and Saps II. Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is a disease in which several prognostic factors are employed being useful in predicting mortality and on the development of the severe form. It is suggested that the association of a multifactorial score, especially the Saps II associated with Iget, may increase the prognosis accuracy. However, the professional's preferences, the experience on the service as well as the available tools, are factors that have determined the choice of the most suitable predictive score. PMID:26537149

  16. Protective Effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Against Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Bok; Bae, Gi-Sang; Jo, Il-Joo; Seo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Heon; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sang-Hyun; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced via intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) every hour for 6 times. In the LE, water extract (100, 250, or 500 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before the first injection of cerulein. Six hours after AP, blood, the pancreas, and the lung were harvested for further examination. In addition, pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using a collagenase method, and then, we investigated the acinar cell viability and cytokine productions. Results Treatment with LE reduced pancreatic damage and AP-associated lung injury and attenuated the severity of AP, as evidenced by the reduction in neutrophil infiltration, serum amylase and lipase levels, trypsin activity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, treatment with LE inhibited high mobility group box 1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, LE inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine productions, and high-mobility group box 1 expression. Furthermore, LE also inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Conclusions These results suggest that LE plays a protective role during the development of AP by inhibiting the activation of p38. PMID:25102438

  17. Recognition and Importance of New Definitions of Peripancreatic Fluid Collections in Managing Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Akram; Gibreel, Waleed; Sarr, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has matured tremendously in the last 3 decades. Advanced cross-sectional imaging with 3-dimensional techniques along with use of intravenous contrast to image the presence or absence of organ tissue perfusion has allowed early recognition of necrotizing pancreatitis. With this knowledge, the old terms to describe what used to be called 'peri-pancreatic fluid collections' we now recognize are no longer accurate nor appropriate. The 2013 revised Atlanta Classification has introduced a new, accurate, objective classification of acute pancreatitis and terminology for the natural history of all forms of acute pancreatitis that is easy to use and will help in both the description of the disease and its appropriate treatment. This review will describe these pancreatic and peri-pancreatic collections with added insight into their natural history. PMID:27216496

  18. Treatment of Rare Gastric Variceal Bleeding in Acute Pancreatitis Using Embolization of the Splenic Artery Combined with Short Gastric Vein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixin; Zhao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    In the acute stage of pancreatitis, sinistral portal hypertension is a rare reason for gastric variceal bleeding. Here we report a 20-year-old female patient with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 7 days after an episode of severe acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography showed gastric varices caused by splenic venous thrombosis. Emergency endoscopic examination was performed, however tissue adhesive utilized to restrain the bleeding was not successful. Although interventional therapy was controversial to treat the gastric variceal hemorrhage resulting from sinistral portal hypertension, the bleeding was successfully treated by embolization of the splenic artery combined with short gastric vein. Two weeks after the interventional the patient was discharged from our hospital without recurrence of bleeding. Embolization of the splenic artery combined with short gastric vein proved to be an effective emergency therapeutic method for gastric variceal bleeding caused by sinistral portal hypertension in the acute stage of pancreatitis. PMID:23275766

  19. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their combined use on pancreatic enzymes, activity of pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas on treatment of caerulin-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Caerulin-induced acute pancreatitis model was created using a total of 58 male BALB-C mice of 25 gr in seven groups. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity were examined as well as apoptotic values in pancreatic acinar cells through TUNNEL method. Histopathology of pancreas was evaluated for presence of edema, hemorrhage, parenchymal necrosis, fat necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis. Results: In the diclofenac sodium group, apoptotic values in the pancreatic acinar cells were found to be statistically lower than in the acute pancreatitis group in terms of parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage scores (P = 0.007, P = 0.002, and P = 0.052, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in serum level of amylase, lipase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and the other histopathological scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium, a cost-effective agent with a favorable side-effect profile, may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Findings of this study suggest a better efficacy for diclofenac sodium monotherapy as compared to octreotide alone or octreotide/diclofenac combination. PMID:26770346

  20. Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules

    PubMed Central

    Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK−/−) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK−/− keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK−/− mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK−/− mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK−/− acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

  1. Acute Pancreatitis in Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Exenatide or Sitagliptin

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rajesh; Chen, William; Pendergrass, Merri

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported in association with exenatide, sitagliptin, and type 2 diabetes without use of these medications. It remains unknown whether exenatide or sitagliptin increase the risk of acute pancreatitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study of a large medical and pharmacy claims database was performed. Data for 786,656 patients were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were built to compare the risk of acute pancreatitis between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and between exenatide, sitagliptin, and control diabetes medication use. RESULTS Incidence of acute pancreatitis in the nondiabetic control group, diabetic control group, exenatide group, and sitagliptin group was 1.9, 5.6, 5.7, and 5.6 cases per 1,000 patient years, respectively. The risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in the combined diabetic groups than in the nondiabetic control group (adjusted hazard ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.7–2.5]). Risk of acute pancreatitis was similar in the exenatide versus diabetic control group (0.9 [0.6–1.5]) and sitagliptin versus diabetic control group (1.0 [0.7–1.3]). CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrated increased incidence of acute pancreatitis in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients but did not find an association between the use of exenatide or sitagliptin and acute pancreatitis. The limitations of this observational claims-based analysis cannot exclude the possibility of an increased risk. PMID:20682680

  2. Successful Plasma Exchange for Acute Pancreatitis Complicated With Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Takahira, Shuji; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kin, Hunsook; Ooya, Yoshitaka; Sekine, Yasumasa; Sonoda, Kenichiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yushi; Takane, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Youhei; Tsukamoto, Isao; Nemoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia had problems during treatment with plasma exchange. The hypercoagulable state was prevented by introducing innovative methods for cleaning and warming of the circuit and dialyzer. This enabled successful therapy, and the patient fully recovered from life-threatening acute pancreatitis. PMID:26904702

  3. Evidence for a role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the treatment of experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Irrera, Natasha; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by acute inflammation and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. AP is often associated with organ failure, sepsis, and high mortality. The pathogenesis of AP is still not well understood. In recent years several papers have highlighted the cellular and molecular events of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is initiated by activation of digestive enzymes within the acinar cells that are involved in autodigestion of the gland, followed by a massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and release of inflammatory mediators, responsible for the local and systemic inflammatory response. The hallmark of AP is parenchymal cell necrosis that represents the cause of the high morbidity and mortality, so that new potential therapeutic approaches are indispensable for the treatment of patients at high risk of complications. However, not all factors that determine the onset and course of the disease have been explained. Aim of this article is to review the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469021

  4. Anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody ameliorates the damage of acute experimental pancreatitis by attenuating the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaohui; Shen, Jiaqing; Jia, Zhengyu; Wu, Airong; Xu, Ting; Shi, Yuqi; Xu, Chunfang

    2016-06-01

    B7-H3, a recently discovered B7 family member, is documented as a regulator in the inflammatory response as well as T cell-mediated immune responses. In this paper, we find that patients with acute pancreatitis revealed overwhelming levels of serum soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) associated with the clinical outcomes. Furthermore, B7-H3 protein was marked increased in l-arginine-induced acute experimental pancreatitis. Anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody treatment attenuated the proinflammatory cytokine production, downregulated the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and ameliorated the pancreas disruption in l-arginine-induced pancreatitis. In addition, although l-arginine alone failed to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokine and anti-B7-H3 mAb had no effect on the proinflammatory cytokine production of acinar cells, administration of anti-B7-H3 mAb in the coculture model of acinar cells and macrophages stimulated by l-arginine displayed the similar effects. On the whole, B7-H3 participates in the development of acute pancreatitis, and anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody ameliorates severity of acute experimental pancreatitis via attenuation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27003113

  5. [Pancreatic enzyme activity in early phases of acute experimental pancreatitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Sa?dalikhodzhaeva, O Z; Iuldashev, N M; Daniiarov, A N; Muratova, U Z

    2002-04-01

    Experiments were performed on laboratory rats with acute pancreatitis caused by local freezing the pancreas with chlorethyl. An active action of enzymes alpha-amilase, lipase, phospholipase A2, was revealed. During the first hours, an increase in action of all three enzymes, particularly that of phospholipase A2, was found. It was established that the lipid spectrum of pancreas had changed. It shows that cell membranes were destroyed. Experiments revealed an activating role of Ca2+ ions for all the enzymes and a correcting action of chlorpromasine. PMID:12058542

  6. Genetics and Treatments Options for Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Celeste A.; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion Statement Worldwide research efforts demonstrate a major role of gene-environment interactions for the risk, development, and progression of most pancreatic diseases, including recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. New findings of pancreas disease-associated risk variants have been reported in the CPA1, GGT1, CLDN2, MMP1, MTHFR, and other genes. These risk genes and their regulatory regions must be added to the known pathogenic variants in the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC, CASR, UBR1, SBDS, CEL, and CTSB genes. This new knowledge promises to improve disease management and prevention through personalized medicine. At the same time, however, knowledge of an increasing number of pathogenic variants, and their complicated effects when present in combination, results in increasing difficulty in interpretation and development of recommendations. Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing results also adds complexity to disease management paradigms, especially without interpretation and, in many cases, proven accuracy. While improvements in the ability to rapidly and accurately interpret complex genetic tests are clearly needed, some results, such as pathogenic CFTR variants – including a new class of bicarbonate-defective mutations – and PRSS1 variants have immediate implications that direct management. In addition, discovery of pancreatitis-associated genetic variants in patients with glucose intolerance may suggest underlying type 3c diabetes, which also has implications for treatment and disease management. PMID:24954874

  7. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 reduces inflammation in acute experimental pancreatitis via intra-acinar activation of p38 and MK2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Michler, Thomas; Storr, Martin; Kramer, Johannes; Ochs, Stefanie; Malo, Antje; Reu, Simone; Göke, Burkhard; Schäfer, Claus

    2013-01-15

    The endocannabinoid system has been shown to mediate beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation via cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB(1)) and 2 (CB(2)). These receptors have also been reported to activate the MAP kinases p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), which are involved in early acinar events leading to acute pancreatitis and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Our aim was to examine the role of cannabinoid receptor activation in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis and the potential involvement of MAP kinases. Cerulein pancreatitis was induced in wild-type, CB(1)-/-, and MK2-/- mice pretreated with selective cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists. Severity of pancreatitis was determined by serum amylase and IL-6 levels, intracellular activation of pancreatic trypsinogen, lung myeloperoxidase activity, pancreatic edema, and histological examinations. Pancreatic lysates were investigated by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies against p38 and JNK. Quantitative PCR data, Western blotting experiments, and immunohistochemistry clearly show that CB(1) and CB(2) are expressed in mouse pancreatic acini. During acute pancreatitis, an upregulation especially of CB(2) on apoptotic cells occurred. The unselective CB(1)/CB(2) agonist HU210 ameliorated pancreatitis in wild-type and CB(1)-/- mice, indicating that this effect is mediated by CB(2). Furthermore, blockade of CB(2), not CB(1), with selective antagonists engraved pathology. Stimulation with a selective CB(2) agonist attenuated acute pancreatitis and an increased activation of p38 was observed in the acini. With use of MK2-/- mice, it could be demonstrated that this attenuation is dependent on MK2. Hence, using the MK2-/- mouse model we reveal a novel CB(2)-activated and MAP kinase-dependent pathway that modulates cytokine expression and reduces pancreatic injury and affiliated complications. PMID:23139224

  8. FTY720 Attenuates Acute Pancreatitis in Hypertriglyceridemic Apolipoprotein CIII Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjiao; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Ling; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Wang, Yunan; Wang, Mengyu; Gao, Mingming; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP) is often encountered clinically as a common form of recurrent acute pancreatitis (AP). It is important to evaluate the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) or anti-inflammation in the prophylaxis of HTGP in the clinic. FTY720 (2-amino-2[2-(4-octylphenyl) ethyl]-1, 3-propanediol) is a new anti-inflammatory agent with low toxicity and reported to ameliorate lung injury with pancreatitis in rat. We evaluated its protective affection on AP induced by seven hourly intraperitoneal injection of cerulein in apolipoprotein CIII transgenic mice with severe HTG. FTY720 at 1.5 mg/kg was administered by gastric lavage daily for 3 days before induction of AP. The effects of FTY720 to protect against HTGP were assessed by serum amylase, pancreatic pathological scores, immunostaining, and the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes. As a result, injection of cerulein resulted in more severe pathological changes of AP and higher monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression in the pancreas in transgenic than in nontransgenic mice. FTY720 pretreatment improved the pathological severity of AP and decreased the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in the pancreas significantly, especially near fourfold reduction in transgenic mice. However, FTY720 did not affect plasma triglyceride levels, and other inflammatory factors and plasma amylase were not correlated with the extent of pancreatic damage in AP with or without FTY720 administration. In summary, our study in a new model, apolipoprotein CIII transgenic mice, demonstrated that HTG mice are susceptible to induction of AP. Prophylactic treatment of FTY720 can significantly attenuate cerulein-induced AP and hence warrant further investigation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors agonist for potential clinical application in recurrent attacks of HTGP. PMID:25944794

  9. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  10. [Acute necrotizing pancreatitis--diagnostic and treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Madzhov, R; Georgiev, K; Arnaudov, P; Radev, R; Bankov, P

    2003-01-01

    Despite of the current achievements of medicine, the mortality of necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) is still too high--up to 35-40% and stands as a serious diagnostic and treatment problem. The results of treatment of 148 patients, admitted in the clinic with diagnosis NP, 95 males and 53 females, are discussed. The ratio between patients with acute oedematic and acute NP is 81.1% to 18.9%. According to the hystopatology findings, the results are as follows: pancreatic necrosis--128 patients, peripancreatic necrosis--42 patients, retropancreatic necrosis--29 patients, phlegmonous cholecystitis--31 patients. For the exact diagnostic estimation of the development and prognosis of NP, we are based on: Clinic symptomatology, biochemical constellations (the prognostic scale of Ranson), ultrasonography, CT, ERCP, ES, laparoscopy (48 pts), and laparoscopic drainage (34 pts) of the abdominal cavity with one or two drains, in order to decrease the intoxication and manage intraperitoneal irrigation with antibiotics and enzymes. The operative intervations consists of a thorough exploration, broad necrectomy combined with lavage and large drainage. COLD (controlled open lesser sac drainage) has been performed at 34 cases. In 31 pts cholecystectomy and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage of d. choledochus (Kehr drainage) was performed. Reoperations have been made at 34 pts (22.9%); in 11 of them--2 operative revisions have been carried out, in 3 cases--three, and in 3 cases--4 operative revisions were performed. The total postoperative death rate was 21.6% (32 patients). The most common postoperative complications were as follows: pulmonary complications at 11 cases, pleural effusions--9 pts, intraabdominal abscesses--6 patients, postnecrotic pseudocysts--9 cases, pancreatic fistulas--6 cases, fistulas of the colon--2 pts, bleeding--4 patients. PMID:15584453

  11. Time course and cellular source of pancreatic regeneration following acute pancreatitis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaesser, H.P.A.; Adler, G.; Kern, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the different cell types in the rat exocrine pancreas has been studied in a model of hormone-induced acute pancreatitis in which pancreatic edema, inflammation, and acinar cell destruction were induced within 12 h of infusion of supramaximal concentrations of cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/h). A sequential biochemical and structural analysis of the pancreas in daily intervals was combined with the autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices of five cell populations following /sup 3/H-thymidine injection at days 1-7 after induction of pancreatitis. Desquamation of acinar cell apical cytoplasm and release of cytoplasmic segments into the acinar lumen on the first day following induction of pancreatitis led to formation of duct-like tubular complexes. Enzyme content in the pancreas decreased progressively following the formation of the edema to levels 15-20% of controls and remained reduced during the initial 5 days. Thymidine incorporation into total DNA showed a biphasic pattern with a distinct peak at day 1 and a second broader peak between days 4 and 7. Autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices demonstrated the exclusive incorporation into intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells during the initial 24 h, while the second peak was predominantly due to labeling of acinar cells. Larger interlobular ducts and islets did not show changes in labeling index. In vivo labeling with /sup 3/H-thymidine during the first day and analysis of labeling indices 14 days later showed the persistence of label in intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells and argued against the stem cell hypothesis and against transformation of duct cells into acinar cells.

  12. Acute Pancreatitis Associated With Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Mahvish; Jia, Jingquan; Liles, Darla; Naveed, Musharraf; Kumari, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a novel antibody-drug conjugate with current FDA recommendation for second-line treatment of HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer. It is a human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2)-targeted antibody-drug conjugate composed of trastuzumab, a stable thioether linker, and the potent cytotoxic agent DM1 (derivative of maytansine). Ado-trastuzumab emtansine improved both progression-free and overall survival as reported in EMILIA trial. With ongoing clinical trials in adjuvant and first-line setting for HER-2-positive early and metastatic breast cancer, it is prudent to recognize, report, and treat any adverse events related to T-DM1. We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a 54-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer after she received her first dose of ado-trastuzumab emtansine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute pancreatitis with probable association with ado-trastuzumab emtansine. PMID:25756468

  13. Early complications after interventions in patients with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ai-Lin; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Ming-Jun; Hu, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Da

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the possible predictors of early complications after the initial intervention in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. METHODS: We collected the medical records of 334 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis who received initial intervention in our center. Complications associated with predictors were analyzed. RESULTS: The postoperative mortality rate was 16% (53/334). Up to 31% of patients were successfully treated with percutaneous catheter drainage alone. The rates of intra-abdominal bleeding, colonic fistula, and progressive infection were 15% (50/334), 20% (68/334), and 26% (87/334), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that Marshall score upon admission, multiple organ failure, preoperative respiratory infection, and sepsis were the predictors of postoperative progressive infection (P < 0.05). Single organ failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome upon admission, and C-reactive protein level upon admission were the risk factors of postoperative colonic fistula (P < 0.05). Moreover, preoperative Marshall score, organ failure, sepsis, and preoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome were the risk factors of postoperative intra-abdominal bleeding (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Marshall score, organ failures, preoperative respiratory infection, sepsis, preoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and C-reactive protein level upon admission are associated with postoperative complications. PMID:26973421

  14. Strongyloidiasis: A case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection. PMID:25805946

  15. [Assessment and management of acute severe asthma].

