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1

Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Severe Dengue  

PubMed Central

Dengue is an arthropod borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical continent. Severe dengue is life threatening. Various atypical presentations of dengue have been documented. But we present a rare and fatal complication of severe dengue in form of acute pancreatitis. A 27-year-old male had presented with severe dengue in decompensated shock and with pain in abdomen due to pancreatitis. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in dengue is not clearly understood, but various mechanisms are postulated. The awareness and timely recognition of this complication is very important for proper management. PMID:24926168

Jain, Vishakha; Gupta, OP; Rao, Tarun; Rao, Siddharth

2014-01-01

2

[Sepsis in acute severe pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Retrospective analysis of 99 consecutive cases of acute severe pancreatitis established presence of systemic inflammation in all patients. Magnitude of acute phase response was characterised by C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6 values. Progression to multiple organ failure raised considerably lethality. Failure developed more frequently in respiratory system, liver and kidneys. General mortality was 38,4%. PMID:16927913

Hotineanu, V F; Balica, I M; Bogdan, V I

2006-01-01

3

Severe acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

2015-01-01

4

Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

2015-01-01

5

Laboratory Markers of Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A large array of parameters has been proposed for the biochemical stratification of severity and prediction of complications in acute pancreatitis. However, the number of accurate and readily available variables for routine application is still limited. Methods: The literature was reviewed for laboratory markers of acute pancreatitis with special regard to their clinical usefulness and test performance for stratifying

B. Rau; M. K. Schilling; H. G. Beger

2004-01-01

6

Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Case-Oriented Discussion of Interdisciplinary Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical course of an episode of acute pancreatitis varies from a mild, transitory illness to a severe often necrotizing form with distant organ failure and a mortality rate of 20–40%. Patients with severe pancreatitis, representing about 15–20% of all patients with acute pancreatitis, need to be identified as early as possible after onset of symptoms allowing starting intensive care

Pietro Renzulli; Stephan M. Jakob; Martin Täuber; Daniel Candinas; Beat Gloor

2005-01-01

7

Perioperative factors determine outcome after surgery for severe acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that postponing surgery in critically ill patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) leads to improved survival, but previous reports included patients with both sterile and infected pancreatic necrosis who were operated on for various indications and with different degrees of organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, which might be an important bias. The objective of

Jan J De Waele; Eric Hoste; Stijn I Blot; Uwe Hesse; Piet Pattyn; Bernard de Hemptinne; Johan Decruyenaere; Dirk Vogelaers; Francis Colardyn

2004-01-01

8

Renoprotective activity of sivelestat in severe acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis, affecting 382,014 individuals annually in China, is life-threatening in its severe form. Since acute pancreatitis-associated morbidity or mortality is attributable mainly to functional failure of the vital organs, significant research efforts have focused on the identification of novel agents with potential organ-protective properties in the hope of developing approaches to improve the outcome of acute pancreatitis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that sivelestat, a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), is effective in protecting against lung failure in rats with taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. As part of the analyses extended from that study, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of sivelestat in the protection against acute pancreatitis-associated renal injury. Renal histopathology and major renal function parameters were analyzed in renal tissue and blood specimens collected from rats with acute pancreatitis induced by the surgical administration of sodium taurocholate in the presence or absence of sivelestat treatment and in sham-operated control rats at various time-points. The extended analyses demonstrated that: i) sodium taurocholate induced apparent renal injury and dysfunction manifested by histological anomalies, including vacuolization and apoptosis of the cells of the tubular epithelial lining in the kidney, as well as biochemical aberrations in the blood (increases in levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and tumor necrosis factor-?) and renal tissue (robust increases in NE activity and induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 levels); and ii) sivelestat treatment effectively attenuated all taurocholate-induced histological anomalies and biochemical aberrations. These observations strongly suggest that the NE inhibitor, sivelestat, is effective in protecting against acute pancreatitis-associated renal injury. PMID:23935713

WANG, HOUHONG; TANG, A-MAO; LIU, DAREN; LI, GUOGANG; YE, LONGYUN; LI, XIAOWEN; LI, CHAO; CHEN, LI

2013-01-01

9

Moving beyond the 'pancreatic rest' in severe and critical acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Nasojejunal tube feeding is considered the current standard of care in patients with severe and critical acute pancreatitis. However, it is not known whether enteral nutrition is best delivered into the jejunum. This Commentary discusses recent clinical studies that have shown that tube feeding into the stomach is safe and well tolerated in the vast majority of patients with acute pancreatitis, thus overthrowing the notion of putting the pancreas at rest. Development of a new conceptual framework is warranted to further advance nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:23837725

2013-01-01

10

Acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by gallstones or chronic alcohol use, and accounts for more than 200,000 hospital admissions annually. Using the Atlanta criteria, acute pancreatitis is diagnosed when a patient presents with two of three findings, including abdominal pain suggestive of pancreatitis, serum amylase and/or lipase levels at least three times the normal level, and characteristic findings on imaging. It is important to distinguish mild from severe disease because severe pancreatitis has a mortality rate of up to 30%. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is considered the diagnostic standard for radiologic evaluation of acute pancreatitis because of its success in predicting disease severity and prognosis. The BALI and computed tomography severity index scores also can aid in determining disease severity and predicting the likelihood of complications. Treatment begins with pain control, hydration, and bowel rest. In the first 48 to 72 hours of treatment, monitoring is required to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with worsening pancreatitis. When prolonged bowel rest is indicated, enteral nutrition is associated with lower rates of complications, including death, multiorgan failure, local complications, and systemic infections, than parenteral nutrition. In severe cases involving greater than 30% necrosis, antibiotic prophylaxis with imipenem/cilastatin decreases the risk of pancreatic infection. In gallstone-associated pancreatitis, early cholecystectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy can decrease length of hospital stay and complication rates. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential in cases involving pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25368923

Quinlan, Jeff D

2014-11-01

11

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis have changed. Early enteral nutrition widely replaced parenteral nutrition alone in severe acute pancreatitis. First trials suggest early oral refeeding as nutritional treatment of choice in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:20922640

Teich, N; Mössner, J

2010-10-01

12

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with severe acute pancreatitis: A case report  

PubMed Central

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare disease that affects women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Although infrequent, the disease can cause maternal mortality. The diagnosis is not always clear until the pregnancy is terminated, and significant complications, such as acute pancreatitis, can occur. Pancreatic involvement typically only occurs in severe cases after the development of hepatic and renal impairment. To date, little knowledge is available regarding how the disease causes pancreatitis. Treatment involves supportive measures and pregnancy interruption. In this report, we describe a case of a previously healthy 26-year-old woman at a gestational age of 27 wk and 6 d who was admitted with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. This case illustrates the clinical and laboratory overlap between acute fatty liver of pregnancy and pancreatitis, highlighting the difficulties in differentiating each disease. Furthermore, the hypothesis for this overlapping is presented, and the therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:25068005

de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira; Moreira, Alecsandro; Baima, Julio P; Franzoni, Leticia de C; Lima, Talles B; Yamashiro, Fabio da S; Coelho, Kunie Yabuki Rabelo; Sassaki, Ligia Y; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Romeiro, Fernando G; Silva, Giovanni F

2014-01-01

13

Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications  

PubMed Central

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder. PMID:25320523

Zerem, Enver

2014-01-01

14

[Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The role of parapancreatitis in the intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) progression in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with various forms of organs failure was studied. It was analyzed the treatment results of 63 patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into 4 groups: the first group (n=24) had not the signs of organs failure, the second group (n=15) - with symptoms of acute respiratory failure (ARF), the third group (n=11) - with a combination of ARF and acute cardiovascular failure (CVF) and the fourth group (n=13) - with a combination of ARF, CVF and acute renal failure. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured at 1, 3, 5, 7- days from the beginning of the disease with calculation of the abdominal perfusion pressure and filtration gradient values. The prevalence evaluation of parapancreatitis was carried out on the basis of CT-data with bolus-dosing of the contrast agent, ultrasound, video laparoscopy as well as data obtained during operation and autopsy. It was defined that the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) values was not significantly different and complied with intra-abdominal hypertension of the first grade in patients of the groups 1-3 at the first day. IAP was significantly higher and complied with intra-abdominal hypertension of the second grade in patients of the fourth group. IAP normalized to 5-7th days in patients of the first and the second groups. The patients of the third and the fourth groups had IAH of the second grade in the 7th day. There was reliable (p<0.01) average positive correlation (r=0.57) between the indications of IAH and the scale APACHE II. The patients with common parapancreatitis (n=39) had indications of IAP and APACHE II significantly higher than in patients with local forms of parapancreatitis (n=24; p<0.01). Common defeat of retroperitoneal fat determined persistent increase of IAP more than the presence of effusion in the abdominal cavity. In case of the first grade of IAH the mortality was 6.6%, the second grade - 37.5%, the third grade - 58.3% and the fourth grade - 80%. All died patients had a common parapancreatitis. The authors consider that the indications of IAP and APACHE II let to suppose an adverse outcome by the development of multiple organ failure in the early stages of the disease. Common parapancreatitis is the main feature of the persistent IAH (IAP increase during 5-7 days), which is an indication for early decompression operations on the abdominal wall. PMID:24429710

Diuzheva, T G; Shefer, A V

2014-01-01

15

Perioperative factors determine outcome after surgery for severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is evidence that postponing surgery in critically ill patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) leads to improved survival, but previous reports included patients with both sterile and infected pancreatic necrosis who were operated on for various indications and with different degrees of organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, which might be an important bias. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of timing of surgery and perioperative factors (severity of organ dysfunction and microbiological status of the necrosis) on mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergoing surgery for SAP. Methods We retrospectively (January 1994 to March 2003) analyzed patients admitted to the ICU with SAP. Of 124 patients, 56 were treated surgically; these are the subject of this analysis. We recorded demographic characteristics and predictors of mortality at admission, timing of and indications for surgery, and outcome. We also studied the microbiological status of the necrosis and organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery. Results Patients' characteristics were comparable in patients undergoing early and late surgery, and there was a trend toward a higher mortality in patients who underwent early surgery (55% versus 29%, P = 0.06). In univariate analysis, patients who died were older, had higher organ dysfunction scores at the day of surgery, and had sterile necrosis more often; there was a trend toward earlier surgery in these patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that only age, organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, and the presence of sterile necrosis were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of critically ill patients operated on for SAP, there was a trend toward higher mortality in patients operated on early in the course of the disease, but in multivariate analysis, only greater age, severity of organ dysfunction at the moment of surgery, and the presence of sterile necrosis, but not the timing of the surgical intervention, were independently associated with an increased risk for mortality. PMID:15566598

De Waele, Jan J; Hoste, Eric; Blot, Stijn I; Hesse, Uwe; Pattyn, Piet; de Hemptinne, Bernard; Decruyenaere, Johan; Vogelaers, Dirk; Colardyn, Francis

2004-01-01

16

Mesenchymal stem cells improve intestinal integrity during severe acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas that involves various distant tissues and organs. This study aimed to investigate post-tissue injury repair by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a rat model of SAP. A total of 54 pathogen-free adult male SD rats were randomly assigned to the groups SAP, SAP + MSCs and sham-operated (SO). SAP was induced by 4% sodium taurocholate, and MSCs were injected via the dorsal penile vein 1 h later. The amylase activity, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and diamine oxidase (DAO) levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the expression of aquaporin (AQP)-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The pathological score of intestinal tissues was also compared among groups. Marked improvement in intestinal necrosis, villi shedding and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the SAP + MSCs group compared to the SAP and SO groups. Amylase, TNF-?, and DAO levels were significantly increased in the SAP + MSCs group. The intestinal expression of AQP-1 was increased at 12 and 24 h post-MSC transplantation compared to the SO group. Rats of the SAP + MSCs group displayed higher pathological scores compared to the SAP group at all time points. Overall, these data showed that MSCs can inhibit systemic inflammation and reduce TNF-? release in a rat model of SAP-induced intestinal injury, suggesting that MSCs exert protective effects on the intestinal barrier during SAP. PMID:25109509

Tu, Xiao-Huang; Huang, Shao-Xiong; Li, Wen-Sheng; Song, Jing-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Li

2014-10-01

17

Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The side effects of tamoxifen are generally mild, including the effect on lipoprotein metabolism. However, there are few cases of severe tamoxifen induced hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is a marked risk factor for acute pancreatitis and approximately 2% to 5% of cases of acute pancreatitis are related to drugs. We report on tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a 40 years old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus occurred by dexamethasone. She was treated with insulin infusion and fenofibrate, and goserelin acetate was started instead of tamoxifen after discharge from the hospital. Also, probable pathogenic hypotheses about the correlation between tamoxifen and dexamethasone induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on severe acute pancreatitis are provided. Clinicians should take care of risks of severe acute pancreatitis on using tamoxifen, especially for patients with dexamethasone induced diabetes mellitus. These individuals should undergo pre-post tamoxifen lipid screening and careful history taking of drugs, including dexamethasone. PMID:25035662

Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Lee, Gyeong Bok; Shin, Dong Gue; Park, Sang Su; Yun, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog; Cho, Dong Hui

2014-06-01

18

Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

The side effects of tamoxifen are generally mild, including the effect on lipoprotein metabolism. However, there are few cases of severe tamoxifen induced hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is a marked risk factor for acute pancreatitis and approximately 2% to 5% of cases of acute pancreatitis are related to drugs. We report on tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a 40 years old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus occurred by dexamethasone. She was treated with insulin infusion and fenofibrate, and goserelin acetate was started instead of tamoxifen after discharge from the hospital. Also, probable pathogenic hypotheses about the correlation between tamoxifen and dexamethasone induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on severe acute pancreatitis are provided. Clinicians should take care of risks of severe acute pancreatitis on using tamoxifen, especially for patients with dexamethasone induced diabetes mellitus. These individuals should undergo pre-post tamoxifen lipid screening and careful history taking of drugs, including dexamethasone. PMID:25035662

Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Lee, Gyeong Bok; Shin, Dong Gue; Park, Sang Su; Yun, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog

2014-01-01

19

Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis worldwide. Patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis (SABP) constitute a subgroup of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients in whom systemic inflammation may be triggered and perpetuated by different mechanisms. The aim of this prospective investigation was to examine the adrenal response to corticotropin and the relationship between adrenal function and

Yun-Shing Peng; Cheng-Shyong Wu; Yung-Chang Chen; Jau-Min Lien; Ya-Chung Tian; Ji-Tseng Fang; Chun Yang; Yun-Yi Chu; Chien-Fu Hung; Chih-Wei Yang; Pang-Chi Chen; Ming-Hung Tsai

2009-01-01

20

Early Nasogastric Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early, nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Summary Background Data: In SAP, the magnitude of the inflammatory response as well as increased intestinal permeability correlates with outcome. Enteral feeding has been suggested superior to parenteral feeding due to a proposed beneficial effect on the gut barrier. Methods: Fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to TPN or EN groups. The nutritional regimen was started within 24 hours from admission and EN was provided through a nasogastric tube. The observation period was 10 days. Intestinal permeability was measured by excretion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrations of antiendotoxin core antibodies (Endocab). Interleukins (IL)-6 IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the systemic inflammatory response. Morbidity and feasibility of the nutritional route were evaluated by the frequency of complications, gastrointestinal symptoms, and abdominal pain. Results: PEG, Endocab, CRP, IL-6, APACHE II score, severity according to the Atlanta classification (22 patients), and gastrointestinal symptoms or abdominal pain did not significantly differ between the groups. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN patients (21 of 26 vs. 7 of 23; P < 0.001). Total complications (25 vs. 52; P = 0.04) and pulmonary complications (10 vs. 21; P = 0.04) were significantly more frequent in EN patients, although complications were diagnosed dominantly within the first 3 days. Conclusion: In predicted SAP, nasogastric early EN was feasible and resulted in better control of blood glucose levels, although the overall early complication rate was higher in the EN group. No beneficial effects on intestinal permeability or the inflammatory response were seen by EN treatment. PMID:17122621

Eckerwall, Gunilla E.; Axelsson, Jakob B.; Andersson, Roland G.

2006-01-01

21

Identification of pancreas necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis: imaging procedures versus clinical staging.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and five of 395 patients with acute pancreatitis were surgically treated in our clinic from 1981 to 1984. Ninety three of these patients were examined with contrast enhanced computed tomography and/or ultrasound and were clinically assessed according to Ranson's objective criteria before operation. At operation, 77 patients showed necrotising pancreatitis and 16 showed biliary acute interstitial pancreatitis. Ninety per cent of the cases with extensive and 79% of those with minor necroses of the pancreas had been demonstrated with contrast enhanced computed tomography. Ultrasound failed to be diagnostic in 24% of the patients due to meteorism; the sensitivity of the diagnostic studies for pancreatic necrosis was 73% regardless of the extent of the process. Using the early objective signs, seven patients with acute interstitial pancreatitis were classified as having a severe attack, whereas 30 patients with necrotising pancreatitis were categorised as mild attacks. We conclude that the contrast enhanced computed tomography is an aid in deciding on conservative or surgical treatment in a case of acute pancreatitis. Ultrasound does not appear to be an adequate method for determining pancreatic necrosis. The early objective signs fail to sufficiently identify the necrotising form of acute pancreatitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3530895

Block, S; Maier, W; Bittner, R; Büchler, M; Malfertheiner, P; Beger, H G

1986-01-01

22

[C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase as single prognostic factors of severity in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Ranson and Glasgow scores are routinely used for prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis. We undertook a prospective study to investigate the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential single predictors of severity in acute pancreatitis. In our study we included 100 patients with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis admitted to our hospital during last two years. The inclusion criteria consisted of a combination of clinical features, a typical case history, elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes and diagnosis confirmed by imaging studies (ultrasound or computerised tomography). We used Ranson score for assesment of severity and compared it with single parameters as LDH and CRP on the first and the third day after admission. Cut off values for predicting local and systemic complications were > or =3 for Ranson score, 320 IU for LDH and 5 mg/L for CRP. Ranson score showed highest sensitivity in the prediction of local and systemic complication of acute pancreatitis. Specificity and diagnostic accuracy were highest for LDH on the first day (67.74; 57%). Diagnostic accuracy for Ranson score and CRP on the third day after admission was around 50%. We can conclude that LDH and CRP are available, simple and economical biochemical parameters that can help us predict complications of acute pancreatitis in the early phase of the disease. They showed similar diagnostic accuracy as the far more clinically used Ranson score. PMID:17489509

Zrni?, Irena Krznari?; Mili?, Sandra; Fisi?, Elizabeta; Radi?, Mladen; Stimac, Davor

2007-01-01

23

High-mobility group box 1 protein and its role in severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which belongs to the subfamily of HMG-1/-2, is a highly conserved single peptide chain consisting of 215 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of approximately 24894 Da. HMGB1 is a ubiquitous nuclear protein in mammals and plays a vital role in inflammatory diseases. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain with a poor prognosis. Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas (duration of less than six months), for which the severe form is called severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). More and more studies have shown that HMGB1 has a bidirectional effect in the pathogenesis of SAP. Extracellular HMGB1 can aggravate the pancreatic inflammatory process, whereas intracellular HMGB1 has a protective effect against pancreatitis. The mechanism of HMGB1 is multiple, mainly through the nuclear factor-?B pathway. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptors (TLR), especially TLR-2 and TLR-4, are two major types of receptors mediating the inflammatory process triggered by HMGB1 and may be also the main mediators in the pathogenesis of SAP. HMGB1 inhibitors, such as ethyl pyruvate, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, can decrease the level of extracellular HMGB1 and are the promising targets in the treatment of SAP. PMID:25663762

Shen, Xiao; Li, Wei-Qin

2015-01-01

24

Inhibition of Ras signalling reduces neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Neutrophil recruitment is known to be a rate-limiting step in mediating tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammation and organ damage in AP remain elusive. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signalling in AP. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) before infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic and lung tissues as well as blood were collected 24h after pancreatitis induction. Pretreatment with FTS decreased serum amylase levels by 82% and significantly attenuated acinar cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage and oedema formation in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the inflamed pancreas by 42%. In addition, administration of FTS decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines as well as circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-mobility group box 1 in animals exposed to taurocholate. Moreover, treatment with FTS reduced taurocholate-induced MPO levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras signalling had no effect on neutrophil expression of Mac-1 in mice with pancreatitis. Moreover, FTS had no direct impact on trypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results indicate that Ras signalling controls CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in severe AP. Thus, our findings highlight a new signalling mechanism regulating neutrophil recruitment in the pancreas and suggest that inhibition of Ras signalling might be a useful strategy to attenuate local and systemic inflammation in severe AP. PMID:25460024

Yu, Changhui; Merza, Mohammed; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

2015-01-01

25

Primary angiosarcoma of the pancreas mimicking severe acute pancreatitis - Case report.  

PubMed

Primary angiosarcoma of the pancreas is an extremely rare neoplasm that often mimicks severe acute pancreatitis. A 58-year-old man was admitted with clinical and laboratory signs of severe acute pancreatitis. Contrast enhanced CT scan demonstrated haemorrhagic necrotizing inflammation of the pancreas involving the pancreatic tail, splenic hilum and small bowels with multiple peripancreatic and free abdominal fluid collection. Percutaneous drainage was performed. After 13 days, laparotomy was indicated because of persistent intra-abdominal bleeding, fever and a palpable, rapidly growing mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. During the operation a necrotic, haemorrhagic mass was found in the pancreatic tail; a frozen section showed malignancy, although the tumour was unresectable. Despite all conservative and surgical therapeutic attempts, the patient died within four weeks after diagnosis. Final histology justified primary angiosarcoma of the pancreas. If a patient with signs of severe acute pancreatitis has fever without elevated PCT, the presence of a malignant tumour of the pancreas should be considered. PMID:25541144

Csiszkó, Adrienn; László, István; Palatka, Károly; Szabó, Károly Gábor; Kanyári, Zsolt; Bidiga, László; Csonka, Tamás; Damjanovich, László; Szentkereszty, Zsolt

2015-01-01

26

Assessment of the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis: No Room for Complacency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis is an important initial step in the management of these patients. An ideal prognostic system or marker does not exist, and current approaches fall short of what is needed when dealing with individual patients. It is recommended that the evaluation of the performance of a particular prognostic system or marker should include the calculation

John A. Windsor

2008-01-01

27

Potential effects of calcium binding protein S100A12 on severity evaluation and curative effect of severe acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Severe acute pancreatitis is a life threatening disease with a high rate of mortality, but its treatments are still controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effects of calcium binding protein S100A12 on severity evaluation and curative effect of severe acute pancreatitis induced by caerulein and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 ?g/kg caerulein for seven times (every interval time was an hour) and intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide for once to establish acute pancreatitis mice models. One hundred sixty specific pathogen-free imprinting control region (ICR) female mice were randomly divided into the control group (group A, normal saline), the mild group (group B, caerulein), the severe group (group C, caerulein + lipopolysaccharide), and the intervention group (group D, S100A12 recombinant antibodies + caerulein + lipopolysaccharide); each group had 40 mice. We sampled the blood at 8, 12, and 24 h after the beginning of building animal models. In each period of time, we respectively detected the serum S100A12, amylase (AMY), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL-1?, IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) levels. In addition, we observed and scored the pancreas and lungs histopathology of the mice. In each same period of time compared with group C, serum AMY, CRP, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? levels of group D were significantly decreased (p?severity of acute pancreatitis induced by caerulein and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Serum S100A12 may serve as a useful marker for disease severity and curative effect in mice with severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:25266882

Yinchu, Zhan; Feng, Zhang; Yinsheng, Shi; Fengqing, Wu; Xiaoyang, Zhou; Jin, Li; Xiaofei, Gao

2015-02-01

28

Caspase-1 inhibition alleviates acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effect of inhibition of caspase-1 on acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls (HC, n = 6), SAP rats treated with saline (SAP-S, n = 18), or SAP rats treated with a caspase-1/interleukin (IL)-1?-converting-enzyme (ICE) inhibitor (SAP-I-ICE, n = 18). SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. HC rats were subjected to identical treatment and surgical procedures without sodium taurocholate. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic saline (SAP-S) or the inhibitor (SAP-ICE-I) at 2 and 12 h after induction of acute pancreatitis. Surviving rats were sacrificed at different time points after SAP induction; all samples were obtained and stored for subsequent analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using automatic methods, and serum IL-1? concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intrarenal expression of IL-1?, IL-18 and caspase-1 mRNAs was detected by RT-PCR. IL-1? protein expression and the pathologic changes in kidney tissues were observed by microscopy after immunohistochemical or hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. RESULTS: The serum levels of BUN and Cr in the SAP-S group were 12.48 ± 2.30 mmol/L and 82.83 ± 13.89 ?mol/L at 6 h, 23.53 ± 2.58 mmol/L and 123.67 ± 17.67 ?mol/L at 12 h, and 23.60 ± 3.33 mmol/L and 125.33 ± 21.09 ?mol/L at 18 h, respectively. All were significantly increased compared to HC rats (P < 0.01 for all). Levels in SAP-ICE-I rats were significantly decreased compared to SAP-S rats both at 12 and 18 h (P < 0.01 for all). Serum IL-1? levels in the SAP-S group were 276.77 ± 44.92 pg/mL at 6 h, 308.99 ± 34.95 pg/mL at 12 h, and 311.60 ± 46.51 pg/mL at 18 h; all significantly higher than those in the HC and SAP-ICE-I groups (P < 0.01 for all). Intrarenal expression of IL-1? mRNA was weak in HC rats, but increased significantly in SAP-S rats (P < 0.01). ICE inhibition significantly decreased the expression of IL-1? and IL-18 mRNAs (P < 0.05 for all vs SAP-S), whereas caspase-1 mRNA expression was not significantly different. Weak IL-1? immunostaining was observed in HC animals, and marked staining was found in the SAP-S group mainly in renal tubular epithelial cells. IL-1? immunostaining was significantly descended in SAP-ICE-I rats compared to SAP-S rats (P < 0.05). Caspase-1 inhibition had no effect on the severity of kidney tissue destruction. CONCLUSION: The expression of caspase-1-activated cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 plays a pivotal role in acute renal injury in rats with experimental SAP. Caspase-1 inhibition improves renal function effectively. PMID:25132762

Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Li, Min-Li; Wang, Bin; Guo, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Ren-Min

2014-01-01

29

Effects of Baicalin on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in rats with sever acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (I group), model control group (II group), Baicalin treated group (III group) and Octreotide treated group (IV group). Each group was also divided into subgroup of 3, 6 and 12 h (n = 15). The mortality rate, ascites/body weight ratio as well as the level of endotoxin, NO and ET-1 in blood were measured. The pathological severity score of pancreas, apoptotic indexes, and expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in each group were investigated. RESULTS: The survival rate of III and IV group has a significant difference compared with II group (P12 h < 0.05). The ascites volume, contents of inflammatory mediators in blood and pathological severity score of pancreas of III and IV group declined at different degrees compared to II group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). Apoptotic index in III group was significantly higher than that in II group at 3 and 6 h (P3, 6 h < 0.05). Apoptotic index in IV group was significantly higher than that in II group at pancreatic tail at 6 h (P6 h < 0.05). Expression level of Bax in III group was significantly higher than that in II group (pancreatic head P3 h,6 h < 0.01, pancreatic tail P3 h < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Octreotide in the treatment of SAP, the protective mechanisms of Baicalin include reducing the excessive inflammatory mediators’ release, inducing the pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis. PMID:21772857

Xiping, Zhang; Hua, Tian; Hanqing, Chen; Li, Chen; Binyan, Yu; Jing, Ma

2009-01-01

30

Acute pancreatitis associated with bulimia.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis developed in an 18-year-old woman after multiple episodes of bulimia. The pancreatitis was severe and the patient developed a pseudocyst. Eating disorders may be associated with acute pancreatitis, and so we review the literature on this possibility. PMID:6586819

Marano, A R; Sangree, M H

1984-06-01

31

[Peculiarities of infusion therapy in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The possibility of intraarterial access for infusion in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP) (initial severity score using the APACHE II assessment scale 16 points) is discussed. The results of the intraarterial crystalloid and colloid solutions infusion and its influence into the state of systemic hemodynamic in patients with organ dysfunction are demonstrated. Positive influence of the proposed method for recovering of central hemodynamic parameters in patients with cardiac and/or respiratory dysfunction and the outcome of early phases of AP were ascertained. PMID:24501922

Datsiuk, O I; Shapryns'ky?, V O; Shlapak, I P

2013-09-01

32

Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to acute pancreatitis successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in three patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review three patients who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory failure secondary to pancreatitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Severe acute pancreatitis often causes the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and if ventilation is required, the mortality rate is more than 50%. If the ratio of PaO2/FiO2 falls below 100 mm Hg or the Murray lung injury score exceeds 3.5, the mortality rate rises to more than 80%. Three patients who have severe ARDS secondary to pancreatitis, who were hypoxic despite ventilation with 100% oxygen and high airway pressures, and who were all successfully treated with ECMO are reported here. The consensus here is that all three patients would have died without ECMO. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and discussion of the literature. RESULTS: Pre-ECMO data: mean PaO2/FiO2 59.3 mm Hg, mean Murray lung injury score 3.7, one patient administered 20 ppm inhaled nitric oxide. ECMO data: mean extracorporeal flow at initiation of ECMO 56.3 mL/kg per minute, all patients administered veno-venous ECMO, mean duration of ECMO 104.7 hours. All patients were successfully weaned from ECMO and extubated. One patient had a protracted hospital stay because of a colo-cutaneous fistula. All patients are long-term survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation proved an effective therapy for severe ARDS complicating acute pancreatitis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was conducted without bleeding complications in these three patients. Images Figure 1. PMID:9563548

Peek, G J; White, S; Scott, A D; Hall, A W; Moore, H M; Sosnowski, A W; Firmin, R K

1998-01-01

33

Prediction of invasive candidal infection in critically ill patients with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with severe acute pancreatitis are at risk of candidal infections carrying the potential risk of an increase in mortality. Since early diagnosis is problematic, several clinical risk scores have been developed to identify patients at risk. Such patients may benefit from prophylactic antifungal therapy while those patients who have a low risk of infection may not benefit and may be harmed. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and discrimination of existing risk scores for invasive candidal infections in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods Patients admitted with severe acute pancreatitis to the intensive care unit were analysed. Outcomes and risk factors of admissions with and without candidal infection were compared. Accuracy and discrimination of three existing risk scores for the development of invasive candidal infection (Candida score, Candida Colonisation Index Score and the Invasive Candidiasis Score) were assessed. Results A total of 101 patients were identified from 2003 to 2011 and 18 (17.8%) of these developed candidal infection. Thirty patients died, giving an overall hospital mortality of 29.7%. Hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with candidal infection (55.6% compared to 24.1%, P = 0.02). Candida colonisation was associated with subsequent candidal infection on multivariate analysis. The Candida Colonisation Index Score was the most accurate test, with specificity of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 0.88), sensitivity of 0.67 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87), negative predictive value of 0.91 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97) and a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 5.5). The Candida Colonisation Index Score showed the best discrimination with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.87). Conclusions In this study the Candida Colonisation Index Score was the most accurate and discriminative test at identifying which patients with severe acute pancreatitis are at risk of developing candidal infection. However its low sensitivity may limit its clinical usefulness. PMID:23506945

2013-01-01

34

Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

SciTech Connect

Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: sunxjk@hotmail.com [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wang2929@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

2010-03-05

35

A patient with severe acute pancreatitis successfully treated with a new critical care procedure.  

PubMed

It has been accepted widely that excessive humoral mediators play important roles in the pathogenesis of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and that infection of the pancreas due to bacterial translocation (BT) is the most frequent cause of death in SAP. On the other hand, it has been reported that continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) removes humoral mediators on hypercytokinemic patients such as those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Furthermore, several clinical studies have demonstrated that selective digestive decontamination (SDD) effectively eliminates aerobic Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal tract and reduces the incidence of septic complications in SAP. Herein we report a case of SAP who was treated successfully with intensive care including CHDF and SDD. Thus, this case report suggests that CHDF aimed at removing causative humoral mediators and SDD for the prevention of BT are useful new tools for the management of SAP. PMID:12109947

Moriguchi, Takeshi; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Shiga, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuya; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Masataka; Yokohari, Kennji; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirayama, Yoh; Watanabe, Eizo

2002-06-01

36

Resistin is not an appropriate biochemical marker to predict severity of acute pancreatitis: A case-controlled study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess levels of serum resistin upon hospital admission as a predictor of acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. METHODS: AP is both a common and serious disease, with severe cases resulting in a high mortality rate. Several predictive inflammatory markers have been used clinically to assess severity. This prospective study collected data from 102 patients who were diagnosed with an initial acute biliary pancreatitis between March 2010 and February 2013. Measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were obtained and serum resistin levels were analyzed at the time of hospital admission using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, resistin levels were measured from a control group after matching gender, BMI and age. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (60 females and 42 males) were diagnosed with acute gallstone-induced pancreatitis. The mean age was 45 years, and mean BMI value was 30.5 kg/m2 (Obese, class?I). Twenty-two patients (21.6%) had severe AP, while eighty-eight patients had mild pancreatitis (78.4%). Our results showed that BMI significantly correlated with pancreatitis severity (P = 0.007). Serum resistin did not correlate with BMI, weight or WC. Furthermore, serum resistin was significantly higher in patients with AP compared to control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean resistin values upon admission were 17.5 ng/mL in the severe acute biliary pancreatitis group and 16.82 ng/mL in the mild AP group (P = 0.188), indicating that resistin is not an appropriate predictive marker of clinical severity. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for developing severe AP. Further, although there is a correlation between serum resistin levels and AP at the time of hospital admission, resistin does not adequately serve as a predictive marker of clinical severity. PMID:25386084

Al-Maramhy, Hamdi; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I; Sawalhi, Samer

2014-01-01

37

Minimally invasive procedures in severe acute pancreatitis treatment – assessment of benefits and possibilities of use  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) consists of an extremely varied complex of pathological symptoms and clinical conditions, ranging from mild gastric complaints to multi-organ failure resulting in death. Aim To present the authors’ own experience regarding surgical treatment for pancreatic necrosis complicated by infection using different methods, including classic and laparoscopic methods as well as those combined with percutaneous techniques. Material and methods In the period 2007–2010, 34 patients with the diagnosis of severe AP were treated at the Department of General, Gastroenterological and Oncological Surgery, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University. In 7 patients classic necrosectomy with repeated peritoneal flushing was performed (type 1), in 5 patients laparotomy with active drainage (type 2), in 12 video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (type 3), and in 10 only percutaneous drainage methods (type 4). Results Total duration of hospitalisation was from 10 to 192 days. The highest death rate was observed for type 1 procedures. Significant differences with regard to the absolute number of postoperative complications between different groups were not observed; however, their quality varied. Classic methods were used in patients whose general and local condition was more severe. Conclusions When AP and its complications are diagnosed, a suitable method of surgical treatment has to be selected extremely precisely and in an individualised way. Minimally invasive methods used in selected patients provide better outcomes and higher safety superseding classic, open techniques of surgical treatment. PMID:25097683

Jackowski, Marek

2014-01-01

38

Regional Arterial Infusion with Lipoxin A4 Attenuates Experimental Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate the therapeutic effect of regional arterial infusion (RAI) with Aspirin-Triggered Lipoxin A4 (ATL) in experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Materials and Methods SAP was induced by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Rats with SAP were treated with ATL (the ATL group) or physiological saline (the SAP group) infused via the left gastric artery 30 min after injection of sodium taurocholate. The sham group was subjected to the same surgical procedure, though without induction of SAP. Serum levels of amylase, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were measured at 12 and 24 h after induction of SAP. Ascitic fluid, the pancreatic index (wet weight ratio) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the pancreas were determined and histopathological findings were evaluated. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), NF-?B p65, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the pancreas were estimated by immunofluorescence and western blot, respectively. Results ATL rats had lower serum levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 (P<0.01), PLA2 (P<0.05), and amylase levels (P<0.05) studied as compared with the SAP group. The pancreatic index in the ATL group decreased only at 24 h as compared with the SAP group (P<0.05). The histopathological findings and MPO levels in the pancreas significantly decreased in the ATL group as compared to the SAP group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Immunofluorescence and western blot showed that ATL attenuated the expression of NF-?B p65, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 in the pancreas, and increased the expression of HO-1 in SAP animals. Conclusions We demonstrated that RAI with ATL attenuated the severity of experimental SAP, maybe achieved by improving the expression of HO-1, and down-regulating the NF-?B signaling pathway, with decreased expression of ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 and reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25265022

Yang, Fajing; Xie, Jianming; Wang, Weiming; Xie, Yangyun; Sun, Hongwei; Jin, Yuepeng; Xu, Dan; Chen, Bicheng; Andersson, Roland; Zhou, Mengtao

2014-01-01

39

Acute biliary pancreatitis: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Gallstones are the commonest cause of acute pancreatitis (AP), a potentially life-threatening condition, worldwide. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has not been fully understood. Laboratory and radiological investigations are critical for diagnosis as well prognosis prediction. Scoring systems based on radiological findings and serologic inflammatory markers have been proposed as better predictors of disease severity. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is beneficial in a group of patients with gallstone pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative endoscopic common bile duct clearance is recommended as a treatment of choice for acute biliary pancreatitis. The timing of cholecystectomy, following ERCP, for biliary pancreatitis can vary markedly depending on the severity of pancreatitis. PMID:19636174

Hazem, Zakaria M

2009-01-01

40

Effects of early enteral nutrition on immune function of severe acute pancreatitis patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the immune function and clinical outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive EEN or delayed enteral nutrition (DEN). Enteral nutrition was started within 48 h after admission in EEN group, whereas from the 8th day in DEN group. All the immunologic parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after admission. The clinical outcome variables were also recorded. RESULTS: Sixty SAP patients were enrolled to this study. The CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the CRP levels in EEN group became significantly lower than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. In contrast, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in EEN group became significantly higher than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. No difference of CD8+ T-lymphocyte percentage, IgM and IgA levels was found between the two groups. The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and pancreatic infection as well as the duration of intensive care unit stay were significantly lower in EEN group than in DEN group. However, there was no difference of hospital mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EEN moderates the excessive immune response during the early stage of SAP without leading to subsequent immunosuppression. EEN can improve the clinical outcome, but not decrease the hospital mortality of SAP patients. PMID:23431120

Sun, Jia-Kui; Mu, Xin-Wei; Li, Wei-Qin; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Shu-Yun

2013-01-01

41

Nasogastric nutrition is efficacious in severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

In patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP), enteral nutrition is delivered by nasojejunal (NJ) tube to minimise pancreatic stimulation. Nasogastric (NG) feeding represents an alternative route. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of NG feeding. Secondary objectives were to compare the NG and NJ routes and assess the side effects of the former. The primary endpoint was exclusive NG feeding with delivery of 75 % of nutritional targets. Additional outcomes included change to total parenteral nutrition (TPN), increased pain or disease severity, vomiting, diarrhoea, delivery rate reduction and tube displacement. Among the retrieved studies, six were found to be eligible for the qualitative review and four for the meta-analysis. NG nutrition was received by 147 patients; exclusive NG feeding was achieved in 90 % (133/147). Of the 147 patients, 129 (87 %) received 75 % of the target energy. In studies where all subjects received exclusive NG nutrition, 82 % (seventy-four of the ninety patients) received >75 % of the intended energy. Compared with NJ nutrition, there was no significant difference in the delivery of 75 % of nutritional targets (pooled risk ratio (RR) 1·02; 95 % CI 0·75, 1·38.) or no increased risk of change to TPN (pooled RR 1·05; 95 % CI 0·45, 2·48), diarrhoea (pooled RR 1·28; 95 % CI 0·62, 2·66), exacerbation of pain (pooled RR 1·10; 95 % CI 0·47, 2·61) or tube displacement (pooled RR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·11, 1·73). Vomiting and diarrhoea were the most common side effects of NG feeding (13·3 and 12·9 %, respectively). With respect to the delivery of nutrition, 11·2 % of the patients required delivery rate reduction and 3·4 % dislodged the tube. Other side effects included elevated levels of aspirates (9·1 %), abdominal distension (1·5 %), pain exacerbation (7·5 %) and increased disease severity (1·6 %). In conclusion, NG feeding is efficacious in 90 % of patients. Further research is required to optimise the delivery of NG nutrition and examine 'gut-rousing' approaches to nutrition in patients with severe AP. PMID:25333639

Nally, Deirdre M; Kelly, Enda G; Clarke, Mary; Ridgway, Paul

2014-12-01

42

Acute pancreatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth to remove the contents of the stomach (nasogastric suctioning). This may be done if vomiting and severe pain do not improve, or if a paralyzed bowel ( paralytic ileus ) develops. The tube will stay in for 1 - 2 days to ...

43

Vascular Endothelial Injury and Apoptosis in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

We explored mechanisms of vascular endothelial injury that lead to systemic multiple organ failure by detecting the soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR), von Willebrand factor (vWF), serum nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA expression in a severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rat model. Compared to controls, the levels of TNF-?, vWF, and sEPCR were significantly increased in the experimental group at 12 hours and 24 hours and the NO level was significantly decreased. After 12 hours, the aortic endothelial apoptosis index and Bax mRNA expression in aortic endothelial cells had increased in the experimental group, but Bcl-2 mRNA levels had decreased. All these changes appeared at both 12?h and 24 hours. The results indicated that vascular endothelial injury and apoptosis markers were elevated in SAP. Endothelial injury and increased apoptosis in the experimental group were related to the increased expression of TNF-?.

Ge, Ning; Xia, Qing; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zeng, Zhi

2015-01-01

44

From Moderately Severe to Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Circulating MiRNAs Play Role as Potential Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia induced acute pancreatitis (HTAP) continues to rise in China. It has systemic complications and high mortality, making the early assessment of the severity of this disease even more important. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) could be novel, non-invasive biomarkers for disease progression judgment. This study aimed to identify the potential role of serum miRNAs as novel biomarkers of HTAP progression. HTAP patients were divided into two groups: moderately severe (HTMSAP) and severe (HTSAP), healthy people were used as control group. The serum miRNA expression profiles of these three groups were determined by microarray and verified by qRT-PCR. The functions and pathways of the targeted genes of deregulated miRNAs were predicted, using bioinformatics analysis; miRNA-mRNA network was generated. Moreover, the correlation between miR-181a-5p and pancreatitis metabolism related substances were studied and the serum concentration of inflammatory cytokines and miRNAs at different time points during the MSAP and SAP were investigated, respectively. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of miRNAs was studied. Significant changes in the serum concentration of the following miRNAs of HTAP patients (P<0.05) were discovered: miR24-3p, 361-5p, 1246, and 222-3p (constantly upregulated), and 181a-5p (constantly downregulated) (P<0.05). Bioinformatics analysis predicted that 13 GOs and 36 pathways regulated by overlap miRNAs were involved in glucose, fat, calcium (Ca++), and insulin metabolism (P<0.001). miRNA-mRNA network revealed that the overlap miRNAs targeted genes participating in pancreas metabolism and miR-181a-5p, the only downregulated miRNA, had good negative correlation with triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and fast blood glucose (FBG), but a positive correlation with Ca++. When compared with inflammatory cytokines, the changes of all five overlap miRNAs were more stable. It was found that when used for evaluating the progression of HTAP, miRNAs showed good AUC. These data suggested that serum miRNAs have the potential to be excellent HTAP biomarkers. PMID:25365448

Xia, Min; Jiang, Lisha; Lu, Guoming; Huang, Mindan; Guo, Jizhong; Liu, Side

2014-01-01

45

Deletion of TRPC3 in mice reduces Store-Operated Ca2+ influx and the severity of acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Receptor–stimulated Ca2+ influx is a critical component of the Ca2+ signal and mediates all cellular functions regulated by Ca2+. However, excessive Ca2+ influx is highly toxic resulting in cell death, which is the nodal point in all forms of pancreatitis. Ca2+ influx is mediated by store-operated channels (SOCs). The identity and function of the native SOCs in most cells is unknown. Methods Here, we determine the role of deletion of Trpc3 in mice on Ca2+ signaling, exocytosis, intracellular trypsin activation and pancreatitis. Results Deletion of TRPC3 reduced the receptor-stimulated and SOCs-mediated Ca2+ influx by about 50%, indicating that TRPC3 functions as SOC in vivo. The reduced Ca2+ influx in TRPC3?/? acini resulted in reduced frequency of the physiological Ca2+ oscillations and of the pathological sustained [Ca2+]i increase caused by supramaximal stimulation and by the toxins bile acids and palmitoleic acid ethyl ester. Consequently, deletion of TRPC3 shifted the dose response for receptor-stimulated exocytosis, and prevented the pathological inhibition of digestive enzyme secretion at supramaximal agonist concentrations. Accordingly, deletion of TRPC3 markedly reduced intracellular trypsin activation and excessive actin depolymerization in vitro and the severity of pancreatitis in vivo. Conclusions These findings establish the native TRPC3 as a SOC in vivo and a role for TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ influx in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and suggest that TRPC3 should be considered a target for prevention of the pancreatic damage in acute pancreatitis. PMID:19622358

Kim, Min Seuk; Hong, Jeong Hee; Li, Qin; Shin, Dong Min; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Muallem, Shmuel

2009-01-01

46

Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Complicating Colonic Fistula Successfully Closed Using the Over-the-Scope Clip System  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old man presenting to our hospital emergency room with abdominal pain was hospitalized for hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis. A pig-tail catheter was placed percutaneously to drain an abscess on day 22. Although the abscess improved gradually and good clinical progress was seen, pancreatic duct disruption was strongly suspected and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed on day 90. An endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage tube was placed, but even with concurrent use of a somatostatin analogue, treatment was ineffective. Surgical treatment was elected, but was subsequently postponed as the abscess culture was positive for extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Drainage tubography showed a small fistula of the colon at the splenic flexure on day 140. Colonoscopy was performed on day 148. After indigo carmine had been injected, a fistula into the splenic flexure of the colon showed blue staining. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was used to seal the fistula and complete closure was shown. A liquid diet was started on day 159 and was smoothly upgraded to a full diet. Following removal of the pancreatic stent on day 180, drainage volume immediately decreased and the percutaneous drain was removed. On day 189, computed tomography showed no exacerbation of the abscess and the patient was discharged on day 194. This case of colonic fistula caused by severe acute pancreatitis was successfully treated using the OTSC system, avoiding the need for an open procedure. PMID:23904844

Ito, Ken; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Mimura, Takahiko; Kishimoto, Yui; Kamata, Itaru; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Yoshimoto, Kensuke; Okano, Naoki

2013-01-01

47

Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often different than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Several scoring systems have been proposed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly differ between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our understanding of the pathology, optimal treatment, assessment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pancreatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severe acute pancreatitis in children is becoming better understood and more controllable. PMID:25400985

Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Sai, Jin Kan; Shimizu, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

48

Clodronate-containing liposomes attenuate lung injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the protective effect of clodronate-containing liposomes on ALI in rats with SAP. Methods: The thin film method was used to prepare liposomes. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. After the SAP model was established by injecting 5% (w/v) sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreata, normal saline was administered to the control (C) group, phosphate buffer solution (PBS)-containing liposome to the P group, and clodronate-containing liposome to the T group through tail veins. Blood samples were obtained from the superior mesenteric vein at 2 and 6 h to measure the levels of amylase, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Morphological changes in the pancreata and lung were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, while cell apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL). In addition, the macrophage marker cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) in lung tissue was detected with immunohistochemistry. Results: Blood levels of amylase, IL-6, and TNF-? were significantly increased in the P group compared to those in the T group (P<0.05). In the T group, large numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were observed, but no or few in the C and P groups. Gross inspection and H&E staining of pancreata and lung showed dramatic tissue damage, including inflammation and necrosis in the P group. Less remarkable changes were noted in the T group, and the C group exhibited normal histology. The histological scores according to Kaiser’s criteria were consistent with H&E findings. The number of CD68-positive macrophages decreased in the T group. Conclusions: Clodronate-containing liposomes have a protective effect against ALI in rats with SAP. Blockade of macrophages may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in SAP. PMID:21043050

Dang, Sheng-chun; Jiang, De-li; Chen, Min; Li, Di; Zhang, Jian-xin

2010-01-01

49

Overexpressed miRNA-155 dysregulates intestinal epithelial apical junctional complex in severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether miRNA-155 (miR-155) dysregulates apical junctional complex (AJC) protein expression in experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to two groups: the SAP group (n = 12) receiving sequential intraperitoneal injection of 50 µg/kg caerulein and 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide over 6 h, and the control group (n = 12) receiving intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Animals were sacrificed 3 h following the last injection for collection of blood samples and pancreas and distal ileal segment specimens. Routine pancreas and intestine histology was used to assess SAP pathology and intestinal epithelial barrier damage. Levels of serum amylase, diamine oxidase (DAO), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were determined using commercial kits. Total RNA samples were isolated from intestinal epithelial specimens and reversely transcribed into cDNA. miR-155 and RhoA mRNA expression profiles were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Target genes for miR-155 were predicted using the miRTarBase database, RNA22 and PicTar computational methods. Western blotting was performed to quantitate the protein expression levels of the target gene RhoA, as well as zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and E-cadherin, two AJC component proteins. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal injection of caerulein and lipopolysaccharide successfully induced experimental acute pancreatic damage (SAP vs control, 10.0 ± 2.0 vs 3.2 ± 1.2, P < 0.01) and intestinal epithelial barrier damage (3.2 ± 0.7 vs 1.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.01). Levels of serum amylase (21.6 ± 5.1 U/mL vs 14.3 ± 4.2 U/mL, P < 0.01), DAO (21.4 ± 4.1 mg/mL vs 2.6 ± 0.8 mg/mL, P < 0.01), and TNF-? (61.0 ± 15.1 ng/mL vs 42.9 ± 13.9 ng/mL, P < 0.01) increased significantly in SAP mice compared to those in control mice. miR-155 was significantly overexpressed in SAP intestinal epithelia (1.94 ± 0.50 fold vs 1.03 ± 0.23 fold, P < 0.01), and RhoA gene containing three miR-155-specific binding sites in the three prime untranslated regions was one of the target genes for miR-155. RhoA (22.7 ± 5.8 folds vs 59.6 ± 11.6 folds, P < 0.01), ZO-1 (46 ± 18 folds vs 68 ± 19 folds, P < 0.01), and E-cadherin proteins (48 ± 15 folds vs 77 ± 18 folds, P < 0.01) were underexpressed in SAP intestinal epithelia although RhoA mRNA expression was not significantly changed in SAP (0.97 ± 0.18 folds vs 1.01 ± 0.17 folds, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: TNF-?-regulated miR-155 overexpression inhibits AJC component protein syntheses of ZO-1, and E-cadherin by downregulating post-transcriptional RhoA expression, and disrupts intestinal epithelial barrier in experimental SAP. PMID:24363519