    PubMed

    Kabe, J; Kudo, K

    1992-09-01

    In the management of acute severe asthma it is very important to start the treatment as soon as possible, by appropriate evaluation of the physical status and signs of airflow obstruction. We propose a guideline to be used by patients with asthma, emergency car crews, physicians and nurses to evaluate the severity and to choose the appropriate management of acute asthma, including intubation and mechanical ventilation, by the assessment of clinical features, as well as blood gas analysis and pulmonary function test. Several researchers have demonstrated that the additional administration of aminophylline to inhaled or subcutaneous beta 2-agonist bronchodilator during the first 4 hours of an attack provides no additional benefit compared to the administration of beta 2-agonist alone. In our retrospective study of 68 episodes of acute severe asthma in the last 5 years at our institute, however, the additional administration of aminophylline with beta 2-agonists was clearly shown to be effective with infrequent minor side effects. PMID:1360031

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Acute Pancreatitis in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and acute pancreatitis in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients.A retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database. The risk associated with sitagliptin was compared to that with acarbose, a second-line antidiabetic drug prescribed for patients with similar diabetes severity and with a known neutral effect on pancreatitis. Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010, a total of 8526 sitagliptin initiators and 8055 acarbose initiators who had hypertriglyceridemia or prior hospitalization history for acute pancreatitis were analyzed for the risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis stratified for baseline propensity score.In the crude analysis, sitagliptin was associated with a decreased risk of acute pancreatitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.88) compared to acarbose in diabetic patients with prior history of hospitalization for pancreatitis or hypertriglyceridemia. The association was abolished after stratification for propensity score quintiles (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.79-1.16). Similar results were found separately in both patients' histories of prior hospitalization of acute pancreatitis (adjusted HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76-1.24) and those with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65-1.13). No significant association was found for different durations or accumulative doses of sitagliptin. In the stratified analysis, no significant effect modification was found in relation to patients' characteristics.Use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in high-risk diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia or with history of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26886601

  17. Defining a Therapeutic Program for Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Patients with Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Vincenzo; Lapolla, Francesco; Di Lascia, Alessandra; Giambavicchio, Libero Luca

    2014-01-01

    AIM To define a therapeutic program for mild-moderate acute pancreatitis (AP), often recurrent, which at the end of the diagnostic process remains of undefined etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period 2011–2012, we observed 64 cases of AP: 52 mild-moderate, 12 severe; biliary 39, biliary in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis 5, unexplained recurrent 20. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the 20 cases of unexplained AP showed 6 patients with biliary sludge, 4 microlithiasis, 4 sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and 6 cases that remained undefined. RESULTS Among 20 patients with recurrent, unexplained AP at initial etiological assessment, we performed 10 video laparo cholecystectomies (VLCs), 2 open cholecystectomies and 4 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/endoscopic sphincterotomies (ERCP/ES) in patients who had undergone previous cholecystectomy; 4 patients refused surgery. Among these 20 patients, 6 had AP that remained unexplained after second-level imaging investigations. For these patients, 4 VLCs and 2 ERCP/ES were performed. Follow-up after six months was negative for further recurrence. CONCLUSION The recurrence of unexplained acute pancreatitis could be treated with empirical cholecystectomy and/or ERCP/ES in cases of previous cholecystectomy. PMID:24833943

  18. Acute pancreatitis in north-eastern peninsular Malaysia: an unusual demographic and aetiological pattern.

    PubMed

    Raj, S M; Lopez, D; Thambidorai, C R; Kandasamy, P; Toufeeq Khan, T F; Mohamad, H; Mansur, M; Aiyar, S

    1995-08-01

    A survey of 142 cases of acute pancreatitis was undertaken in two major hospitals serving the state of Kelantan in Malaysia. Females outnumbered males by a ratio of more than 3:1. The incidence among females peaked in the third decade of life. Twenty-one percent (23/109) of the females were pregnant. Ultrasonography revealed gallstones in only 9.4% (13/138). However, abnormalities of serum transaminases were found in 35% (35/100), suggesting that occult gallstones or microlithiasis may be the cause in a significant proportion of patients. Alcohol was virtually absent as an aetiological factor. There was a higher frequency of Ascaris infection in this group than a control hospital population (11/35 vs 33/242; p < 0.02) suggesting that ascariasis may be an important cause of acute pancreatitis in Kelantan. Only 8.4% fell into the category of severe pancreatitis. The overall mortality rate was 2.1%. PMID:8919148

  19. Role of IL-10 gene polymorphisms in the development of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B Z; Tang, L; Xue, H; Liu, D P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that chemokines contribute to the initiation and development of acute pancreatitis. We evaluated the relationship between IL-10 gene polymorphisms (-1082A/G and -819T/C) and development of acute pancreatitis in the Chinese population, in order to provide data for screening high-risk Chinese individuals. In total, 182 patients with confirmed cases of acute pancreatitis and 262 control subjects were recruited from the Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital between April 2012 and December 2014. IL-10 gene polymorphisms at positions -1082A/G and -819T/C were examined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Through multiple-logistic regression analysis, the GG genotype in IL-10 -1082A/G could influence the susceptibility to acute pancreatitis compared to the AA genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 2.68 (1.34-5.39) (P = 0.002). Individuals who carried the AG+GG genotype of IL-10 -1082A/G were associated with greater risk for acute pancreatitis compared to the wide-type genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 1.64 (1.09-2.46). However, no significant difference in susceptibility to acute pancreatitis was found between the IL-10 gene polymorphism at -819T/C. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the IL-10 -1082A/G gene polymorphism contributes to the development of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27173345

  20. Use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis: A case–control study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Some cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported to be associated with use of methimazole. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of a systematic analysis. Methods: This was a population-based case–control study analyzing the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5764 individuals aged 20–84 years with a first attack of acute pancreatitis from 1998 to 2011 as the cases and 23,056 randomly selected sex- and age-matched individuals without acute pancreatitis as the controls. Use of methimazole was categorized as “never use” and “ever use.” We estimated the relative risk of acute pancreatitis associated with the use of methimazole by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: After adjustment for confounding factors, the OR of acute pancreatitis was 0.91 in individuals with ever use of methimazole, when compared with individuals with never use of methimazole (95% CI, 0.60–1.38). Unlike methimazole use, alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hypertriglyceridemia were factors significantly associated with acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: Our study does not detect a substantial association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of systematic analysis. There appears to be a discrepancy between case reports and our systematic analysis about the association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis.

  1. Use of laparoscopy for diagnosing experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-wook; Oh, Ye-in; Choi, Ji-hye; Kim, Dae-yong

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs remains a significant challenge despite the development of advanced diagnostic methodologies. Visual inspection and pancreas biopsy using laparoscopy are generally considered to be procedures free of complications when conducted on healthy animals. However, the usefulness of laparoscopy for diagnosing acute pancreatitis has not been assessed. In the present study, the efficacy of laparoscopy for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in dogs was evaluated in animals with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Gross appearance of the pancreatic area was examined by laparoscopy to survey for the presence of edema, adhesions, effusion, pseudocysts, hemorrhage, and fat necrosis. Laparoscopic biopsy was performed and the histopathologic results were compared to those of pancreatic samples obtained during necropsy. The correlation between laparoscopy and histopathologic findings of the pancreas was evaluated. The presence of adhesions, effusion, and hemorrhage in the pancreatic area observed by laparoscopy significantly correlated with the histopathologic results (p < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between the histopathologic and laparoscopic biopsy findings. Results of this study suggested that laparoscopic evaluation of gross lesions has clinical significance although the laparoscopic biopsy technique has some limitations. This method combined with additional diagnostic tools can be effective for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:24962411

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency ameliorates acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce; Haj, Fawaz

    2014-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored. To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized sEH knockout (KO) mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on ceruelin- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as sEH activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated sEH KO mice compared with non-treated controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6 were lower in sEH KO mice compared with controls. Further, sEH KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. PMID:26461340

  3. Acute pancreatitis with gradient echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meng Yue; Chen, Tian Wu; Huang, Xiao Hua; Li, Xing Hui; Wang, Si Yue; Liu, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Background To study gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI) for normal pancreas and acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods Fifty-one patients without any pancreatic disorders (control group) and 117 patients with AP were recruited. T2* values derived from T2*WI of the pancreas were measured for the two groups. The severity of AP was graded by the magnetic resonance severity index (MRSI) and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the T2* values and AP severity. The usefulness of the T2* value for diagnosing AP and the relationship between the T2* values and the severity of AP were analyzed. Results On GRE-T2*WI, the normal pancreas showed a well-marinated and consistently homogeneous isointensity. Edematous AP, as well as the non-necrotic area in necrotizing AP, showed ill-defined but homogeneous signal intensity. AP with pancreatic hemorrhage showed a decreased T2* value and a signal loss on the signal decay curve. The T2* value of pancreas in the AP group was higher than that of the control group (t=−8.20, P<0.05). The T2* value tended to increase along with the increase in MRSI scores but not with the APACHE II scores (P>0.05). AP was associated with a one standard deviation increment in the T2* value (OR =1.37; 95% CI: 1.216–1.532). Conclusions T2*WI demonstrates a few characteristics of the normal pancreas and AP, which could potentially be helpful for detecting hemorrhage, and contributes to diagnosing AP and its severity. PMID:27190768

  4. Laparoscopy in Afferent Loop Obstruction Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pettinato, Giovanna; Romessis, Matheos; Ferrari Bravo, Andrea; Barozzi, Geraldine; Giovanetti, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    Background: We describe an afferent loop obstruction caused by an adhesion band in a case of distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y end-to-side jejunal anastomosis for cancer. Methods: An initial clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis was ruled out by a computed tomography scan, which revealed intestinal obstruction; it was then confirmed on laparoscopy. Definitive treatment was laparoscopic adhesiolysis. A complete review of the literature concerning afferent loop obstructions is presented. Results: The treatment was successful, with minimal postoperative pain, and the 5-day hospital stay was uncomplicated. The patient remains asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: The authors advocate minimally invasive surgery as a complete diagnostic and therapeutic alternative to emergency laparotomy in cases where afferent loop syndrome is suspected, and acknowledge that prompt surgery has a higher rate of success and reduces operative morbidity and mortality. PMID:16882437

  5. [Acute pancreatitis in childhood by choledocal stone in a choledocal cyst. Case report].

    PubMed

    Bedregal-Mendoza, Tayana; Matos-Rojas, Irma A; Díaz Gonzales, Jacpar E; Ramírez-De la Cruz, Raúl; Castro-Johanson, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a known complication of choledochal cysts. It is associated with changes in the biliopancreatic junction and with intra-cystic gallstones. We describe a case of pancreatitis and biliary obstruction caused by choledochal cyst type IVa complicated with obstruction by biliary stones in a 2 year old infant. PMID:26228985

  6. Effects of trimetazidine in acute pancreatitis induced by L-arginine

    PubMed Central

    Yenicerioglu, Akan; Cetinkaya, Ziya; Girgin, Mustafa; Ustundag, Bilal; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Ayten, Refik; Kanat, Burhan Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background In acute pancreatitis, oxygen free radicals (OFRs) and cytokines have been shown to play a role in the failure of pancreatic microcirculation and the development of local tissue damage. We studied the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), a potent antioxidant and anti-ischemic agent, on acute pancreatitis. Methods Rats were randomized into 3 groups: a control group (n = 15), a study group (n = 15) in which acute pancreatitis was induced with with L-arginine, and a treatment group (n = 15) in which pancreatitis was induced and treated with TMZ intraperitoneally. The rats were followed for 24 hours. At the 24th hour we determined serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the pancreatic tissues were analyzed histopathologically. Results The AST (p < 0.001), ALT (p < 0.01), amylase (p < 0.001), LDH (p < 0.01), TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-1β (p < 0.001) and IL-6 (p < 0.001) levels, and pancreatic tissue edema (p < 0.01), hemorrhage (p < 0.05), acinar cell necrosis (p < 0.001) and level of perivascular inflammation (p < 0.01), were significantly lower in the treatment group than the study group. Conclusion Trimetazidine markedly decreases biochemical and histopathologic changes during the early stages of acute pancreatitis, thus preserving the pancreas histologically. PMID:23484468

  7. To Study the Clinical, Biochemical and Radiological Features of Acute Pancreatitis in HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Shahzad; Chaudhry, Naueen A.; Brown, Jordan D.; Aghaie, Sina; Rezai, Damoun; Khan, Areej; Tan, Paul De Leon; Berger, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis complicating HIV infection, even in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) era, remains a management challenge. We felt there is a need to discern patterns in the biochemical markers, radiological studies, co-infections, length of stay (LOS) in patients with HIV or AIDS AND pancreatitis. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from June, 2008 to August, 2010 on patients admitted with acute pancreatitis to our hospital. We extracted and compared the following parameters: biochemical markers, HBV markers (surface antigen, core antibody and surface antibody), HCV antibody, radiological studies, and length of stay (LOS). The Balthazar Grade score was used to assess radiological severity of disease. We stratified the cohort into comparison subsets according to CD4 count. Results Ninety-four admissions met the criteria for HIV or AIDS AND pancreatitis; 67 unique patients comprised the cohort. Median age was 48 years (range, 23 to 60 years). Thirty seven (55%) were male, 30 (45%), female. Two third (n = 51) (76%) were African American. Known risk factors included a history of pancreatitis, 17 (25%); cholecystitis, 13 (19%); alcohol abuse, 25 (37%); Intravenous drug abuse, 18 (27%). Only 36 (38%) admissions were on HAART regimen. Biochemical features on admission were: WBC, 6,100/mm3 (900 - 25,700); amylase, 152 U/L (30 - 1,344); lipase, 702.5 U/L (30 - 5,766), triglyceride, 65 mg/dL (57 - 400); glucose, 94 mg/dL (60 - 1,670); lactate, 2.3 mmol/L (1.09 - 5.49); AST, 61.5 U/L (9 - 1,950); LDH, 762 U/L (394 - 5,500); bicarbonate 19.5 mEq/L (3.3 - 82.7). Interestingly, 62% patients had normal pancreas on CT scan on admission. Of 67 individuals, hepatitis profile was available in 43, 21 (49%) were positive for HCV, 11 (26%) had markers for HBV. Four of 11 patients (36) with CD4 < 50 had evidence of persistent HBV (+core, -surface ab). Patients with CD4 < 200 have a median time for hospital course of 8 days (range 4 - 61 days) compare to 3 days in patients with CD4 > 200. P = 0.03 via t-test comparison. One patient with CD4 < 50 died due to acute pancreatitis. Conclusion Pancreatitis remains a major cause of morbidity in HIV-infected individuals. This study has provided detailed features in the HAART therapy era about the clinical, biochemical and radiological features of pancreatitis. Half of our patients were positive for HCV; additionally, 36% with CD4 < 50 had persistent HBV. As opposed to earlier studies, we did not find a female predominance. Patients with CD4 < 200 had a 2.67-fold increase length of stay. Future studies are needed for a closer look on viral cofactors which might precipitate episodes of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23390470

  8. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for Patients with Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Chih; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lin, Kung-Hung; Wang, Kai-Ming; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chiang, Po-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Li, Yun-Da; Wang, E-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background. No study investigated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for the treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). Method. We retrospectively reviewed the effects of EPBD on patients with ABP from February 2003 to December 2012. The general data, findings of image studies, details of the procedure, and outcomes after EPBD were analyzed. Result. Total 183 patients (male/female: 110/73) were enrolled. The mean age was 65.9 years. Among them, 155 patients had mild pancreatitis. The meantime from admission to EPBD was 3.3 days. Cholangiogram revealed filling defects inside the common bile duct (CBD) in 149 patients. The mean dilating balloon size was 10.5?mm and mean duration of the dilating procedure was 4.3 minutes. Overall, 124 patients had gross stones retrieved from CBD. Four (2.2%) adverse events and 2 (1.1%) intraprocedure bleeding incidents but no procedure-related mortality were noted. Bilirubin and amylase levels significantly decreased after EPBD. On average, patients resumed oral intake within 1.4 days. The clinical parameters and outcomes were similar in patients with different severity of pancreatitis. Conclusion. EPBD can be effective and safe for the treatment of ABP, even in patients presenting with severe disease. PMID:25949236

  9. Acute pancreatitis successfully diagnosed by diffusion-weighted imaging: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshifumi; Guiquing, Zhang; Yamamoto, Fumio; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established diagnostic method of acute stroke. The latest advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology have greatly expanded the utility of DWI in the examination of various organs. Recent studies have revealed the usefulness of DWI for imaging of the liver, kidney, ovary, and breast. We report a patient with acute pancreatitis detected by DWI and discussed the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. A 50-year old man presented with a primary complaint of abdominal pain. We performed both DWI and computed tomography (CT) for this patient. The signal intensity in a series of DWI was measured and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated to differentiate inflammation from normal tissue. Two experienced radiologists evaluated the grade of acute pancreatitis by comparing the CT findings. Initially, the pancreas and multiple ascites around the pancreas produced a bright signal and ADC values were reduced on DWI. As the inflammation decreased, the bright signal faded to an iso-signal and the ADC values returned to their normal level. There was no difference in the abilities of DWI and CT images to detect acute pancreatitis. However, our case indicates that DWI can evaluate the manifestations of acute pancreatitis using no enhancement material and has the potential to replace CT as a primary diagnostic strategy for acute pancreatitis. PMID:18803364

  10. Socs1 and Socs3 degrades Traf6 via polyubiquitination in LPS-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Cheng, X; Zheng, Y; Zeng, F; He, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in inflammatory development during acute pancreatitis (AP) are largely vague, especially in the transformation of acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) into acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). This current study aims to investigate the functions of Traf6 in different AP models in vitro and in vivo, and to identify the possible regulatory mechanism in the progression of inflammation from mild to severe. Our data revealed that the level of Traf6 expression was significantly increased in the mild AP induced by caerulein, and the upregulation of Traf6 played a protective role in acinar cells against caerulein-induced apoptosis. In contrast, only Traf6 protein but not mRNA was downregulated in the severe ANP induced by combination treatment of caerulein and LPS. Mechanistic studies showed that LPS upregulated the levels of Socs1 and Socs3 expressions in acinar cells, Socs1 and Socs3 interacted Traf6 directly and degraded Traf6 protein via polyubiquitination, thereby counteracted the protective function of Traf6. In vivo study further showed that combination treatment of caerulein and LPS failed to induce an ANP model in the TLR4 knockout mice, and the level of Traf6 expression in the pancreatic tissues remained the same as that from the acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) mouse. Taken together, our study reveals that Traf6 functioned as a protective factor in the progression of AP, and LPS-induced Socs1 and Socs3 exacerbate mild AP to severe AP, which provides evidence for developing a new therapeutic target to combat AP. PMID:26633718

  11. Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the ampulla of Vater presenting as acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rafiullah; Tanimu, Sabo

    2014-01-01

    We report an interesting and rare case of a man with adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the ampulla of Vater presenting as acute pancreatitis, which to our knowledge, is only the second reported case in the English literature. The patient presented with an acute onset of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, without fever, chills or rigours. CT of the abdomen revealed changes of acute pancreatitis with a peripancreatic adenopathy, and abdominal ultrasound revealed a slightly hyperechoic and oedematous head of the pancreas, consistent with acute pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography revealed an ampullary lesion. Pathology of the ampullary lesion revealed an inflammatory polyp. Endoscopic ultrasound with endoscopic mucosal resection of the lesion revealed an adenomyomatous hyperplasia. The patient recovered well postendoscopic resection without recurrent pancreatitis or cholestasis. PMID:24604802

  12. Pancreatitis developing in the context of acute hepatitis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Ghamar-Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Agah, Shahram; Aghaei, Aghdas

    2015-03-01

    Despite strong evidence suggestive of associations between hepatic diseases and pancreas injury, a potential relationship between acute hepatitis and acute pancreatitis has not been a matter of review; which we focused on in the current paper. Some of the main findings of this review article are: fulminant hepatitis failure represents the highest incident rate of hepatitis-related acute pancreatitis; so a screening program might be indicative in these patients. Specific characteristics of HAV-related pancreatitis are that it is a benign condition with no reported mortality; and a male preponderance in the incidence, with females developing in older ages and having shown the signs of both conditions simultaneously. The incidence of acute pancreatitis in HBV infection is the lowest, but the mortality was the highest. HEV-related acute pancreatitis was most likely to represent pseudocysts and there was an apparent ethnic-priority with Indian descents, the only reported cases in the literature. Hepatitis-related pancreatitis in liver transplant recipients was most frequent in HBV infected patients; and in IFN-induced pancreatitis, cessation of the drug was most effective in treatment, with no catastrophic event reported. PMID:25791542

  13. Bortezomib-induced acute pancreatitis: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Sivik, Jeffrey; Pandey, Manoj K; Mir, Muhammad A

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication of chemotherapy agents. We describe the case of a patient with multiple myeloma who developed acute pancreatitis after treatment with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor commonly used in the treatment of this disease. We reviewed the available medical literature on this topic, and found other seven similar cases, all after intravenous bortezomib. Our case is the first one occurring with the subcutaneous route of administration. PMID:25516544

  14. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  15. Continuous regional arterial infusion for acute pancreatitis: a propensity score analysis using a nationwide administrative database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) of a protease inhibitor and an antibiotic may be effective in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, CRAI has not yet been validated in large patient populations. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of CRAI based on data from a national administrative database covering 1,032 Japanese hospitals. Methods In-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs were compared in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups, using propensity score analysis to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results A total of 17,415 eligible patients with acute pancreatitis were identified between 1 July and 30 September 2011, including 287 (1.6%) patients who underwent CRAI. One-to-one propensity-score matching generated 207 pairs with well-balanced baseline characteristics. In-hospital mortality rates were similar in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups (7.7% vs. 8.7%; odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.44–1.78, P = 0.720). CRAI was associated with significantly longer median hospital stay (29 vs. 18 days, P < 0.001), significantly higher median total cost (21,800 vs. 12,600 United States dollars, P < 0.001), and a higher rate of interventions for infectious complications, such as endoscopic/surgical necrosectomy or percutaneous drainage (2.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.061). Conclusions CRAI was not effective in reducing in-hospital mortality rate in patients with acute pancreatitis, but was associated with longer hospital stay and higher costs. Randomized controlled trials in large numbers of patients are required to further evaluate CRAI for this indication. PMID:24088324

  16. Effect of harmless acute pancreatitis score, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on the mortality of patients with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis at the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Gülen, Bedia; Sonmez, Ertan; Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Dur, Ali; Turkdogan, Figen Tunali; Söğüt, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmless acute pancreatitis score (HAPS), neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are used to determine the early prognosis of patients diagnosed with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (K 85.9) in the ED according to the ICD10 coding during one year were included in the study. Patients with chronic pancreatitis and those who had missing data in their files were excluded from the study. Patients who did not have computed tomography (CT) in the ED were not included in the study. RESULTS: Ultimately, 322 patients were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 53.1 (IQR=36–64). Of the patients, 68.1% (n=226) had etiological causes of the biliary tract. The mortality rate of these patients within the first 48 hours was 4.3% (n=14). In the logistic regression analysis performed by using Balthazar classification, HAPS score, RDW, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio, age, diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure, the only independent variable in determining mortality was assigned as Balthazar classification (OR: 15; 95% CI: 3.5 to 64.4). CONCLUSIONS: HAPS, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and RDW were not effective in determining the mortality of nontraumatic acute pancreatitis cases within the first 48 hours. The only independent variable for determining the mortality was Balthazar classification. PMID:25802563

  17. Acetaminophen Poisoning and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether acetaminophen poisoning is associated with a higher risk of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using the longitudinal population-based database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) program between 2000 and 2011. The acetaminophen cohort comprised patients aged ≥ 20 years with newly identified acetaminophen poisoning (N = 2958). The comparison cohort comprised randomly selected patients with no history of acetaminophen poisoning. The acetaminophen and comparison cohorts were frequency matched by age, sex, and index year (N = 11,832) at a 1:4 ratio. Each patient was followed up from the index date until the date an acute pancreatitis diagnosis was made, withdrawal from the NHI program, or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effects of acetaminophen on the risk of acute pancreatitis.The risk of acute pancreatitis was 3.11-fold higher in the acetaminophen cohort than in the comparison cohort (11.2 vs 3.61 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-4.47). The incidence rate was considerably high in patients who were aged 35 to 49 years, men, those who had comorbidities, and within the first year of follow-up.Acetaminophen poisoning is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Additional prospective studies are necessary to verify how acetaminophen poisoning affects the risk of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26200631

  18. Vascular Access System for Continuous Arterial Infusion of a Protease Inhibitor in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganaha, Fumikiyo; Yamada, Tetsuhisa; Yorozu, Naoya; Ujita, Masuo; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Tada, Shimpei

    1999-09-15

    We used a vascular access system (VAS) for continuous arterial infusion (CAI) of a protease inhibitor in two patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The infusion catheter was placed into the dorsal pancreatic artery in the first patient and into the gastroduodenal artery in the second, via a femoral artery approach. An implantable port was then connected to the catheter and was secured in a subcutaneous pocket prepared in the right lower abdomen. No complications related to the VAS were encountered. This system provided safe and uncontaminated vascular access for successful CAI for acute pancreatitis.

  19. Retrospective study of patients with acute pancreatitis: is serum amylase still required?

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Dhanwant; Addison, Alfred; De Rosa, Antonella; Brooks, Adam; Cameron, Iain C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of serum amylase and lipase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Secondary aims were to perform a cost analysis of these enzyme assays in patients admitted to the surgical admissions unit. Design Cohort study. Setting Secondary care. Participants Patients admitted with pancreatitis to the acute surgical admissions unit from January to December 2010 were included in the study. Methods Data collated included demographics, laboratory results and aetiology. The cost of measuring a single enzyme assay was £0.69 and both assays were £0.99. Results Of the 151 patients included, 117 patients had acute pancreatitis with gallstones (n=51) as the most common cause. The majority of patients with acute pancreatitis had raised levels of both amylase and lipase. Raised lipase levels only were observed in additional 12% and 23% of patients with gallstone-induced and alcohol-induced pancreatitis, respectively. Overall, raised lipase levels were seen in between 95% and 100% of patients depending on aetiology. Sensitivity and specificity of lipase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was 96.6% and 99.4%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of amylase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis were 78.6% and 99.1%, respectively. Single lipase assay in all patients presenting with abdominal pain to the surgical admission unit would result in a potential saving of £893.70/year. Conclusions Determining serum lipase level alone is sufficient to diagnose acute pancreatitis and substantial savings can be made if measured alone. PMID:23002153

  20. Severe necrotic and septic pancreatitis. Indications to endoscopic, surgical, and nutritional therapy

    PubMed Central

    MANGIANTE, G.; RODELLA, L.; CEROFOLINI, A.; GIACOPUZZI, S.; PASSERI, V.; STERZI, E.; CATALANO, F.; SCHENAL, G.; de MANZONI, G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) management has changed over the last fifteen years, and from too aggressive behaviour, we moved to a cautious one. In every case, we can appreciate defect of extremist conceptual position. We reviewed our strategy on disease treatment, and we analyzed treatment of single cases. We collected 4 SAP cases from January 2009 to January 2010. All patients were septic, and we adopted the same approach for all of them, avoiding surgery without peritoneal infection. In all patients we placed jejumostomy and, after cleaning of septic site, we started immediate enteral nutrition (EN). Antibiotic therapy against Gram+, Gram− and antifugal drug had been started. No one died and all patients were back to an active life even if social costs are considerably high especially due to very long hospital stay. PMID:24629818

  1. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Pancreatitis What is the pancreas? What does it do? T he pancreas is an organ in the ... in maintaining normal blood sugar levels. What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the ...

  2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yun-Ju; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Hsin-Hua; Chou, Pesus

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.This nationwide population-based cohort study used the diabetes patients dataset of Taiwan's National Health Research Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and no history of acute pancreatitis were selected. This cohort was followed from the index date to the onset of acute pancreatitis or December 31, 2011. The main outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) for acute pancreatitis associated with DPP-4 inhibitor use. Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were adjusted for alcohol use, hypertriglyceridemia, cholelithiasis, neoplasm, and Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI) score. Subgroup analyses stratified by age and sex were conducted.The study cohort comprised 114,141 patients. Significant interaction effects were observed between sex and age (HR 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.99) and age and DCSI score (HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.97). In subgroup analyses, significant risks of acute pancreatitis were noted in female and elderly DPP-4 inhibitor users. Among women, the risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher among DPP-4 inhibitor users than among nonusers (HR 2.27, 95% CI: 1.30-3.97). This risk was also significantly higher in users than in nonusers among patients aged >65 years (HR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.11-5.15).Female and elderly DPP-4 inhibitor users had significantly elevated risks of acute pancreatitis development. Further well-conducted studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26512613

  3. Cholecystokinin blockade alters the systemic immune response in rats with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    de la Mano, Ana Maria; Sevillano, Sara; Manso, Manuel Antonio; Pérez, Martin; de Dios, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by initial pancreatic injury resulting from the activation of digestive enzymes and, later, widespread inflammation to distant organs. The aim of this study was to study whether the time-course of inflammatory events during AP induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO) varies after lowering the acinar enzyme content by L364,718 (0.1 mg/kg/day) administration over 7 days before inducing AP. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping was used to analyse the following at different AP stages: distribution of major circulating leucocyte subsets, activation state of circulating neutrophils and monocytes as reflected by CD11b expression and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and the contribution of T-cell-derived pro-(TNF-α) and anti-(IL-10) inflammatory mediators. TNF-α plasma levels and neutrophil infiltration in pancreas and lung were also measured. At early BPDO times, L364,718 treatment partially inhibited leukocytosis and increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes as well as TNF-α expression by monocytes. However, from 6 h onwards after BPDO, L364,718 treatment was unable to prevent either pancreatic and lung neutrophil infiltration or the release of TNF-α from activated monocytes. By its action on circulating lymphocytes, L364,718 treatment enhanced the severity of the inflammatory response induced by BPDO. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were recruited from earlier BPDO times, and 12 h after BPDO, T cells displayed a significantly higher reserve of TNF-α able to be released under stimulation but lower functional reserve of interleukin-10 (IL-10) than observed in untreated rats. It is concluded that lowering the acinar enzyme content through L364,718 treatment prevents earlier systemic immune events in BPDO-induced AP. However, at the point of maximal injury, the inflammatory response became pronounced, largely due to the role played by activated T lymphocytes. PMID:15154913

  4. Maintenance Treatment With Low-Dose Mercaptopurine in Combination With Allopurinol in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Mercaptopurine-Induced Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zerra, Patricia; Bergsagel, John; Keller, Frank G; Lew, Glen; Pauly, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Mercaptopurine (6-mercaptopurine, 6MP) is a mainstay of curative therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and contributes to its 90% overall survival rate. We present two patients with ALL who suffered with severe pancreatitis secondary to 6MP. Through the use of allopurinol in conjunction with reduced dose 6MP, we were able to continue 6MP without further pancreatitis. This report contributes to the small body of literature on 6MP associated pancreatitis in childhood ALL and describes a novel approach to continued use of 6MP during therapy. PMID:26878433

  5. The angle of pancreaticobiliary junction correlates with acute pancreatitis: a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Guo-Li; Jing, Zong-Lin; Gao, Cai-Liang; Tang, Meng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between the angle of the pancreaticobiliary junction (APJ) and the prevalence of acute pancreatitis using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Materials and methods From February 2014 to October 2014, thirty two subjects with normal pancreas (group A) and 40 patients with acute pancreatitis (group B) who underwent MRCP were enrolled into our study. The type of biliary duct and main pancreatic duct joining the duodenal wall was reviewed and divided into V, B-P and P-B type. The V type is the pancreatic duct and biliary duct joining the duodenal wall without a common channel; the B-P type is the biliary duct draining into the pancreatic duct and forming a common channel; and the P-B type is the pancreatic duct draining into the biliary duct and forming a common channel. APJ was measured on MRCP. The correlation between the APJ and the prevalence of acute pancreatitis was analyzed. Results The APJ in group A was smaller than in group B (51.45°±13.51° vs. 65.76°±15.61°, P<0.05). According to the type of biliary duct and main pancreatic duct joining the duodenal wall, the prevalence of acute pancreatitis in the V type and in the B-P type was higher than in the P-B type (12/17 vs. 10/29, or 18/26 vs. 10/29, respectively, all P<0.05), whereas there were no significant difference for the prevalence of acute pancreatitis between the V type and B-P type (P>0.05). The APJ were 59.32°±20.04°, 60.22°±11.06°, 57.13°±17.27°, respectively in V type, B-P type and P-B type joining of main pancreatic duct (P>0.05). Conclusions A larger APJ is related to a higher prevalence of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26029643

  6. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with acute pancreatitis and asymptomatic bone involvement.

    PubMed

    Saif, Aasem

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950

  7. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with acute pancreatitis and asymptomatic bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Aasem

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950

  8. Acute pancreatitis due to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Limon, Onder; Kantar, Funda Ugur; Sahin, Erkan; Arslan, Murat; Ugurhan, Aslı Aydınoglu

    2014-11-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is considered the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteral stones. Although extensive data have documented its safety, serious complications have been reported in 1% of patients, including acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, and rupture of aortic aneurysms. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman who underwent ESWL for a calculus at the right renal pelvis and immediately developed acute pancreatitis after the procedure. Although the possibility of post-ESWL acute pancreatitisis extremely low, physicians must be aware of this complication in emergency departments. PMID:24908440

  9. Clinical impact of preoperative acute pancreatitis in patients who undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Xie, Si-Ming; Zhang, Hao; Tan, Chun-Lu; Ke, Neng-Wen; Mai, Gang; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of preoperative acute pancreatitis (PAP) on the surgical management of periampullary tumors. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with periampullary tumors and PAP were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-four patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and 4 patients who underwent total pancreatectomy were compared with a control group of 145 patients without PAP during the same period. RESULTS: The preoperative waiting time was significantly shorter for the concomitant PAP patients who underwent a resection (22.4 d vs 54.6 d, P < 0.001) compared to those who did not. The presence of PAP significantly increased the rate of severe complications (Clavien grade 3 or higher) (17.6% vs 4.8%, P = 0.019) and lengthened the hospital stay (19.5 d vs 14.5 d, P = 0.006). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that PAP was an independent risk factor for postoperative pancreatic fistula (OR = 2.91; 95%CI: 1.10-7.68; P = 0.032) and severe complications (OR = 4.70; 95%CI: 1.48-14.96; P = 0.009) after PD. There was no perioperative mortality. CONCLUSION: PAP significantly increases the incidence of severe complications and lengthens the hospital stay following PD. PD could be safely performed in highly selective patients with PAP. PMID:26078571

  10. The risk of acute pancreatitis associated with acid-suppressing drugs

    PubMed Central

    Eland, I A; Alvarez, C Huerta; Stricker, B H CH; Rodríguez, L A García

    2000-01-01

    Aims To assess the risk of acute pancreatitis associated with use of acid-suppressing drugs. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a nested case-control design within the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) in the United Kingdom. The cohort included 180 178 persons aged 20–74 years, who had received at least one prescription of cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, ranitidine, lansoprazole, or omeprazole from January 1992 to September 1997 and who did not have major risk factors for pancreatic diseases. Patients with a computerized medical history compatible with idiopathic acute pancreatitis were validated through review of medical records. For the nested case-control analysis 1000 controls were randomly selected from the study population. Results We identified 88 potential cases of idiopathic acute pancreatitis. Medical records were available for 86. After review of these records 36 cases of acute pancreatitis were confirmed. Seven cases occurred during nonuse, corresponding to a background incidence rate (IR) of 4.4/100 000 person-years (PY). Six cases occurred during current use of ranitidine (IR 10.5/100 000 PY), five patients were current users of cimetidine (IR 13.9/100 000 PY), and three were current users of omeprazole (IR 7.8/100 000 PY). There were no cases among current users of famotidine, lansoprazole, or nizatidine. Relative risk (RR) compared with nonuse and corrected for age, gender, calendar year and use of medication known to be associated with acute pancreatitis was 1.3 (95% CI: 0.4,4.1) for ranitidine, 2.1 (95% CI: 0.6,7.2) for cimetidine, and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.3,4.6) for omeprazole. Conclusions The results of this study do not support an association between acute pancreatitis and the use of acid-suppressing drugs, although a substantial increase in risk cannot be excluded with confidence. PMID:10792205

  11. [Antioxidative effect of N2-mercaptopropionylglycine (N2 MPG) in experimental acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Abdo, E E; Machado, M C; Coelho, A M; Sampietre, S N; Leite, K R; Molan, N A; Pinotti, H W

    1998-01-01

    The N2-Mercaptopropionylglycine (N2-MPG) is a potent antioxidant by inhibiting the abnormal production of xantina-oxidase. The aim of this research is to analyze the antioxidant capacity of this tiol compound by offering some protection to pancreatic tissue in the acute pancreatitis (AP). The induction of AP was obtained through two methods: a) supramaximal dose of cerulein; b) infusion of 2.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct of the rat. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (220-270 g) were divided into four groups. AP with cerulein (Two parenteral doses of 20 micrograms/kg; one hour interval): in two groups: GI: nineteen rats previously treated with N2-MPG (100 mg/kg) ten minutes before AP. GII (control): seventeen animals which received saline 0.9%. AP with taurocholate (0.5 ml into the main biliopancreatic duct): in other two groups: GIII: eleven rats previously treated with N2-MPG (100 mg/kg) ten minutes before AP. GIV (control): fifteen animals which received saline 0.9%. The albumin leakage into the cell interstice as an inflammatory parameter was measured through Evans-Blue (EB) colorimetry, that links totally with serum albumin after injection into the pancreatic tissue, immediately before induction of AP. The rats were sacrificed one hour after. Water tissue content was also measured. There was a relevant reduction of EB leakage in GI (344 +/- 27 micrograms/gtissue) when compared to GII (729 +/- 84 micrograms/gtissue), p < 0.01, and in GIII (386 +/- 52 micrograms/gtissue) when compared to GIV (543 +/- 53 micrograms/gtissue), p < 0.05. There was no difference in tissue water content between GI (88.2 +/- 0.6%) and GII (87.4 +/- 0.9%), but certainly between GIII (77.7 +/- 2.1%) and GIV (82.8 +/- 1.2%), p < 0.05. The amilase levels didn't show any difference among the four groups. These results suggest that the use of the antioxidant N2-MPG offers a protective action, at least in rats, reducing the severity of AP induced by supramaximal dose of cerulein, and even in a more severe AP such as produced by sodium taurocholate at 2.5%, although apparently not interfering with its pathogenesis. It also strengthens the actual participation of free radicals of oxygen in the physiopathology of acute pancreatitis. PMID:9922494

  12. Heparin improves organ microcirculatory disturbances in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dobosz, Marek; Mionskowska, Lucjanna; Hać, Stanislaw; Dobrowolski, Sebastian; Dymecki, Dariusz; Wajda, Zdzislaw

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Microcirculatory disturbances are important early pathophysiological events in various organs during acute pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in microperfusion of the pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, colon, skeletal muscle, and to investigate the influence of heparin on the organ microcirculation in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced by 4 intraperitoneal injections of caerulein (Cn) (15 μg/kg). The organ microcirculation was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Serum interleukin 6 and hematocrit levels were analysed. RESULTS: Acute pancreatitis resulted in a significant drop of microperfusion in all examined organs. Heparin administration (2 ± 2.5 mg/kg) improved the microcirculation in pancreas (36.9% ± 4% vs 75.9% ± 10%), liver (56.6% ± 6% vs 75.2% ± 16%), kidney (45.1% ± 6% vs 79.3% ± 5%), stomach (65.2% ± 8% vs 78.1% ± 19%), colon (69.8% ± 6% vs 102.5% ± 19%), and skeletal muscle (59.2% ± 6% vs 77.9% ± 13%). Heparin treatment lowered IL-6 (359.0 ± 66 U/mL vs 288.558 U/mL) and hematocrit level (53% ± 4% vs 46% ± 3%). CONCLUSION: Heparin administration has a positive influence on organ microcirculatory disturbances accompanying experimental Cn-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:15300904

  13. Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Javali, Tarun; Prathvi; Ramesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus. PMID:24497695

  14. Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Javali, Tarun; Prathvi; Ramesh, D.

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus. PMID:24497695

  15. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Methimazole in a Patient With Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Agito, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    We report here a unique case of methimazole (MMI)-induced pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the sixth case reported in the literature and the first diagnosed in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter. A 51-year-old Caucasian female with a history of benign multinodular goiter and subclinical hyperthyroidism was started on MMI 10 mg orally daily. Three weeks later, she developed sharp epigastric pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, and fever. Her lipase was elevated 5 times the upper limit of normal, consistent with acute pancreatitis. There was no history of hypertriglyceridemia, or alcohol abuse. Abdominal computed tomography was consistent with acute uncomplicated pancreatitis, without evidence of gallstones or tumors. MMI was discontinued, and her hyperthyroid symptoms were managed with propranolol. Her acute episode of pancreatitis quickly resolved clinically and biochemically. One year later, she redeveloped mild clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism with biochemical evidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism. MMI 10 mg orally daily was restarted. Five days later, she experienced progressive abdominal discomfort. Her lipase was elevated 12 times the upper limit of normal, and the abdominal computed tomography was again compatible with acute uncomplicated pancreatitis. MMI was again discontinued, which was followed by rapid resolution of her pancreatitis. The patient is currently considering undergoing definitive therapy with radioactive iodine ablation. Our case as well as previous case reports in the literature should raise awareness about the possibility of pancreatitis in subjects treated with MMI in the presence of suggestive symptoms. If the diagnosis is confirmed by elevated pancreatic enzymes, the drug should be discontinued. PMID:26425645

  16. Intra-abdominal pressure: Time ripe to revise management guidelines of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Jaipuria, Jiten; Bhandari, Vimal; Chawla, Avneet Singh; Singh, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review evidence on pathophysiology of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in acute pancreatitis (AP) with its clinical correlates. METHODS: Systematic review of available evidence in English literature with relevant medical subject heading terms on PubMed, Medline and Scopus with further search from open access sources on internet as suggested by articles retrieved. RESULTS: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is increasingly gaining recognition as a point of specific intervention with potential to alter disease outcome and improve mortality in AP. IAH can be expected in at least 17% of patients presenting with diagnosis of AP to a typical tertiary care hospital (prevalence increasing to 50% in those with severe disease). Abdominal compartment syndrome can be expected in at least 15% patients with severe disease. Recent guidelines on management of AP do not acknowledge utility of surveillance for IAP other than those by Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. We further outline pathophysiologic mechanisms of IAH; understanding of which advances our knowledge and helps to coherently align common observed variations in management related conundrums (such as fluid therapy, nutrition and antibiotic prophylaxis) with potential to further individualize treatment in AP. CONCLUSION: We suggest that IAP be given its due place in future practice guidelines and that recommendations be formed with help of a broader panel with inclusion of clinicians experienced in management of IAH. PMID:26909242