Tian, Rui; Wang, Rui-Lan; Xie, Hui; Jin, Wei; Yu, Kang-Long

2013-01-01

50

Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections  

PubMed Central

Aims Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied. Methods Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid. Results Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD (P = -0.008) were all independent predictors of PCD. Conclusions Infected (peri)pancreatic collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease. PMID:25659143

Liu, Wei-hui; Wang, Tao; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Tao; Xu, Chuan; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zheng-cai; Tang, Li-jun

2015-01-01

51

Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 2: Complications of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Major changes include subdividing acute fluid collections into "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" and "acute post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collection (acute necrotic collection)" based on the presence of necrotic debris. Delayed fluid collections have been similarly subdivided into "pseudocyst" and "walled of pancreatic necrosis". Appropriate use of the new terms describing the fluid collections is important for management decision-making in patients with acute pancreatitis. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of complications of the acute pancreatitis with emphasis on their prognostic significance and impact on clinical management and to clarify confusing terminology for pancreatic fluid collections. PMID:24703377

Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türko?lu, M A; Seçil, M; Yüce, G

2015-02-01

52

Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation by preventing damage to the intestinal mucosa in an experimental severe acute pancreatitis rat model  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased all studied acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory parameters, in addition to reducing apoptosis and necrosis associated with pancreatic injury. However, the effect of melatonin on gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on intestinal integrity in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) to evaluate whether melatonin prevented intestine barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 8 rats in the sham operation (SO) group, 18 rats in the SAP group and 14 SAP rats in the melatonin treatment (MT) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 4% taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Melatonin was administered 30 min prior to taurocholate injection in the melatonin-treated rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h subsequent to pancreatitis induction. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and quantify Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 in postcava blood. The microvilli structure was also analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. The level of E. coli DNA in the MT group was significantly lower than in rats in the SAP group. No E. coli DNA was detected in the control group. Villus height and crypt depth in the ileum were significantly higher in the MT and control groups compared to the SAP group, and were significantly higher in the MT group than in the SAP group. These results suggested that melatonin prevented gut barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation, resulting in reduced pancreatic-associated infections and decreased early mortality rates. PMID:24255660

SUN, XUECHENG; SHAO, YINGYING; JIN, YIN; HUAI, JIAPING; ZHOU, QIONG; HUANG, ZHIMING; WU, JIANSHENG

2013-01-01

53

Experimental study of therapeutic efficacy of Baicalin in rats with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Baicalin in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and explore its therapeutic mechanisms. METHODS: The SAP rat models were randomly divided into the model control group, Baicalin treatment group, octreotide treatment group and sham operation group. All groups were randomly subdivided into 3 h, 6 h and 12 h groups with 15 rats in each group. The survival, ascites volume and pathological changes of pancreas in all rats were observed at different time points after operation. The plasma amylase content and serum TNF-?, IL-6, malonaldehyde (MDA) and PLA2 contents were also determined. RESULTS: The survival was not obviously different between the treated groups, and was significantly higher in treated groups at 12 h compared to the model control group (P < 0.05, 15 vs 10). The ascites/body weight ratio at 3 h and 6 h was significantly lower in Baicalin treatment group compared to the model control group and octreotide treatment group (P < 0.05, 1.00 vs 2.02 and 1.43 and P < 0.001, 2.29 (1.21) vs 2.70 (0.80) and 2.08 (2.21), respectively). The contents of amylase, TNF-?, IL-6, MDA and PLA2 were significantly lower in the treated groups than in the model control group (P < 0.05, 4342 vs 5303, 5058 vs 6272 in amylase, P < 0.01, 21.90 vs 36.30, 23.80 vs 39.70, 36 vs 54.35 in MDA and 56.25 vs 76.10 in PlA2, or P < 0.001, 65.10 and 47.60 vs 92.15 in TNF-?, 3.03 vs 5.44, 2.88 vs 6.82, 2.83 vs 5.36 in IL-6, respectively). The pathological scores of pancreas in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control group (P < 0.05, 9.00 vs 10.05, 6.00 vs 9.00, 8.00 vs 10.05), but no marked difference was found between the treated groups. CONCLUSION: The Baicalin injection has significant therapeutic effects on SAP rats, its effects are similar to those of octreotide. The Baicalin injection is also cheap and has a big application range, quite hopefully to be used in clinical treatment of SAP. PMID:17278194

Zhang, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Ling; He, Jin-Xian; Zhang, Rui-Ping; Cheng, Qi-Hui; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Lu, Bei

2007-01-01

54

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

55

Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

2014-01-01

56

Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 1: Acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas that may also involve surrounding tissues or remote organs. The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Generally, imaging is recommended to confirm the clinical diagnosis, investigate the etiology, and grade the extend and severity of the acute pancreatitis. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality in most centers for the confirmation of the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and the ruling out of other causes of acute abdomen, but it has limitations in the acute clinical settting. Computed tomography not only establishes the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but also enables to stage severity of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging has earned an ever more important role in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. It is especially useful for imaging of patients with iodine allergies, characterizing collections and assessment of an abnormal or disconnected pancreatic duct. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the acute pancreatitis, clarify confusing terminology, underline the role of ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging according to the proper clinical context and compare the advantages and limitations of each modality. PMID:24512896

Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türko?lu, M A; Seçil, M; Yener, Ö

2015-02-01

57

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoints. In an recently published study, prebiotics were associated with a high complication rate. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:18759203

Mössner, J; Teich, N

2008-08-01

58

[Acute pancreatitis: an overview of the management].  

PubMed

Over the past decades, the incidence and the number of hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis have increased in the Western countries. The two most common etiological factors of acute pancreatitis are gallstones (including small gallstones or microlithiasis) and alcohol abuse. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant mortality (4-10%) and 25% in case of pancreatic necrosis, especially. Edematous pancreatitis is benign and oral feeding can be restarted once abdominal pain is decreasing and inflammatory markers are improving. Enteral tube feeding should be the primary therapy in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis who require nutritional support. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis can be administered via either the nasojejunal or nasogastric route. In case of necrosis, preventive antibiotics are not recommended. The single indication is infected necrosis confirmed by fine needle aspiration. The incidence trends of acute pancreatitis possibly reflect a change in the prevalence of main etiological factors (e.g. gallstones and alcohol consumption) and cofactors such as tobacco, obesity and genetic susceptibility. Priority is to search for associated causes, especially in cases with atypical symptoms. In case of first acute pancreatitis in patients older than 50 years, the presence of a tumor (benign or malignant) has to be specifically ruled out, using CT-scan, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:24837648

Rebours, V

2014-10-01

59

Berberine ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis?induced intestinal barrier dysfunction via a myosin light chain phosphorylation?dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Berberine is a traditional drug used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in China and has been demonstrated to attenuate intestinal barrier dysfunction in certain animal models. However, the effects of berberine on pancreatitis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction are yet to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine pretreatment on the attenuation of intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into Sham, SAP and SAP plus berberine groups. Pancreatitis was induced using retrograde injection of 3% Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Histological examinations of the pancreas were performed and intestinal barrier dysfunction was characterized by histological measurements and the assessment of serum diamine oxidase activity and endotoxin levels. Zonula occludens-1 and occludin mRNA and protein expression, as well as myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, were assessed. SAP rat models were successfully established. Berberine treatment was found to have no significant effect on the histological changes in the pancreas, but was observed to ameliorate the intestinal mucosal barrier damage and membrane permeability associated with SAP. Although berberine exerted minimal effects on tight junction proteins in the ilea of SAP rats, it was observed to significantly inhibit SAP-induced MLC phosphorylation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that berberine attenuates SAP?induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in vivo. In addition, this study shows that the effect of berberine on intestinal barrier function may be associated with the inhibition of SAP?induced upregulation of MLC phosphorylation. PMID:24584406

Liang, Hong-Yin; Chen, Tao; Yan, Hong-Tao; Huang, Zhu; Tang, Li-Jun

2014-05-01

60

Treatment strategy for acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is made, fundamental medical treatment consisting of fasting, intravenous (IV)\\u000a fluid replacement, and analgesics with a close monitoring of vital signs should be immediately started. In parallel with fundamental\\u000a medical treatment, assessment of severity based on clinical signs, blood test, urinalysis and imaging tests should be performed\\u000a to determine the way of treatment

Keita Wada; Tadahiro Takada; Koichi Hirata; Toshihiko Mayumi; Masahiro Yoshida; Masamichi Yokoe; Seiki Kiriyama; Masahiko Hirota; Yasutoshi Kimura; Kazunori Takeda; Shinju Arata; Morihisa Hirota; Miho Sekimoto; Shuji Isaji; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Toshifumi Gabata; Nobuya Kitamura; Hodaka Amano

2010-01-01

61

Regulatory Roles of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway plays a key role in inflammation. However, the regulatory roles of PI3K/Akt in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, on SAP rats through exposure to sodium taurocholate (STC) after 3 h and 6 h. The SAP group was found to have a significant increase in pancreas Akt expression, along with the activation of serum amylase, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, and pancreas histological aggravation. The administration of wortmannin in SAP rats reduced Akt expression, attenuated the level of serum amylase and inflammation factor, and alleviated the damage of pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, the administration of wortmannin led to an obvious reduction in NF-?B and p38MAPK expression in SAP rats. These findings showed that the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin decreases inflammatory cytokines in SAP rats and suggests its regulatory mechanisms may occur through the suppression on NF-?B and p38MAPK activity. PMID:24312352

Xu, Ping; Wang, Jing; Yang, Zhi-wen; Lou, Xiao-li; Chen, Cheng

2013-01-01

62

Role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role and potential mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in severe acute peritonitis (SAP). METHODS: Pancreatic acinar cells from Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: non-sodium deoxycholate (SDOC) group (non-SODC group), SDOC group, and a MSCs intervention group (i.e., a co-culture system of MSCs and pancreatic acinar cells + SDOC). The cell survival rate, the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA), the density of superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum amylase (AMS) secretion rate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate were detected at various time points. In a separate study, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into either an SAP group or an SAP + MSCs group. Serum AMS, MDA and SOD, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels, intestinal mucosa injury scores and proliferating cells of small intestinal mucosa were measured at various time points after injecting either MSCs or saline into rats. In both studies, the protective effect of MSCs was evaluated. RESULTS: In vitro, The cell survival rate of pancreatic acinar cells and the density of SOD were significantly reduced, and the concentration of MDA, AMS secretion rate and LDH leakage rate were significantly increased in the SDOC group compared with the MSCs intervention group and the Non-SDOC group at each time point. In vivo, Serum AMS, IL-6, TNF-? and MAD level in the SAP + MSCs group were lower than the SAP group; however serum IL-10 level was higher than the SAP group. Serum SOD level was higher than the SAP group at each time point, whereas a significant between-group difference in SOD level was only noted after 24 h. Intestinal mucosa injury scores was significantly reduced and the proliferating cells of small intestinal mucosa became obvious after injecting MSCs. CONCLUSION: MSCs can effectively relieve injury to pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal epithelium, promote the proliferation of enteric epithelium and repair of the mucosa, attenuate systemic inflammation in rats with SAP. PMID:22611322

Tu, Xiao-Huang; Song, Jing-Xiang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Xian-Wei; Ma, Yun-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Yao; Zou, Zhong-Dong; Wang, Lie

2012-01-01

63

[Biofunctional symmetry of individual values of clinic-laboratory indices in patients, suffering severe forms of an acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Individual values of clinic-laboratory indices were analyzed in 125 patients, suffering severe forms of an acute pancreatitis (AP). In the early postoperative period there were analyzed 65 indices: clinical analysis of the blood, 24 hematological indices, biochemical analysis of the blood, coagulogram, estimates according to the ASSES, APACHE II, SAPS, SAPS II, SAPS III scales. There was established, that in 83.1% of patients in severe forms of an AP the ratio or the values difference of clinic-laboratory indices in dynamics of postoperative period are depicted according to the "Golden section" rule with deviation no more than 10-15%. In the patients, suffering sterile pancreonecrosis, in comparison with those, suffering infected pancreonecrosis and in the patients with infected pancreonecrosis without retroperitoneal space cellular tissue affection in comparison with patients, suffering infected pancreonecrosis and the retroperitoneal space cellular tissue affection there were more signs, the values ratio or difference of which have deviated from the "Golden section" rule no more than by 5%. While estimating the patients state severity in those, suffering severe forms of AP, using special scales, most precisely the coincidence with a "Golden section" rule was noted, according to scales ASSES and SAPS III. Prognostically unfavorable was a progressive increase of the points sum according to ASSES scale in dynamics of postoperative period. PMID:22629801

Sipliv'i?, V A; Kon', K V; Robak, B I; Evtushenko, A V

2012-02-01

64

Retrocrural Space Involvement on Computed Tomography as a Predictor of Mortality and Disease Severity in Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Because computed tomography (CT) has advantages for visualizing the manifestation of necrosis and local complications, a series of scoring systems based on CT manifestations have been developed for assessing the clinical outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP), including the CT severity index (CTSI), modified CTSI, etc. Despite the internationally accepted CTSI having been successfully used to predict the overall mortality and disease severity of AP, recent literature has revealed the limitations of the CTSI. Using the Delphi method, we establish a new scoring system based on retrocrural space involvement (RCSI), and compared its effectiveness at evaluating the mortality and severity of AP with that of the CTSI. Methods We reviewed CT images of 257 patients with AP taken within 3–5 days of admission in 2012. The RCSI scoring system, which includes assessment of infectious conditions involving the retrocrural space and the adjacent pleural cavity, was established using the Delphi method. Two radiologists independently assessed the RCSI and CTSI scores. The predictive points of the RCSI and CTSI scoring systems in evaluating the mortality and severity of AP were estimated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Principal Findings The RCSI score can accurately predict the mortality and disease severity. The area under the ROC curve for the RCSI versus CTSI score was 0.962±0.011 versus 0.900±0.021 for predicting the mortality, and 0.888±0.025 versus 0.904±0.020 for predicting the severity of AP. Applying ROC analysis to our data showed that a RCSI score of 4 was the best cutoff value, above which mortality could be identified. Conclusion The Delphi method was innovatively adopted to establish a scoring system to predict the clinical outcome of AP. The RCSI scoring system can predict the mortality of AP better than the CTSI system, and the severity of AP equally as well. PMID:25222846

Xu, Haotong; Ebner, Lukas; Jiang, Shiming; Wu, Yi; Christe, Andreas; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Luo, Zhulin; Tian, Fuzhou

2014-01-01

65

Study on protecting effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Baicalin and Octreotide on hepatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: The SAP rat models were prepared and randomly assigned to the model control group, Baicalin treated group, and Octreotide treated group while other healthy rats were assigned to the sham-operated group. Rat mortality, levels of ALT, AST, liver and pancreas pathological changes in all groups were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Tissue microarray (TMA) sections of hepatic tissue were prepared to observe expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 protein and Caspase-3, and changes of apoptotic indexes. RESULTS: Rat survival at 12 h, expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 protein and apoptotic indexes of liver were all significantly higher in treated groups than in model control group. While the liver and pancreas pathological scores, contents of ALT, AST, and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein were all lower in treated groups than in the model control group. CONCLUSION: Both Baicalin and Octreotide can protect rats with SAP by decreasing the contents of ALT, AST and expression levels of Bcl-2 protein, and improving the expression levels of Bax protein, Caspase-3 protein, and inducing apoptosis. PMID:19030211

Zhang, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Zheng; Feng, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Yang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Ju, Tong-Fa; Xie, Qi; Yuan, Wen-Qin

2008-01-01

66

Myocardial function in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen patients with acute pancreatitis had 68 physiologic cardiopulmonary assessments performed, and they were compared with 61 performed on normal postoperative patients, and 113 on 41 cirrhotics. It was found that the patients with pancreatitis have an elevated cardiac index (CI), which is not due to the hyperdynamic hemodynamic state found in cirrhotics. In spite of this, the Sarnoff curves demonstrated that pancreatitis was accompanied by a myocardial depression p less than 0.03, not found in hyperdynamic cirrhotics. Cirrhotics are unable to increase their oxygen consumption in response to an increase in CI, as do normal patients or those with acute pancreatitis. In cirrhotics the hemodynamic lesion occurs at the capillary level with the opening of arteriovenous shunts which rob the tissues of their nutritive blood supply, while the patient with acute pancreatitis has a primary myocardial depression and his peripheral vasculature reacts like that of a normal person. PMID:7247538

Ito, K; Ramirez-Schon, G; Shah, P M; Agarwal, N; Delguercio, L R; Reynolds, B M

1981-01-01

67

Prognostic indicators in acute pancreatitis: CT vs APACHE II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To investigate the correlation between established contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) criteria of disease severity in acute pancreatitis and the APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score and to assess the utility of each as prognostic indicators in acute pancreatitis.

J. T. De Sanctis; M. J. Lee; G. S. Gazelle; G. W. Boland; E. F. Halpern; S. Saini; P. R. Mueller

1997-01-01

68

Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

2012-01-01

69

Research on scutellarin parenteral solution's protective effects in rats with severe acute pancreatitis and multiple organ injuries.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to observe scutellarin parenteral solution's therapeutic effects and mechanisms in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We divided SD rats into four groups randomly: (1) sham-operated group, (2) model control group, (3) scutellarin-treated group, and (4) Salvia miltiorrhiza-treated group. All of those rats in the abovementioned groups are randomly subdivided into 6 and 12 h subgroups, respectively, according to the postoperative time. Rats have been mercifully killed at different time after operation, and then detected their serum amylase, contents of ALT, AST, BUN, and Cr and observed the pathologic changes of multiple organs (pancreas, liver, kidneys, and lungs). We found that the survival rates have no marked differences (P??0.05). ALT serum contents in S. miltiorrhiza-treated group (6 and 12 h) and scutellarin-treated group (12 h) are obviously less than those in model control group (P?severity scores in scutellarin-treated group (6 and 12 h) have reduced (P??0.05). We think the scutellarin parenteral solution has a certain protective effect on SAP rats' multiple organ injuries. PMID:22105928

Hanqing, Chen; Xiping, Zhang; Jingmin, Ou; Jun, Jiang; Dijiong, Wu

2012-06-01

70

Delayed ethyl pyruvate therapy attenuates experimental severe acute pancreatitis via reduced serum high mobility group box 1 levels in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of delayed ethyl pyruvate (EP) delivery on distant organ injury, survival time and serum high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: A SAP model was induced by retrograde injection of artificial bile into the pancreatic ducts of rats. Animals were divided randomly into three groups (n = 32 in each group): sham group, SAP group and delayed EP treatment group. The rats in the delayed EP treatment group received EP (30 mg/kg) at 12 h, 18 h and 30 h after induction of SAP. Animals were sacrificed, and samples were obtained at 24 h and 48 h after induction of SAP. Serum HMGB1, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) levels were measured. Lung wet-to-dry-weight (W/D) ratios and histological scores were calculated to evaluate lung injury. Additional experiments were performed between SAP and delayed EP treatment groups to study the influence of EP on survival times of SAP rats. RESULTS: Delayed EP treatment significantly reduced serum HMGB1 levels, and protected against liver, renal and lung injury with reduced lung W/D ratios (8.22 ± 0.42 vs 9.76 ± 0.45, P < 0.01), pulmonary histological scores (7.1 ± 0.7 vs 8.4 ± 1.1, P < 0.01), serum AST (667 ± 103 vs 1 368 ± 271, P < 0.01), ALT (446 ± 91 vs 653 ± 98, P < 0.01) and Cr (1.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.8 ± 0.3, P < 0.01) levels. SAP rats had a median survival time of 44 h. Delayed EP treatment significantly prolonged median survival time to 72 h (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Delayed EP therapy protects against distant organ injury and prolongs survival time via reduced serum HMGB1levels in rats with experimental SAP. EP may potentially serve as an effective new therapeutic option against the inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in SAP patients. PMID:18680237

Yang, Zhi-Yong; Ling, Yan; Yin, Tao; Tao, Jing; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

2008-01-01

71

Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryDespite improvements in surgical treatment and intensive care, mortality from severe acute pancreatitis remains high. We have carried out a randomised study of 60 consecutive patients with alcohol-induced necrotising pancreatitis to find out whether early antibiotic treatment can improve outcome.30 patients were assigned cefuroxime (4·5 g\\/day intravenously) from admission. In the second group, no antibiotic treatment was given until clinical

V Sainio; E Kemppainen; P Puolakkainen; R Haapiainen; T Schröder; E Kivilaakso; V Valtonen; M Taavitsainen; L Kivisaarl

1995-01-01

72

Role of high mobility group box-1 and protection of growth hormone and somatostatin in severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the potential role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effects of growth hormone (G) and somatostatin (S) in SAP rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 each: sham-operated, SAP, SAP+saline, SAP+G, SAP+S and SAP+G+S. Ileum and pancreas tissues of rats in each group were evaluated histologically. HMGB1 mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. Levels of circulating TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were also measured. In the SAP group, interstitial congestion and edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial hemorrhage occurred in ileum and pancreas tissues. The levels of HMGB1, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6 and endotoxin were significantly up-regulated in the SAP group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and the 7-day survival rate was 0%. In the SAP+G and SAP+S groups, the inflammatory response of the morphological structures was alleviated, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were significantly decreased compared with those in the SAP group, and the survival rate was increased. Moreover, in the SAP+G+S group, all histological scores were significantly improved and the survival rate was significantly higher compared with the SAP group. In conclusion, HMGB1 might participate in pancreas and ileum injury in SAP. Growth hormone and somatostatin might play a therapeutic role in the inflammatory response of SAP. PMID:25387675

Wang, Y.F.; Wu, M.; Ma, B.J.; Cai, D.A.; Yin, B.B.

2014-01-01

73

Dengue Fever Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

A 56-year-old non-alcoholic male was admitted with complaints of severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis after blood investigations and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen. He developed a high-grade fever on the third day of admission, and serology tested positive for dengue. Treatment for dengue was instituted, leading to a good response and complete resolution of pancreatitis. The patient has been doing well and has had no recurrence of pancreatitis at the end of one year of follow-up.

Seetharam, Prasad; Rodrigues, Gabriel

2010-01-01

74

Clodronate-superparamagnetic iron oxide-containing liposomes attenuate renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis*  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: It has been shown that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and eventually lead to multiple organ failure (MOF). Clodronate-liposome selectively depleted macrophages. This study was to investigate the role of renal macrophage infiltration in acute renal injury in rats with SAP and to evaluate the potential of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosis. Methods: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-liposomes were prepared by the thin film method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate into the subcapsular space of rat pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, SAP plus SPIO-liposome (P) group, and SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing liposome (T) group. Kidney injury was evaluated by T2-weighted MRI scan. The levels of serum amylase (SAM), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr) were measured by an automated enzymatic method. Serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathological changes in the pancreas and kidney were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, while cell apoptosis was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. In addition, the macrophage markers (CD68) of the renal tissue were detected with immunohistochemistry. Results: The pathological changes in the pancreas and kidneys of rats in the T group were milder than those in the P group. The MRI signal intensity of the kidneys in the P and T groups was significantly lower than that in the control group. There were significant changes in the two experimental groups (P<0.01). The levels of SAM, Bun, SCr, and TNF-? in rats in the P group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01) and in the T group (P<0.01). The apoptosis of the kidney in the T group was higher than that in the P group at 2 and 6 h (P<0.01). Conclusions: Clodronate-containing liposomes protected against renal injury in SAP rats, and SPIO can be used as a tracer for MRI examination to detect renal injury in SAP rats. SPIO-aided MRI provided an efficient non-invasive way to monitor the migration of macrophages after renal injury in rats with SAP. PMID:24903993

Dang, Sheng-chun; Zeng, Yan-hua; Wang, Ping-jiang; Chen, Bao-ding; Chen, Rong-fang; Kumar Singh, Arun; Kumar, Pankaj; Feng, Shu; Cui, Lei; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jian-xin

2014-01-01

75

Acute hepatitis E complicated by acute pancreatitis and multiorgan dysfunction.  