  17. Prospective evaluation of the cause of acute pancreatitis, with special attention to medicines

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mitra; Røkke, Ola

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) by conducting a thorough investigation of drugs and their possible etiological role. METHODS: We investigated the cause of AP in a large retrospective cohort of 613 adult patients admitted with AP at the Akershus University Hospital, Norway, from 2000 until 2009, who were evaluated with standard ward investigations. This group was compared with a prospectively evaluated group (n = 57) admitted from January 2010 until September 2010 who investigated more extensively using medical history and radiological assessment. RESULTS: The groups were comparable with regards to gender, age, comorbidity and severity. The most common etiology was bile stones and alcohol, occurring in 60% in both groups. The prospective group was examined more thoroughly with regards to the use of alcohol and medicines. An increased number of radiological investigations during hospital stay and at follow-up were also performed. A more extensive use of radiological evaluation did not increase the detection frequency of bile stones. In the prospective group, more than half of the patients had two or more possible causes of pancreatitis, being mostly a combination of bile stones and drugs. No possible cause was found in only 3.5% of these patients, compared with 29.7% in the retrospective group. CONCLUSION: A detailed medical history and extensive radiological evaluation may determine a possible etiology in almost all cases of AP. Many patients have several possible risk factors, and uncertainty remains in establishing the definitive etiology. PMID:26877614

  18. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia During Therapy For Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bhojwani, Deepa; Darbandi, Rashid; Pei, Deqing; Ramsey, Laura B.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Sandlund, John T.; Cheng, Cheng; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V.; Jeha, Sima; Metzger, Monika L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asparaginase and steroids can cause hypertriglyceridemia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). There are no guidelines for screening or management of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dL) during ALL therapy. Patients and Methods Fasting lipid profiles were obtained prospectively at 4 time-points for 257 children consecutively enrolled on a frontline ALL study. Risk factors were evaluated by the exact chi-square test. Details of adverse events and management of hypertriglyceridemia were extracted retrospectively. Results Eighteen of 257 (7%) patients developed severe hypertriglyceridemia. Older age and treatment with higher doses of asparaginase and steroids on the standard/high-risk arm were significant risk factors. Severe hypertriglyceridemia was not associated with pancreatitis after adjustment for age and treatment arm or with osteonecrosis after adjustment for age. However, patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia had a 2.5 to 3 times higher risk of thrombosis compared to patients without, albeit the difference was not statistical significant. Of the 30 episodes of severe hypertriglyceridemia in 18 patients, 7 were managed conservatively while the others with pharmacotherapy. Seventeen of 18 patients continued to receive asparaginase and steroids. Triglyceride levels normalized after completion of ALL therapy in all 12 patients with available measurements. Conclusion Asparaginase- and steroid-induced transient hypertriglyceridemia can be adequately managed with dietary modifications and close monitoring without altering chemotherapy. Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia were not at increased risk of adverse events, with a possible exception of thrombosis. The benefit of pharmacotherapy in decreasing symptoms and potential complications requires further investigation. PMID:25087182

  19. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with mexidol and low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Fatal acute necrohaemorrhagic pancreatitis with massive intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal bleeding: a rare cause of exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Querido, Sara; Carvalho, Ins; Moleiro, Filipa; Pvoa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital with uncontrollable vomiting and abdominal pain. Lithiasic acute pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms along with raised serum amylase levels and compatible findings in ultrasonography and CT scan. Two Ranson criteria (lactate dehydrogenase over 350?U/L and aspartate aminotransferase over 250?U/L) were present at admission. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU); intravenous crystalloids were prescribed and analgaesics were administered for pain relief. Unexpectedly, 10?h after ICU admission, he presented a cardiac arrest with a non-defibrillate rhythm and died after 40?min of advanced life support. An autopsy was performed and revealed acute necrohaemorrhagic pancreatitis with massive intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal haemorrhage. This case report summarises the epidemiology, pathophysiology and risk factors for fatal bleeding acute pancreatitis. PMID:26791128

  1. Gastrostomy tube migration complicated with acute pancreatitis: Two case reports with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Hawatmeh, Amer; Alkhateeb, Anas; Arqoub, Ahmad Abu; Jumean, Khalid; Shaaban, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is an important method of providing enteral nutrition to patients with swallowing disorders and those who need long-term enteral nutritional support. The association between PEG tube migration and acute pancreatitis is rare and was previously described in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases have been reported in the literature. In this article, we are describing two cases of acute pancreatitis secondary to PEG tube balloon migration to the duodenum. These two case reports exemplify that PEG tube migration to the duodenum is not uncommon, and it may lead to disturbance of the biliary flow, obstruction of the ampulla of vater, and acute pancreatitis. PMID:27051623

  2. Reverse-migrated neutrophils regulated by JAM-C are involved in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Deqing; Zeng, Yue; Fan, Yuting; Wu, Jianghong; Mulatibieke, Tunike; Ni, Jianbo; Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xingpeng; Hu, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) plays a key role in the promotion of the reverse transendothelial migration (rTEM) of neutrophils, which contributes to the dissemination of systemic inflammation and to secondary organ damage. During acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory responses lead to distant organ damage and typically result in acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we investigated the role of rTEM neutrophils in AP-associated ALI and the molecular mechanisms by which JAM-C regulates neutrophil rTEM in this disorder. In this study, rTEM neutrophils were identified in the peripheral blood both in murine model of AP and human patients with AP, which elevated with increased severity of lung injury. Pancreatic JAM-C was downregulated during murine experimental pancreatitis, whose expression levels were inversely correlated with both increased neutrophil rTEM and severity of lung injury. Knockout of JAM-C resulted in more severe lung injury and systemic inflammation. Significantly greater numbers of rTEM neutrophils were present both in the circulation and pulmonary vascular washout in JAM-C knockout mice with AP. This study demonstrates that during AP, neutrophils that are recruited to the pancreas may migrate back into the circulation and then contribute to ALI. JAM-C downregulation may contribute to AP-associated ALI via promoting neutrophil rTEM. PMID:26841848

  3. Predicting outcomes in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ventham, Nicholas T; Kalla, Rahul; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Satsangi, Jack; Arnott, Ian D

    2015-04-01

    Response to corticosteroid treatment in acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) has changed very little in the past 50 years. Predicting those at risk at an early stage helps stratify patients into those who may require second line therapy or early surgical treatment. Traditionally, risk scores have used a combination of clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters; established indices include the 'Travis' and 'Ho' scores. Recently, inflammatory bowel disease genetic risk alleles have been built into models to predict outcome in ASUC. Given the multifactorial nature of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis, in the future, composite scores integrating clinical, biochemical, serological, genetic and other '-omic' data will be increasingly investigated. Although these new genetic prediction models are promising, they have yet to supplant traditional scores, which remain the best practice. In this modern era of rescue therapies in ASUC, robust scoring systems to predict failure of ciclosporine and infliximab must be devised. PMID:25494666

  4. Receptor strategies in pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Grendell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of receptors on pancreatic acinar and duct cells regulate both pancreatic exocrine secretion and intracellular processes. These receptors are potential sites of action for therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists, which may reduce the level of metabolic "stress" on acinar cells, have been shown to mitigate the severity of acute pancreatitis in a number of models. Not all studies have shown a benefit, however, and differences may exist between different structural classes of antagonists. Because increased pancreatic stimulation due to loss of feedback inhibition of CCK has been proposed to contribute to the pain of some patients with chronic pancreatitis, CCK receptor antagonists could also be of benefit in this setting. Somatostatin and its analogs diminish pancreatic secretion of water and electrolytes and have been effective in treating pancreatic fistulas and pseudocysts. These agents are also being evaluated for their ability to reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis (perhaps by reducing ductal pressure by diminishing secretory volume) and mitigating the severity of acute pancreatitis (possibly by reducing the metabolic load on acinar cells). Recently described secretin receptor antagonists may also have therapeutic value as a means of selectively inhibiting pancreatic secretion of water and electrolytes. PMID:1340060

  5. Necrotising pancreatitis presenting as a painful mass in the groin and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, K E; Larkin, J O; Guiney, M; Reynolds, J V

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is typically associated with classical clinical and radiological features. The sensitivity of CT to diagnose acute pancreatitis depends on the severity of the attack and ranges from 77% to 92% with a specificity approaching 100%. Despite the fact this is a common disease, there are myriad clinical presentations of acute pancreatitis. We report herein an especially rare presentation where severe acute necrotising pancreatitis presented with a tender inguinoscrotal swelling with a normal pancreas on CT imaging. PMID:23625666

  6. Perforated appendicitis masquerading as acute pancreatitis in a morbidly obese patient.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael-J; Akoh, Jacob-A

    2008-03-21

    Diagnosis and treatment of common conditions in morbidly obese patients still pose a challenge to physicians and surgeons. Sometimes too much reliance is put on investigations that can lead to a misdiagnosis. This case demonstrates an obese woman admitted under the medical team with a presumed diagnosis of pneumonia, who was later found to have an acute abdomen and raised amylase, which led to an assumed diagnosis of pancreatitis. She died within 24 h of admission and post mortem confirmed the cause of death as systemic sepsis due to perforated appendicitis, with no evidence of pancreatitis. Significantly elevated serum amylase level may occur in non-pancreatitic acute abdomen. PMID:18350613

  7. [A case of successful treatment of portal venous gas caused by acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi Heon; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Baek, Jeong Hoon; Kang, Beo Deul; Kim, Mi Sung; Cho, Jae Hee; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Chun, Song Wook

    2013-03-25

    Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) has been considered a rare entity associated with a poor prognosis. Portal vein gas is most commonly caused by mesenteric ischemia but may have a variety other causes. HPVG can be associated with ischemic bowel disease, inflammatory bowel disease, intra-abdominal abscess, small bowel obstruction, acute pancreatitis, and gastric ulcer. Because of high mortality rate, most HPVG requires emergent surgical interventions and intensive medical management. We experienced a case of hepatic portal venous gas caused by acute pancreatitis and successfully treated with medical management. PMID:23575237

  8. Extrapancreatic organ impairment during acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction. Effect of N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; De Dios, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Summary Multiple organ failure is frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to study pulmonary, hepatic and renal complications developed in the course of AP experimentally induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO), differentiating the complications caused by AP itself, from those directly caused by bile duct obstruction (BDO), after ligating the choledocus. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered as a therapeutic approach. Myeloperoxidase activity revealed neutrophil infiltration in lungs from 12 h after BDO, even if AP was not triggered. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity indicated hepatocyte death from 48 h after BDO, and from 24 h following BPDO-induced AP onwards, an effect delayed until 48 h by NAC treatment. Rats with single cholestasis (BDO) and rats with BPDO-induced AP showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin concentration from 12 h onwards, whose values were reduced by NAC treatment at early BPDO. No renal failure was found during 120 h of bile-pancreatic obstruction. Our results showed lung and liver impairment as a result of BDO, even if AP does not develop. Pancreatic damage and extrapancreatic complications during AP induced by BPDO were palliated by NAC treatment. PMID:17877536

  9. Quantitation of nuclear factor kappa B activation in pancreatic acinar cells during rat acute pancreatitis by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenliang; Zheng, Zhuanzhen; Duan, Junfang; Wang, Xiaoru; Wu, Shirong; Wang, Wei; Xu, Lu; Han, Shuguang; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific and sensitive method for the rapid detection of NF-κB activity in pancreatic tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: (1) 16 rats in the acute pancreatitis (AP) group received retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate (STC) into the biliopancreatic duct, and (2) 16 rats in the Control group received saline. NF-κB activation in rat pancreatic acinar cells was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM). We found that the NF-κB activity in the AP group significantly increased at 1.5 h (29.80%±7.83), had a peak at 3 h (65.17%±13.22), and then decreased gradually to 12 h time point, close to the level after 1.5 h stimulation of STC. The NF-κB activity of the Control group did not significantly vary at different time points (P>0.05). FCM is a specific and sensitive assay for the rapid detection of NF-κB activity in pancreatic tissue. PMID:26309713

  10. Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Closa, D; Sabater, L; Fernández-Cruz, L; Prats, N; Gelpí, E; Roselló-Catafau, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model. Images Figure 3. PMID:10024105

  11. Extract of grapefruit-seed reduces acute pancreatitis induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats: possible implication of tissue antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Konturek, S J; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Pawlik, W W; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Naskalski, J W

    2004-12-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to exert antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of naringenin, the flavonoid with cytoprotective action on the gastric mucosa. No study so far has been undertaken to determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is known to result from reduction of anti-oxidative capability of pancreatic tissue, and whether its possible preventive effect involves an antioxidative action of this biocomponent. In this study carried out on rats with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by 30 min partial pancreatic ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, the GSE or vehicle (vegetable glycerin) was applied intragastrically in gradually increasing amounts (50-500 microl) 30 min before I/R. Pretreatment with GSE decreased the extent of pancreatitis with maximal protective effect of GSE at the dose 250 microl. GSE reduced the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum lipase and poly-C specific ribonuclease activity, and attenuated the marked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow. PMID:15613745

  12. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Pharmacological Inhibition Ameliorates Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Chahed, Samah; Bachaalany, Santana; Griffey, Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D; Haj, Fawaz G

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease, and is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH; encoded by Ephx2) deficiency and pharmacological inhibition have beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases. Ephx2 whole-body deficiency mitigates experimental AP in mice, but the suitability of sEH pharmacological inhibition for treating AP remains to be determined. We investigated the effects of sEH pharmacological inhibition on cerulein- and arginine-induced AP using the selective sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), which was administered before and after induction of pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase levels were lower in TPPU-treated mice compared with controls. In addition, circulating levels and pancreatic mRNA of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin Il-1β, and Il-6 were reduced in TPPU-treated mice. Moreover, sEH pharmacological inhibition before and after induction of pancreatitis was associated with decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced nuclear factor-κB inflammatory response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cell death. sEH pharmacological inhibition before and after induction of pancreatitis mitigated cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. This work suggests that sEH pharmacological inhibition may be of therapeutic value in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25993999

  13. Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kedia, Saurabh; Ahuja, Vineet; Tandon, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine naïve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patients not responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy. PMID:25401001

  14. Gas in Hepatic Portal Veins with Gastric Massive Dilatation and Pneumatosis in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Nadeem; Pateria, Vibhor; Ahmad, Imtiyaz; Kulshreshtha, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Gas in portal veins is a rare phenomenon observed secondary to bowel ischaemia and necrosis. A young girl with history of pica ingestion presented with acute abdomen with huge distension. Investigation revealed air in hepatic portal veins, air within stomach wall, and massive distension of stomach secondary to acute pancreatitis. Successful conservative treatment confirmed the current concept that all cases of hepatic portal venous gas do not warrant immediate surgical intervention. PMID:26557565

  15. Effects of everolimus on a rat model of cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Özkardeş, Alper Bilal; Bozkurt, Birkan; Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Yazgan, Aylin Kılıç; Ergin, Merve; Erel, Özcan; Kılıç, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the biochemical and histopathological effects of everolimus in an experimental rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of everolimus on blood biochemical parameters and tissue histopathology in an experimental rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods: In 30 Wistar albino rats (male; 240–260 g), acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) administered twice in 2 h. They were equally divided into the following three groups: 0.9% isotonic solution (Group 1; control), everolimus once (Group 2), and everolimus twice (Group 3) by oral gavage after cerulein injection. Thirty hours after the induction of pancreatitis, blood samples were collected by direct intracardiac puncture, rats were sacrificed, and pancreatic tissue samples were obtained. Results: Biochemical analyses of the blood samples showed statistically significant difference in red blood cell count as well as hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, and alanine transaminase levels among the study groups (p<0.05 in all). Everolimus proved to significantly increase red blood cell count in a dose-independent manner. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly increased only after treatment with one dose of everolimus. Urea level was significantly different between the Groups 2 and 3; however, no change was observed in both groups when compared with the control. Alanine transaminase level significantly decreased only after treatment with two doses of everolimus. Histopathological analyses revealed that everolimus significantly decreased inflammation and perivascular infiltrate in a dose-dependent manner (35% in Group 2, 75% in Group 3; p=0.048). Conclusion: Treatment with two doses of everolimus improved some biochemical and histopathological parameters of experimental rat models of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and implied the specific inhibition of inflammatory response pathways. PMID:26668524

  16. Spatial and temporal differences of HMGB1 expression in the pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Can; Huang, Lihua; Li, Xia; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal differences in expression between HMGB1 and early-stage inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) in pancreas tissue in rats with acute pancreatitis. SD rats (BW 350 ± 30 g, n = 48) were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 36) which were injected with 5% sodium taurocholate into the bilipancreatic duct retrogradely to produce acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP) rat models, and the sham-operated (SO) group (n = 12) injected with equal dose of saline. The rats were sacrificed at different time points at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h post modeling, respectively. The peripheral blood amylase and different inflammatory factors in ANP rats at different time points were detected by ELISA, and the expression of HMGB1 in the pancreatic tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and Q-PCR methods. Results showed that the serum amylase in the ANP model rats was significantly higher than the sham-operated group (P < 0.05). The early inflammatory factors (IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6) increased quickly at 3 h after the model induction, reached the peak level at 6 h (higher than SO group, P < 0.05), then decreased at 12 h, and at 24 h the levels were lower than those at 12 h (P < 0.05). The HMGB1 level in the pancreatitis tissue did not change significantly at 3 h and 6 h (P > 0.05), however, it increased remarkably at 12 h, and maintained up to 24 h (P > 0.05). As a late inflammatory factor, the expression of HMGB1 in acute pancreatitis was obviously later than the early inflammatory factors IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6. HMGB1 may play a key role in maintaining the development of the acute pancreatitis. PMID:26261580

  17. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  18. Leptin Is Associated With Persistence of Hyperglycemia in Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, James I C; Askelund, Kathryn J; Premkumar, Rakesh; Phillips, Anthony R J; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2016-02-01

    Adipokines have many homeostatic roles, including modulation of glucose metabolism, but their role in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia associated with acute and critical illnesses in general, and acute pancreatitis (AP) in particular, is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a panel of adipokines and hyperglycemia in the early course of AP, as well as the role of adipokines as predictors of AP severity.Adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin were measured on a daily basis in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. A first set of analyses was undertaken with admission glycemia stratified by severity, and a second set of analyses was undertaken based on persistence of early hyperglycemia. All of the analyses were adjusted for confounders.A total of 32 patients with AP were included in this study. None of the studied adipokines was significantly associated with glucose level on admission. Leptin was significantly (P = 0.003) increased in patients with persistent hyperglycemia. Adiponectin was significantly associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.015), visfatin with APACHE II score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.014), and omentin with APACHE II score in all of the patients regardless of the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (P = 0.021).Leptin is significantly associated with persistent hyperglycemia in the early course of AP. Omentin has a potential to become an accurate predictor of AP severity. PMID:26871770

  19. 1H NMR global metabolic phenotyping of acute pancreatitis in the emergency unit.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Alma; Kinross, James M; Li, Jia V; Penney, Nicholas; Barton, Richard H; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Darzi, Ara; Barbas, Coral; Holmes, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the urinary and plasma metabolic phenotype of acute pancreatitis (AP) patients presenting to the emergency room at a single center London teaching hospital with acute abdominal pain using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. Patients were allocated to either the AP (n = 15) or non-AP patients group (all other causes of abdominal pain, n = 21) on the basis of the national guidelines. Patients were assessed for three clinical outcomes: (1) diagnosis of AP, (2) etiology of AP caused by alcohol consumption and cholelithiasis, and (3) AP severity based on the Glasgow score. Samples from AP patients were characterized by high levels of urinary ketone bodies, glucose, plasma choline and lipid, and relatively low levels of urinary hippurate, creatine and plasma-branched chain amino acids. AP could be reliably identified with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (OPLS-DA model R(2) = 0.76 and Q(2)Y = 0.59) using panel of discriminatory biomarkers consisting of guanine, hippurate and creatine (urine), and valine, alanine and lipoproteins (plasma). Metabolic phenotyping was also able to distinguish between cholelithiasis and colonic inflammation among the heterogeneous non-AP group. This work has demonstrated that combinatorial biomarkers have a strong diagnostic and prognostic potential in AP with relevance to clinical decision making in the emergency unit. PMID:25160714

  20. Influence of nitric oxide-donating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the evolution of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cosen-Binker, Laura Iris; Binker, Marcelo Gustavo; Cosen, Rodica; Negri, Gustavo; Tiscornia, Osvaldo