PubMed

We report this rare case of a 27-year-old man who presented with acute hepatitis E and went on to develop acute epigastric pain. He was diagnosed to have acute severe pancreatitis with shock and acute renal failure due to hepatitis E. Such a phenomenon has rarely been reported in the literature, with patients following a benign course and complete recovery after conservative management and analgesia. Awareness of this potentially life-threatening complication, especially in young men from endemic areas with acute hepatitis E presenting with abdomen pain has been highlighted. PMID:24899005

Karanth, Suman S; Khan, Zohaib; Rau, Nileshwar Radhakrishna; Rao, Karthik

2014-01-01

76

Operative management of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis comprises a range of diseases. Clinical manifestations range from mild symptoms to a life-threatening or life-ending process. Operative management is focused on managing the acute complications, the long-term sequelae, or the prevention of recurrent pancreatitis. Using the least amount of intervention is the goal. However, the evolution of videoscopic and endoscopic techniques have greatly expanded the tools available. This article provides a review of the three major categories of operations: ameliorating the emergent problems associated with the inflammatory state, ameliorating chronic sequelae, and prevention of a subsequent episode. PMID:23632146

Martin, Ronald F; Hein, Amanda R

2013-06-01

77

Acute idiopathic pancreatitis in pregnancy: a case study.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a rare event, and can be associated with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Gallstone disease is thought to be the most common causative factor of acute pancreatitis, but, in many cases, the cause remains unclear. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman at 35 wk of gestation, who presented with severe pain confined to the upper abdomen and radiating to the back. The patient was diagnosed with acute idiopathic pancreatitis, which was managed conservatively; she recovered within several days and then delivered a healthy baby. Therefore it is important to consider acute pancreatitis when a pregnant woman presents with upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting in order to improve fetal and maternal outcomes for patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473197

Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Sung Hoon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Song, Dong Jin; Jeong, Cheol Yoon; Lee, Dong Hyun; Whang, Il Soon

2014-11-21

78

Impact of Global Fxr Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis and Genetic Variation in the FXR Locus in Human Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious complications often occur in acute pancreatitis, related to impaired intestinal barrier function, with prolonged disease course and even mortality as a result. The bile salt nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is expressed in the ileum, liver and other organs including the pancreas, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-?B activation and is implicated in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth and translocation. Here we explore, with the aid of complementary animal and human experiments, the potential role of FXR in acute pancreatitis. Methods Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced using the CCK-analogue cerulein in wild-type and Fxr-/- mice. Severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed using histology and a semi-quantitative scoring system. Ileal permeability was analyzed in vitro by Ussing chambers and an in vivo permeability assay. Gene expression of Fxr and Fxr target genes was studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Serum FGF19 levels were determined by ELISA in acute pancreatitis patients and healthy volunteers. A genetic association study in 387 acute pancreatitis patients and 853 controls was performed using 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the complete FXR gene and two additional functional SNPs. Results In wild-type mice with acute pancreatitis, ileal transepithelial resistance was reduced and ileal mRNA expression of Fxr target genes Fgf15, SHP, and IBABP was decreased. Nevertheless, Fxr-/- mice did not exhibit a more severe acute pancreatitis than wild-type mice. In patients with acute pancreatitis, FGF19 levels were lower than in controls. However, there were no associations of FXR SNPs or haplotypes with susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, or its course, outcome or etiology. Conclusion We found no evidence for a major role of FXR in acute human or murine pancreatitis. The observed altered Fxr activity during the course of disease may be a secondary phenomenon. PMID:25470824

Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Schaap, Frank G.; Smits, Alexander J. J.; Kremer, Andreas E.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Kroese, Alfons B. A.; Rijkers, Ger. T.; Schipper, Marguerite E. I.; Verheem, André; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Erpecum, Karel J.

2014-01-01

79

Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We describe a pediatric patient who presented with acute pancreatitis that revealed acute HIV infection. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis as a primary manifestation of HIV infection is very rare. It may represent an uncommon aspect of primary HIV infection. We suggest that acute HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis at all ages. PMID:23569476

Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

80

[The systemic inflammatory response syndrome correction in acute destructive pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is a disease of variable severity. In which some patients experience mild, self-limited attacks while others manifest a severe, highly morbid, and frequently lethal attack. The exact mechanisms by which diverse etiological factors induce an attack are still unclear. Recent studies have established the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. In our research we have estimated influence of not steroid anti-inflammatory preparation on synthesis pro-and anti-inflammatory Cytokines at healthy donors and at patients with Acute pancreatitis. PMID:22363994

Agapov, M A; Khoreva, M V; Gorski?, V A

2011-01-01

81

Pathophysiology of Acute Experimental Pancreatitis: Lessons from Genetically Engineered Animal Models and New Molecular Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of acute pancreatitis is growing and worldwide population-based studies report a doubling or tripling since the 1970s. 25% of acute pancreatitis are severe and associated with histological changes of necrotizing pancreatitis. There is still no specific medical treatment for acute pancreatitis. The average mortality resides around 10%. In order to develop new specific medical treatment strategies for acute

Claus Schäfer; Anne Barbara Tietz; Burkhard Göke

2005-01-01

82

Immunomodulatory therapies for acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

It is currently difficult for conventional treatments of acute pancreatitis (AP), which primarily consist of anti-inflammatory therapies, to prevent the progression of AP or to improve its outcome. This may be because the occurrence and progression of AP, which involves various inflammatory cells and cytokines, includes a series of complex immune events. Considering the complex immune system alterations during the course of AP, it is necessary to monitor the indicators related to immune cells and inflammatory mediators and to develop more individualized interventions for AP patients using immunomodulatory therapy. This review discusses the recent advances in immunomodulatory therapies. It has been suggested that overactive inflammatory responses should be inhibited and excessive immunosuppression should be avoided in the early stages of AP. The optimal duration of anti-inflammatory therapy may be shorter than previously expected (< 24 h), and appropriate immunostimulatory therapies should be administered during the period from the 3(rd) d to the 14(th) d in the course of AP. A combination therapy of anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating drugs would hopefully constitute an alternative to anti-inflammatory drug monotherapy. Additionally, the detection of the genotypes of critical inflammatory mediators may be useful for screening populations of AP patients at high risk of severe infections to enable the administration of early interventions to improve their prognosis. PMID:25493006

Li, Jing; Yang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Lu-Ming; Tang, Cheng-Wei

2014-12-01

83

Immunomodulatory therapies for acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

It is currently difficult for conventional treatments of acute pancreatitis (AP), which primarily consist of anti-inflammatory therapies, to prevent the progression of AP or to improve its outcome. This may be because the occurrence and progression of AP, which involves various inflammatory cells and cytokines, includes a series of complex immune events. Considering the complex immune system alterations during the course of AP, it is necessary to monitor the indicators related to immune cells and inflammatory mediators and to develop more individualized interventions for AP patients using immunomodulatory therapy. This review discusses the recent advances in immunomodulatory therapies. It has been suggested that overactive inflammatory responses should be inhibited and excessive immunosuppression should be avoided in the early stages of AP. The optimal duration of anti-inflammatory therapy may be shorter than previously expected (< 24 h), and appropriate immunostimulatory therapies should be administered during the period from the 3rd d to the 14th d in the course of AP. A combination therapy of anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating drugs would hopefully constitute an alternative to anti-inflammatory drug monotherapy. Additionally, the detection of the genotypes of critical inflammatory mediators may be useful for screening populations of AP patients at high risk of severe infections to enable the administration of early interventions to improve their prognosis. PMID:25493006

Li, Jing; Yang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Lu-Ming; Tang, Cheng-Wei

2014-01-01

84

Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?  

PubMed

As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

Tenner, Scott

2014-11-28

85

Comparison of early enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis with prebiotic fiber supplementation versus standard enteral solution: A prospective randomized double-blind study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition (EN) with prebiotic fiber supplementation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with severe AP, who required stoppage of oral feeding for 48 h, were randomly assigned to nasojejunal EN with or without prebiotics. APACHE II score, Balthazar’s CT score and CRP were assessed daily during the study period. RESULTS: The median duration of hospital stay was shorter in the study group [10 ± 4 (8-14) d vs 15 ± 6 (7-26) d] (P < 0.05). The median value of days in intensive care unit was also similar in both groups [6 ± 2 (5-8) d vs 6 ± 2 (5-7) d]. The median duration of EN was 8 ± 4 (6-12) d vs 10 ± 4 (6-13) d in the study and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). Deaths occurred in 6 patients (20%), 2 in the study group and 4 in the control group. The mean duration of APACHE II normalization (APACHE II score < 8) was shorter in the study group than in the control group (4 ± 2 d vs 6.5 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). The mean duration of CRP normalization was also shorter in the study group than in the control group (7 ± 2 d vs 10 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nasojejunal EN with prebiotic fiber supplementation in severe AP improves hospital stay, duration nutrition therapy, acute phase response and overall complications compared to standard EN therapy. PMID:17569144

Karakan, Tarkan; Ergun, Meltem; Dogan, Ibrahim; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Unal, Selahattin

2007-01-01

86

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. The Atlanta Classification by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group recently modified the terminology for the clinical course and the morphologic changes identified on imaging, primarily contrast- enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The two distinct clinical courses of the disease are classified as (1) early phase, which lasts approximately 1 week, and (2) late phase, which starts after the first week and can last for months after the initial episode. The two, primary, morphologic changes are acute, interstitial edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis. Timing of imaging, primarily MDCT, is based on the clinical phases and is, therefore, important for these imaging guidelines. Ultrasound's role is to detect gallstones after the first episode. MDCT plays a primary role in the management of acutely ill patients, only after a minimum of 48-72 hours and generally after one week. MR plays a supplementary role to MDCT. Follow-up MDCT guides management and therapy: percutaneous aspiration of fluid collections and/or placement of large caliber catheters in infected necrosis. PMID:25364960

Baker, Mark E; Nelson, Rendon C; Rosen, Max P; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Hindman, Nicole M; Kamel, Ihab R; Kaur, Harmeet; Piorkowski, Robert J; Qayyum, Aliya; Yarmish, Gail M

2014-12-01

87

Acute idiopathic pancreatitis: clinical and diagnostic contribution.  

PubMed

Acute idiopathic pancreatitis is a term used when no underlying cause can be identified on routine investigations. However more specialized investigations, such as endoscopic, endoscopic retrocolangio pancreopathy (CPRE), may detect aetiological factors, particularly biliary sludge and pancreatic duct abnormalities. The authors, reviewing the current literature, report their caseload of idiopathic pancreatitis. They conclude that CPRE is indicated if ultrasonography shows a calibre of the common duct at the superior limits of normal values and in each idiopathic recurrent AP. PMID:9444796

Forte, A; Montesano, G; Gallinaro, L; Bertagni, A; Turano, R; Hueck, S; Illuminati, G

1997-01-01

88

Activation of cellular immune response in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators have recently been implicated as potential markers of severity in acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the value of neopterin and polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase as markers of activation of cellular immunity and as early predictors of disease severity. PATIENTS: Fifty two non-consecutive patients classified according to their clinical outcome into mild (n = 26) and severe pancreatitis (n = 26). METHODS: Neopterin in serum and the PMN elastase/A1PI complex in plasma were measured during the first three days of hospital stay. RESULTS: Within three days after the onset of acute pancreatitis, PMN elastase was significantly higher in the severe pancreatitis group. Patients with severe disease also showed significantly higher values of neopterin on days 1 and 2 but not on day 3 compared with patients with mild disease. There was a significant correlation between PMN elastase and neopterin values on days 1 and 2. PMN elastase on day 1 predicted disease severity with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 91.6%. Neopterin did not surpass PMN elastase in the probability of predicting disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that activation of cellular immunity is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and may be a main contributory factor to disease severity. Neopterin was not superior to PMN elastase in the prediction of severity. PMID:9245935

Mora, A; Pérez-Mateo, M; Viedma, J A; Carballo, F; Sánchez-Payá, J; Liras, G

1997-01-01

89

A case of montelukast induced hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene inhibitor, and competitively antagonizes cys-LT1 receptor and used widely and effectively in treating allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and allied respiratory conditions. This case report outlines a rare case of montelukast induced hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a 22 years old male patient. The patient was taking 10 mg oral montelukast daily for allergic rhinitis. Although his symptoms improved considerably, after 2 months of therapy, he experienced unusual weight gain and got admitted with severe pain abdomen. Clinical and other relevant investigation findings revealed the presence of acute pancreatitis with associated hypercholesterolemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia. There were no evidences of any other possible hereditary, surgical, metabolic, infective, organic or other pathologic causes giving rise to these conditions. De-challenge was done and the patient was treated conservatively resulting in reversal of the diseased state. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale suggested that it was 'probable' that oral administration of montelukast was responsible for the acute pancreatitis associated with hypercholesterolemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia. There is only a singular and confirmed reported case of montelukast induced hypertriglyceridemia from India. For patients taking montelukast for a long duration, routine lipid profile monitoring should be done, and if these patients present with symptoms of epigastric and periumbilical pain with vomiting, provisions for screening acute pancreatitis might be warranted. PMID:24023457

Das, Saibal; Mondal, Somnath; Dey, Jayanta Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Saha, Indranil; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

2013-01-01

90

Hormonal protection in acute pancreatitis by ghrelin, leptin and melatonin.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is a nonbacterial disease of the pancreas. The severe form of this ailment is characterized by high mortality. Whether acute pancreatitis develops as the severe type or resolves depends on the intensity of the inflammatory process which is counteracted by the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the hormones ghrelin, leptin and melatonin are able to modulate the immune function of the organism and to protect the pancreas against inflammatory damage. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the application of these substances prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis significantly attenuated the intensity of the inflammation and reduced pancreatic tissue damage. The pancreatic protective mechanisms of the above hormones have been related to the mobilization of non-specific immune defense, to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and modulation of cytokine production, to the stimulation of heat shock proteins and changes of apoptotic processes in the acinar cells, as well as to the activation of antioxidant system of the pancreatic tissue. The protective effect of ghrelin seems to be indirect and perhaps dependent on the release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Leptin and ghrelin, but not melatonin, employ sensory nerves in their beneficial action on acute pancreatitis. It is very likely that ghrelin, leptin and melatonin could be implicated in the natural protection of the pancreatic gland against inflammatory damage because the blood levels of these substances increase in the initial phase of pancreatic inflammation. The above hormones could be a part of the innate resistance system which might remove noxious factors and could suppress or attenuate the inflammatory process in the pancreas. PMID:25493003

Jaworek, Jolanta; Konturek, Stanis?aw Jan

2014-12-01

91

Hormonal protection in acute pancreatitis by ghrelin, leptin and melatonin  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is a nonbacterial disease of the pancreas. The severe form of this ailment is characterized by high mortality. Whether acute pancreatitis develops as the severe type or resolves depends on the intensity of the inflammatory process which is counteracted by the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the hormones ghrelin, leptin and melatonin are able to modulate the immune function of the organism and to protect the pancreas against inflammatory damage. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the application of these substances prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis significantly attenuated the intensity of the inflammation and reduced pancreatic tissue damage. The pancreatic protective mechanisms of the above hormones have been related to the mobilization of non-specific immune defense, to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and modulation of cytokine production, to the stimulation of heat shock proteins and changes of apoptotic processes in the acinar cells, as well as to the activation of antioxidant system of the pancreatic tissue. The protective effect of ghrelin seems to be indirect and perhaps dependent on the release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Leptin and ghrelin, but not melatonin, employ sensory nerves in their beneficial action on acute pancreatitis. It is very likely that ghrelin, leptin and melatonin could be implicated in the natural protection of the pancreatic gland against inflammatory damage because the blood levels of these substances increase in the initial phase of pancreatic inflammation. The above hormones could be a part of the innate resistance system which might remove noxious factors and could suppress or attenuate the inflammatory process in the pancreas. PMID:25493003

Jaworek, Jolanta; Konturek, Stanis?aw Jan

2014-01-01

92

Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: a review.  

PubMed

This article aims to draw together recent thinking on pregnancy and acute pancreatitis (AP), with a particular emphasis on pregnancy complications, birth outcomes and management of AP during pregnancy contingent on the etiology. AP during pregnancy is a rare but severe disease with a high maternal-fetal mortality, which has recently decreased thanks to earlier diagnosis and some maternal and neonatal intensive care improvement. AP usually occurs during the third trimester or the early postpartum period. The most common causes of AP are gallstones (65 to 100%), alcohol abuse and hypertriglyceridemia. Although the diagnostic criteria for AP are not specific for pregnant patients, Ranson and Balthazar criteria are used to evaluate the severity and treat AP during pregnancy. The fetal risks from AP during pregnancy are threatened preterm labor, prematurity and in utero fetal death. In cases of acute biliary pancreatitis during pregnancy, a consensual strategy could be adopted according to the gestational age, and taking in consideration the high risk of recurrence of AP (70%) with conservative treatment and the specific risks of each treatment. This could include: conservative treatment in first trimester and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in second trimester. During the third trimester, conservative treatment or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in early postpartum period are recommended. A multidisciplinary approach, including gastroenterologists and obstetricians, seems to be the key in making the best choice for the management of AP during pregnancy. PMID:24355941

Ducarme, G; Maire, F; Chatel, P; Luton, D; Hammel, P

2014-02-01

93

Acute pancreatitis and amiodarone: a case report.  

PubMed

Amiodarone, a class III antiarrhythmic drug, is one of the most effective drugs used in the treatment of ventricular and paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. Adverse effects of amiodarone including pulmonary toxicity, hepatotoxicity, aggravation of arrhythmia, and thyroid diseases are well understood. A 66-year old woman with acute pancreatitis was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of epigastralgia radiating to both flanks for two months. Her symptoms and elevation of pancreatic enzymes did not respond to conventional medical treatment of pancreatitis for 18 d. No known causal factors for pancreatitis such as biliary tract stone, hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol consumption could be identified. Under the suspicion of amiodarone-induced acute pancreatitis, amiodarone was substituted by propafenone. Her symptoms soon alleviated and serum lipase level declined. Three months after hospital discharge, the abdominal pain did not recur. Amiodarone was approved to treat recurrent ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia that has been resistant to other medications since 1986. Pancreatitis is a very rare adverse effect associated with the use of amiodarone, and only four cases of amiodarone-induced pancreatitis have been reported in literature. We report a patient who developed acute pancreatitis during amiodarone therapy. PMID:17352036

Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Yu; Leung, Kai-Kuen

2007-02-14

94

Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1˝ day there were 169 different abstracts and a “How do I do it session.” Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted – all abstracts are similarly presented – and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way) to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered – and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them …) in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as “just another little abstract” – and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall. Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a “clinical highlight section” of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor's choices are the highlighted ones. The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this “abstract of abstracts”, it was worth the efforts – and without efforts there will be little progress. PMID:22555122

Andrén-Sandberg, Ĺke

2011-01-01

95

Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1˝ day there were 169 different abstracts and a "How do I do it session." Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted - all abstracts are similarly presented - and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way) to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered - and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them …) in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as "just another little abstract" - and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall.Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a "clinical highlight section" of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor's choices are the highlighted ones.The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this "abstract of abstracts", it was worth the efforts - and without efforts there will be little progress. PMID:22555122

Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

2011-07-01

96

Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

Karakayali, Feza Y

2014-01-01

97

Unusual presentation of acute pancreatitis in falciparum malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria is known for its protean manifestations and multi systemic complications. Acute pancreatitis as a consequence of falciparum malaria is rare in the literature. We report a case of falciparum malaria complicated by acute pancreatitis. PMID:24754031

Ghosh, Saikat; Das, Somak Kumar; Sharma, Anand

2014-01-01

98

Cell Death and DAMPs in Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Cell death and inflammation are key pathologic responses of acute pancreatitis (AP), the leading cause of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of AP by linking local tissue damage to systemic inflammation syndrome. Endogenous DAMPs released from dead, dying or injured cells initiate and extend sterile inflammation via specific pattern recognition receptors. Inhibition of the release and activity of DAMPs (for example, high mobility group box 1, DNA, histones and adenosine triphosphate) provides significant protection against experimental AP. Moreover, increased serum levels of DAMPs in patients with AP correlate with disease severity. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanism, diagnosis and management of AP. DAMPs might be an attractive therapeutic target in AP. PMID:25105302

Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Billiar, Timothy R; Tang, Daolin

2014-01-01

99

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Four families with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia were studied. The probands presented with abdominal pain, which in three was due to acute pancreatitis; in two the condition was life threatening. Serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone, urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate were measured; the findings were compared with results in 10 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism matched for serum calcium concentration to establish differences between the diseases. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia should be suspected in patients with hypercalcaemia in whom daily urinary calcium excretion is below 5 mmol (200 mg) provided renal insufficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and ingestion of drugs that reduce calcium excretion have been excluded. Most cases appear to run a benign course, but some may suffer considerable morbidity. Surgical treatment should be reserved for patients with severe complications, when all parathyroid tissue should be removed. PMID:6783229

Davies, M; Klimiuk, P S; Adams, P H; Lumb, G A; Large, D M; Anderson, D C

1981-01-01

100

Early continuous veno-venous haemofiltration in the management of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with intra-abdominal hypertension: retrospective review of 10 years' experience  

PubMed Central

Background Conservative treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) may be associated with development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), deterioration of visceral perfusion and increased risk of multiple organ dysfunction. Fluid balance is essential for maintenance of adequate organ perfusion and control of the third space. Timely application of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH) may help in balancing fluid replacement and removal of cytokines from the blood and tissue compartments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CVVH can be recommended as a constituent of conservative treatment in patients with SAP who suffer IAH. Methods A retrospective analysis of 10 years' experience with low-flow CVVH application in patients with SAP who develop IAH was. In all patients, measurement of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was done indirectly through the urinary bladder. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was calculated for severity assessment, and necrotizing forms were verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Dynamics of IAP were analysed in parallel with signs of systemic inflammation, dynamics of C-reactive protein and cumulative fluid balance. All variables, complication rate and outcomes were analysed in the whole group and in patients with IAH (CVVH and no-CVVH groups). Results From the total of 130 patients, 75 were treated with application of CVVH and 55 without CVVH. Late hospitalization was associated with application of CVVH. Infection was observed in 28.5% of cases regardless of the type of treatment received, with a similar necessity for surgical intervention. IAH was observed in 68.5% of patients, and they had significantly higher SOFA scores compared to patients with normal IAP. CVVH treatment resulted in negative cumulative fluid balance starting from day 5 in patients with IAH, whereas without this treatment, fluid balance remained increasingly positive after a week. Finally, application of CVVH resulted in a lower infection rate and shorter hospital stay, 26.7% vs. 37.9%, and a median of 32 (interquartile range (IQR) = 60 to 12) days vs. 24 (IQR = 34 to 4) days, p = 0.05, comparing CVVH vs. no-CVVH group. Mortality rate reached 11.7% in the CVVH group and 13.8% in the no-CVVH group. Conclusions Early application of CVVH facilitates negative fluid balance and reduction of IAH in patients with SAP; it is not associated with increased infection or mortality rate and may reduce hospital stay. PMID:23281603

2012-01-01

101

Acute pancreatitis and superior mesenteric artery syndrome.  

PubMed

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) has been proposed as a rare cause of proximal bowel obstruction resulting from compression of the third portion of the duodenum secondary to narrowing of the space between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery. The main risk factors associated with SMAS are significant weight loss, corrective spinal surgery and congenital or acquired anatomic abnormalities. Its association with acute pancreatitis has been reported in very few cases. We present a critical review of this topic, with the report of a patient allegedly diagnosed of SMAS and acute pancreatitis. PMID:24641461

Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse Joan; Accarino-Garaventa, Anna; Vilaseca-Montplet, Jaime; Azpiroz-Vidaur, Fernando

2013-01-01

102

Inflammatory cells regulate p53 and caspases in acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response during pancreatitis regulates necrotic and apoptotic rates of parenchymal cells. Neutrophil depletion by use of anti-polymorphonuclear serum (anti-PMN) increases apoptosis in experimental pancreatitis but the mechanism has not been determined. Our study was designed to investigate signaling mechanisms in pancreatic parenchymal cells regulating death responses with neutrophil depletion. Rats were neutrophil depleted with anti-PMN treatment. Then cerulein pancreatitis was induced, followed by measurements of apoptosis signaling pathways. There was greater activation of executioner caspases-3 in the pancreas with anti-PMN treatment compared with control. There were no differences between these groups of animals in mitochondrial cytochrome c release or in activities of initiator caspase-8 and -9. However, there was greater activation of caspase-2 with anti-PMN treatment during cerulein pancreatitis. The upstream regulation of caspases-2 includes p53, which was increased; the p53 negative regulator, Mdm2, was decreased by anti-PMN treatment during cerulein pancreatitis. In vitro experiments using isolated pancreatic acinar cells a pharmacological inhibitor of Mdm2 increased caspase-2/-3 activities, and an inhibitor of p53 decreased these activities during cholecystokinin-8 treatment. Furthermore, experiments using the AR42J cell line Mdm2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased caspase-2/-3 activities, and p53 siRNA decreased these activities during cholecystokinin-8 treatment. These results suggest that during acute pancreatitis the inflammatory response inhibits apoptosis. The mechanism of this inhibition involves caspase-2 and its upstream regulation by p53 and Mdm2. Because previous findings indicate that promotion of apoptosis decreases necrosis and severity of pancreatitis, these results suggest that strategies to inhibit Mdm2 or activate p53 will have beneficial effects for treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:19850968

Nakamura, Yuji; Do, Jae Hyuk; Yuan, Jingzhen; Odinokova, Irina V.; Mareninova, Olga; Gukovskaya, Anna S.

2010-01-01

103

Acute pancreatitis in slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).  