    2006-02-01

    Microcirculatory disturbances and leukocyte activation are main events in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) that is characterized by inflammatory up-regulation. Nitric oxide-donating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) regulate vascular function and mitigate inflammation. To investigate the influence of NO-NSAIDs on AP. AP was induced by the biliopancreatic duct outlet exclusion-closed duodenal loops model. Treatment with NO-flurbiprofen, NO-ibuprofen, NO-aspirin, or their parental drugs was done (i) 1 h before, (ii) 1 h after, (iii) 1 h before and 4 h after, or (iv) 4 h after surgery. The degree of severity was evaluated using biochemical and histopathological analyses. NO-NSAIDs given before and during the first hour of the noxia decreased blood levels of amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-10, heat shock protein 72, prostaglandin E2 inactive metabolite, and 8-isoprostane, as well as pancreatic and lung myeloperoxidase and cyclooxygenase. Acinar and fat necrosis, hemorrhage, and leukocyte infiltrate were also reduced. The best protection was achieved when treatment was performed 1 h before and 4 h after triggering AP. NO-flurbiprofen was the most effective drug. AP severity was significantly ameliorated by NO-NSAIDs being the administration time essential to achieve optimal pancreatic protection that may result to be useful in the prevention of postendoscopic severe AP. PMID:16525359

  1. The Effect of Renin Angiotensin System Genetic Variants in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Skipworth James, RA; Nijmeijer Rian, M; van Santvoort Hjalmar, C; Besselink Marc, GH; Hans-Ulrich, Schulz; Mika, Kivimaki; Meena, Kumari; Cooper Jackie, A; Jay, Acharya; Arjun, Shankar; Massimo, Malago’; Humphries Steve, E; Olde Damink Steven, WM; Montgomery Hugh, E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We sought association of genetic variants in the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and Vitamin D system with acute pancreatitis (AP) development and severity. Summary Background Data The endocrine RAS is involved in circulatory homeostasis through the pressor action of angiotensin II (ang II) at its AT1 receptor (AT1R). However, local RAS regulate growth and inflammation in diverse cells and tissues, and their activity may be suppressed by Vitamin D. Intra-pancreatic ang II generation has been implicated in the development of AP. Methods Five hundred and forty-four Caucasian AP patients from three countries (UK 22; Germany 136; Netherlands 386) and 8487 control subjects (UK 7833, Netherlands 717) were genotyped for eight polymorphisms of the RAS/vitamin D systems, chosen based on likely functionality. Results The ACE I (rather than D) allele was significantly associated with alcohol-related AP when all cohorts were combined (p=0.03). The Renin rs5707 G (rather than A) allele was associated with AP (p=0.002), infected necrosis (p=0.025) and mortality (p=0.046). Conclusions The association of two RAS polymorphisms with AP suggests the need for further detailed analysis of the role of RAS/Vitamin D in the genesis or severity of AP, particularly given the ready potential for pharmacological manipulation of this system using existing marketed agents. However, further replication studies will be required before any such association is considered robust, particularly given the significant heterogeneity of AP causation and clinical course. PMID:24743610

  2. α,β-amyrin, a natural triterpenoid ameliorates L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Caroline Mourão; Carvalho, Karine Maria Martins Bezerra; Neves, Julliana Catharina de Sousa; Morais, Talita Cavalcante; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Santos, Flávia Almeida; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Chaves, Mariana Helena

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the beneficial effects of triterpene α,β-amyrin and the underlying mechanisms in an experimental pancreatitis model. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in five groups of rats (n = 8) by L-arginine (2 × 2.5 g/kg, intraperitoneal, 1 h apart) and 1 h later, they received a single oral dose of α,β-amyrin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg), methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg) and vehicle (3% Tween 80). A saline (0.9% NaCl) treated group served as a normal control. Efficacy was assessed at 24 h by determination of serum levels of amylase, lipase and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6], pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], nitrate/nitrite levels, and the wet weight/body weight ratio. Tissue histology and the immunoreactivity for TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) were performed. RESULTS: α,β-amyrin and methylprednisolone treatments significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the L-arginine-induced increases in pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio, and decreased the serum levels of amylase and lipase, and TNF-α and IL-6, as compared to the vehicle control. Also, pancreatic levels of MPO activity, TBARS, and nitrate/nitrite were significantly lower. Histological findings and TNF-α and iNOS immunostaining further confirmed the amelioration of pancreatic injury by α,β-amyrin. CONCLUSION: α,β-amyrin has the potential to combat acute pancreatitis by acting as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. PMID:20818810

  3. Sterile Fluid Collections in Acute Pancreatitis: Catheter Drainage Versus Simple Aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, Eric M. Nealon, William H.; Marroquin, Santiago; Raza, Syed; Hernandez, J. Alberto; Vasek, James

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To compare the clinical outcome of needle aspiration versus percutaneous catheter drainage of sterile fluid collections in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. We reviewed the clinical and imaging data of patients with acute pancreatic fluid collections from 1998 to 2003. Referral for fluid sampling was based on elevated white blood cell count and fevers. Those patients with culture-negative drainages or needle aspirations were included in the study. Fifteen patients had aspiration of 10-20 ml fluid only (group A) and 22 patients had catheter placement for chronic evacuation of fluid (group C). We excluded patients with grossly purulent collections and chronic pseudocysts. We also recorded the number of sinograms and catheter changes and duration of catheter drainage. The CT severity index, Ranson scores, and maximum diameter of abdominal fluid collections were calculated for all patients at presentation. The total length of hospital stay (LOS), length of hospital stay after the drainage or aspiration procedure (LOS-P), and conversions to percutaneous and/or surgical drainage were recorded as well as survival. Results. The CT severity index and acute Ransom scores were not different between the two groups (p = 0.15 and p = 0.6, respectively). When 3 crossover patients from group A to group C were accounted for, the duration of hospitalization did not differ significantly, with a mean LOS and LOS-P of 33.8 days and 27.9 days in group A and 41.5 days and 27.6 days in group C, respectively (p = 0.57 and 0.98, respectively). The 60-day mortality was 2 of 15 (13%) in group A and 2 of 22 (9.1%) in group C. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different (p 0.3). Surgical or percutaneous conversions occurred significantly more often in group A (7/15, 47%) than surgical conversions in group C (4/22, 18%) (p 0.03). Patients undergoing catheter drainage required an average of 2.2 sinograms/tube changes and kept catheters in for an average of 52 days. Aspirates turned culture-positive in 13 of 22 patients (59%) who had chronic catheterization. In group A, 3 of the 7 patients converted to percutaneous or surgical drainage had infected fluid at the time of conversion (total positive culture rate in group A 3/15 or 20%). Conclusions. There is no apparent clinical benefit for catheter drainage of sterile fluid collections arising in acute pancreatitis as the length of hospital stay and mortality were similar between patients undergoing aspiration versus catheter drainage. However, almost half of patients treated with simple aspiration will require surgical or percutaneous drainage at some point. Disadvantages of chronic catheter drainage include a greater than 50% rate of bacterial colonization and the need for multiple sinograms and tube changes over an average duration of about 2 months.

  4. Effect of endogenous cholecystokinin on the course of acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongmei; Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Otsuki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of pancreatic rest, stimulation and rest/stimulation on the natural course of recovery after acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (AP) was induced in male rats by intraductal infusion of 40 μL/100 g body weight of 3% sodium taurocholate. All rats took food ad libitum. At 24 h after induction of AP, rats were divided into four groups: control (AP-C), pancreas rest (AP-R), stimulation (AP-S), and rest/stimulation (AP-R/S). Rats in the AP-C, AP-R and AP-S groups received oral administration of 2 mL/kg body weight saline, cholecystokinin (CCK)-1 receptor antagonist, and endogenous CCK release stimulant, respectively, twice daily for 10 d, while those in the AP-R/S group received twice daily CCK-1 receptor antagonist for the first 5 d followed by twice daily CCK release stimulant for 5 d. Rats without any treatment were used as control group (Control). Biochemical and histological changes in the pancreas, and secretory function were evaluated on day 12 at 24 h after the last treatment. RESULTS: Feeding ad libitum (AP-C) delayed biochemical, histological and functional recovery from AP. In AP-C rats, bombesin-stimulated pancreatic secretory function and HOMA-β-cell score were significantly lower than those in other groups of rats. In AP-R rats, protein per DNA ratio and pancreatic exocrine secretory function were significantly low compared with those in Control rats. In AP-S and AP-R/S rats, the above parameters recovered to the Control levels. Bombesin-stimulated pancreatic exocrine response in AP-R/S rats was higher than in AP-S rats and almost returned to control levels. In the pancreas of AP-C rats, destruction of pancreatic acini, marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, and strong expression of α-smooth muscle actin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were seen. Pancreatic rest reversed these histological alterations, but not atrophy of pancreatic acini and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells. In AP-S and AP-R/S rats, the pancreas showed almost normal architecture. CONCLUSION: The favorable treatment strategy for AP is to keep the pancreas at rest during an early stage followed by pancreatic stimulation by promoting endogenous CCK release. PMID:26167074

  5. Outcome of patients with acute, necrotizing pancreatitis requiring drainage-does drainage size matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bruennler, T; Langgartner, J; Lang, S; Wrede, CE; Klebl, F; Zierhut, S; Siebig, S; Mandraka, F; Rockmann, F; Salzberger, B; Feuerbach, S; Schoelmerich, J; Hamer, OW

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the outcome of patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage with special focus on the influence of drainage size and number. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 80 patients with acute pancreatitis requiring percutaneous drainage therapy for infected necroses. Endpoints were mortality and length of hospital stay. The influence of drainage characteristics such as the median drainage size, the largest drainage size per patient and the total drainage plane per patient on patient outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Total hospital survival was 66%. Thirty-four patients out of all 80 patients (43%) survived acute necrotizing pancreatitis with percutaneous drainage therapy only. Eighteen patients out of all 80 patients needed additional percutaneous necrosectomy (23%). Ten out of these patients required surgical necrosectomy in addition, 6 patients received open necrosectomy without prior percutaneous necrosectomy. Elective surgery was performed in 3 patients receiving cholecystectomy and one patient receiving resection of the parathyroid gland. The number of drainages ranged from one to fourteen per patient. The drainage diameter ranged from 8 French catheters to 24 French catheters. The median drainage size as well as the largest drainage size used per patient and the total drainage area used per patient did not show statistically significant influence on mortality. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous drainage therapy is an effective tool for treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. Large bore drainages did not prove to be more effective in controlling the septic focus. PMID:18205262

  6. [The use of a biospecific antiproteinase hemosorbent in the combined treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kirkovskiĭ, V V; Antiperovich, O F; Moin, V M; Mazur, L I; Lobacheva, G A; Berezkina, O G; Kushnirenko, V S

    1994-01-01

    Results of treatment of 32 patients with acute destructive pancreatitis are presented. Hemosorption on biospecific antiproteinase hemosorbent "OVOSORB" possessing the property of extraction of the excess of serine proteinases from blood plasma was used. High efficiency of the sorbent for treatment of destructive pancreatitis was shown. This effect was obtained at the expense of correction of hyperproteasemia, normalization of protein metabolism as well as prevention of the production and accumulation of middle molecule peptides possessing various pathological properties in the fluid media of the organism. PMID:7701725

  7. Acute necrotising pancreatitis: a late and fatal complication of pancreaticoduodenal arterial embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Abhishek; Tandra, Pavan Kumar; Cichowski, Erica; Reddymasu, Savio Charan

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with a massive bleeding duodenal ulcer which was refractory to emergency endoscopic management. Angiogram of the coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries revealed bleeding from the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Transcatheter arterial embolisation of superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries along with the gastroduodenal artery was performed. Two weeks later he developed severe necrotising pancreatitis of the pancreatic head probably due to ischaemia, which was managed conservatively. Three months later the patient experienced another episode of pancreatitis which progressed into multiorgan dysfunction and the patient passed away. PMID:24879731

  8. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: A rare manifestation of an incomplete “dapsone syndrome”

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anup K.; Jawed, Qaiser

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) is under-reported, and a large number of drugs are listed as offenders, but are often overlooked. Knowledge about the possible association of medications in causing AP is important, and needs a high index of suspicion, especially with drugs that have been reported to be the etiology only rarely. Dapsone, a commonly used drug, can cause various hypersensitivity reactions including AP collectively called “dapsone syndrome.” Here, we report dapsone-induced AP in a young man. Our case shows certain dissimilarities like associated acute renal failure and acute hemolysis not previously described. PMID:25097293

  9. Protective effects of erythropoietin against acute lung injury in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tascilar, Oge; Cakmak, Gldeniz Karadeniz; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Emre, Ali Ugur; Ucan, Bulent Hamdi; Bahadir, Burak; Acikgoz, Serefden; Irkorucu, Oktay; Karakaya, Kemal; Balbaloglu, Hakan; Kertis, Grkan; Ankarali, Handan; Comert, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of exogenous erythro-poietin (EPO) administration on acute lung injury (ALI) in an experimental model of sodium taurodeoxycholate-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). METHODS: Forty-seven male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: sham group (n = 5), 3 ANP groups (n = 7 each) and 3 EPO groups (n = 7 each). ANP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate into the common bile duct. Rats in EPO groups received 1000 U/kg intramuscular EPO immediately after induction of ANP. Rats in ANP groups were given 1 mL normal saline instead. All animals were sacrificed at postoperative 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Serum amilase, IL-2, IL-6 and lung tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Pleural effusion volume and lung/body weight (LW/BW) ratios were calculated. Tissue levels of TNF-?, IL-2 and IL-6 were screened immunohistochemically. Additionally, ox-LDL accumulation was assessed with immune-fluorescent staining. Histopathological alterations in the lungs were also scored. RESULTS: The mean pleural effusion volume, calculated LW/BW ratio, serum IL-6 and lung tissue MDA levels were significantly lower in EPO groups than in ANP groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in either serum or tissue values of IL-2 among the groups. The level of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and IL-6 and accumulation of ox-LDL were evident in the lung tissues of ANP groups when compared to EPO groups, particularly at 72 h. Histopathological evaluation confirmed the improvement in lung injury parameters after exogenous EPO administration, particularly at 48 h and 72 h. CONCLUSION: EPO administration leads to a significant decrease in ALI parameters by inhibiting polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation, decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation, preserving microvascular endothelial cell integrity and reducing oxidative stress-associated lipid peroxidation and therefore, can be regarded as a cytoprotective agent in ANP-induced ALI. PMID:18069756

  10. Inhibitors of ORAI1 Prevent Cytosolic Calcium-Associated Injury of Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Acute Pancreatitis in 3 Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Li; Voronina, Svetlana; Javed, Muhammad A.; Awais, Muhammad; Szatmary, Peter; Latawiec, Diane; Chvanov, Michael; Collier, David; Huang, Wei; Barrett, John; Begg, Malcolm; Stauderman, Ken; Roos, Jack; Grigoryev, Sergey; Ramos, Stephanie; Rogers, Evan; Whitten, Jeff; Velicelebi, Gonul; Dunn, Michael; Tepikin, Alexei V.; Criddle, David N.; Sutton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Sustained activation of the cytosolic calcium concentration induces injury to pancreatic acinar cells and necrosis. The calcium release–activated calcium modulator ORAI1 is the most abundant Ca2+ entry channel in pancreatic acinar cells; it sustains calcium overload in mice exposed to toxins that induce pancreatitis. We investigated the roles of ORAI1 in pancreatic acinar cell injury and the development of acute pancreatitis in mice. Methods Mouse and human acinar cells, as well as HEK 293 cells transfected to express human ORAI1 with human stromal interaction molecule 1, were hyperstimulated or incubated with human bile acid, thapsigargin, or cyclopiazonic acid to induce calcium entry. GSK-7975A or CM_128 were added to some cells, which were analyzed by confocal and video microscopy and patch clamp recordings. Acute pancreatitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by ductal injection of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate or intravenous' administration of cerulein or ethanol and palmitoleic acid. Some mice then were given GSK-7975A or CM_128, which inhibit ORAI1, at different time points to assess local and systemic effects. Results GSK-7975A and CM_128 each separately inhibited toxin-induced activation of ORAI1 and/or activation of Ca2+ currents after Ca2+ release, in a concentration-dependent manner, in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells (inhibition >90% of the levels observed in control cells). The ORAI1 inhibitors also prevented activation of the necrotic cell death pathway in mouse and human pancreatic acinar cells. GSK-7975A and CM_128 each inhibited all local and systemic features of acute pancreatitis in all 3 models, in dose- and time-dependent manners. The agents were significantly more effective, in a range of parameters, when given at 1 vs 6 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Conclusions Cytosolic calcium overload, mediated via ORAI1, contributes to the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. ORAI1 inhibitors might be developed for the treatment of patients with pancreatitis. PMID:25917787

  11. Management of acute pancreatitis in clinical practice. ProInf - A.I.S.P. Study Group. Progetto Informatizzato Pancreatite Acuta--Associazione Italiana Studio Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Uomo, G; Pezzilli, R; Cavallini, G

    1999-10-01

    Over the last few years, remarkable progress has been made in diagnosis, severity assessment and treatment as well as in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. New treatment modalities and new specific drugs have been introduced and this has led to practical changes in the daily bedside management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Treatment is essentially medical, both for mild and severe disease, and is aimed at reducing abdominal pain, restoring electrolyte and fluid losses, removing the aetiological factor(s), attenuating inflammation and autodigestive processes, as well as preventing local and systemic complications. Diagnostic and interventional percutaneous or endoscopic procedures are indicated mainly for patients with severe forms of the disease. Surgery is generally indicated for patients with necrosis infection or other local complications not manageable by percutaneous or endoscopic means. PMID:10604108

  12. Antibiotics as part of the management of severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. In this randomized, double-blind, plac...

  13. Mechanisms of interleukin-22’s beneficial effects in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Chongmin; Kim, Daniel; Ou, Peiqi; Alfonso, Antonio; Stanek, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterized by parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled by immune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains a significant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specific and effective treatment. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response in AP is needed for the development of new approaches to treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatory cytokines have been recognized to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted by leukocytes, when applied in the severe animal models of AP, protects against the inflammation-mediated acinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenous IL-22 has been found to be a predominantly anti-inflammatory mediator that inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinar cells, but does not protect against acinar injury in the early stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressed IL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused by excessive autophagy through the induction of the anti-autophagic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 plays different roles in AP depending on the severity of the AP model. This review focuses on these recently reported findings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22’s regulatory roles in AP which could help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26909233

  14. The Effect of Intestinal Permeability and Endotoxemia on the Prognosis of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Young Yool; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Joo; Chung, Won Gil; Chon, Chang Uk; Oh, Tae Yun; Shin, Jun Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Early intestinal mucosal damage plays an important role in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous studies have shown that intestinal permeability (IP), serum endotoxin and cytokines contribute to the early intestinal barrier dysfunction in AP. This study explored the predictive capacity of IP, endotoxemia and cytokines as prognostic indicators in AP patients. Methods Eighty-seven AP patients were included in the study. The patients were classified into three groups according to the Balthazar computed tomography severity index (CTSI). We compared the biochemical parameters, including IP, serum endotoxin level and cytokine level among the three groups. The associations of IP with serum endotoxin, cytokines, CTSI, and other widely used biochemical parameters and scoring systems were also examined. Results IP, serum endotoxin, interleukin (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had a positive correlation with the CTSI of AP. Endotoxin, IL-6, TNF-α, CTSI, the Ranson/APACHE II score, the duration of hospital stay, complications and death significantly affect IP in the AP patients. Conclusions We believe that IP with subsidiary measurements of serum endotoxin, IL-6 and TNF-α may be reliable markers for predicting the prognosis of AP. Further studies that can restore and preserve gut barrier function in AP patients are warranted. PMID:23170158

  15. Effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Nara L.; Marques, Ruy Garcia; Diestel, Cristina F.; Matzke, Bianca D.; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo R.; Simões, Fernanda Correia; Andrade, Arnaldo F.B.; Lobão, Wagner I.; Vaz, Luiz Carlos A.; Portela, Margareth C.; Braga, José Ueleres; Melo, Paulo A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intestinal barrier disruption followed by bacterial translocation seems to play a role in secondary pancreatic infection in acute pancreatitis. The use of probiotics as a possible adjuvant strategy in the treatment of acute pancreatitis needs to be investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a prophylactically administered multispecies probiotic mixture on the markers of acute pancreatitis and on the occurrence of bacterial translocation. Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups of 10 rats each: (1) the PS group, in which the rats were given probiotic supplementation prior to induction of acute pancreatitis; (2) the WP group, in which the rats underwent surgery to induce acute pancreatitis without prior probiotic supplementation; and (3) the control group, in which the rats underwent sham surgery. For 14 days before surgery, animals in the PS group received a single daily dose containing ~1.2 × 109 colony-forming units of a probiotic mixture administered intragastrically as a bolus. On day 15, the animals underwent surgery to induce acute pancreatitis (PS and WP groups) or simulated surgery (control group). Blood samples were collected to determine leukocyte count, amylase and lipase activities, and glucose and calcium concentrations immediately before and 6 and 12 hours after the beginning of the procedure. Samples of pancreas, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes were harvested for microbiologic and histopathologic analysis after the last blood sample collection. The pathologist examining the histopathology was blinded to treatment assignment. Results: The mean leukocyte count was significantly increased in the PS group compared with the WP group (P = 0.018), whereas the serum amylase and lipase activities and the serum glucose and calcium concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Comparing the risk for tissue colonization in the PS group with that of the WP group, the odds ratio (OR) for pancreas was 2.91 (95% CI, 0.13–67.10); liver, 66.55 (95% CI, 1.89–2282.66); spleen, 88.58 (95% CI, 3.04–2583.08); and mesenteric lymph nodes, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.06–25.48). When the risks for histopathologic changes were compared between the 2 groups, the OR for acinar necrosis was 1.73 (95% CI, 0.21–12.17); steatonecrosis, 12.08 (95% CI, 1.26–115.54); hemorrhage, 1.38 (95% CI, 0.21–9.53); and leukocyte infiltration, 5.91 (95% CI, 0.64–54.89). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation before the induction of acute pancreatitis was associated with a greater degree of bacterial translocation and pancreatic tissue damage in this animal model. PMID:24683225

  16. Valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in pediatric age: case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    COFINI, M.; QUADROZZI, F.; FAVORITI, P.; FAVORITI, M.; COFINI, G.