PubMed

Four adult, full-sibling slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The incident case presented with lethargy, anorexia, abdominal guarding, and a cranial abdominal mass. Serum was grossly lipemic, with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increased amylase and lipase activity. An exploratory laparotomy confirmed chylous peritonitis and included excision of a saponified spleno-duodenal mass, a partial pancreatectomy, and a splenectomy. Histopathology revealed severe, multifocal, subacute necrotizing and granulomatous pancreatitis. Within 13 days of the incident case, the second meerkat was identified with essentially identical clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. During subsequent physical examinations of apparently unaffected cohorts (n=12), physical and hematologic findings suggestive of pancreatitis were identified in the two remaining siblings of the first two cases. The definitive cause for these four cases is undetermined; however, common risk factors identified were obesity and hyperlipidemia, a change to a higher-fat diet, and genetic predisposition. To assess its usefulness in the diagnosis of meerkat pancreatitis, serum canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI and fPLI) concentrations were measured in serum samples (n=61) from two unrelated meerkat populations. Although these assays are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in domestic carnivores, similar correlation was not apparent for meerkats. In addition, hyperlipidemia was inconsistently present in many meerkats, with no apparent correlation to the development of clinical illness. Based on these observations, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for pancreatitis in meerkats are currently unavailable. PMID:20597219

Naples, Lisa M; Lacasse, Claude; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Langan, Jennifer N; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Gamble, Kathryn C

2010-06-01

104

Inhibition of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich containing family, pyrin-domain containing 3 inflammasome reduces the severity of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in obese mice.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis (AP), although most often a mild and self-limiting inflammatory disease, worsens to a characteristically necrotic severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in about 20% of cases. Obesity, affecting more than one-third of American adults, is a risk factor for the development of SAP, but the exact mechanism of this association has not been identified. Coincidental with chronic low-grade inflammation, activation of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich containing family, pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome increases with obesity. Lean mice genetically deficient in specific components of the NLRP3 inflammasome are protected from experimentally induced AP, indicating a direct involvement of this pathway in AP pathophysiology. We hypothesized that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the sulfonylurea drug glyburide would reduce disease severity in obese mice with cerulein-induced SAP. Treatment with glyburide led to significantly reduced relative pancreatic mass and water content and less pancreatic damage and cell death in genetically obese ob/ob mice with SAP compared with vehicle-treated obese SAP mice. Glyburide administration in ob/ob mice with cerulein-induced SAP also resulted in significantly reduced serum levels of interleukin 6, lipase, and amylase and led to lower production of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin 1? release in cultured peritoneal cells, compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice with SAP. Together, these data indicate involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity-associated SAP and expose the possible utility of its inhibition in prevention or treatment of SAP in obese individuals. PMID:25152324

York, Jason M; Castellanos, Karla J; Cabay, Robert J; Fantuzzi, Giamila

2014-10-01

105

[Nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis: when the past is present].  

PubMed

Patients with acute pancreatitis usually present nutritional status impairment. In alcoholic pancreatitis this impairment is usually presented before hospital admission. In patients with long-term complicated pancreatitis, malnutrition develops during the course of the disease. Besides, these patients present an increased stress and protein hypercatabolism. Treatment of acute pancreatitis usually maintains patients in a short period of starvation. In mild pancreatitis, starvation is needed for a few days, beginning progressively oral feeding. These patients don't need special nutritional support, unless they were previously malnourished. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis should always receive artificial nutritional support in order to preserve the nutritional status as starvation will be maintained for more than one week. In this paper, we review the nutritional treatment in these situations, trying to answer some different questions: type of nutritional support, when it should be started and when it is indicated to withdraw. PMID:18714411

García Almansa, A; García Peris, P

2008-05-01

106

Effect of early intrajejunal nutrition on pancreatic pathological features and gut barrier function in dogs with acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Traditionally, it was believed that early intrajejunal nutrition (EIN) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) may exacerbate the clinical pathological features, lead to recurrence of symptoms and delay complications.Objective: To compare

H.-L. QIN; Z.-D. SU; L.-G. HU; Z.-X. DING; Q.-TI. LIN

2002-01-01

107

Increased expression of transforming growth factor beta s after acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats suggests a role in pancreatic repair.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta isoforms (TGF beta s) belong to a family of multifunctional regulators of cellular growth and differentiation. They are mitogenic and chemotactic for fibroblasts and are potent stimulators of extracellular matrix production (collagen) and deposition. Upregulation of TGF beta transcription has been reported for several in vivo systems during repair after injury. AIMS: To study the expression of the three mammalian isoforms of TGF beta (TGF beta 1-3) and their relation to collagen expression as a marker for fibroblast response in acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: Using northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, the expression and localisation of TGF beta isoforms, collagen, and amylase were analysed during the course of acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats, experimentally induced by intravenous caerulein infusion. RESULTS: Induction of acute pancreatitis resulted in a biphasic peak pattern of expression of TGF beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 mRNA, with a pronounced increase from day 1 to day 3 (sixfold, 2.5-fold, fivefold, respectively) and again from day 5 to day 7 (three-fold, 2.3-fold, 3.5-fold, respectively). The temporal changes in TGF beta mRNA identically paralleled the expression in collagen mRNA. In contrast, amylase mRNA expression, used as a general indicator of acinar cell integrity, was slightly decreased after induction of acute pancreatitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatitis tissue showed that increased expression of TGF beta s was mainly present in the pancreatic acinar and ductal cells; this was evident within one day after pancreatitis induction. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of TGF beta s after induction of acute pancreatitis suggests a role for these proteins in pancreatic repair and remodelling. The increased levels of TGF beta s may help suppress immune activation, and may contribute to the increase in the extracellular matrix including collagen and to the repair of the pancreatic parenchyma. Images PMID:9155579

Riesle, E; Friess, H; Zhao, L; Wagner, M; Uhl, W; Baczako, K; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Büchler, M W

1997-01-01

108

Pathophysiologic factors in recurrent acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

No single pathophysiologic factor has been identified as the cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis. A systematic search should\\u000a be undertaken in every patient to identify one of a myriad of factors that have been shown to play a part in causing this\\u000a distressing illness. The abuse of alcohol remains the likeliest cause, and further research may reveal an inborn error

Larry C. Carey

1985-01-01

109

A Novel Model of Severe Gallstone Pancreatitis: Murine Pancreatic Duct Ligation Results in Systemic Inflammation and Substantial Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Suitable experimental models of gallstone pancreatitis with systemic inflammation and mortality are limited. We developed a novel murine model of duct-ligation-induced acute pancreatitis associated with multiorgan dysfunction and severe mortality. Methods Laparotomy was done on C57/BL6 mice followed by pancreatic duct (PD) ligation, bile duct (BD) ligation without PD ligation, or sham operation. Results Only mice with PD ligation developed acute pancreatitis and had 100% mortality. Pulmonary compliance was significantly reduced after PD ligation but not BD ligation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil count and interleukin-1? concentration, and the plasma creatinine level, were significantly elevated with PD ligation but not BD ligation. Pancreatic nuclear factor ?B (p65) and activator protein 1 (c-Jun) were activated within 1 h of PD ligation. Conclusion PD-ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice is associated with systemic inflammation, acute lung injury, multiorgan dysfunction and death. The development of this novel model is an exciting and notable advance in the field. PMID:20975317

Samuel, Isaac; Yuan, Zuobiao; Meyerholz, David K.; Twait, Erik; Williard, Deborah E.; Kempuraj, Duraisamy

2010-01-01

110

Activation of Nuclear Factor-?B in Acinar Cells Increases the Severity of Pancreatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Nuclear factor (NF)-?B is activated during early stages of pancreatitis. This transcription factor regulates genes that control many cell activities, including inflammation and survival. There is evidence that activation of NF-?B protects against pancreatitis, and in other cases, that it promotes this disease. We compared the effects NF-?B in different mouse models of pancreatitis to understand these complications. Methods To model constitutive activation of NF-?B, we expressed a transgene that encodes its p65 subunit or the inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK) 2 in pancreatic acinar cells of mice. We analyzed effects on pancreatic tissues and levels of NF-?B target genes in these mice and compared them to mice that did not express transgenic p65 or IKK2 (controls). Results Transgenic expression of p65 led to compensatory expression of the inhibitory subunit IKB-? and therefore, no clear phenotype. However, p65 transgenic mice given injections of caerulein, to induce acute pancreatitis, had higher levels of NF-?B activity in acinar cells, greater levels of inflammation, and more severe outcomes than control mice. In contrast, constitutive expression of IKK2 directly increased the activity of NF-?B in acinar cells and induced pancreatitis. Prolonged activity of IKK2 (3 months) resulted in activation of stellate cells, loss of acinar cells, and fibrosis, which are characteristics of chronic pancreatitis. Co-expression of IKK2 and p65 greatly increased the expression of inflammatory mediators and the severity of pancreatitis, compared with control mice. Conclusions The level of NF-?B activation correlates with the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice. Longer periods of activation (3 months) lead to chronic pancreatitis. These findings indicate that strategies to inactivate NF-?B might be used to treat patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis. PMID:23041324

Huang, Haojie; Liu, Yan; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Gaiser, Sebastian; Chu, Jun; Wang, Huamin; Logsdon, Craig; Ji, Baoan

2013-01-01

111

Gene Expression Profiles in Cells of Peripheral Blood Identify New Molecular Markers of Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Blood leukocytes play a major role in mediating local and systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in circulation exhibit unique changes in gene expression, and could provide a “reporter” function that reflects the inflammatory response in pancreas of acute pancreatitis. Methods To determine specific changes in blood leukocytes during acute pancreatitis, we studied gene transcription profile of in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a rat model of experimental pancreatitis (sodium taurocholate). Normal rats, saline controls and a model of septic shock were used as a controls. cRNA obtained from PBMC of each group (n = 3) were applied to Affymetrix rat genome DNA Gene Chip Arrays. Results From the 8,799 rat genes analyzed, 140 genes showed unique significant changes in their expression in PBMC during the acute phase of pancreatitis, but not in sepsis. Among the 140 genes, 57 were upregulated, while 69 were downregulated. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor, prostaglandin E2 receptor and phospholipase D1 are among the top upregulated genes. Others include genes involved in G protein-coupled receptor and TGF-?-mediated signaling pathways, while genes associated with apoptosis, glucocorticoid receptors and even the cholecystokinin receptor are downregulated. Conclusions Microarray analysis in transcriptional profiling of PBMC showed that genes that are uniquely related to molecular and pancreatic function display differential expression in acute pancreatitis. Profiling genes obtained from an easily accessible source during severe pancreatitis may identify surrogate markers for disease severity. PMID:18347268

Bluth, Martin; Lin, Yin-yao; Zhang, Hong; Viterbo, Dominick; Zenilman, Michael

2009-01-01

112

Pancreatic mass as an initial presentation of severe Wegener's granulomatosis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis or a pancreatic mass is a very rare initial presentation of Wegener's granu-lomatosis. A 62-year-old woman presented with tumor-like pancreatitis and otitis media Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance suggested the presence of pancreatic tumor. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was negative. Distal pancreatic resection and splenectomy were performed and histopathology proved Wegener's vasculitis of the pancreas and spleen. Azathioprine and steroids were subsequently started and six months later the patient was asymptomatic. Involvement of the pancreas could be considered as a presenting symptom of Wegener's vasculitis. PMID:24714250

Valerieva, Yana; Golemanov, Branimir; Tzolova, Nadezhda; Mitova, Rumiana

2013-01-01

113

Role of the gut barrier in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The small intestine is one of the distant organs that become damaged during severe acute pancreatitis, due to microcirculation disturbance associated with loss of fluids in the "third space," hypovolemia, splanchnic vasoconstriction, and finally an ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this scenario, the gut acts as the starter for severe systemic complications, as the failure of the intestinal barrier is associated with translocation of bacteria and inflammatory and toxic products produced in the intestinal wall, which can be responsible for sepsis and infection of the necrotic pancreas and for systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, one of the main goals of treatment in the early phases of severe acute pancreatitis should be to maintain the integrity of the gut barrier in the small intestine. These strategies include appropriate fluid resuscitation to limit the damage due to the relative hypovolemia and early enteral feeding. The role of intravenous antibiotics to prevent infection of the pancreatic necrosis is controversial and the role of probiotics, which seemed a promising tool in vitro and in early clinical trials, needs to be further investigated to better understand the effects of the single specific strains at various doses and timing before designing new clinical trials. PMID:22955357

Capurso, Gabriele; Zerboni, Giulia; Signoretti, Marianna; Valente, Roberto; Stigliano, Serena; Piciucchi, Matteo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

2012-10-01

114

Acute Pancreatitis: The Role of Imaging and Interventional Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute pancreatitis can manifest as a benign condition with minimal abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia or can have a fulminant course, which can be life-threatening usually due to the development of infected pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure [1, 2]. Fortunately, 70–80% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a benign self-limiting course (Figs. 1, 2, 4). The initial 24-48 hours after

Michael M. Maher; Brian C. Lucey; Debra A. Gervais; Peter R. Mueller

2004-01-01

115

Acute Pancreatitis: The Role of Imaging and Interventional Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute pancreatitis can manifest as a benign condition with minimal abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia or can have a fulminant course, which can be life-threatening usually due to the development of infected pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Fortunately, 70-80% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a benign self-limiting course. The initial 24-48 hours after the initial diagnosis is usually the

Michael M. Maher; Brian C. Lucey; Debra A. Gervais; Peter R. Mueller

2004-01-01

116

Evidence-Based Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: The management of acute pancreatitis (AP) is still based on speculative and unproven paradigms in many centers. Therefore, we performed an evidence-based analysis to assess the best available treatment. Methods: A comprehensive Medline and Cochrane Library search was performed evaluating the indication and timing of interventional and surgical approaches, and the value of aprotinin, lexipafant, gabexate mesylate, and octreotide treatment. Each study was ranked according to the evidence-based methodology of Sackett; whenever feasible, we performed new meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Recommendations were based on the available level of evidence (A = large randomized; B = small randomized; C = prospective trial). Results: None of the evaluated medical treatments is recommended (level A). Patients with AP should receive early enteral nutrition (level B). While mild biliary AP is best treated by primary cholecystectomy (level B), patients with severe biliary AP require emergency endoscopic papillotomy followed by interval cholecystectomy (level A). Patients with necrotizing AP should receive imipenem or meropenem prophylaxis to decrease the risk of infected necrosis and mortality (level A). Sterile necrosis per se is not an indication for surgery (level C), and not all patients with infected necrosis require immediate surgery (level B). In general, early necrosectomy should be avoided (level B), and single necrosectomy with postoperative lavage should be preferred over “open-packing” because of fewer complications with comparable mortality rates (level C). Conclusions: While providing new insights into key aspects of AP management, this evidence-based analysis highlights the need for further clinical trials, particularly regarding the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis and surgery. PMID:16432347

Heinrich, Stefan; Schäfer, Markus; Rousson, Valentin; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2006-01-01

117

Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child  

SciTech Connect

A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

Nakagawa, Motoo, E-mail: lmloltlolol@gmail.com; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2009-05-15

118

Heart ultrastructure in experimental acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis reproduced on white rats provoked following modifications of myocardium ultrastructure: 1. Affection of the microcirculation vessels structure, what induce interstitial edema and cardiomyocytes hypoxia. 2. The cells appearance of a rough type with the overcontracted myofibrils making up, probably occurs as a result of supercharging with calcium can be caused by deficiencies in the sarcolemma structure. 3. The intracellular edema of the cardiomyocytes and their supercharging with calcium can be caused by deficiencies in the sarcoma structure. 4. In the latest periods, the cardiomyocytes and the connective tissue reactions to the lesion is represented of compensatory hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes and collagenizing the myocardium stroma. PMID:9653808

Saulea, A; Costin, S; Rotari, V

1997-01-01

119

Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-? levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

2014-01-01

120

Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-? levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

2014-01-01

121

Pancreatic Damage after the First Episode of Acute Alcoholic Pancreatitis and Its Association with the Later Recurrence Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) recurs in up to half of the patients, continuous alcohol consumption being an important risk factor. Changes in pancreatic function and morphology after acute pancreatitis have been characterized previously, but their association with later recurrences has not been adequately studied. Patients and Methods: In this prospective follow-up study, the pancreatic function of 54 patients (47

Hanna Pelli; Riitta Lappalainen-Lehto; Anneli Piironen; Satu Järvinen; Juhani Sand; Isto Nordback

2009-01-01

122

Gardenia jasminoides protects against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Gardenia jasminoides (GJ) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice weighing 18-20 g were divided into three groups. (1) Normal saline-treated group, (2) treatment with GJ at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, (3) treatment with GJ at a dose of 1 g/kg. GJ was administered orally (n = 6 per group) for 1 wk. Three hours later, the mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 ?g/kg), a stable cholecystokinin (CCK) analogue, every hour for a total of 6 h as described previously. The mice were sacrificed at 6 h after completion of cerulein injections. Blood samples were obtained to determine serum amylase, lipase and cytokine levels. The pancreas was rapidly removed for morphologic examination and scoring. A portion of pancreas was stored at -70°C and prepared for the measurement of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an indicator of neutrophil sequestration, and for reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR measurements. RESULTS: Treatment with GJ decreased significantly the severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Treatment with GJ attenuated the severity of AP compared with saline-treated mice, as shown by reduction in pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, serum amylase and lipase levels, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of multiple inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GJ attenuated the severity of AP as well as pancreatitis-associated lung injury. PMID:18985809

Jung, Won-Seok; Chae, Young-Seok; Kim, Do-Yun; Seo, Sang-Wan; Park, Hee-Je; Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Oh, Hyo-Jeong; Yun, Ki-Jung; Park, Rae-Kil; Kim, Jong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Hwang, Sung-Yeon; Park, Sung-Joo; Song, Ho-Joon

2008-01-01

123

Relationship between the exocrine and endocrine pancreas after acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the prevalence and time course of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Relevant literature cited in three major biomedical journal databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was reviewed independently by two authors. There were no language constraints but the search was limited to human studies. Studies included were cohort studies of adult patients who were discharged after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age or had a previous diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or chronic pancreatitis. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Subgroup analysis was conducted for patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes only and those who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus only. Subgroup analysis looking at the time course of concomitant pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was also conducted. Pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all outcome measures and P-values < 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Eight clinical studies comprising of 234 patients met all eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 43% (95%CI: 30%-56%). The pooled prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 29% (95%CI: 19%-39%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes was 40% (95%CI: 25%-55%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency among individuals with prediabetes alone and diabetes mellitus alone was 41% (95%CI: 12%-75%) and 39% (95%CI: 28%-51%), respectively. Further analysis showed that the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with prediabetes or diabetes decreases over time after an attack of acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency occurs in 40% of individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenesis of diabetes in this setting. PMID:25493036

Das, Stephanie L M; Kennedy, James I C; Murphy, Rinki; Phillips, Anthony R J; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

2014-01-01

124

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and serum nutritional markers after acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate impairment and clinical significance of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in patients after acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Patients with AP were invited to participate in the study. Severity of AP was determined by the Atlanta classification and definitions revised in 2012. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1. An additional work-up, including laboratory testing of serum nutritional markers for determination of malnutrition, was offered to all patients with low levels of fecal elastase-1 FE. Hemoglobin A1c or oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in patients without prior diabetes mellitus, and type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included in the study: 75% (75/100) of patients had one attack of AP and 25% (25/100) had two or more attacks. The most common etiology was alcohol. Mild, moderately severe and severe AP were present in 67, 15 and 18% of patients, respectively. The mean time from attack of AP to inclusion in the study was 2.7 years. PEI was diagnosed in 21% (21/100) of patients and T3cDM in 14% (14/100) of patients. In all patients with PEI, at least one serologic nutritional marker was below the lower limit of normal. T3cDM was more frequently present in patients with severe AP (P = 0.031), but was also present in some patients with mild and moderately severe AP. PEI was present in all degrees of severity of AP. There were no statistically significantly differences according to gender, etiology and number of AP attacks. CONCLUSION: As exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop after AP, routine follow-up of patients is necessary, for which serum nutritional panel measurements can be useful. PMID:25561813

Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Tepes, Bojan; Makuc, Jana; Rudolf, Sasa; Zaletel, Jelka; Vidmar, Tjasa; Seruga, Maja; Birsa, Bostjan

2014-01-01

125

Acute Suppuration of the Pancreatic Duct in a Patient with Tropical Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Pancreatic sepsis secondary to infected necrosis, pseudocyst, or pancreatic abscess is a well-known clinical entity. Acute suppuration of the pancreatic duct (ASPD) in the setting of chronic calcific pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal obstruction with septicemia is a rare complication that is seldom reported. It is our aim to report a case of ASPD with Klebsiella ornithinolytica, in the absence of pancreatic abscess or infected necrosis. Case Report A 46-year-old Asian-Indian man with chronic tropical pancreatitis who was admitted with recurrent epigastric pain that rapidly evolved into septic shock. A CT scan of abdomen revealed a dilated pancreatic duct with a large calculus. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, vasopressors and activated recombinant protein C were initiated. Emergency ERCP showed the papilla of Vater spontaneously expelling pus. Probing and stenting was instantly performed until pus drainage ceased. Repeat CT scan confirmed the absence of pancreatic necrosis or fluid collection, and decreasing ductal dilatation. Dramatic clinical improvement was observed within 36 hours after intervention. Blood cultures grew Klebsiella ornithinolytica. The patient completed his antibiotic course and was discharged. Conclusion ASPD without pancreatic abscess or infected necrosis is an exceptional clinical entity that should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic sepsis. A chronically diseased pancreas and diabetes may have predisposed to the uncommon pathogen. The presence of intraductal pancreatic stones obstructing outflow played a major role in promoting bacterial growth, suppuration and septicemia. Immediate drainage of the pancreatic duct with endoscopic intervention is critical and mandatory. PMID:21490834

Deeb, Liliane S.; Bajaj, Jasmeet; Bhargava, Sandeep; Alcid, David; Pitchumoni, C.S.

2008-01-01

126

Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: A review of the current evidence  

PubMed Central

The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immunoenhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473164

Oláh, Attila; Romics Jr, Laszlo

2014-01-01

127

The Role of Open Necrosectomy in the Current Management of Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis: A Review Article  

PubMed Central

The optimal management of necrotizing pancreatitis continues to evolve. Currently, conservative intensive care treatment represents the primary therapy of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis, aiming at prevention of organ failure. Following this mode of treatment most patients with sterile necroses can be managed successfully. Surgery might be considered as an option in the late phase of the disease for patients with proven infected pancreatic necroses and organ failure. For these patients surgical debridement is still considered the treatment of choice. However, even for this subgroup of patients, the concept of operative strategy has been recently challenged. Nowadays, it is generally accepted that necrotizing pancreatitis with proven infected necroses as well as septic complications directly caused by pancreatic infection are strong indications for surgical management. However, the question of the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of pancreatic necroses remains unsettled. At the same time, recent advances in radiological imaging, new developments in interventional radiology, and other minimal access interventions have revolutionised the management of necrotizing pancreatitis. In light of these controversies, the present paper will focus on the current role of surgery in terms of open necrosectomy in the management of severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:23431472

Vasiliadis, K.; Papavasiliou, C.; Al Nimer, A.; Lamprou, N.; Makridis, C.

2013-01-01

128

Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: Fact or fiction  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069

Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

2014-01-01

129

A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

1983-01-01

130

Increased circulating cholecystokinin in obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. II. Pancreatic duct obstruction with and without bile duct obstruction.  

PubMed

Pancreatic exocrine stimulation by cholecystokinin (CCK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental acute pancreatitis. Bile exclusion from the gut stimulates duodenal CCK release and exacerbates obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic and bile duct obstruction increases circulating CCK concentration. We hypothesized that acute pancreatitis induced by pancreatic and bile duct obstruction would be ameliorated when bile was returned to the duodenum. As many small pancreatic ducts drain into the bile duct in rats, preservation of bile flow required the use of a bile shunt. We studied acute pancreatitis and the time course of circulating CCK increase in three groups of rats after: (1) sham operation (dissection, no obstruction), (2) bile and pancreatic duct obstruction, and (3) bile and pancreatic duct obstruction with bile shunt. The rats were killed at 3-, 6-, and 18-hr intervals after operation. Their blood was collected for measurement of CCK, amylase, and bilirubin concentrations. The pancreata were excised, weighed, and processed for histological examination. The shunting of bile back to the duodenum ameliorated the acute pancreatitis along with a simultaneous limitation of the rise in CCK concentration. This suggests that bile duct obstruction, another form of bile exclusion, exacerbates pancreatic duct obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. The elevation in CCK concentration showed an early peak indicating that the potential role of CCK in the pathogenesis of obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis is predominantly in the early phase of its development. PMID:8479170

Toriumi, Y; Samuel, I; Wilcockson, D P; Turkelson, C M; Solomon, T E; Joehl, R J

1993-02-01

131

Acute Pancreatitis after Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We describe a case of severe acute pancreatitis after percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) and review the literature for the occurrence of this complication. Materials and Methods: A 53-year-old man with a history of bilateral external iliac artery stent placement sought care for acute onset of lifestyle-limiting left claudication. Angiography confirmed left external iliac stent occlusion, and PMT with the AngioJet Xpeedior catheter (Possis Medical, Minneapolis MN) was performed. Results: After PMT of the occluded external iliac artery, a residual in-stent stenosis required the placement of a second iliac stent. The procedure was complicated by severe acute pancreatitis. Other causes of pancreatitis were eliminated during the patient's hospital stay. A literature review revealed nine cases of acute pancreatitis after PMT. Conclusion: Although rare, pancreatitis can be a devastating complication of PMT. The development of pancreatitis seems to be related to the products of extensive hemolysis triggering an inflammatory process. To prevent this complication, we recommend that close attention be paid to the duration and extent of PMT, thereby avoiding extensive hemolysis and subsequent complications.