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed medication for epilepsy, migraine and bipolar disorder. Although the common adverse effect associated with VPA are typically benign, less common adverse effect can occur; these include hepatotixicity, teratogenicity and acute pancreatitis (AP). VPA-induced pancreatitis does not depend on valproic acid serum level and may occur anytime after onset of therapy. Re-challenge with VPA is dangerous and should be avoided. The diagnosis of VPA-induced pancreatitis seems to be underestimated because of difficulties in determining the causative agent and the need for a retrospective re-evaluation of the causative factor. More of idiopathic pancreatitis should be a drug-induced pancreatitis. We report four cases of VPA-induced AP found in a group of 52 cases of AP in children come to our attention from January 2008 to December 2012. The aim of these reports is to point out our experience about clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, outcome in children with VPA-induced AP and review of literature. PMID:26712070

  17. Impaired autophagic flux mediates acinar cell vacuole formation and trypsinogen activation in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mareninova, Olga A.; Hermann, Kip; French, Samuel W.; O’Konski, Mark S.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Webster, Paul; Erickson, Ann H.; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Gorelick, Fred S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanisms underlying acute pancreatitis are not clear. Two key pathologic acinar cell responses of this disease are vacuole accumulation and trypsinogen activation. We show here that both result from defective autophagy, by comparing the autophagic responses in rodent models of acute pancreatitis to physiologic autophagy triggered by fasting. Pancreatitis-induced vacuoles in acinar cells were greater in number and much larger than those induced with fasting. Degradation of long-lived proteins, a measure of autophagic efficiency, was markedly inhibited in in vitro pancreatitis, while it was stimulated by acinar cell starvation. Further, processing of the lysosomal proteases cathepsin L (CatL) and CatB into their fully active, mature forms was reduced in pancreatitis, as were their activities in the lysosome-enriched subcellular fraction. These findings indicate that autophagy is retarded in pancreatitis due to deficient lysosomal degradation caused by impaired cathepsin processing. Trypsinogen activation occurred in pancreatitis but not with fasting and was prevented by inhibiting autophagy. A marker of trypsinogen activation partially localized to autophagic vacuoles, and pharmacologic inhibition of CatL increased the amount of active trypsin in acinar cells. The results suggest that retarded autophagy is associated with an imbalance between CatL, which degrades trypsinogen and trypsin, and CatB, which converts trypsinogen into trypsin, resulting in intra-acinar accumulation of active trypsin in pancreatitis. Thus, deficient lysosomal degradation may be a dominant mechanism for increased intra-acinar trypsin in pancreatitis. PMID:19805911

  18. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathioneglutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxinoxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+NADH (and NADPNADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidationreduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686

  19. [Endogenous levels of somatostatin, C-peptide and insulin in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Aleryani, S; Huorka, M; Payer, J; Duris, I; Ondrejka, P; Kratochvíl'ová, H

    1997-11-01

    The authors compared in seven patients with acute pancreatitis the levels of endogenous somatostatin, insulin and C-peptide to assess their mutual correlation and relation to the development of the disease and serum amalyse levels. The results were compared with values recorded in 11 healthy volunteers. The levels of endogenous somatostatin were in patients with acute pancreatitis significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in the control group. The authors found an inverse relationship between the somatostatin and amylase level (correlation coefficient 0.75). They did not observe a significant correlation between somatostatin and insulin levels nor between somatostatin and C-peptide levels. The elevated somatostatin level may be due to the counteregulatory reaction during secretion, stimulated by endogenous or exogenous factors (cholecystokinin, alcohol, food). PMID:9650504

  20. Is there a relationship between beginning time and efficiency of octreotide in the treatment of experimental acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Kafali, M. Ertugrul; Gul, Mehmet; Sahin, Mustafa; Toy, Hatice; Akoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of octreotide in the treatment of acute pancreatitis is controversial. Octreotide treatment for acute pancreatitis often shows poor correlation between results obtained in experimental studies and results of clinical trials. In a clinical setting, there is always a delay between the onset of the disease and initiation of the octreotide treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the beginning of treatment and alteration in effectiveness of octreotide. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic duct ligation in 50 rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups. Octreotide was not used in group 1 (control group). Only single dose (4 µg/kg) octreotide was administered subcutaneously to rats in group 2, having induced pancreatitis. Octreotide treatment was begun at different times (8th, 24th, 48th hour) in three other groups and continued treatment at a dosage of 4 µg/kg t.i.d. The animals were sacrificed at the end of the 72nd hour and blood and tissue samples were collected. Results Leukocyte count and plasma amylase values were less in groups 2 and 3. Hemorrhagic focuses were encountered less at pancreas tissues in group 3. Pancreatic necrosis and alveolar capillary basal membrane damage were lower in groups 3 and 4. No difference was found in fasting blood glucose, calcium and hematocrit. Conclusion Octreotide had benefical effects in acute pancreatitis when octreotide treatment was begun in the first 24 hours. PMID:22563536

  1. Multicenter Approach to Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States: The North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2)

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, David C.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Adam, Slivka; Hawes, Robert H.; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Bishop, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; Lo, Simon K.; DeMeo, Mark T.; Steinberg, William M.; Kochman, Michael L.; Etemad, Babak; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Elinoff, Beth; Greer, Julia B.; O’Connell, Michael; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are complex syndromes associated with numerous etiologies, clinical variables and complications. We developed the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2) to be sufficiently powered to understand the complex environmental, metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying RAP and CP. Methods Between August 2000 and September 2006, a consortium of 20 expert academic and private sites prospectively ascertained 1,000 human subjects with RAP or CP, plus 695 controls (spouse, family, friend or unrelated). Standardized questionnaires were completed by both the physicians and study subjects and blood was drawn for genomic DNA and biomarker studies. All data were double-entered into a database and systematically reviewed to minimize errors and include missing data. Results A total of 1,000 subjects (460 RAP, 540 CP) and 695 controls who completed consent forms and questionnaires and donated blood samples comprised the final dataset. Data were organized according to diagnosis, supporting documentation, etiological classification, clinical signs and symptoms (including pain patterns and duration, and quality of life), past medical history, family history, environmental exposures (including alcohol and tobacco use), medication use and therapeutic interventions. Upon achieving the target enrollment, data were organized and classified to facilitate future analysis. The approaches, rationale and datasets are described, along with final demographic results. Conclusion The NAPS2 consortium has successfully completed a prospective ascertainment of 1,000 subjects with RAP and CP from the USA. These data will be useful in elucidating the environmental, metabolic and genetic conditions, and to investigate the complex interactions that underlie RAP and CP. PMID:18765957

  2. [The effect of hepatoprotectors containing phospholipids on rats with experimental acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Saratikov, A S; Vengerovskiĭ, A I; Mozzhelin, M E; Sukhodolo, I V

    2004-01-01

    The experiments on rats with a model acute pancreatitis showed that hepatoprotectors containing phospholipids (eplir and essentiale) improve the parameters of metabolism and the functions and histological characteristics of the pancreas and liver. Both drugs produced an antioxidant effect, decreased the activity of alpha-amylase, lipase, enzymes of hepatic origin in the blood, and reduced the content of creatinine, glucose, urea, bilirubin, and lipids. The therapeutic action of eplir was more pronounced than that of essentiale. PMID:15500043

  3. A triad of linezolid toxicity: hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P. Connor; Phillips, Kristy M.; O'Donnell, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of suspected linezolid toxicity in a 34-year-old man with sickle cell disease and line-related vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia and tricuspid valve endocarditis. The patient developed sudden-onset hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and acute pancreatitis 11 days after initiation of linezolid. All adverse effects quickly resolved with drug cessation. The pathophysiology underlying this triad of linezolid toxicity is unclear, but may be related to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26424943

  4. Renovascular acute renal failure precipitated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatic stones.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Nicolas; Goffette, Pierre; Deprez, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Morelle, Johann

    2015-08-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones is considered a safe and efficient method to facilitate fragmentation and stone removal. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with a solitary functioning kidney who presented an acute-onset anuria and renovascular renal failure the day after ESWL. We speculate that vascular calcifications in the area targeted by shock waves played a critical role in renal artery obstruction in the present case. PMID:26251710

  5. Quantitative Evaluation and Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Mouse Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhaoping; Gao, Jinhang; Lv, Xiuhe; Yang, Wenjuan; Wen, Shilei; Tong, Huan; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of differences in gene expression is dependent on normalization using reference genes. However, the expression of many of these reference genes, as evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, is upregulated in acute pancreatitis, so they cannot be used as the standard for gene expression in this condition. For this reason, we sought to identify a stable reference gene, or a suitable combination, for expression analysis in acute pancreatitis. The expression stability of 10 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18sRNA, TUBB, B2M, HPRT1, UBC, YWHAZ, EF-1α, and RPL-13A) was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software and evaluated according to variations in the raw Ct values. These reference genes were evaluated using a comprehensive method, which ranked the expression stability of these genes as follows (from most stable to least stable): RPL-13A, YWHAZ > HPRT1 > GAPDH > UBC > EF-1α > 18sRNA > B2M > TUBB > ACTB. RPL-13A was the most suitable reference gene, and the combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ was the most stable group of reference genes in our experiments. The expression levels of ACTB, TUBB, and B2M were found to be significantly upregulated during acute pancreatitis, whereas the expression level of 18sRNA was downregulated. Thus, we recommend the use of RPL-13A or a combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR analyses of gene expression in mouse models of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27069927

  6. [An oneiroid experience during severe acute polyradiculoneuritis].

    PubMed

    Wegener, K; Tassan, P; Josse, M O; Bolgert, F

    1995-02-01

    This study is to present a psychopathological analysis of complex hallucinatory symptoms--without consciousness breaking up in confusional state--occurring in patients with acute Guillain-Barré's syndrome diagnosis requiring neurological intensive care. Finally the patients experience an unitary and closed situation "close to dream without being dream". This experience is corresponding to the semeiology of the "oneiroid experience" (Mayer-Gross, 1924). The "oneiroid experience" appears to be of syndromic nature independent of any etiological and/or nosological classification. But its conceptualization does probably need widening: the oneiroid world appears to be a creation of a primitive function which inserts us in the world before any science or verification. PMID:7741405

  7. [Amylase/creatinine clearance in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gonzlez Espinoza, G; Garca Garduo, J R; Esquivel Lpez, A; Gutirrez Samperio, C

    1978-01-01

    In the Department of Gastroenterology of "El Centro Mdico La Raza, I.M.S.S.", three groups of 20 patients were studied: group I with acute pancreatitis; group II with acute abdomen without pancreatic pathology, in both groups the diagnosis was demonstrated surgically or in necropsy; group III was formed by 20 normal voluntary persons, and served as control. A 4 per cent amilase/creatinine clearence index was considered as a high normal value. The diagnosis accuracy in group I was 90 per cent. In group II there was five false positive results, in 80 per cent of the cases the results of the amilase/creatinine clearence index was found within normal limits. The difference between group I and group III was significant (P less than 0.002). The difference between group I and group II was also significant (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference between group II and group III. The amilase/creatinine clearence index has the advantage that it can be obtained with only one blood and urine samples taken simultaneously. We concluded that amilase/creatine clearence index is useful for the differential diagnosis in acute pancreatitis and that is probably due to an alteration in the tubular renal reabsorption. PMID:704529

  8. Does the pain-protective GTP cyclohydrolase haplotype significantly alter the pattern or severity of pain in humans with chronic pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Lazarev, Mark; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M Michael; Dai, Feng; Anderson, Michelle A; Max, Mitchell B; Whitcomb, David C

    2008-01-01

    Background Pain is often a dominant clinical feature of chronic pancreatitis but the frequency and severity is highly variable between subjects. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms contribute to variations in clinical pain patterns. Since genetic variations in the GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) gene have been reported to protect some patients from pain, we investigated the effect of the "pain protective haplotype" in well characterized patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) or recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2). Results Subjects in the NAPS2 study were asked to rank their pain in one of 5 categories reflecting different levels of pain frequency and severity. All subjects were genotyped at rs8007267 and rs3783641 to determine the frequency of the GCH1 pain-protective haplotype. In Caucasian subjects the frequency of the pain-protective GCH1 haplotype was no different in the control group (n = 236), CP patients (n = 265), RAP patients (N = 131), or in CP patients subclassified by pain category compared to previously reported haplotype frequencies in the general Caucasian population. Conclusion The GCH1 pain-protective haplotype does not have a significant effect on pain patterns or severity in RAP or CP. These results are important for helping to define the regulators of visceral pain, and to distinguish different mechanisms of pain. PMID:19014702

  9. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Activates the AIM2 Inflammasome in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Rui; Chen, Ruochan; Xie, Min; Cao, Lizhi; Lotze, Michael T; Tang, Daolin; Zeh, Herbert J

    2016-05-15

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, no specific treatments for AP exist, primarily due to the lack of a mechanistic understanding of sterile inflammation and the resultant multisystem organ dysfunction, the pathologic response of AP linked to early death. In this study, we demonstrate that the class III major histocompatibility region III receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) contributes to AP by modulating inflammasome activation in macrophages. RAGE mediated nucleosome-induced absent in melanoma 2 (but not NLRP3) inflammasome activation by modulating dsRNA-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation in macrophages. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of the RAGE-dsRNA-dependent protein kinase pathway attenuated the release of inflammasome-dependent exosomal leaderless cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and high-mobility group box 1) in vitro. RAGE or absent in melanoma 2 depletion in mice limited tissue injury, reduced systemic inflammation, and protected against AP induced by l-arginine or cerulein in experimental animal models. These findings define a novel role for RAGE in the propagation of the innate immune response with activation of the nucleosome-mediated inflammasome and will help guide future development of therapeutic strategies to treat AP. PMID:27045109

  10. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases) and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls) were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS). Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood. PMID:19534808

  11. The role of Card9 overexpression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with aseptic acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Wen; Weng, Cheng-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Xu, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Activated mononuclear cells are an early event in the course of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). To date, the molecular mechanism triggering peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is poorly understood. The aim of this paper was to determine the potential role of Card9 in SAP. We collected data from 72 subjects between January 2013 and June 2014. Subsequently, PBMCs were isolated on day 1, 3 and 5 of pancreatitis. Immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA were used to determine the role of Card9 in SAP. Microbial culture showed that SAP patients at the early period did not develop any bacteria and fungi infection. Card9 expression in SAP patients was higher than that in mild acute pancreatitis and volunteer healthy controls, up to the peak on day 1. The monocyte-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α mediated by the induction of Card9 markedly increased in SAP patients compared with the control group. Furthermore, the inducible formation of Card9-Bcl10 complex was found in PBMCs, which may be involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 activation in SAP. Receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that Card9 levels had a high sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 67.7%, showing the close correlation with SAP patients. Card9 overexpression was firstly found in aseptic SAP, which may be played an important role in NF-κB and p38 activation in PBMCs. It also provided the new insights into therapeutic interventions by targeting monocytes activation in SAP patients. PMID:26893103

  12. [Change in pancreatic exocrine function in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu A

    1979-10-01

    In order to study changes in the functional state of the pancreas 1572 investigations of the blood and urine amylase, atoxylresistant lipase of the blood serum before operation were performed in different postoperative periods in 131 patients with acute appendicitis. The enzyme activity was established to increase, especially in destructive forms of appendicitis and in elderly patients. PMID:505800

  13. Acute Epstein-Barr virus infection complicated by severe thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Pipp, M L; Means, N D; Sixbey, J W; Morris, K L; Gue, C L; Baddour, L M

    1997-11-01

    We describe one patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection associated with severe thrombocytopenia and review 36 additional cases reported in the literature. Complications of EBV infection due to severe thrombocytopenia occurred in 10 (27.0%) of 37 patients, and 2 (5.4%) of 37 patients died. Although acute EBV infections are generally benign and self-limiting, thrombocytopenia, a potentially serious complication, should not be overlooked. PMID:9402388

  14. Severe but reversible acute kidney injury resulting from Amanita punctata poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eunjung; Cheong, Ka-Young; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Seirhan; Shin, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Heungsoo; Park, In-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom-related poisoning can cause acute kidney injury. Here we report a case of acute kidney injury after ingestion of Amanita punctata, which is considered an edible mushroom. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred within 24 hours from the mushroom intake and were followed by an asymptomatic period, acute kidney injury, and elevation of liver and pancreatic enzymes. Kidney function recovered with supportive care. Nephrotoxic mushroom poisoning should be considered as a cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26779427

  15. The simultaneous incidence of acute pancreatitis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a rare duo in a patient with SLE

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A young female presented with acute abdominal pain of two days duration consistent with acute pancreatitis. During her stay in the hospital she had a sudden drop in hemoglobin to 6 g/dl without any overt blood loss. On evaluation, it was evident that she had acute pancreatitis, in addition to displaying features of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She had been a known case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and had discontinued her treatment. She was managed with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Her clinical condition improved, and she has been regularly attending our clinic for the last 2 years. According to a literature search in Medline, it would appear that this is the first report of a case in which SLE with autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been associated with acute pancreatitis in a single case. PMID:25276114

  16. Effects of the Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Mitoquinone in Murine Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Li; Szatmary, Peter; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Armstrong, Jane; Chvanov, Michael; Tepikin, Alexei V.; Murphy, Michael P.; Sutton, Robert; Criddle, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Although oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis (AP), antioxidant therapy in patients has so far been discouraging. The aim of this study was to assess potential protective effects of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, in experimental AP using in vitro and in vivo approaches. MitoQ blocked H2O2-induced intracellular ROS responses in murine pancreatic acinar cells, an action not shared by the control analogue dTPP. MitoQ did not reduce mitochondrial depolarisation induced by either cholecystokinin (CCK) or bile acid TLCS, and at 10?M caused depolarisation per se. Both MitoQ and dTPP increased basal and CCK-induced cell death in a plate-reader assay. In a TLCS-induced AP model MitoQ treatment was not protective. In AP induced by caerulein hyperstimulation (CER-AP), MitoQ exerted mixed effects. Thus, partial amelioration of histopathology scores was observed, actions shared by dTPP, but without reduction of the biochemical markers pancreatic trypsin or serum amylase. Interestingly, lung myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 were concurrently increased by MitoQ in CER-AP. MitoQ caused biphasic effects on ROS production in isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, inhibiting an acute increase but elevating later levels. Our results suggest that MitoQ would be inappropriate for AP therapy, consistent with prior antioxidant evaluations in this disease. PMID:25878403

  17. Organ failure associated with acute pancreatitis in African-American and Hispanic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Magda A.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationship between acute pancreatitis and organ failure in African-American and Hispanic patients. METHODS: The medical records of 760 (417 African-American and 343 Hispanic) patients aged 19-85 years diagnosed with acute pancreatitis over 15 years were reviewed retrospectively. We abstracted and analyzed data related to demographics, etiology, type of pancreatitis, organ failure and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 760 patients, 24% had organ failure. Of the 182 patients with organ failure, 125 patients (69%) had multiple organ failure, whereas 57 patients (31%) had single type. Cardiovascular system failure was the common organ dysfunction (28%). Of the 760 patients, 14% died. Patients with organ failure had a higher mortality (40%) compared with those without it (6%) (OR=9.6, 95% CI: 6.0-15.3) (P=0.001). Mortality was higher among those with multiple organ failure (46%) compared with those with single type (25%). Mortality was highest among those with pulmonary failure (57%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of organ failure in our study was slightly higher than the general population (20%). Mortality from single type was higher than that reported in previous studies (8-11%), especially mortality from pulmonary failure (18%). Prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of organ failure may improve the clinical outcome. PMID:18229777

  18. Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

    2014-03-16

    The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5' region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

  19. Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5’ region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

  20. Acute necrotising pancreatitis derived from low-dose corticosteroid use: an important reminder of clinical management.

    PubMed

    Sabre, Alexander; Guthrie, Morgan Mary; Maleknia, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Although the exact mechanism is unknown, incidence of drug-induced pancreatitis from corticosteroids is well established in the medical literature. Commonly reported in chronic steroid-dependent individuals who require large doses for a wide array of pathologies, the incidence of damage to the pancreas from low-doses have not been well described. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, 3 days after the initiation of low-dose methylprednisolone for osteoarthritis. Inpatient laboratory analysis revealed an elevated lipase of 1770 U/L and CT scan showing extensive necrotising pancreatitis involving the head, body and tail. Cessation of the causative medication and conservative treatment successfully led to resolution of symptoms. We present this case to inform clinicians of the precipitance of pancreatitis from modest strength corticosteroid management, so that more accurate and improved performance in pharmacological decisions can be made for patient care. PMID:26150628

  1. Blood Alcohol Content, Injury Severity and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Majid; Smith, Gordon S.; Terrin, Michael L.; Barrett, Matthew; Lissauer, Matthew E.; Mansoor, Sahar; Jeudy, Jean; Netzer, Giora

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated blood alcohol content is a risk factor for injury. Associations of blood alcohol content with acute respiratory distress syndrome have not been conclusively established. We evaluated the association of a BAC >0 mg/dL with the intermediate outcomes, Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Score, and their association with acute respiratory distress syndrome development. Methods Observational retrospective cohort study of 26,305 primary trauma admissions to a statewide referral trauma center from July 11, 2003 to October 31, 2011. Logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between Admission blood alcohol content, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, and acute respiratory distress syndrome development within five days of admission. Results The case-rate for acute respiratory distress syndrome was 5.5% (1447). Blood alcohol content >0 mg/dL was associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development in adjusted analysis (Odds Ratio 1.50; 95% Confidence Interval 1.33–1.71, p<0.001). High Injury Severity Score (≥16) had a stronger association with acute respiratory distress syndrome development (Odds Ratio 17.99; 95% Confidence Interval 15.51–20.86); as did low Glasgow Coma Score (≤8) (Odds Ratio 8.77; 95% Confidence Interval 7.64–10.07, p<0.001). Patients with low Glasgow Coma Score and high Injury Severity Score had the most frequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (33.6%) and the highest case fatality rate without acute respiratory distress syndrome (24.7%). Conclusions Elevated blood alcohol content is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development. In the analysis of alcohol exposure, Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Score occur after alcohol ingestion, making them intermediate outcomes. Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Score were strong predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome and may be useful to identify at-risk patients. Elevated blood alcohol content may increase the frequency of the acute respiratory distress syndrome through influence on injury severity or independent molecular mechanisms which can be discriminated only in experimental models PMID:24854314

  2. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis: A 4-Year Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN).Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes.Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula.GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  3. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  4. Alcoholic pancreatitis: New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Dahn L; Schneider, Katrina J; Arkfeld, Christopher K; Grode, Jaclyn R; Wells, Mark A; Singh, Shailender

    2016-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is a necro-inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas that is characterized by inappropriate activation of zymogens, infiltration of the pancreas by inflammatory cells, and destruction of the pancreatic exocrine cells. Acute pancreatitis can progress to a severe life-threatening disease. Currently there is no pharmacotherapy to prevent or treat acute pancreatitis. One of the more common factors associated with acute pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Although commonly associated with pancreatitis alcohol alone is unable to cause pancreatitis. Instead, it appears that alcohol and its metabolic by-products predispose the pancreas to damage from agents that normally do not cause pancreatitis, or to more severe disease from agents that normally cause mild pancreatic damage. Over the last 10 to 20 years, a tremendous amount of work has defined a number of alcohol-mediated biochemical changes in pancreatic cells. Among these changes are: Sustained levels of intracellular calcium, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impairment in autophagy, alteration in the activity of transcriptional activators, and colocalization of lysosomal and pancreatic digestive enzymes. Elucidation of these changes has led to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol predisposes acinar cells to damage. This greater understanding has revealed a number of promising targets for therapeutic intervention. It is hoped that further investigation of these targets will lead to the development of pharmacotherapy that is effective in treating and preventing the progression of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26909228

  5. Alcoholic pancreatitis: New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Dahn L; Schneider, Katrina J; Arkfeld, Christopher K; Grode, Jaclyn R; Wells, Mark A; Singh, Shailender

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a necro-inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas that is characterized by inappropriate activation of zymogens, infiltration of the pancreas by inflammatory cells, and destruction of the pancreatic exocrine cells. Acute pancreatitis can progress to a severe life-threatening disease. Currently there is no pharmacotherapy to prevent or treat acute pancreatitis. One of the more common factors associated with acute pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Although commonly associated with pancreatitis alcohol alone is unable to cause pancreatitis. Instead, it appears that alcohol and its metabolic by-products predispose the pancreas to damage from agents that normally do not cause pancreatitis, or to more severe disease from agents that normally cause mild pancreatic damage. Over the last 10 to 20 years, a tremendous amount of work has defined a number of alcohol-mediated biochemical changes in pancreatic cells. Among these changes are: Sustained levels of intracellular calcium, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impairment in autophagy, alteration in the activity of transcriptional activators, and colocalization of lysosomal and pancreatic digestive enzymes. Elucidation of these changes has led to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol predisposes acinar cells to damage. This greater understanding has revealed a number of promising targets for therapeutic intervention. It is hoped that further investigation of these targets will lead to the development of pharmacotherapy that is effective in treating and preventing the progression of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26909228

  6. [The effect of intraductal duct occlusion with a fast hardening amino acid solution in acute animal experimental pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Clemens, M; Jost, J O; Meyer, J; Kloppenburg, C

    1982-05-01

    The effect of the occlusion of the pancreatic duct system by Ethibloc was studied in cases of acute pancreatitis in animal experiments. Application of 4,5 ml Ethibloc leads to high significant reduction of amylase increase. The favourable effect is markedly reduced after application of 9 ml Ethibloc. A partial excretory function could be demonstrated also after disintegration of Ethibloc. Histological follow-up shows a progredient fibrotic atrophy of pancreas parenchyma. PMID:6179721

  7. Lethal cardiotoxicity, steatohepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and acute enteritis induced by capecitabine and oxaliplatin in a 36-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 36-year-old female was hospitalized with symptoms suggesting intestinal occlusion. She was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater (pT4N0 stage) and underwent cephalic duodenopancreatectomy 8 months ago. Five cycles of postoperative chemotherapy were administrated using capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX or XELOX), the last one being completed 1 month ago. During the present hospitalization, because of normal computed tomography and ultrasound abdominal examination, rehydration and antibiotherapy were administrated. However, 4 days after hospital admission, the patient died. At autopsy and histological examination, we found a severe myocardial sclerosis with large scarring areas, severe steatohepatitis, chronic pancreatitis with large fibrotic areas, and acute enteritis. Alcohol consumption was denied. The patient died due to associated heart, liver and pancreatic failure. This multiorgan toxicity and death following CAPOX regimen had not yet been reported in the literature. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6472150549833105 PMID:24041405

  8. Emergency presentation and management of acute severe asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    Øymar, Knut; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Acute severe asthma is one of the most common medical emergency situations in childhood, and physicians caring for acutely ill children are regularly faced with this condition. In this article we present a summary of the pathophysiology as well as guidelines for the treatment of acute severe asthma in children. The cornerstones of the management of acute asthma in children are rapid administration of oxygen, inhalations with bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled bronchodilators may include selective b2-agonists, adrenaline and anticholinergics. Additional treatment in selected cases may involve intravenous administration of theophylline, b2-agonists and magnesium sulphate. Both non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be options when medical treatment fails to prevent respiratory failure. It is important that relevant treatment algorithms exist, applicable to all levels of the treatment chain and reflecting local considerations and circumstances. PMID:19732437

  9. Role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in L-arg-induced acute pancreatitis: effects and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guojian; Hu, Guoyong; Wan, Rong; Yu, Ge; Cang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Jianbo; Xiong, Jie; Hu, Yanling; Xing, Miao; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Qiu, Lei; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Xingpeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown an obvious protective effect on systemic inflammation. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect and possible mechanism of bone marrow MSCs (bmMSCs) on acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods: BmMSCs of SD rats were isolated and cultured in vitro. L-Arginine-induced acute pancreatitis was used as AP model in vivo. Pancreatic injury was assessed by serum amylase, lipase, cytokines and pancreatic histology. RT-PCR was applied to investigate mRNA expression of pancreas tissue. Western-blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were applied to test the role of NF-κB p65 signaling pathway. Tracking and Positioning of CM-Dil labeled bmMSCs in vivo was further studied. Results: Treatment with bmMSCs attenuated acute pancreatic injury and AP-associated lung injury obviously, with decreased serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, down-regulated expressions of IL-1α, IL-6, TNFα in pancreas tissue and reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in AP. Localization of bmMSCs in vivo was due to being passively trapped in related organs, but not actively homing to inflammatory sites of pancreas during the early phase of AP. Conclusions: Taken together, the results showed that bmMSCs played a protective role in AP in many aspects, which might protect against experimental pancreatitis partly by regulating release of inflammatory cytokines by an exocrine secretion. PMID:26191136

  10. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF THE BLOOD PLASMA OF RABBIT UNDER ARGININE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Hopanenko, O O; Rivis, J F

    2015-01-01

    The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol is normalized and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil. PMID:26255347

  11. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Infection on Outcome in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bechien U; Johannes, Richard S.; Kurtz, Stephen; Banks, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known regarding the impact of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in acute pancreatitis (AP). We conducted a population-based assessment of the impact of HAI on outcome in AP. Methods Patient data was obtained from the Cardinal Health Clinical Outcomes Research Database, a large population-based dataset. Cases with principal diagnosis ICD9-CM 577.0 (AP) between Jan 2004 and Jan 2005 were identified. These cases were linked with recently reported HAI data collected by the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Identification of HAI was based upon definitions set forth by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We conducted a 5:1 multivariate propensity matched cohort study in order to determine the independent contribution of HAI to in-hospital mortality, length-of-stay and hospital charges. Results From 177 participating hospitals, there were 11,046 AP cases identified. Eighty-two (0.7%) patients developed an HAI. Mortality in the overall AP population was 1.2% vs. 11.4% among 405 matched non-HAI controls vs. 28.4% among patients that developed HAI (X2 p<0.0001). Fifteen percent of all deaths were associated with an HAI. Both average LOS and hospital charges were significantly increased among patients with HAI compared to matched non-HAI controls. Conclusions We determined that HAI had a major impact on mortality in AP. Patients that developed HAI also had significantly increased LOS and hospital charges. These differences were not explained by increased disease severity alone. Reducing HAI is an important step to improving outcome in AP. PMID:18616944

  12. Pancreatitis after renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Corrodi, P; Knoblauch, M; Binswanger, U; Schölzel, E; Largiader, F

    1975-01-01

    Pancreatitis is seldom seen as a severe complication of renal transplantation. In a review on 1321 renal transplants, 23 cases with 12 deaths are reported (Johnson and Nabseth, 1970). Single case reports may be added. In our departments pancreatitis has proved to be a fairly frequent complication. It developed in 10 (7 percent) of 147 patients with renal transplantation one week to seven and a half years after transplantation (patients with primary hyperparathyroidism excluded). Three of the eight acute cases had haemorrhagic pancreatitis, in two of them leading to death. Two patients had chronic calcifying pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was complicated in one case by abscess formation and in two by severe haemorrhage into a pseudo-cyst. In two patients the diagnosis was made at necropsy only and death was probably not related to the acute pancreatitis. The exact pathogenesis of pancreatitis after renal transplantation cannot be precisely assessed. Possible contributing factors are treatment with corticosteroids, azathioprin, and L-asparaginase, early hypercalcaemia after transplantation, surgery, infections of bacterial or viral origin, and unknown immunological processes. PMID:1093948

  13. Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Pachon, Maria Dolores; Enriquez, Ricardo; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Millan, Isabel; Romero, Alberto; Amorós, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diagnosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously. PMID:24434395

  14. Interleukin-10 -1082A/G polymorphism is associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Feng; Cui, Ning; Ma, Hongyan; Wang, Xueli; Qiao, Guihong; Liu, Danping

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between IL-10 gene polymorphism (-1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C) and risk of acute pancreatitis in a Chinese population. A total of 240 patients with proven acute pancreatitis and 240 control subjects were collected between May 2012 and January 2015. Genotyping of the IL-10-1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C gene polymorphisms was conducted by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. By univariate logistic regression analysis, patients with acute pancreatitis were more likely to have higher BMI (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.45-3.12; P<0.001) and have a habit of alcohol drinking (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.37-2.95; P<0.001). There were significant differences in the genotype distributions of IL-10-1082A/G between patients with acute pancreatitis and control subjects (?2=9.97, P=0.007). By multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals with the GG genotype of IL-10-1082A/G were associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis when compared with the AA genotype (OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.20-4.59; P=0.007). In dominant and recessive models, the IL-10-1082A/G gene polymorphism was significantly correlated with an elevated risk of acute pancreatitis, and the adjusted Ors (95% CI) were 1.50 (1.03-2.20) and 1.99 (1.06-3.79), respectively. However, no significant different was found between IL-10-819T/C and -592A/C gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. In conclusion, we suggest that IL-10-1082A/G gene polymorphisms contribute to the development of acute pancreatitis in codominant, dominant and recessive models. PMID:26823862

  15. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis: Normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution?

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Michal; Rydzewska-Rosolowska, Alicja; Rydzewski, Andrzej; Rydzewska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether administration of Ringer’s solution (RL) could have an impact on the outcome of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on 103 patients [68 men and 35 women, mean age 51.2 years (range, 19-92 years)] hospitalized between 2011 and 2012. All patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior (Poland) with a diagnosis of AP who had disease onset within 48 h of presentation were included in this study. Based on the presence of persistent organ failure (longer than 48 h) as a criterion for the diagnosis of severe AP (SAP) and the presence of local complications [diagnosis of moderately severe AP (MSAP)], patients were classified into 3 groups: mild AP (MAP), MSAP and SAP. Data were compared between the groups in terms of severity (using the revised Atlanta criteria) and outcome. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the type of fluid resuscitation: the 1-RL group who underwent standard fluid resuscitation with a RL 1000 mL solution or the 2-NS group who underwent standard fluid resuscitation with 1000 mL normal saline (NS). All patients from both groups received an additional 5% glucose solution (1000-1500 mL) and a multi-electrolyte solution (500-1000 mL). RESULTS: We observed 64 (62.1%) patients with MAP, 26 (25.24%) patients with MSAP and 13 (12.62%) patients with SAP. No significant difference in the distribution of AP severity between the two groups was found. In the 1-RL group, we identified 22 (55.5%) MAP, 10 (25.5%) MSAP and 8 (20.0%) SAP patients, compared with 42 (66.7%) MAP, 16 (24.4%) MSAP and 5 (7.9%) SAP cases in the 2-NS group (P = 0.187). The volumes of fluid administered during the initial 72-h period of hospitalization were similar among the patients from both the 1-RL and 2-NS groups (mean 3400 mL vs 3000 mL, respectively). No significant differences between the 1-RL and 2-NS groups were found in confirmed pancreatic necrosis [10 patients (25%) vs 12 patients (19%), respectively, P = 0.637]. There were no statistically significant differences between the 1-RL and 2-NS groups in the percentage of patients who required enteral nutrition (23 patients vs 17 patients, respectively, P = 0.534). Logistic regression analysis confirmed these findings (OR = 1.344, 95%CI: 0.595-3.035, P = 0.477). There were no significant differences between the 1-RL and 2-NS groups in mortality and the duration of hospital stay (median of 9 d for both groups, P = 0.776). CONCLUSION: Our study failed to find any evidence that the administration of RL in the first days of AP leads to improved clinical outcomes. PMID:26309362

  16. Innate Immune Molecule Surfactant Protein D Attenuates Sepsis-induced Acute Pancreatic Injury through Modulating Apoptosis and NF-κB-mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyong; Shi, Qiao; Liu, Jiao; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Xu, Yongan; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis causes multiple-organ dysfunction including pancreatic injury, thus resulting in high mortality. Innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a critical role in host defense and regulating inflammation of infectious diseases. In this study we investigated SP-D functions in the acute pancreatic injury (API) with C57BL/6 Wild-type (WT) and SP-D knockout (KO) mice in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Our results confirm SP-D expression in pancreatic islets and intercalated ducts and are the first to explore the role of pancreatic SP-D in sepsis. CLP decreased pancreatic SP-D levels and caused severe pancreatic injury with higher serum amylase 24 h after CLP. Apoptosis and neutrophil infiltration were increased in the pancreas of septic KO mice (p < 0.05, vs septic WT mice), with lower Bcl-2 and higher caspase-3 levels in septic KO mice (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis revealed increased NF-κB-p65 and phosphorylated IκB-α levels along with higher serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in septic KO mice compared to septic WT mice (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in vitro islet cultures stimulated with LPS produced higher TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05) from KO mice compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate SP-D plays protective roles by inhibiting apoptosis and modulating NF-κB-mediated inflammation in CLP-induced API. PMID:26634656

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  18. Change of Both Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiencies After Acute Pancreatitis in Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Te-Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Hsieh, Su-Hua; Lai, Feipei; Tien, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common pancreatic disease and consists of an acute inflammation of the pancreas. AP can contribute to endocrine and exocrine insufficiencies in survivors as a result of the key role of the pancreas in both glucose metabolism and nutritional digestion. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the endocrine or exocrine insufficiencies in patients after initial AP with biliary or alcohol-associated causes. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database collected between 2001 and 2010. A total of 12,284 patients with AP were identified. Alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.894; 95% CI, 1.520–2.268; P < 0.001) and ≥2 admissions for AP (odds ratio, 1.937; 95% CI, 1.483–2.391; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus after AP. Further, only alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.215; 95% CI, 1.133–1.297; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after AP. Additionally, alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.804; 95% CI, 1.345–2.263; P < 0.001) and ≥2 readmissions for AP (odds ratio, 3.190; 95% CI, 2.317–4.063; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with both exocrine and endocrine insufficiencies after AP. Our data showed that alcohol-associated AP, rather than a biliary cause, contributed to a higher extent to exocrine or endocrine insufficiencies. Furthermore, recurrent AP also led to endocrine insufficiency. PMID:26166112

  19. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rashmi; Sinha, Nupur; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known. PMID:26904307

  20. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rashmi; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known. PMID:26904307

  1. Influence of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration on the course of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Li; Xue, Wu-Jun; Li, Da-Qing; Yin, Ai-Ping; Xin, Xia; Li, Chun-Mei; Gao, Ju-Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in different filtration rate to eliminate cytokines would result in different efficiency in acute pancreatitis, whether the saturation time of filter membrane was related to different filtration rate, and whether the onset time of CVVH could influence the survival of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients were classified into four groups randomly. Group 1 underwent low-volume CVVH within 48 h of the onset of abdominal pain (early CVVH, n = 9). Group 2 received low-volume CVVH after 96 h of the onset of abdominal pain (late CVVH, n = 10). Group 3 underwent high-volume CVVH within 48 h of the onset of abdominal pain (early CVVH, n = 9). Group 4 received high-volume CVVH after 96 h of the onset of abdominal pain (late CVVH, n = 9). CVVH was sustained for at least 72 h. Blood was taken before hemofiltration, and ultrafiltrate was collected at the start of CVVH and every 12 h during CVVH period for the purpose of measuring the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were measured by swine-specific ELISA. The Solartron 1 255 B frequency response analyzer (British) was used to observe the resistance of filter membrane. RESULTS: The survival rate had a significant difference (94.44% vs 68.42%, P<0.01) high-volume and low-volume CVVH patients. The survival rate had also a significant difference (88.89% vs 73.68%, P<0.05) between early and late CVVH patients. The hemodynamic deterioration (MAP, HR, CVP) was less severe in groups 4 and 1 than that in group 2, and in group 3 than in group 4. The adsorptive saturation time of filters membranes was 120-180 min if the filtration rate was 1 000-4 000 mL/h. After the first, second and third new hemofilters were changed, serum TNF-α concentrations had a negative correlation with resistance (r: -0.91, -0.89, and -0.86, respectively in group 1; -0.89, -0.85, and -0.76, respectively in group 2; -0.88, -0.92, and -0.82, respectively in group 3; -0.84, -0.87, and -0.79, respectively in group 4). The decreasing extent of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was significantly different between group 3 and group 1 (TNF-α P<0.05, IL-1β P<0.05, IL-6 P<0.01), between group 4 and group 2 (TNF-α P<0.05, IL-1β P<0.05, IL-6 P<0.01), between group 1 and group 2 (TNF-α P<0.05, IL-1β P<0.05, IL-6 P<0.05), and between group 3 and group 4 (TNF-α P<0.01, IL-1β P<0.01, IL-6 P<0.05), respectively during CVVH period. The decreasing extent of TNF-α and IL-1β was also significantly different between survival patients and dead patients (TNF-α P<0.05, IL-1β P<0.05). In survival patients, serum concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β decreased more significantly than that in dead patients. CONCLUSION: High-volume and early CVVH improve hemodynamic deterioration and survival in acute pancreatitis patients. High-volume CVVH can eliminate cytokines more efficiently than low-volume CVVH. The survival rate is related to the decrease extent of TNF-α and IL-1β. The adsorptive saturation time of filter membranes are different under different filtration rate condition. The filter should be changed timely once filter membrane adsorption is saturated. PMID:16097050

  2. Is ketamine a lifesaving agent in childhood acute severe asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Children with acute severe asthma exacerbation are at risk of developing respiratory failure. Moreover, conventional aggressive management might be futile in acute severe asthma requiring intubation and invasive ventilation. The aim of this review is to detail evidence on the use of ketamine in childhood asthma exacerbations. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed, using different combinations of the following terms: ketamine, asthma, use, exacerbation, and childhood. In addition, we searched the references of the identified articles for additional articles. We then reviewed titles and included studies that were relevant to the topic of interest. Finally, the search was limited to studies published in English and Spanish from 1918 to June 2015. Due to the scarcity in the literature, we included all published articles. The literature reports conflicting results of ketamine use for acute severe asthma in children. Taking into consideration the relatively good safety profile of the drug, ketamine might be a reasonable option in the management of acute severe asthma in children who fail to respond to standard therapy. Furthermore, pediatricians and pediatric emergency clinicians administering ketamine should be knowledgeable about the unique actions of this drug and its potential side effects. PMID:26955277

  3. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  4. /sup 111/In-platelet and /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

    1987-12-01

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and /sup 111/In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.