Hershberger, Richard C., E-mail: rihershberger@lumc.edu; Bornak, Arash; Aulivola, Bernadette; Mannava, Krishna [Loyola University Chicago Medical Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy (United States)

2011-02-15

132

Extension of pancreatic pseudocyst into psoas muscle in a setting of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Pancreatic pseudocysts are known to extend beyond the confines of the pancreatic bed due to the digestive nature of enzyme rich pancreatic fluid. Extension of a pseudocyst beyond the retroperitoneum, along the retrofascial plane within the psoas muscle is, however, unusual, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with right lumbar pain and painful ipsilateral hip extension. Imaging findings revealed extension of the pseudocyst into psoas along with features of acute pancreatitis. The pseudocyst was drained percutaneously under image guidance, which led to resolution of symptoms. PMID:25628323

Aswani, Yashant; Anandpara, Karan Manoj; Hira, Priya

2015-01-01

133

Octreotide and cholecystokinin antagonist reduce edema in obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis in rats is associated with increased plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) levels. Duodenal replacement of bile reduces severity of pancreatitis and limits CCK increase. We investigated the role of CCK in the pathogenesis of obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis by pretreating rats with the somatostatin analog octreotide and the CCK antagonist L-364,718. Octreotide inhibits duodenal CCK release, and L-364,718 competitively blocks CCK receptors. We studied 31 rats after (1) sham operation (n = 7), (2) bile and pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO) (n = 12), (3) BPDO plus octreotide (20 micrograms/kg IP and then 5 micrograms/kg/hr IV) (n = 6), and (4) BPDO plus L-364,718 (1 mg/kg IP and then 0.25 mg/kg/hr IV) (n = 6). Rats were killed after 18 hours. Pancreas weight, acute pancreatitis histology score, and plasma amylase and CCK levels were determined. Octreotide and L-364,718 limited the increase in pancreas weight. Octreotide also limited the rise in plasma CCK levels. These findings suggest that CCK may play a role in the pathogenesis of obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:8228560

Toriumi, Y; Samuel, I; Wilcockson, D P; Turkelson, C M; Solomon, T E; Joehl, R J

1993-10-01

134

Surgical management of acute pancreatitis in Italy: lessons from a prospective multicentre study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to evaluate the surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy and to assess compliance with international guidelines. Methods A series of 1173 patients in 56 hospitals were prospectively enrolled and their data analysed. Results Twenty-nine patients with severe pancreatitis underwent surgical intervention. Necrosectomy was performed in 26 patients, associated with postoperative lavage in 70% of cases. A feeding jejunostomy was added in 37% of cases. Mortality was 21%. Of the patients with mild pancreatitis, 714 patients with a biliary aetiology were evaluated. Prophylactic treatment of relapses was carried out in 212 patients (36%) by cholecystectomy and in 161 using a laparoscopic approach. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was associated with cholecystectomy in 83 patients (39%). Forty-seven patients (22%) were treated at a second admission, with a median delay of 31 days from the onset of pancreatitis. Eighteen patients with severe pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy 37.9 days after the first admission. There were no deaths. Discussion The results indicate poor compliance with published guidelines. In severe pancreatitis, early surgical intervention is frequently performed and enteral feeding is seldom used. Only a small number of patients with mild biliary pancreatitis undergo definitive treatment (i.e. cholecystectomy) within 4 weeks of the onset of pancreatitis. PMID:20961367

De Rai, Paolo; Zerbi, Alessandro; Castoldi, Laura; Bassi, Claudio; Frulloni, Luca; Uomo, Generoso; Gabbrielli, Armando; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Cavallini, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Valerio

2010-01-01

135

Bacteremia in the Patients With Acute Pancreatitis as Revealed by 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene-Based Techniques.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: To define the characteristic of bacteremia in the patients with acute pancreatitis and determine its possible association with the disease severity. DESIGN:: A prospective controlled study. SETTING:: ICU of Jinling Hospital, China. PATIENTS:: A total of 48 patients with mild or severe acute pancreatitis were enrolled in this study. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Samples of peripheral blood were collected from the patients at 4 or 5 and 9 or 10 days after acute pancreatitis was definitely diagnosed. Resulting DNA from the blood was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and separated fragments were sequenced for identification of bacterial species. Bacterial DNA was detected in peripheral blood from 68.8% of patients with acute pancreatitis, and more than half (60.4%) of the patients encountered polymicrobial flora. Translocated bacteria in patients with acute pancreatitis were primarily constituted of opportunistic pathogens derived from the gut, including Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Bacillus coagulans, and Enterococcus faecium. And the species of circulating bacteria shifted remarkably among the patients with different severity. The presence of the bacteremia correlated positively with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II scores of patients with acute pancreatitis (r = 0.7918, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:: This study provides a detailed description on the prevalence of bacteremia and characteristic of bacterial species in patients with acute pancreatitis. We demonstrate an association between the bacteremia and the disease severity, which enables us to better understand a potential role of bacterial translocation in the pathogenesis of septic complication in acute pancreatitis. PMID:23764972

Li, Qiurong; Wang, Chenyang; Tang, Chun; He, Qin; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

2013-06-12

136

Malignant lymphoma of spleen presenting as acute pancreatitis: A case report  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of a patient who presented with acute pancreatitis without the common causes. A pancreatic biopsy revealed large B cell lymphoma. Spleen lymphoma with pancreatic involvement inducing acute pancreatitis, which is a rare disorder, was diagnosed. Here we also review the few similar cases reported in the literature. PMID:17659747

Wu, Chao-Ming; Cheng, Lung-Chih; Lo, Gin-Ho; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Chia-Ling; Pan, Wen-Cheng

2007-01-01

137

Acute pancreatitis associated with acute viral hepatitis A (HAV) - a case report.  

PubMed

In this case report, a young woman had acute viral hepatitis (HAV) and acute pancreatitis together. She was admitted to our hospital with fever, jaundice and abdominal pain. Hepatic and pancreatic enzymes were elevated. Her serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was high. An initial abdominal ultrasound was per-formed at hospital and revealed features of acute viral hepatitis. Spiral computed imaging revealed imaging features of an acute stage of pancreatitis and gallbladder wall thickness. HAV infection was diagnosed by the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) against HAV in the serum. She was closely monitored and treated conservatively. On 10th day of hospital admission she was discharge after an uneventful recovery. In the current literature HAV infections have rarely been reported as a cause of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23416831

Arafat, S M; Azad, A K; Basher, A; Ananna, M A; Islam, M S; Abdullah, S; Abdullah, A M; Islam, M A

2013-01-01

138

[A case of inferior vena cava thrombosis and acute pancreatitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis].  

PubMed

A 21-year-old man admitted complaining of sudden severe epigastric pain for 1 day. He had been diagnosed as ulcerative colitis (UC) and taking mesalazine for two months. UC was in nearly complete remission at admission. He never drank an alcohol, and serum amylase was 377 IU/L. CT scan showed inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis in addition to mild acute pancreatitis. To evaluate the cause of acute pancreatitis and IVC thrombosis, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonogram (EUS), lower extremity Doppler ultrasonogram (US) and blood test of hypercoagulability including factor V, cardiolipin Ab, protein C, protein S1, antithrombin III, and anti phospholipids antibody were performed. There was no abnormality except mild acute pancreatitis and IVC thrombosis in all the tests. He was recommended to stop taking mesalazine and start having anticoagulation therapy. After all symptoms disappeared and amylase returned normal, rechallenge test with mesalazine was done. Flare-up of abdominal pain occurred and the elevation of serum amylase was observed. Ulcerative colitis came to complete remission with short-term steroid monotherapy. Acute pancreatitis and IVC thrombosis were completely resolved after 3-month anticoagulation therapy with no more mesalazine. We postulated that IVC thrombosis occurred due to hypercoagulable status of UC and intra-abdominal inflammation caused by mesalazine-induced pancreatitis. PMID:20962562

Shin, Do Hyun; Lee, Kwang Hyuk; Kim, Chi Hoon; Kim, Kap Hyun; Park, Sung Hyun; Chang, Dong Kyung; Lee, Jong Kun; Lee, Kyu Taek

2010-10-01

139

Fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis: a pictorial essay.  

PubMed

The terminology and classification scheme of acute pancreatitis proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium was reviewed, and a new consensus statement was recently proposed. Major changes include subdividing acute fluid collections in the first 4 weeks into "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" and "acute necrotic collection" based on the presence of necrotic debris. Delayed fluid collections have been similarly subdivided into "pseudocyst" and "walled-off necrosis." Correct use of the new terms that describe these collections is important because they lead to different treatment decisions. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of fluid collections associated with acute pancreatitis, with an emphasis on their prognostic significance and impact on clinical management, and to illustrate the new terminology. PMID:24650871

Türkvatan, Aysel; Erden, Ay?e; Seçil, Mustafa; Türko?lu, Mehmet A

2014-08-01

140

Serine proteases mediate inflammatory pain in acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening inflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain of unknown etiology. Trypsin, a key mediator of pancreatitis, causes inflammation and pain by activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), but the isoforms of trypsin that cause pancreatitis and pancreatic pain are unknown. We hypothesized that human trypsin IV and rat P23, which activate PAR2 and are resistant to pancreatic trypsin inhibitors, contribute to pancreatic inflammation and pain. Injections of a subinflammatory dose of exogenous trypsin increased c-Fos immunoreactivity, indicative of spinal nociceptive activation, but did not cause inflammation, as assessed by measuring serum amylase and myeloperoxidase activity and by histology. The same dose of trypsin IV and P23 increased some inflammatory end points and caused a more robust effect on nociception, which was blocked by melagatran, a trypsin inhibitor that also inhibits polypeptide-resistant trypsin isoforms. To determine the contribution of endogenous activation of trypsin and its minor isoforms, recombinant enterokinase (ENK), which activates trypsins in the duodenum, was administered into the pancreas. Intraductal ENK caused nociception and inflammation that were diminished by polypeptide inhibitors, including soybean trypsin inhibitor and a specific trypsin inhibitor (type I-P), and by melagatran. Finally, the secretagogue cerulein induced pancreatic nociceptive activation and nocifensive behavior that were reversed by melagatran. Thus trypsin and its minor isoforms mediate pancreatic pain and inflammation. In particular, the inhibitor-resistant isoforms trypsin IV and P23 may be important in mediating prolonged pancreatic inflammatory pain in pancreatitis. Our results suggest that inhibitors of these isoforms could be novel therapies for pancreatitis pain. PMID:21436316

Ceppa, Eugene P.; Lyo, Victoria; Grady, Eileen F.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Grahn, Sarah; Peterson, Anders; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Cattaruzza, Fiore

2011-01-01

141

Multicenter Approach to Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States: The North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are complex syndromes associated with numerous etiologies, clinical variables and complications. We developed the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2) to be sufficiently powered to understand the complex environmental, metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying RAP and CP. Methods: Between August 2000 and September 2006, a consortium of 20 expert academic and

David C. Whitcomb; Dhiraj Yadav; Slivka Adam; Robert H. Hawes; Randall E. Brand; Michelle A. Anderson; Mary E. Money; Peter A. Banks; Michele D. Bishop; John Baillie; Stuart Sherman; James DiSario; Frank R. Burton; Timothy B. Gardner; Stephen T. Amann; Andres Gelrud; Simon K. Lo; Mark T. DeMeo; William M. Steinberg; Michael L. Kochman; Babak Etemad; Christopher E. Forsmark; Beth Elinoff; Julia B. Greer; Michael O’Connell; Janette Lamb; M. Michael Barmada

2008-01-01

142

Diagnostic value of contrast enhanced ultrasound for splenic artery complications following acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in diagnosing splenic artery complications (SACs) after acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: One hundred and eighteen patients with AP were enrolled in the study. All patients were examined by CEUS and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). CECT was accepted as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SACs in AP. The diagnostic accuracy of splenic CEUS and pancreatic CEUS was compared with that of CECT. Splenic infarction was the diagnostic criterion for splenic artery embolism and local dysperfusion of the splenic parenchyma was the diagnostic criterion for splenic arterial stenosis. The incidence of splenic sub-capsular hemorrhage, splenic artery aneurysms, and splenic rupture was all lower than that of SACs. RESULTS: Nine patients were diagnosed as having SACs after AP by CECT among the 118 patients. The patients with SACs were diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Among them, 6 lesions were diagnosed as splenic artery embolism, 5 as splenic artery aneurysms, and 1 as splenic arterial stenosis. No lesion was diagnosed by pancreatic CEUS and 5 lesions were diagnosed by splenic CEUS. By splenic CEUS, 4 cases were diagnosed as splenic artery embolism and 1 as splenic arterial stenosis. The accuracy of splenic CEUS in diagnosis of SACs in SAP was 41.7% (5/12), which was higher than that of pancreatic CEUS (0%). CONCLUSION: Splenic CEUS is a supplementary method for pancreatic CEUS in AP patients, which can decrease missed diagnosis of SACs. PMID:24574783

Cai, Di-Ming; Parajuly, Shyam Sundar; Ling, Wen-Wu; Li, Yong-Zhong; Luo, Yan

2014-01-01

143

Increased circulating cholecystokinin in obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. I. Bile duct obstruction with and without pancreatic duct obstruction.  

PubMed

Bile exclusion from the gut exacerbates pancreatic duct obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. We hypothesized that obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis involves an increase in circulating cholecystokinin (CCK), as bile and pancreatic juice exclusion from the gut stimulates duodenal CCK release. We studied 54 rats after the following operations: (1) sham operation (n = 18), (2) hepatic bile duct obstruction alone (n = 18), (3) hepatic bile duct and common bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (n = 18). Rats recovered and were killed in subgroups of six rats each at 3, 6, and 18 hr after operation; blood was collected for measurement of plasma CCK and amylase concentrations. Each pancreas was excised, weighed, and processed for histological examination; an acute pancreatitis score was determined. Combined bile and pancreatic duct obstruction induced acute pancreatitis and was associated with a marked increase of circulating CCK concentration. Bile duct obstruction alone did not induce acute pancreatitis but was associated with an increase of circulating CCK of lower magnitude. The time course of circulating CCK increase showed an early peak. These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that CCK plays a role in the pathogenesis of obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:7683071

Murayama, K M; Samuel, I; Toriumi, Y; Solomon, T E; Turkelson, C M; Joehl, R J

1993-02-01

144

A case of acute pancreatitis associated with risperidone treatment.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis with antipsychotic treatment is rare but sometimes causes a fatal adverse effect. Most cases of acute pancreatitis due to atypical antipsychotic agents are reported to occur within six months of starting antipsychotic administration. Acute pancreatitis caused by risperidone is rare. The patient had a high fever, stomachache and vomiting. The results of the abdominal computed tomograhpy scan were negative. The results of the abdominal ultrasonography were positive for gallstones in gallbladder and distention of the common bile duct. She had been fasting and received antibiotic intravenous injections. Amylase and lipase titers were high. After risperidone discontinuation, both the levels of the amylase and the lipase were gradually decreased. Three months later, the patient still maintains a good clinical balance. Although atypical antipsychotic-induced pancreatitis has been reported in conjunction with hyperglycemia, the pathophysiologic mechanism of these adverse events remains unclear. This case got pancreatitis 6 month after risperidone treatment. Using the antipsychotic agents, it is necessary to monitor pancreas function. PMID:24851124

Kawabe, Kentaro; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

2014-04-01

145

A minimally invasive multiple percutaneous drainage technique for acute necrotizing pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In approximately 20% of patients, necrotizing pancreatitis is complicated with severe acute pancreatitis, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Minimally invasive step-up approach is both safe and effective, but sometimes requires multiple access sites. METHODS: A 62-year-old woman was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis, and initial computed tomography (CT) revealed no evidence of acute pancreatitis. She was clinically improved with insulin therapy, fluid administration, and electrolyte replacement. However, on the 14th day of admission, she developed a high-grade fever, and CT demonstrated evidence of acute necrotizing pancreatitis with a large collection of peripancreatic fluid. Percutaneous transgastric drainage was performed and a 14 French gauge (Fr) pigtail catheter was placed 1 week later, which drained copious pus. Because of persistent high-grade fever and poor clinical improvement, multiple 8 and 10 Fr pigtail catheters were placed via the initial drainage route, allowing the safe and effective drainage of the extensive necrotic tissue that was occupying the bilateral anterior pararenal space. RESULTS: After drainage, the patient recovered well and the last catheter was removed on day 123 of admission. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple percutaneous drainage requires both careful judgment and specialist skills. The perforation of the colon and small bowel as well as the injury of the kidney and major vessels can occur. The current technique appears to be safe and minimally invasive compared with other drainage methods in patients with extended, infected necrotic pancreatic pseudocysts.

Terayama, Takero; Hifumi, Toru; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Ichinose, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Kohei; Yasuhiro, Kuroda

2014-01-01

146

Pharmacological manipulation of biliary water and lipids: potential consequences for prevention of acute biliary pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute biliary pancreatitis, caused by macroscopic cholesterol gallstones or microlithiasis, is often a severe disease with considerable morbidity and mortality. Formation of cholesterol gallstones and microlithiasis is caused by cholesterol crystallization from cholesterol supersaturated gallbladder bile. Particularly patients with fast and extensive crystallization, due to highly concentrated bile, low biliary phospholipid contents and gallbladder mucin hypersecretion seem at risk for pancreatitis. Patients who suffered from acute biliary pancreatitis should undergo cholecystectomy as secondary prevention strategy. For patients at high surgical risk, endoscopic sphincterotomy may be an appropriate alternative. Pharmacological manipulation of biliary lipids by the hydrophilic bile salt ursodeoxycholic acid is reserved for patients with recurrent pancreatitis despite previous cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy, or with contraindications to surgical and endoscopic treatment. Maintenance therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is however a very effective secondary prevention strategy. Potentially, secondary prevention of acute biliary pancreatitis could also be achieved through decreasing biliary mucin contents by UDCA, NSAIDs or N-acetylcystein, or through achieving bile dilution (currently not feasible). PMID:16089352

Venneman, Niels G; vanBerge-Henegouwen, Gerard P; van Erpecum, Karel J

2005-06-01

147

Case of acute pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaints of right flank pain, watery diarrhea, and fever. Blood tests revealed high levels of inflammatory markers, and infectious enteritis was diagnosed. A stool culture obtained on admission revealed no growth of any significant pathogens. Conservative therapy was undertaken with fasting and fluid replacement. On day 2 of admission, the fever resolved, the frequency of defecation reduced, the right flank pain began to subside, and the white blood cell count started to decrease. On hospital day 4, the frequency of diarrhea decreased to approximately 5 times per day, and the right flank pain resolved. However, the patient developed epigastric pain and increased blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography revealed mild pancreatic enlargement. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed, and conservative therapy with fasting and fluid replacement was continued. A day later, the blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes peaked out. On hospital day 7, the patient passed stools with fresh blood, and Campylobacter jejuni/coli was detected by culture. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy performed on hospital day 8 revealed diffuse aphthae extending from the terminal ileum to the entire colon. Based on the findings, pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis was diagnosed. In the present case, a possible mechanism of onset of pancreatitis was invasion of the pancreatic duct by Campylobacter and the host immune responses to Campylobacter. PMID:24966623

Kobayashi, Rumiko; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Yoshida, Yukio

2014-06-21

148

Severe acute malnutrition in Asia.  

PubMed

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a common condition that kills children and intellectually maims those who survive. Close to 20 million children under the age of 5 years suffer from SAM globally, and about 1 million of them die each year. Much of this burden takes place in Asia. Six countries in Asia together have more than 12 million children suffering from SAM: 0.6 million in Afghanistan, 0.6 million in Bangladesh, 8.0 million in India, 1.2 million in Indonesia, 1.4 million in Pakistan, and 0.6 million in Yemen. This article is based on a review of SAM burden and intervention programs in Asian countries where, despite the huge numbers of children suffering from the condition, the coverage of interventions is either absent on a national scale or poor. Countries in Asia have to recognize SAM as a major problem and mobilize internal resources for its management. Screening of children in the community for SAM and appropriate referral and back referral require good health systems. Improving grassroots services will not only contribute to improving management of SAM, it will also improve infant and young child feeding and nutrition in general. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the key to home management of SAM without complications, is still not endorsed by many countries because of its unavailability in the countries and its cost. It should preferably be produced locally from locally available food ingredients. Countries in Asia that do not have the capacity to produce RUTF from locally available food ingredients can benefit from other countries in the region that can produce it. Health facilities in all high-burden countries should be staffed and equipped to treat children with SAM. A continuous cascade of training of health staff on management of SAM can offset the damage that results from staff attrition or transfers. The basic nutrition interventions, which include breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and management of acute malnutrition, should be scaled up in Asian countries that are plagued with the burden of malnutrition. PMID:25069289

Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Mir Mobarak; Bhandari, Nita; Lin, Maung Maung; Joshi, Prakash Chandra; Angdembe, Mirak Raj; Wickramasinghe, V Pujitha; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Irianto, Sugeng Eko; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

2014-06-01

149

Current therapeutic strategies in severe acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Further improvement in the outcome of the patient with SAP can be expected in the future by the timely application of a series of therapeutic means during the course of the disease. Therefore a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the initial event, knowledge of the natural history of SAP and its complications, accurate and early recognition of the

M. S. Reynaert; Th. Dugernier; P. J. Kestens

1990-01-01

150

Endoscopic Ultrasound Assisted Etiological Localization in Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Hyperparathyroidism is an uncommon cause of pancreatitis and one should look for its telltale evidence on history (renal stone disease) and investigations (hypercalcemia). Endosonography has an upcoming role in the management of acute pancreatitis, especially in the presence of fluid collection. We report a case of parathyroid adenoma related acute pancreatitis complicated with pseudocyst, which was managed with percutaneous drainage and endosonographic localization of the adenoma to the left parathyroid gland. This patient underwent sestamibi scanning, which confirmed its presence and underwent surgical excision of the adenoma. Endosonography should be included in the work up of patients with unclear etiology and thyroids should be routinely scanned for parathyroid adenomas. One should always look outside the box to get clues for diseases inside the box. PMID:24949387

Appasani, Sreekanth; Basha, Jahangeer; Singh, Kartar; Kochhar, Rakesh

2013-01-01

151

Percutaneous Drainage of Suppurative Pylephlebitis Complicating Acute Pancreatitis  

SciTech Connect

Suppurative pylephlebitis is a rare condition with a significant mortality rate, ranging from 50% to 80%. We report a case of suppurative pylephlebitis complicating acute pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage in a 40-year-old woman. The patient had an uneventful recovery.

Nouira, Kais [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Radiology (Tunisia)], E-mail: nouira.kais@gnet.tn; Bedioui, Haykel [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Surgery (Tunisia); Azaiez, Olfa; Belhiba, Hend; Messaoud, Monia Ben [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Radiology (Tunisia); Ksantini, Rachid; Jouini, Mohamed [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Surgery (Tunisia); Menif, Emna [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Radiology (Tunisia)

2007-11-15

152

Acute pancreatitis with diabetic ketoacidosis associated with hypermyoglobinemia, acute renal failure, and DIC.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute pancreatitis with diabetic ketoacidosis associated with increased serum myoglobin concentration, acute renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A 49-year-old man suffering from diarrhea, vomiting, and somnolence was admitted to the hospital. He had had flu-like symptoms for 4 days prior to the onset of these symptoms. He was a habitual drinker and had been consuming 360 ml-900 ml of the drink "shochu" (distilled spirits containing 28% alcohol) daily for 30 years. Laboratory data on admission revealed elevated serum levels of pancreatic enzymes, including amylase, trypsin, lipase, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and elastase-1, as well as elevated levels of glucose (373 mg/dl), ketone bodies (3675 mumol/l), and myoglobin (229.8 ng/ml). Treatment with subcutaneous insulin and intravenous administration of electrolyte fluid and the systemic protease inhibitor, gabexate mesilate, was begun immediately. Early after the initiation of treatment, there was an increase in serum creatinine (4.9 mg/dl), and thromobocytopenia (15000/microliters) was observed. The patient completely recovered from renal failure and acute pancreatitis, but required insulin therapy. Alcohol ingestion and dehydration are thought to have played a major role in the triggering of the acute pancreatitis. We examined the relationship among acute pancreatitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hypermyoglobinemia in the literature. PMID:8844491

Nakano, S; Mugikura, M; Endoh, M; Ogami, Y; Otsuki, M

1996-08-01

153

Cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor attenuates acute lung injury induced by acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is known to induce injuries to extrapancreatic organs. Because respiratory dysfunction is the main cause of death in patients with severe AP, acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI) is a great challenge for clinicians. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of APALI. Material and methods Fifty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the AP group of rats that received injection of sodium deoxycholate into the common bile duct, the control group that underwent a sham operation, and the treatment group made by intraperitoneal injection of propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), into rats with AP. Histopathology of the lung was examined and the expression of CSE and TNF-? mRNA in lung tissue was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The H2S level in the serum was detected spectrophotometrically. Results The serum concentration of H2S and CSE and TNF-? expression in the lung were increased in AP rats modeled after 3 h and 6 h than in control rats (p < 0.05). Intraperitoneal injection of PAG could reduce the serum concentration of H2S, reduce CSE and TNF-? expression, and alleviate the lung pathology (p < 0.05). Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that the H2S/CSE system is crucially involved in the pathological process of APALI and represents a novel target for the therapy of APALI. PMID:25276170

Qu, Zhen; Wu, Bao-Qiang; Duan, Yun-Fei; Sun, Zhen-Di; Luo, Guang-Hua

2014-01-01

154

Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole treatment in a 51-year-old korean man: a case report.  

PubMed

Methimazole (MMI)-induced acute pancreatitis is very rare but severe adverse reaction. A 51-yr-old male developed a high fever, chills, and abdominal pain, two weeks after commencement on MMI for the treatment of Graves' disease. There was no evidence of agranulocytosis, and fever subsided soon after stopping MMI treatment. However, 5 hr after taking an additional dose of MMI, abdominal pain and fever developed again. His symptoms, biochemical, and imaging studies were compatible with acute pancreatitis. After withdrawal of MMI, he showed clinical improvement. This is the first case of MMI-induced acute pancreatitis in Korea. Clinicians should be aware of the rare but possible MMI-induced pancreatitis in patients complaining of fever and abdominal pain. PMID:25120331

Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Kim, Kyong Young; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hong Jun; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Sun Joo

2014-08-01

155

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Surgical indications and technical procedures  

PubMed Central

Necrosis of pancreatic parenchyma or extrapancreatic tissues is present in 10%-20% of patients with acute pancreatitis, defining the necrotizing presentation frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. During the initial phase of acute necrotizing pancreatitis the most important pillars of medical treatment are fluid resuscitation, early enteral nutrition, endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography if associated cholangitis and intensive care unit support. When infection of pancreatic or extrapancreatic necrosis occurs, surgical approach constitutes the most accepted therapeutic option. In this context, we have recently assited to changes in time for surgery (delaying the indication if possible to around 4 wk to deal with “walled-off” necrosis) and type of access for necrosectomy: from a classical open approach (with closure over large-bore drains for continued postoperative lavage or semiopen techniques with scheduled relaparotomies), trends have changed to a “step-up” philosophy with initial percutaneous drainage and posterior minimally invasive or endoscopic access to the retroperitoneal cavity for necrosectomy if no improvement has been previously achieved. These approaches are progressively gaining popularity and morbidity and mortality rates have decreased significantly. Therefore, a staged, multidisciplinary, step-up approach with minimally invasive or endoscopic access for necrosectomy is widely accepted nowadays for management of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25516858

Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; González-Sánchez, Antonio Jesús; Montiel-Casado, María Custodia; Titos-García, Alberto; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

2014-01-01

156

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Surgical indications and technical procedures.  

PubMed

Necrosis of pancreatic parenchyma or extrapancreatic tissues is present in 10%-20% of patients with acute pancreatitis, defining the necrotizing presentation frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. During the initial phase of acute necrotizing pancreatitis the most important pillars of medical treatment are fluid resuscitation, early enteral nutrition, endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography if associated cholangitis and intensive care unit support. When infection of pancreatic or extrapancreatic necrosis occurs, surgical approach constitutes the most accepted therapeutic option. In this context, we have recently assited to changes in time for surgery (delaying the indication if possible to around 4 wk to deal with "walled-off" necrosis) and type of access for necrosectomy: from a classical open approach (with closure over large-bore drains for continued postoperative lavage or semiopen techniques with scheduled relaparotomies), trends have changed to a "step-up" philosophy with initial percutaneous drainage and posterior minimally invasive or endoscopic access to the retroperitoneal cavity for necrosectomy if no improvement has been previously achieved. These approaches are progressively gaining popularity and morbidity and mortality rates have decreased significantly. Therefore, a staged, multidisciplinary, step-up approach with minimally invasive or endoscopic access for necrosectomy is widely accepted nowadays for management of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25516858

Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; González-Sánchez, Antonio Jesús; Montiel-Casado, María Custodia; Titos-García, Alberto; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

2014-12-16

157

Recent insights into the cellular mechanisms of acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

In acute pancreatitis, initiating cellular events causing acinar cell injury includes co-localization of zymogens with lysosomal hydrolases, leading to premature enzyme activation and pathological exocytosis of zymogens into the interstitial space. This is followed by processes that accentuate cell injury; triggering acute inflammatory mediators, intensifying oxidative stress, compromising the microcirculation and activating a neurogenic feedback. Such localized events then progress to a systemic inflammatory response leading to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome with resulting high morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses some of the most recent insights into each of these cellular processes postulated to cause or propagate the process of acute pancreatitis, and also the role of alcohol and genetics. PMID:17225878

Cosen-Binker, Laura I; Gaisano, Herbert Y

2007-01-01

158

Genetics of acute and chronic pancreatitis: An update.  

PubMed

Progress made in identifying the genetic susceptibility underlying acute and chronic pancreatitis has benefitted the clinicians in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease in a better way. The identification of mutations in cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1 gene; functional gain mutations) and serine protease inhibitor kazal type 1 (SPINK1 gene; functional loss mutations) and other potential susceptibility factors in genes that play an important role in the pancreatic secretory functions or response to inflammation during pancreatic injury has changed the current concepts and understanding of a complex multifactorial disease like pancreatitis. An individual's susceptibility to the disease is governed by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Candidate gene and genetic linkage studies have identified polymorphisms in cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), SPINK1, cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC), Cathepsin B (CTSB) and calcium sensing receptor (CASR). Individuals with polymorphisms in the mentioned genes and other as yet identified genes are at an enhanced risk for the disease. Recently, polymorphisms in genes other than those involved in "intra-pancreatic trypsin regulatory mechanism" namely Claudin-2 (CLDN2) and Carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) gene have also been identified for their association with pancreatitis. With ever growing number of studies trying to identify the genetic susceptibility in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms, this review is an attempt to compile the available information on the topic. PMID:25400986

Ravi Kanth, Vv; Nageshwar Reddy, D

2014-11-15

159

Inhibitory effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia on acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) on the cholecystokinin (CCK) octapeptide- induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 240-260 g were divided into three groups: (1) Normal saline-treated group; (2) treatment with PS at 100 mg/kg group, in which PS was administered orally, followed by subcutaneous administration of 75 µg/kg CCK octapeptide three times after 1, 3 and 5 h, and this whole procedure was repeated for 5 d; (3) treatment with saline group, in which the protocols were the same as in treatment group with PS. We determined the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of pancreatic HSP60, HSP72 and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Repeated CCK octapeptide treatment resulted in the typical laboratory findings of experimentally induced pancreatitis. RESULTS: PS reduced the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of serum amylase and lipase, and inhibited expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CCK octapeptide-induced AP. Furthermore, PS pretreatment increased the pancreatic levels of HSP60 and HSP72. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PS has an anti-inflammatory effect on CCK octapeptide-induced AP. PMID:16534854

Seo, Sang-Wan; Park, Cheung-Seog; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Song, Bong-keun; Kim, Kyung-Yo; Park, Young-Min; Song, Ho-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo

2006-01-01

160

Age-Dependent Effects of UCP2 Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively) triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 ?g/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively), suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies) and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies) were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions. PMID:24721982

Krüger, Burkhard; Fitzner, Brit; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert

2014-01-01

161

Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

A large body of experimental and clinical data supports the notion that inflammation in acute pancreatitis has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of local and systemic damage and is a major determinant of clinical severity. Thus, research has recently focused on molecules that can regulate the inflammatory processes, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), a family of lipid and protein kinases involved in intracellular signal transduction. Studies using genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibitors of different PI3K isoforms, in particular the class I PI3K? and PI3K?, have contributed to a greater understanding of the roles of these kinases in the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Recent data suggest that PI3Ks are also involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, and in particular of the class IB PI3K? isoform, has a significant role in those events which are necessary for the initiation of acute pancreatic injury, namely calcium signaling alteration, trypsinogen activation, and nuclear factor-?B transcription. Moreover, PI3K? is instrumental in modulating acinar cell apoptosis, and regulating local neutrophil infiltration and systemic inflammatory responses during the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. The availability of PI3K inhibitors selective for specific isoforms may provide new valuable therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical course of this disease. This article presents a brief summary of PI3K structure and function, and highlights recent advances that implicate PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25386068

Lupia, Enrico; Pigozzi, Luca; Goffi, Alberto; Hirsch, Emilio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

162

Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

A large body of experimental and clinical data supports the notion that inflammation in acute pancreatitis has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of local and systemic damage and is a major determinant of clinical severity. Thus, research has recently focused on molecules that can regulate the inflammatory processes, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), a family of lipid and protein kinases involved in intracellular signal transduction. Studies using genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibitors of different PI3K isoforms, in particular the class I PI3K? and PI3K?, have contributed to a greater understanding of the roles of these kinases in the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Recent data suggest that PI3Ks are also involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, and in particular of the class IB PI3K? isoform, has a significant role in those events which are necessary for the initiation of acute pancreatic injury, namely calcium signaling alteration, trypsinogen activation, and nuclear factor-?B transcription. Moreover, PI3K? is instrumental in modulating acinar cell apoptosis, and regulating local neutrophil infiltration and systemic inflammatory responses during the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. The availability of PI3K inhibitors selective for specific isoforms may provide new valuable therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical course of this disease. This article presents a brief summary of PI3K structure and function, and highlights recent advances that implicate PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25386068

Lupia, Enrico; Pigozzi, Luca; Goffi, Alberto; Hirsch, Emilio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

2014-11-01

163

Acute pancreatitis in aging animals: Loss of pancreatitis-associated protein protection?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of age on severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical markers, histology and expression of the protective pancreatitis-associated proteins (PAPs). METHODS: AP was induced via intraductal injection of 4% sodium taurocholate in young and old rats. Sera and pancreata were assayed at 24 h for the parameters listed above; we also employed a novel molecular technique to assess bacterial infiltration using polymerase chain reaction to measure bacterial genomic ribosomal RNA. RESULTS: At 24 h after induction of AP, the pancreata of older animals had less edema (mean ± SE histologic score of young vs old: 3.11 ± 0.16 vs 2.50 ± -0.11, P < 0.05), decreased local inflammatory response (histologic score of stromal infiltrate: 3.11 ± 0.27 vs 2.00 ± 0.17, P < 0.05) and increased bacterial infiltration (174% ± 52% increase from sham vs 377% ± 4%, P < 0.05). A decreased expression of PAP1 and PAP2 was demonstrated by Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemical staining. There were no differences in serum amylase and lipase activity, or tissue myeloperoxidase or monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels. However, in the most-aged group, serum C-reactive protein levels were higher (young vs old: 0.249 ± 0.04 mg/dL vs 2.45 ± 0.68 mg/dL, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In older animals, there is depressed PAP expression related to a blunted inflammatory response in AP which is associated with worsened bacterial infiltration and higher C-reactive protein level; this may explain the more aggressive clinical course. PMID:22807607

Fu, Sophia; Stanek, Albert; Mueller, Cathy M; Brown, Nefertti A; Huan, Chongmin; Bluth, Martin H; Zenilman, Michael E

2012-01-01

164

Marked elevation of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes in severe malnourished male with eating disorder.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 45 year old Caucasian malnourished male with an history of eating disorder who developed severe liver and pancreatic damage and multiorgan disfunction. At admission to our department, his body mass index (BMI) was 11.1. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated serum levels of transaminases (AST= 2291 U/L, ALT= 1792 U/L), amylase (3620 U/L), lipase (4102 U/L), CPK= 1370 U/L, LDH= 2082 U/L. No other cause of acute liver and pancreatic damage was evidenced. Haematological disorders (anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia) found on admission seem related to bone marrow hypoplasia and to gelatinous marrow transformation described in severe state of malnutrition. Although a moderate increase in liver and pancreatic enzymes are a common finding in malnourished patients, only a small number of reports describes severe liver injury and multiorgan dysfunction. After a few days of treatment (hydration and nutritional support) a marked decrease of serum transaminases, lipase, amylase, CPK, LDH occurred, despite a transient increase in these levels secondary to refeeding syndrome. The association of chronic malnutrition and a decrease in systemic perfusion may be responsible for multiorgan dysfunction. In our patient the high levels of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes were the most important biochemical abnormalities normalized after refeeding. PMID:24217841

Urso, C; Brucculeri, S; Caimi, G

2013-01-01

165

Effects of clotrimazol on the acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the influence of clotrimazol (CLTZ) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. Rats were divided into five groups as sham + saline, sham + CLTZ, sham + polyethylene glycol, ANP + saline, and ANP + CLTZ. ANP in rats was induced by glycodeoxycholic acid. The extent of acinar cell injury, mortality, systemic cardiorespiratory variables, functional capillary density (FCD), renal/hepatic functions, and changes in some enzyme markers for pancreatic and lung tissue were investigated during ANP in rats. The use of CLTZ after the induction of ANP resulted in a significant decrease in the mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis, and serum activity of amylase, alanine aminotransferase, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum concentration of urea, and tissue activity of myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde in the pancreas and lung and a significant increase in concentrations of calcium, blood pressure, urine output, pO2, and FCD. This study showed that CLTZ demonstrated beneficial effect on the course of ANP in rats. Therefore, it may be used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23892997

Cekic, Arif Burak; Alhan, Etem; Usta, Arif; Türky?lmaz, Serdar; Kural, Birgül Vanizor; Erçin, Cengiz

2013-12-01

166

Parathyroid cyst presenting as acute pancreatitis: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report the first case of hypercalcemia-induced acute pancreatitis caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst in a 67-year-old man. Laboratory investigation revealed increased serum amylase and lipase, increased serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and decreased serum phosphate, indicating pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed mild swelling of the pancreatic head with peri-pancreatic fat infiltration and fluid collection around the pancreatic tail. Ultrasonography and CT of the neck showed a cystic lesion at the inferior portion of the left thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid cyst. There was no evidence of parathyroid adenoma by 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy. PHPT caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst was suspected. The patient underwent surgical resection of the functioning parathyroid cyst owing to his prolonged hypercalcemia. At 3 weeks after the operation, his serum levels of PTH, total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate, amylase, and lipase were normalized. At the follow-up examinations, he has remained asymptomatic. PMID:24400215

Kim, Mi-Young; Chung, Cho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Sun; Myung, Dae-Seong; Cho, Sung-Bum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Young; Joo, Young-Eun

2013-12-01

167

Gene expression profiling and endothelin in acute experimental pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze gene expression profiles in an experimental pancreatitis and provide functional reversal of hypersensitivity with candidate gene endothelin-1 antagonists. METHODS: Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) is a chemical used as a polyvinyl carbonate stabilizer/catalyzer, biocide in agriculture, antifouling agent in paint and fabric. DBTC induces an acute pancreatitis flare through generation of reactive oxygen species. Lewis-inbred rats received a single i.v. injection with either DBTC or vehicle. Spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were taken at the peak of inflammation and processed for transcriptional profiling with a cDNA microarray biased for rat brain-specific genes. In a second study, groups of animals with DBTC-induced pancreatitis were treated with endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists [ET-A (BQ123) and ET-B BQ788)]. Spontaneous pain related mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-ET-A and ET-B antibodies on sections from pancreatic tissues and DRG of the T10-12 spinal segments. RESULTS: Animals developed acute pancreatic inflammation persisting 7-10 d as confirmed by pathological studies (edema in parenchyma, loss of pancreatic architecture and islets, infiltration of inflammatory cells, neutrophil and mononuclear cells, degeneration, vacuolization and necrosis of acinar cells) and the pain-related behaviors (cutaneous secondary mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity). Gene expression profile was different in the spinal cord from animals with pancreatitis compared to the vehicle control group. Over 260 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated unique genes could be classified into 8 functional gene families: circulatory/acute phase/immunomodulatory; extracellular matrix; structural; channel/receptor/transporter; signaling transduction; transcription/translation-related; antioxidants/chaperones/heat shock; pancreatic and other enzymes. ET-1 was among the 52 candidate genes up-regulated greater than 2-fold in animals with pancreatic inflammation and visceral pain-related behavior. Treatments with the ET-A (BQ123) and ET-B (BQ-788) antagonists revealed significant protection against inflammatory pain related mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity behaviors in animals with pancreatitis (P < 0.05). Open field spontaneous behavioral activity (at baseline, day 6 and 30 min after drug treatments (BQ123, BQ788) showed overall stable activity levels indicating that the drugs produced no undesirable effects on normal exploratory behaviors, except for a trend toward reduction of the active time and increase in resting time at the highest dose (300 ?mol/L). Immunocytochemical localization revealed that expression of ET-A and ET-B receptors increased in DRG from animals with pancreatitis. Endothelin receptor localization was combined in dual staining with neuronal marker NeuN, and glia marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. ET-A was expressed in the cell bodies and occasional nuclei of DRG neurons in naďve animals. However, phenotypic expression of ET-A receptor was greatly increased in neurons of all sizes in animals with pancreatitis. Similarly, ET-B receptor was localized in neurons and in the satellite glia, as well as in the Schwann cell glial myelin sheaths surrounding the axons passing through the DRG. CONCLUSION: Endothelin-receptor antagonists protect against inflammatory pain responses without interfering with normal exploratory behaviors. Candidate genes can serve as future biomarkers for diagnosis and/or targeted gene therapy. PMID:22969188

Oz, Helieh S; Lu, Ying; Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P; Ge, Pei; Silos-Santiago, Ada; Westlund, Karin N

2012-01-01

168

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

169

Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24?h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNF?, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3?h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24?h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNF? expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNF? production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury. PMID:24091659

Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

2013-01-01

170

A retrospective study of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Etiological diagnosis is an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Hantavirus infection is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, which is easy to ignore. There is a need to analyze clinical features of acute pancreatitis caused by Hantavirus. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2012 on patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome at our hospital. We reviewed these patients medical records, laboratory results and radiologic examinations to determine the prevalence and summarize clinical features of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Results A total of 218 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during the 6-year study period. Only 2.8% (6/218) of the total hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The first symptom for all six of the patients with acute pancreatitis was fever. All six patients experienced hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia during the disease course, which was different from general acute pancreatitis. In addition, we presented two misdiagnosed clinical cases. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis is not a frequent complication in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when acute pancreatitis patients with epidemiological data have high fever before abdominal pain. PMID:24345089

2013-01-01

171

Early activation of pulmonary TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling in mice with acute pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury.  

PubMed

Acute lung injury is caused by many factors including acute pancreatitis. There is no specific therapy directed at underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for acute lung injury. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is involved in the resolution of lung injury in later phases of the disease. Some evidence exists demonstrating that TGF-? not only is involved in the late stages, but also contributes to lung injury early on in the progress of the disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced using ductal ligation in mice. TGF-?1, 2, and 3, T?RII, ALK-5, Smad2, 3, 4, and 7, and P-Smad2 expression in the lungs were analyzed at 9 and 24?h. We demonstrate that TGF- ?1 levels in the lungs of mice with acute pancreatitis increase as early as 9?h after induction. We observed an increased expression of ALK-5 in acute pancreatitis at both 9 and 24?h. Inhibitory Smad7 expression was transiently increased at 9?h in acute pancreatitis, but reduced later at 24?h, with a concomitant increased nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad2. Our findings demonstrate activation of TGF-? signaling in the lungs as early as 24?h after acute pancreatitis, suggesting that TGF-? may represent a potential therapeutic candidate in acute pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury. PMID:24688224

Akbarshahi, Hamid; Sam, Asha; Chen, Chaolei; Rosendahl, Ann H; Andersson, Roland

2014-01-01

172

Early Activation of Pulmonary TGF-?1/Smad2 Signaling in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis-Associated Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury is caused by many factors including acute pancreatitis. There is no specific therapy directed at underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for acute lung injury. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is involved in the resolution of lung injury in later phases of the disease. Some evidence exists demonstrating that TGF-? not only is involved in the late stages, but also contributes to lung injury early on in the progress of the disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced using ductal ligation in mice. TGF-?1, 2, and 3, T?RII, ALK-5, Smad2, 3, 4, and 7, and P-Smad2 expression in the lungs were analyzed at 9 and 24?h. We demonstrate that TGF-?1 levels in the lungs of mice with acute pancreatitis increase as early as 9?h after induction. We observed an increased expression of ALK-5 in acute pancreatitis at both 9 and 24?h. Inhibitory Smad7 expression was transiently increased at 9?h in acute pancreatitis, but reduced later at 24?h, with a concomitant increased nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad2. Our findings demonstrate activation of TGF-? signaling in the lungs as early as 24?h after acute pancreatitis, suggesting that TGF-? may represent a potential therapeutic candidate in acute pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury. PMID:24688224

Sam, Asha; Chen, Chaolei; Rosendahl, Ann H.

2014-01-01

173

Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP’s severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP’s process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP. PMID:18257123

Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Jie; Song, Qiao-ling; Chen, Han-qin

2007-01-01

174

Fatty acids of erythrocyte membrane in acute pancreatitis patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids during severe and mild acute pancreatitis (AP) of alcoholic and nonalcoholic etiology. METHODS: All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of AP and onset of the disease within the last 72 h admitted to the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences between June and December 2007 were included. According to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scale, the patients were subdivided into the mild (APACHE II score < 7, n = 22) and severe (APACHE II score ? 7, n = 17) AP groups. Healthy individuals (n = 26) were enrolled as controls. Blood samples were collected from patients on admission to the hospital. Fatty acids (FAs) were extracted from erythrocyte phospholipids and expressed as percentages of the total FAs present in the chromatogram. The concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in erythrocytes. RESULTS: We found an increase in the percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FAs, a decrease in the percentages of total polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids of AP patients compared with healthy controls. Palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n7cis), arachidonic (C20:4n6), docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6n3), and docosapentaenoic (DPA, C22:5n3) acids were the major contributing factors. A decrease in the peroxidation and unsaturation indexes in AP patients as well as the severe and mild AP groups as compared with controls was observed. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the mild AP group were lower than in the control group. In severe AP of nonalcoholic etiology, the percentages of arachidic (C20:0) and arachidonic (C20:4n6) acids were decreased as compared with the control group. The patients with mild AP of nonalcoholic etiology had the increased percentages of total saturated FAs and gama linoleic acid (C18:3n6) and the decreased percentages of elaidic (C18:1n9t), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3), DPA (C22:5n3), DHA (C22:6n3) as well as total and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. CONCLUSION: The composition of FAs in erythrocyte membranes is altered during AP. These changes are likely to be associated with alcohol consumption, inflammatory processes, and oxidative stress. PMID:24039361

Kuliaviene, Irma; Gulbinas, Antanas; Cremers, Johannes; Pundzius, Juozas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Jansen, Eugene

2013-01-01

175

Diabetic Ketoacidosis-induced Hypertriglyceridemic Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Plasmapheresis-Recipe for Biochemical Disaster Management.  

PubMed

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing pancreatitis is an interesting phenomenon that has rarely been reported in literature. Plasmapharesis is a well known treatment modality for hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis. We report a patient with DKA-induced hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis treated successfully with plasmapharesis. PMID:25342924

Seth, Abhishek; Rajpal, Saurabh; Saigal, Taru; Bienvenu, John; Sheth, Ankur; Alexander, Jonathan S; Boktor, Moheb; Manas, Kenneth; Morris, James D; Jordan, Paul A

2014-01-01

176

Diabetic Ketoacidosis-induced Hypertriglyceridemic Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Plasmapheresis—Recipe for Biochemical Disaster Management  

PubMed Central

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing pancreatitis is an interesting phenomenon that has rarely been reported in literature. Plasmapharesis is a well known treatment modality for hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis. We report a patient with DKA-induced hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis treated successfully with plasmapharesis. PMID:25342924

Seth, Abhishek; Rajpal, Saurabh; Saigal, Taru; Bienvenu, John; Sheth, Ankur; Alexander, Jonathan S; Boktor, Moheb; Manas, Kenneth; Morris, James D; Jordan, Paul A

2014-01-01

177

Protective Effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Against Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced via intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 ?g/kg) every hour for 6 times. In the LE, water extract (100, 250, or 500 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before the first injection of cerulein. Six hours after AP, blood, the pancreas, and the lung were harvested for further examination. In addition, pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using a collagenase method, and then, we investigated the acinar cell viability and cytokine productions. Results Treatment with LE reduced pancreatic damage and AP-associated lung injury and attenuated the severity of AP, as evidenced by the reduction in neutrophil infiltration, serum amylase and lipase levels, trypsin activity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, treatment with LE inhibited high mobility group box 1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, LE inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine productions, and high-mobility group box 1 expression. Furthermore, LE also inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Conclusions These results suggest that LE plays a protective role during the development of AP by inhibiting the activation of p38. PMID:25102438

Choi, Sun Bok; Bae, Gi-Sang; Jo, Il-Joo; Seo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Heon; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sang-Hyun; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

2015-01-01

178

Experimental acute pancreatitis induced by platelet activating factor in rabbits.  

PubMed Central

This study indicates that a single injection of platelet activating factor (PAF, 50-500 ng) into the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery of rabbits induces dose-dependent morphologic alterations of pancreatic tissue and increases serum amylase levels, both consistent with the development of an acute pancreatitis. The main histologic findings observed by light microscopy 24-72 hours after the injection of PAF were edema, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, cell vacuolization, and acinar cell necrosis. Fat cell necrosis was present in 30% of animals. By electron microscopy an increase of the number of zymogen granules in the apical region of acinar cells was observed 3 hours after PAF challenge. At 24-72 hours, many acinar cells showed vacuoles containing myelinlike figures, zymogen granules, and cellular debris. Pancreatic lesions developed in the area supplied by the artery injected with PAF and they were completely antagonized by the pretreatment of rabbits with CV 3988, a specific antagonist of PAF. In addition, the significant protective effect of atropine suggests a potential role for cholinergic mechanisms in the pancreatic alterations induced by PAF. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2464939

Emanuelli, G.; Montrucchio, G.; Gaia, E.; Dughera, L.; Corvetti, G.; Gubetta, L.