  5. Unexpected fetal demise despite the reactive nonstress test during the conservative management of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Avsar, Ayse Filiz; Yildirim, Melahat; Cinkaya, Aysegul

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dealing with acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a challenging problem due to unexpected nature of the disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a complicated case of a 29-year-old pregnant woman with a mild acute pancreatitis whose pregnancy ended up with an unexpected fetal demise at her 34th gestational week. This unfortunate outcome led us reconsider our obstetrical approach to acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. CONCLUSION Based on this unfortunate event, we now think that obstetricians should keep in mind that even in the presence of reassuring NST and biophysical profile assessment, an unpredictable fetal loss can occur during the medical management of the pregnancies complicated with mild acute pancreatitis. DISCUSSION The subject patient of this case report was diagnosed with mild AP and underwent conservative medical management. Since the patient was stable and fetal well-being was confirmed with BPP and NST, the termination of pregnancy was out of question at that time. The occurrence of unexpected fetal death despite assuring parameters led us reconsider the approach to the pregnant women with mild AP. PMID:25460471

  6. Changes in the biophysical properties and ultrastructure of lungs, and intrapulmonary fibrin deposition in experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, A R; Davies, G C; Millar, A M; Taylor, T V

    1983-01-01

    Using an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in the rat, we have studied changes in the biophysical properties of lungs and intrapulmonary fibrin deposition in this condition. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant decrease in pulmonary compliance (p less than 0.01) and a significant increase in lung weight (p less than 0.01) compared with a control sham operation group. These changes are associated with a 24% increase in intrapulmonary 125I fibrinogen deposition (p less than 0.01), and an 18% increase in 125I fibrinogen deposition per gram of lung tissue (p less than 0.05) in acute pancreatitis, compared with a control sham operation group. The increased fibrinogen deposition is abolished by treatment with low dose heparin. Using the same animal model changes in pulmonary ultrastructure are shown using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that pulmonary abnormalities are associated with intrapulmonary fibrin deposition in experimental acute pancreatitis and these findings may be relevant to the well described respiratory complications of the condition in man. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6618271

  7. The mtDNA nt7778 G/T Polymorphism Augments Formation of Lymphocytic Foci but Does Not Aggravate Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sarah; Krüger, Burkhard; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Glass, Änne; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Jaster, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphism in the ATP synthase 8 (ATP8) gene of the murine mitochondrial genome, G-to-T transversion at position 7778, has been suggested to increase susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The polymorphism also induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, secretory dysfunction and β-cell mass adaptation. Here, we have used two conplastic mouse strains, C57BL/6N-mtAKR/J (B6-mtAKR; nt7778 G; control) and C57BL/6N-mtFVB/N (B6-mtFVB; nt7778 T), to address the question if the polymorphism also affects the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, two age groups of mice (3 and 12-month-old, respectively) were subjected to up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 µg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of α-amylase and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissue. A comparison of cerulein-induced pancreatic tissue damage and increases of α-amylase and MPO activities showed no differences between the age-matched groups of both strains. Interestingly, histological evaluation of pancreatic tissue of both untreated and cerulein-treated B6-mtAKR and B6-mtFVB mice also revealed the presence of infiltrates of immune cells surrounding ducts and vessels; a finding that is compatible with an early stage of AIP. After recovery from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (day 7 after the injections), 12-month-old B6-mtFVB mice but not B6-mtAKR mice displayed aggravated lymphocytic lesions. A comparison of 12-month-old mice with other age groups of both strains revealed that lymphocytic foci were largely absent in 3-month-old mice, while 24-month-old mice were more affected. Together, our data suggest that the mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Autoimmune-like lesions, however, may progress faster if additional tissue damage occurs. PMID:25010670

  8. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-01

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association. PMID:26987519

  9. Simvastatin is associated with reduced risk of acute pancreatitis: findings from a regional integrated healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bechien U; Pandol, Stephen J; Liu, In-Lu Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterise the relationship between simvastatin and risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study (2006–2012) on data from an integrated healthcare system in southern California. Exposure to simvastatin was calculated from time of initial dispensation until 60 days following prescription termination. AP cases were defined by ICD-9 CM 577.0 and serum lipase≥3 times normal. Patients were censored at death, last follow-up, and onset of AP or end-of-study. Incidence rate of pancreatitis among simvastatin users was compared with the adult reference population. Robust Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratio (RR) estimates for simvastatin use adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, gallstone-related disorders, hypertriglyceridaemia, smoking and alcohol dependence. Analysis was repeated for atorvastatin. Results Among 3 967 859 adult patients (median duration of follow-up of 3.4 years), 6399 developed an initial episode of AP. A total of 707 236 patients received simvastatin during the study period. Patients that received simvastatin were more likely to have gallstone-related disorders, alcohol dependence or hypertriglyceridaemia compared with the reference population. Nevertheless, risk of AP was significantly reduced with simvastatin use, crude incidence rate ratio 0.626 (95% CL 0.588, 0.668), p<0.0001. In multivariate analysis, simvastatin was independently associated with reduced risk of pancreatitis, adjusted RR 0.29 (95% CL 0.27, 0.31) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, gallstone disorders, alcohol dependence, smoking and hypertriglyceridaemia. Similar results were noted with atorvastatin, adjusted RR 0.33 (0.29, 0.38). Conclusions Use of simvastatin was independently associated with reduced risk of AP in this integrated healthcare setting. Similar findings for atorvastatin suggest a possible class effect. PMID:24742713

  10. Hepatitis E virus in patients with acute severe liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Crossan, Claire Louise; Simpson, Kenneth J; Craig, Darren G; Bellamy, Christopher; Davidson, Janice; Dalton, Harry R; Scobie, Linda

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the incidence of hepatitis E (HepE) in individuals with acute liver injury severe enough to warrant treatment at a transplant unit. METHODS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen in developed countries causing severe illness, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying chronic liver disease. HepE infection is often under diagnosed, as clinicians can be reluctant to test patients who have not travelled to regions traditionally considered hyperendemic for HepE. There are few data regarding the significance of HEV in patients with very severe acute liver injury in developed countries. Eighty patients with acute severe liver injury attending the Scottish Liver Transplant unit were tested for HEV and anti-HEV IgG and IgM. Severe acute liver injury was defined as a sudden deterioration in liver function confirmed by abnormal liver function tests and coagulopathy or presence of hepatic encephalopathy. Eighty percent of these patients were diagnosed with paracetomol overdose. No patients had a history of chronic or decompensated chronic liver disease at time of sampling. IgG positive samples were quantified against the World Health Organization anti-HEV IgG standard. Samples were screened for HEV viral RNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Four cases of hepatitis E were identified. Three of the four cases were only diagnosed on retrospective testing and were initially erroneously ascribed to drug-induced liver injury and decompensated chronic liver disease, with the cause of the decompensation uncertain. One case was caused by HEV genotype 1 in a traveller returning from Asia, the other three were autochthonous and diagnosed on retrospective testing. In two of these cases (where RNA was detected) HEV was found to be genotype 3, the most prevalent genotype in developed countries. Three patients survived, two of whom had been misdiagnosed as having drug induced liver injury. The fourth patient died from sepsis and liver failure precipitated as a result of hepatitis E infection and previously undiagnosed cirrhosis. Histopathology data to date is limited to mainly that seen for endemic HepE. All patients, with the exception of patient 1, demonstrated characteristics of HepE infection, as seen in previously described locally acquired cases. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute severe liver injury, HEV testing should be part of the initial diagnostic investigation algorithm irrespective of suspected initial diagnosis, age or travel history. PMID:25018853

  11. [The effects of verapamil in experimental acute pancreatitis in the rat].

    PubMed

    Regalado Pareja, R I; Pardo Correcher, J M; Dez Miralles, M; Graells Ferrer, M L; Ruiz Maca, J A; Gonzlez Santos, J; Medrano Heredia, J

    1992-07-01

    Experimental studies have shown that verapamil inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion. In order to determine whether verapamil has any effect on acute pancreatitis (AP), we undertook an experimental study in Wistar rats. We used 72 animals divided into two groups. In all animals of both experimental groups, AP was induced by ligation of the biliary duct at its entrance in the duodenum. Animals were given saline (NaCl 0.9%), or 0.30 mgrs/hour verapamil. Subgroups of 9 animals, were treated for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours; 6 animals group were then sacrificed, for biochemical studies (serum amilase, lipase, and calcium; and trypsin and chemotrypsin in the homogenized pancreas); the other 3 animals were used for morphologic study of the pancreas. Verapamil treatment decreased significantly tissue activity of trypsin (p less than 0.001) and chemotrypsin (p less than 0.0001) and increased serum lipase (p less than 0.05), and calcium. There was no statistical difference in serum amylase. Morphological findings include oedema, acinar necrosis, hemorrhage and vasculitis in non treated animals. Only oedema was observed in animals treated with verapamil. These results suggest a beneficial effect of verapamil on experimental AP induced by ligation of the bile duct in the rat. PMID:1520548

  12. Recombinant Reg3? protein protects against experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu-Ting; Yang, Meng-Qi; Liu, Jun-Li; Alfred, Martin O; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Juan; Wu, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Min; Luo, Chen

    2016-02-15

    Regenerating gene 3? (Reg3?) protein is a trophic factor that stimulates cell and tissue proliferation, neogenesis and also acts against apoptosis and necrosis. In order to explore the potential roles of recombinant Reg3? (rReg3?), we produced a mature rReg3? polypeptide for direct administration in l-arginine (L-Arg) induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice. Our results showed that rReg3? stimulated cell proliferation through Erk1/2 and p38 phosphorylation and also cyclin D1 upregulation mediated by Akt/ATF-2 signaling. Moreover, rReg3? administration significantly reduced the pancreatic damage caused by L-Arg injection, as shown in histological examination and serum amylase, lipase and C-reactive protein (CRP) assays. Not only acinar cell necrosis but also apoptosis found in the pancreas of AP mice were alleviated by rReg3?. Finally, upregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and suppressed poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase/polymerase (PARP) levels were detected as being relevant to the mechanism of rReg3? protection. We therefore conclude that rReg3? acts as a protective polypeptide against AP in mice by enhancing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expressions and suppressing PARP level. PMID:26683606

  13. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates.

  14. [Decrease in the serum concentration of triiodothyronine in patients with acute edematous pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Medina-Santilln, R; Vzquez-Savedra, J A; Tanimoto, M; Gordon, F; Garca-Manzo, N T

    1989-01-01

    Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and Thyrotropine (TSH) were measured in ten patients hospitalized in an emergency way due to acute edematose pancreatitis clinically diagnosed and confirmed in the laboratory through the finding of values of amilase higher than 180 I.U. By means of venopunction 5 ml. of blood were taken from each patient in order to determine the thyroidal profile and amilasemia at the moment of internment and after 72 hours of the disease development. Results demonstrated a decrease of the values of T3, 72 hours after the patients entered the hospital, with normal values for T4 and TSH. This decrease reached levels of hypothyroidism with no clinical data of the disease. PMID:2483815

  15. Pancreatic Volvulus with Wandering Spleen and Gastric Volvulus: An Unusual Triad for Acute Abdomen in a Surgical Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Gorsi, Ujjwal; Bhatia, Anmol; Gupta, Rajesh; Bharathi, Saranga; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which occurs due to laxity or absence of the normal intraperitoneal ligaments that hold the spleen in place. Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology of absence or laxity of intraperitoneal ligaments. The occurrence of simultaneous pancreatic volvulus has never been described before in adolescence. Herein, we report a case having wandering spleen with torsion, and gastric and distal pancreatic volvulus, an unusual triad in acute abdomen in an emergency setting, which has never been described before to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24976284

  16. Severe acute malnutrition during emergencies: burden management, and gaps.

    PubMed

    Bahwere, Paluku

    2014-06-01

    Natural and man-made disasters, including floods, droughts, earthquakes, and armed conflicts, create nutrition crises. Unfortunately, the frequency and severity of such disasters have been increasing since the beginning of the 20th century, and their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is increasing every year. However, their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is underrecognized due to the ways in which global statistics are built and causes of death are reported. Fortunately, the success of the current protocol for treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and the integrated approach to treatment has created a momentum allowing expanded coverage of treatment of SAM, especially in humanitarian emergency contexts. For this progress to be maintained and accelerated, changes in nutrition information systems at the national and global levels are needed, and the persisting barriers to the expansion and integration of treatment of SAM into routine health systems need to be removed. Emergency funding approaches and objectives have to include sustaining and amplifying the achievements of the short-term palliative interventions. Nutrition programs implemented in emergency contexts have the capacity to contribute to answering priority research questions, and this capacity should be more optimally utilized. PMID:25069293

  17. Applications of intraoperative ultrasound in the treatment of complicated cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer – own experience

    PubMed Central

    Solecki, Michał; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Both acute and chronic inflammation of the pancreas often lead to complications that nowadays can be resolved using endoscopic and surgical procedures. In many cases, intraoperative ultrasound examination (IOUS) enables correct assessment of the extent of the lesion, and allows for safe surgery, while also shortening its length. Aim of the research At the authors’ clinic, intraoperative ultrasound is performed in daily practice. In this paper, we try to share our experiences in the application of this particular imaging technique. Research sample and methodology Intraoperative examination conducted by a surgeon who has assessed the patient prior to surgery, which enabled the surgeon to verify the initial diagnosis. The material presented in this paper includes 145 IOUS procedures performed during laparotomy due to lesions of the pancreas, 57 of which were carried out in cases of inflammatory process. Results and conclusions IOUS is a reliable examination tool in the evaluation of acute inflammatory lesions in the pancreas, especially during the surgery of chronic, symptomatic inflammation of the organ. The procedure allows for a correct determination of the necessary scope of the planned surgery. The examination allows for the differentiation between cystic lesions and tumors of cystic nature, dictates the correct strategy for draining, as well as validates the indications for the lesion's surgical removal. IOUS also allows the estimation of place and scope of drainage procedures in cases of overpressure in the pancreatic ducts caused by calcification of the parenchyma or choledocholitiasis in chronic pancreatitis. In pancreatic cancer, IOUS provides a verification of the local extent of tumor-like lesions, allowing for the assessment of pancreatic and lymph nodes metastasis, and indicating the presence of distant and local metastases, including the liver. IOUS significantly improves the effectiveness of intraoperative BAC aspiration or drainage of fluid reservoirs. PMID:26676074

  18. Acute Severe Aortic Regurgitation: Imaging with Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Rajesh; Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid

    2016-01-01

    Context: Acute aortic regurgitation (AR) is an important finding associated with a wide variety of disease processes. Its timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. Delay in diagnosis could prove fatal. Case Report: We describe a case of acute severe AR that was timely diagnosed using real time three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiogram (3D TEE). Not only did it diagnose but also the images obtained by 3D TEE clearly matched with the pathologic specimen. Using this sophisticated imaging modality that is mostly available at the tertiary centers helped in the timely diagnosis, which lead to the optimal management saving his life. Conclusion: Echocardiography and especially 3D TEE can diagnose AR very accurately. Surgical intervention is the definitive treatment but medical therapy is utilized to stabilize the patient initially.

  19. Recent developments in the treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Kawaratani, Hideto; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Uemura, Masahito; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory condition characterized by repeated attacks of abdominal pain, and the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which causes to reduced exocrine and endocrine functions. Alcohol is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis. Although abstinence is usually considered a prerequisite for successful treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, we often encounter patients who have repeated attacks from the compensated stage through the transitional stage. In alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, continued alcohol consumption causes changes in the digestive hormones and vagal nerve function that induce the pancreatic acinar cells to oversecrete protein, increasing the protein concentration and viscosity of the pancreatic juice. This induces protein sedimentation from the pancreatic juice and formation of protein plugs within the pancreatic duct, triggering repeated attacks of acute pancreatitis. The treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis includes alleviation of symptoms, particularly abdominal pain, elimination of trigger factors, prevention of recurrence and disease progression, adjuvant therapies for pancreatic exocrine and endocrine failure. Recently, the main constituent proteins in these protein plugs have been identified, enabling trials of several therapies, such as the administration of secretin formulations and endoscopic removal. Bromhexine hydrochloride, a bronchial mucolytic, has an affinity for the pancreatic acinar cells, inducing them to secrete pancreatic juice of low viscosity. In this review, we summarize the most recent thoughts about alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, and the new treatments, and in particular, we present our findings concerning the efficacy of bromhexine hydrochloride in the treatment of this disease. PMID:19630718

  20. Blockade of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins Aggravates Acute Pancreatitis and Blunts Atrial Natriuretic Factor’s Beneficial Effect in Rats: Role of MRP4 (ABCC4)

    PubMed Central

    Ventimiglia, María Silvia; Najenson, Ana Clara; Perazzo, Juan Carlos; Carozzo, Alejandro; Vatta, Marcelo S; Davio, Carlos A; Bianciotti, Liliana G

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) stimulates secretin-evoked cAMP efflux through multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) in the exocrine pancreas. Here we sought to establish in vivo whether this mechanism was involved in acute pancreatitis onset in the rat. Rats pretreated with or without probenecid (MRPs general inhibitor) were infused with secretin alone or with ANF. A set of these animals were given repetitive cerulein injections to induce acute pancreatitis. Plasma amylase and intrapancreatic trypsin activities were measured and histological examination of the pancreas performed. Secretin alone activated trypsinogen but induced no pancreatic histological changes. Blockade by probenecid in secretin-treated rats increased trypsin and also induced vacuolization, a hallmark of acute pancreatitis. ANF prevented the secretin response but in the absence of probenecid. In rats with acute pancreatitis, pretreatment with secretin aggravated the disease, but ANF prevented secretin-induced changes. Blockade of MRPs in rats with acute pancreatitis induced trypsinogen activation and larger cytoplasmic vacuoles as well as larger areas of necrosis and edema that were aggravated by secretin but not prevented by ANF. The temporal resolution of intracellular cAMP levels seems critical in the onset of acute pancreatitis, since secretin-evoked cAMP in a context of MRP inhibition makes the pancreas prone to injury in normal rats and aggravates the onset of acute pancreatitis. Present findings support a protective role for ANF mediated by cAMP extrusion through MRP4 and further suggest that the regulation of MRP4 by ANF would be relevant to maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis. PMID:25569802