1989-01-01

179

Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30–50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca2+ overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

2012-01-01

180

Routes of spread of pathogens into the pancreas in a feline model of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

The routes of spread of pathogens into the pancreas in acute pancreatitis were investigated. Four experiments were performed: (1) cats with and without acute pancreatitis were given 10(7) Escherichia coli (E coli) intravenously, (2) in cats with acute pancreatitis 10(8) E coli was placed in the colon. In half of them the colon was then enclosed in an impermeable bag to prevent transmural spread. (3) E coli (10(4)) was placed in the pancreatic duct in cats with and without acute pancreatitis. (4) In cats with acute pancreatitis 10(5) E coli was placed in the gall bladder. In half of them the common bile duct was ligated to prevent biliary-pancreatic reflux. After 24 hours, intravenous E coli infected the pancreas in six of nine cats with acute pancreatitis and three of 10 controls. After 72 hours E coli spread to the pancreas from the colon in six of nine cats with acute pancreatitis. This was prevented by enclosing the colon in an impermeable bag (p = 0.02). In five of six cats with acute pancreatitis and five of six controls E coli placed in the pancreatic duct colonised the pancreas within 24 hours. Pancreatic colonisation from the gall bladder occurred in five of six cats with a patent common bile duct and in three of six with an obstructed common bile duct. In conclusion, in cats E coli can spread to the pancreas by the blood stream, transmurally from the colon, and by reflux into the pancreatic duct. PMID:7959243

Widdison, A L; Karanjia, N D; Reber, H A

1994-01-01

181

Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules  

PubMed Central

Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK?/?) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK?/? keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK?/? mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK?/? mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK?/? acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

2014-01-01

182

Extracorporeal support for severe acute respiratory failure.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal CO(2) removal (ECCO(2)R) techniques have increasingly been applied in patients with severe acute lung injury refractory to conventional mechanical ventilatory support. The objectives of this article are to review current concepts of extracorporeal life support techniques (ECMO and ECCO(2)R systems) and provide the rationale for their application in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstruction pulmonary disease, and as adjunctive therapy for bridging patients to lung transplantation. PMID:25111648

Fanelli, V; Costamagna, A; Ranieri, V Marco

2014-08-01

183

Effect of lornoxicam therapy on expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA during systemic complications of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Primary pancreatic injury that occurs in acute pancreatitis leads to necrosis of pancreatic cells and is accompanied by the development systemic inflammatory response of varying severity. Systemic inflammatory response, in turn, can lead to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death of patients. The release of damage-associated molecular patterns into the extracellular space is the trigger pathological mechanism underlying these processes. The released patterns exert their effects via Toll-like receptors (TLR). These findings suggest that TLR can be considered a new target for therapeutic intervention in acute pancreatitis. We studied mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patients with acute pancreatitis and showed a decrease in the examined parameters associated with lornoxicam treatment. Anti-mediator therapy decreased mortality in these patients. PMID:25403387

Gorskii, V A; Agapov, M A; Khoreva, M V; Petrov, V A; Kravchenko, A Yu; Battaev, A I

2014-11-01

184

Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as recurrent acute pancreatitis: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

The association between pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is controversial. We report a 32-year-old man who presented with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed after the fourth episode of pancreatitis. He had no additional risk factors for pancreatitis. Eighteen months after successful parathyroid surgery, there has been no recurrence of abdominal pain and his serum calcium is within the normal range. PMID:21584170

Misgar, Raiz A.; Mathew, Vivek; Pandit, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2011-01-01

185

Fisetin attenuates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis through down regulation of JNK and NF-?B signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a complicated disease which is largely undiscovered. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activities in various disease models. However, the effects of fisetin on AP have not been determined. Pre- and post- treatment of mice with fisetin reduced the severity of AP and pancreatitis-associated lung injury and inhibited several biochemical parameters (pancreatic weight to body weight ratio, amylase, lipase, and myeloperoxidase activity) and production of inflammatory cytokines. In pancreatic acinar cells, fisetin also inhibited cell death and production of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, fisetin inhibited activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, these results suggest that fisetin exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on AP and could be a beneficial agent in the treatment of AP and its pulmonary complications. PMID:24861022

Jo, Il-Joo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Choi, Sun Bok; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Seo, Seung-Hee; Choi, Mee-Ok; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

2014-08-15

186

Association Analysis of Genetic Variants in the Myosin IXB Gene in Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Impairment of the mucosal barrier plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The myosin IXB (MYO9B) gene and the two tight-junction adaptor genes, PARD3 and MAGI2, have been linked to gastrointestinal permeability. Common variants of these genes are associated with celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease, two other conditions in which intestinal permeability plays a role. We investigated genetic variation in MYO9B, PARD3 and MAGI2 for association with acute pancreatitis. Methods Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYO9B, two SNPs in PARD3, and three SNPs in MAGI2 were studied in a Dutch cohort of 387 patients with acute pancreatitis and over 800 controls, and in a German cohort of 235 patients and 250 controls. Results Association to MYO9B and PARD3 was observed in the Dutch cohort, but only one SNP in MYO9B and one in MAGI2 showed association in the German cohort (p < 0.05). Joint analysis of the combined cohorts showed that, after correcting for multiple testing, only two SNPs in MYO9B remained associated (rs7259292, p = 0.0031, odds ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-2.78; rs1545620, p = 0.0006, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.16-1.53). SNP rs1545620 is a non-synonymous SNP previously suspected to impact on ulcerative colitis. None of the SNPs showed association to disease severity or etiology. Conclusion Variants in MYO9B may be involved in acute pancreatitis, but we found no evidence for involvement of PARD3 or MAGI2. PMID:24386489

Nijmeijer, Rian M.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Teller, Steffen; Scheiber, Jonas A.; de Kovel, Carolien G.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; Visser, Jeroen T. J.; Lutgendorff, Femke; Bollen, Thomas L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Weiss, Frank U.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca

2013-01-01

187

Nifuroxazide-induced acute pancreatitis: a new side-effect for an old drug?  

PubMed

We report the case of a middle-aged woman who developed a typical picture of acute pancreatitis together with systemic features of immunoallergy after the intake of two capsules (200 mg) of nifuroxazide. Even if acute pancreatitis is a rare adverse event of nitrofuran derivative therapy, nifuroxazide-induced pancreatitis as not been previously described. As suggested by associated systemic features, the disease is likely of immunoallergic origin. PMID:17619536

Shindano, Akilimali; Marot, Liliane; Geubel, André P

2007-01-01

188

A Nonpancreatic Source of the Proteolytic-enzyme Amidase and Bacteriology in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

In previous studies of human and experimental acute pancreatitis, three main assumptions have been made. First, that the disease is due to activation of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in the pancreas with resulting “autodigestion” of the gland. Second, that interstitial pancreatitis is a mild form of hemorrhagic pancreatitis into which it may progress, and third, that bacteria play little part, if any, in the initiation of the disease. These assumptions are now questioned. In the present study in dogs, levels of proteolytic enzymes in blood, thoracicduct lymph and peritoneal fluid were measured using benzoylarginine amide. Raised levels of amidase were found in hemorrhagic, but not with interstitial, pancreatitis, and biochemical examination of amidase suggested it was not a pancreatic protease, but with its broad specificity and stability derived from bacteria. Addition of antibiotic to the blind duodenal loop in hemorrhagic pancreatitis reduced the level of blood amidase, but Trasylol given intravenously did not, nor did it inhibit amidase in vitro. In all animals, histological examination was made of the pancreas at time of death. On bacteriology, it is concluded that experimental interstitial pancreatitis results from damage to the pancreatic duct system without infection, and haemorrhagic pancreatitis mainly from reflux of bacteria into the pancreatic ducts from the duodenum. Only bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium welchii that produce proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxins appear to be able to cause haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and these bacteria may explain the release of vasoactive polypeptides and the vascular effects. In hemorrhagic pancreatitis such bacteria were found in the pancreas, but none in interstitial pancreatitis. Evidence is given to suggest that pancreatic proteolytic enzymes are unlikely to cause the cell necrosis which is a pathological feature of hemorrhagic pancreatitis, and that “autodigestion” is likewise unlikely to be a cause of this condition. An extrapancreatic source of proteolytic enzymes from bacteria is now suggested in haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and more attention to bacteriology in human acute pancreatitis is urgently needed. Amidase levels were highest in peritoneal fluid, suggesting a rationale for peritoneal lavage in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, and it is unlikely that Trasylol can give any benefit. The assessment of treatment of acute pancreatitis will be unsatisfactory as long as the proportion of haemorrhagic to interstitial pancreatitis in any series is not known accurately. PMID:6987958

Keynes, W. Milo

1980-01-01

189

Severe acute otitis media in children.  

PubMed

Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infections in children. Recently it was noticed that there is a marked increase in relapse of severe acute otitis media in children. There is also an increase in number of hospitalized children due to severe AOM, with etiological agent resistant to antibiotics. There is a rise of infections, caused by highly resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, too. Authors retrospectively reviewed children hospitalized at the Children's ENT Department in Children's University Hospital in Bratislava, from January 2005 to December 2006, due to severe acute otitis media. They mainly focused on etiological agent, antibiotics resistance as well as alternatives of treatment and prevention of severe AOM. During 2 years, there were 76 children aged from 4 months to 14 years hospitalized with severe AOM. The most frequent etiological agent was Streptococcus pneumoniae in 37 cases; this was almost in 70% of cases resistant to routine antibiotics. In 7 cases there was mastoiditis, and mastoidectomy or antrotomy had to be done in 6 cases. To establish a diagnosis and start appropriate treatment it is necessary to identify etiological agent and its sensitivity. An increasing bacterial resistance is forcing us to prescribe antibiotics rationally. When severe AOM occurs, tympanotomy and insertion of ventilation tubes, exceptionally mastoidectomy, is often required (Fig. 13, Tab. 3, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18630803

Pavlovcinova, G; Jakubikova, J; Hromadkova, P; Mohammed, E

2008-01-01

190

Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

?urlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

2014-11-28

191

Acute pancreatitis: a lesser-known complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

There have been no case reports on aluminum phosphide-induced pancreatitis in the literature available. In this report, we present the case of a young man who developed acute pancreatitis and probably acute myocarditis following ingestion of aluminum phosphide pellets in the absence of the usual risk factors and after exclusion of other possible causes of pancreatitis. In the absence of re-challenge, we put forth the probable causative association of pancreatitis with aluminum phosphide or phosphine gas, its active pesticidal component. PMID:18375644

Verma, S K; Ahmad, S; Shirazi, N; Barthwal, S P; Khurana, D; Chugh, M; Gambhir, H S

2007-12-01

192

[Indications and results of retroperitoneal laparostomy in the treatment of infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to describe personal experience with retroperitoneal laparostomy in the management of infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The presence of an infected phlegmon requires surgical debridement and drainage. The surgical approach can be either an anterior laparotomy with irrigation and drainage (which can be either an open or closed laparotomy) or a posterior laparostomy. Three patients (2 men and 1 woman) presented with an unfavourable course of their acute necrotizing pancreatitis despite the administration of broad spectrum antibiotics. A posterior laparostomy with necrosectomy and drainage was performed. The postoperative course was slowly favorable in all 3 cases. Abdominal CT is the best modality for the detection and follow-up of pancreatic necrosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration can detect superinfection of areas of necrosis. Posterior laparostomy presents several advantages compared to an anterior approach. There is no contamination of the peritoneal cavity; the integrity of the abdominal wall is respected. The necrosectomy is equally complete and the drainage is better as it is direct and posterior. PMID:12692503

Halkic, N; Pezzetta, E; Abdelmoumene, A; Corpataux, J M

2003-02-01

193

Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Ciprofloxacin Therapy in Patients with Infectious Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Ciprofloxacin is considered to be a safe and effective treatment for acute infectious colitis. However, this drug may cause drug-induced pancreatitis, albeit rarely. Methods From March 2007 to February 2012, we studied 227 patients who were hospitalized for infectious colitis at St. Mary's Hospital. All of the patients received ciprofloxacin therapy for the treatment of infectious colitis. We observed a few cases of rare adverse events, including ciprofloxacin-induced acute pancreatitis diagnosed based on the Naranjo algorithm. Results During ciprofloxacin therapy, seven of 227 patients (3.1%) developed rare pancreatitis as defined by the Naranjo algorithm; pancreatic enzyme activity was sporadically elevated with ciprofloxacin use. After ciprofloxacin administration, the average interval until the development of pancreatitis was 5.5 days (range, 4 to 7 days). On abdominal computed tomography, pancreatic swelling and homogenous enhancement was noted in three of seven patients. Complicating acute pancreatitis was gradually but completely resolved after cessation of ciprofloxacin administration. The mean recovery time was 11.3 days (range, 8 to 15 days). Conclusions We observed that ciprofloxacin-induced pancreatitis may occur with an incidence of approximately 3%. Ciprofloxacin-induced pancreatitis presents a short latency, suggesting an idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reaction. Practitioners should be aware that drug-induced pancreatitis can occur during ciprofloxacin therapy. PMID:24827622

Sung, Hye Young; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Hyung Jun; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Sung Soo; Cho, Se Hyun; Kim, Jae Kwang

2014-01-01

194

Postoperative acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis with special reference to apheresis therapy.  

PubMed

Eight patients with pancreatic abscesses secondary to acute necrotizing pancreatitis underwent drainage of their abscesses under laparotomy. Two of them died of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) within 1 week. Autopsy revealed a large thrombus at the main trunk of the pulmonary artery and in the left common iliac vein. Femoral catheter insertion/indwelling, immobilization, surgery, increased trypsin/kinin/kallikrein, increased endotoxin, and decreased antithrombin-III (AT-III) were present following drainage of the pancreatic abscesses. With respect to the bedside diagnosis of acute PTE, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradients obtained by blood gas analysis and mean pulmonary artery pressure estimated by pulsed Doppler echocardiography are very useful. In terms of the treatment, attention should be paid to the following to prevent deep venous thrombosis: prophylactic administration of low molecular weight heparin and administration of AT-III (AT-III > or = 80%), use of the subclavian vein whenever possible as blood access for apheresis therapy, as short a compression time as possible after removing the blood access catheter (< or =6 h), and application of intermittent pneumatic compression devices or elastic compression stockings on the lower extremities. PMID:10227770

Asanuma, Y; Furuya, T; Shibata, S; Shioya, T; Miura, M; Koyama, K

1998-08-01

195

Use of laparoscopy for diagnosing experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in dogs  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs remains a significant challenge despite the development of advanced diagnostic methodologies. Visual inspection and pancreas biopsy using laparoscopy are generally considered to be procedures free of complications when conducted on healthy animals. However, the usefulness of laparoscopy for diagnosing acute pancreatitis has not been assessed. In the present study, the efficacy of laparoscopy for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in dogs was evaluated in animals with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Gross appearance of the pancreatic area was examined by laparoscopy to survey for the presence of edema, adhesions, effusion, pseudocysts, hemorrhage, and fat necrosis. Laparoscopic biopsy was performed and the histopathologic results were compared to those of pancreatic samples obtained during necropsy. The correlation between laparoscopy and histopathologic findings of the pancreas was evaluated. The presence of adhesions, effusion, and hemorrhage in the pancreatic area observed by laparoscopy significantly correlated with the histopathologic results (p < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between the histopathologic and laparoscopic biopsy findings. Results of this study suggested that laparoscopic evaluation of gross lesions has clinical significance although the laparoscopic biopsy technique has some limitations. This method combined with additional diagnostic tools can be effective for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:24962411

Kim, Hyun-wook; Oh, Ye-in; Choi, Ji-hye; Kim, Dae-yong

2014-01-01

196

Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis with Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient Not Known to Have Diabetes.  

PubMed

Objective: Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a less known entity of DKA presentation. The aim of this case report is to alert the physician about the possibility of euglycemic DKA in a patient presenting with metabolic ketoacidosis and to highlight the complex physiology between severe alcohol related pancreatic injury, ketoacidosis and starvation.Methods: We present herein a patient with known history of alcoholism who presented with metabolic acidosis and acute pancreatitis and was not known to have diabetes.Results: CT scan of the abdomen showed severe pancreatitis. The patient had not been eating for more than a week. Laboratory work-up showed severe metabolic acidosis and the absence of alcohol. The acidosis improved only after euglycemic DKA was suspected and intravenous insulin infusion and dextrose was initiated and her fluid/electrolyte abnormalities and carbohydrate metabolism were restored.Conclusion: Euglycemic DKA occurs in a small subset of patients with DKA and can go undiagnosed at initial presentation. It is thought to be due to starvation and food restriction and inhibition of gluconeogenesis seen mainly in patients with previous history of diabetes and insulin deficiency. PMID:25370318

Prater, Janna; Chaiban, Joumana T

2014-11-01

197

Functional Effect of Polymorphisms in the Promoter of TNFAIP3 (A20) in Acute Pancreatitis in the Han Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background The zinc finger protein A20 is an important negative regulator of inflammation; polymorphisms in the corresponding gene, TNFAIP3, have been reported to be associated with several inflammation diseases. However, only a few studies have focused on the relationship between TNFAIP3 polymorphisms and acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods We enrolled 201 healthy controls and 190 acute pancreatitis patients (including 47 systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients) for this study and used DNA sequencing to investigate polymorphisms in the TNFAIP3 promoter. The functional effects of these variants on transcriptional activity, A20 expression, NF-?B activity, and TNF-? and IL-1? levels, after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation, were assessed. Results Two SNPs (rs59693083 and rs5029924) in the TNFAIP3 promoter were selected based on bioinformatic analysis. Neither of these SNPs was associated with susceptibility to AP; however, acute pancreatitis patients who possessed the T allele of rs5029924 were more likely to experience systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Moreover, rs5029924 was found to affect TNFAIP3 promoter activity. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation, the expression of A20 protein significantly decreased, while the activity of NF-?B and the production of TNF-? and IL-1? significantly increased in whole blood leukocytes from subjects with the T allele. Conclusion The rs5029924 polymorphism in the TNFAIP3 promoter may alter the risk of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in acute pancreatitis patients by influencing the expression of A20 protein. PMID:25050625

Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Guangyu; Wu, Ailin; Zeng, Ping; Xu, Wanqing

2014-01-01

198

Acute pancreatitis as rare complication of the right radical transperitoneal open nephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Radical open nephrectomy is considered the standard treatment for kidney tumors or masses greater than 10 cm. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis that occurred after right radical transperitoneal nephrectomy, which was treated by nonsurgical conservative interventions. The incidence of acute pancreatitis after renal surgery is not known in the literature. A 56-year-old man developed acute pancreatitis postoperatively after radical transperitoneal nephrectomy. An initial CT scan showed an enlarged pancreas with hypodense, heterogeneous consistency and with peripancreatic, perihepatic, mesenteric, and pelvic fluid collections. This complication was managed conservatively. PMID:24578966

Thimary, Felix; Pummer, Karl

2012-01-01

199

Knockdown of GRP78 Promotes Apoptosis in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Attenuates the Severity of Cerulein and LPS Induced Pancreatic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially lethal disease characterized by inflammation and parenchymal cell death; also, the severity of AP correlates directly with necrosis and inversely with apoptosis. However, mechanisms of regulating cell death in AP remain unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein GRP78 has anti-apoptotic properties, in addition to modulating ER stress responses. This study used RNA interference (RNAi) approach to investigate the potential role of GRP78 in regulating apoptosis during AP. In vitro models of AP were successfully developed by treating AR42J cells with cerulein or cerulein plus lipoplysaccharide (LPS). There was more pancreatic inflammation and less apoptosis with the cerulein plus LPS treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of GRP78 expression markedly promoted apoptosis and reduced necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells. This was accomplished by enhancing the activation of caspases and inhibiting the activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), as well as a receptor interacting protein kinase-1(RIPK1), which is a key mediator of necrosis. This attenuated the severity of pancreatic inflammation, especially after cerulein plus LPS treatment. In conclusion, these findings indicate that GRP78 plays an anti-apoptotic role in regulating the cell death response during AP. Therefore, GRP78 is a potential therapeutic target for AP. PMID:24643222

Liu, Yong; Yang, Lie; Chen, Ke-Ling; Zhou, Bin; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Li, Yuan

2014-01-01

200

Acute pancreatitis: an under-recognized risk of percutaneous transhepatic distal biliary intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective: Percutaneous transhepatic biliary intervention (PTBI) plays an important role in the management of biliary obstruction, and this may be complicated by acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of acute pancreatitis following PTBI. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent PTBI between January 1992 and December 2003 in a tertiary referral centre were identified from the hospital database. Patients who did not have their amylase measured post-procedure were excluded, as acute pancreatitis might have been missed. Acute pancreatitis was defined as hyperamylasaemia of three times or more above normal in association with abdominal pain. Results: Over a 12-year period, 331 patients underwent 613 procedures. Serum amylase was measured after 134 procedures (21.9%) and was elevated in 26 of those (19.4%). There was no difference in the frequency of hyperamylasaemia between proximal and distal PTBI (14/73 [19.2%] vs 12/61 [19.7%] procedures, p=NS). However, acute pancreatitis developed after 4 of 61 (6.6%) distal PTBI (stent, n=3; internal–external catheter insertion, n=1) but not after proximal PTBI (cholangiography or external drainage) (p=0.041). The attacks were mild in three of the four patients. No pancreatitis-related deaths occurred. Conclusion: The risk of acute pancreatitis after distal PTBI is under-recognized and should be considered as a consent issue in patients scheduled for distal PTBI and when post-procedure abdominal pain ensues. PMID:18333100

Al-Bahrani, A.Z.; Holt, A.; Hamade, A.M.; Abid, G.H.; Laasch, H-U.; O'Shea, S.J.; Lee, S.H.

2006-01-01

201

Intracellular activation of trypsinogen in transgenic mice induces acute but not chronic pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsPremature intra-acinar activation of trypsinogen is widely considered key for both the initiation of acute pancreatitis and the development of chronic pancreatitis. However, the biological consequences of intracellular trypsinogen activation have not been directly examined. To do so, a new mouse model was developed.MethodsMice were engineered to conditionally express an endogenously activated trypsinogen within pancreatic acinar cells (PACE-trypon).

Sebastian Gaiser; Jaroslaw Daniluk; Yan Liu; Lilian Tsou; Jun Chu; Woojin Lee; Daniel S Longnecker; Craig D Logsdon; Baoan Ji

2011-01-01

202

Amino acid transporters expression in acinar cells is changed during acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Pancreatic acinar cells accumulate amino acids against a marked concentration gradient to synthesize digestive enzymes. Thus, the function of acinar cells depends on amino acid uptake mediated by active transport. Despite the importance of this process, pancreatic amino acid transporter expression and cellular localization is still unclear. We screened mouse pancreas for the expression of genes encoding amino acid transporters. We showed that the most highly expressed transporters, namely sodium dependent SNAT3 (Slc38a3) and SNAT5 (Slc38a5) and sodium independent neutral amino acids transporters LAT1 (Slc7a5) and LAT2 (Slc7a8), are expressed in the basolateral membrane of acinar cells. SNAT3 and SNAT5, LAT1 and LAT2 are expressed in acinar cells. Additional evidence that these transporters are expressed in mature acinar cells was gained using acinar cell culture and acute pancreatitis models. In the acute phase of pancreatic injury, when acinar cell loss occurs, and in an acinar cell culture model, which mimics changes occurring during pancreatitis, SNAT3 and SNAT5 are strongly down-regulated. LAT1 and LAT2 were down-regulated only in the in vitro model. At protein level, SNAT3 and SNAT5 expression was also reduced during pancreatitis. Expression of other amino acid transporters was also modified in both models of pancreatitis. The subset of transporters with differential expression patterns during acute pancreatitis might be involved in the injury/regeneration phases. Further expression, localization and functional studies will follow to better understand changes occurring during acute pancreatitis. These findings provide insight into pancreatic amino acid transport in healthy pancreas and during acute pancreatitis injury. PMID:24075511

Rooman, Ilse; Lutz, Christian; Pinho, Andreia V; Huggel, Katja; Reding, Theresia; Lahoutte, Tony; Verrey, François; Graf, Rolf; Camargo, Simone M R

2013-01-01

203

Association of CTRC and SPINK1 gene variants with recurrent hospitalizations for pancreatitis or acute abdominal pain in lipoprotein lipase deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: There are important inter-individual variations in the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Several genes involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism or serine proteases pathways are known to influence the risk of pancreatitis. Aim: To evaluate the association between genes regulating serine proteases, chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type1 (SPINK1), and recurrence of hospitalizations for acute pancreatitis or severe abdominal pain in patients with Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPLD), a rare and extreme monogenic model of severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Method: The CTRC and SPINK1 genes promoter and coding regions sequencing has been performed in a sample of 38 LPLD adults (22 men and 16 women) and 100 controls (53 men and 47 women). Estimation of the association of CTRC and SPINK1 gene variants or combinations of variants with history of hospitalizations for pancreatitis or acute abdominal pain in LPLD was investigated using non-parametric analyses with correction for multiple testing and logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, family history, and life habits. Results: Gene sequencing followed by genotype-stratified analyses of the CTRC and SPINK1 genes in LPLD and controls revealed a positive association between recurrence of hospitalizations and the rs545634 (CTRC)—rs11319 (SPINK1) combination [OR = 41.4 (CI: 2.0–848.0); p = 0.016]. In all models, a positive family history of pancreatitis was a significant predictor of recurrent hospitalizations independently of the contribution of SPINK1 or CTRC (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that a positive family history of pancreatitis and genetic markers in the serine protease pathways could be associated with a risk of recurrent hospitalization for acute pancreatitis in severe hypertriglyceridemia due to LPLD. PMID:24795752

Tremblay, Karine; Dubois-Bouchard, Camélia; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

2014-01-01

204

Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis.  

PubMed

Over the last several years, there have been refinements in the understanding and nomenclature regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis. Patients with acute pancreatitis frequently develop acute pancreatic collections that, over time, may evolve into pancreatic pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Endoscopic management of these local complications of acute pancreatitis continues to evolve. Treatment strategies range from simple drainage of liquefied contents to repeated direct endoscopic necrosectomy of a complex necrotic collection. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocysts may arise as a consequence of pancreatic ductal obstruction that then leads to pancreatic ductal disruption. In this review, we focus on the indications, techniques and outcomes for endoscopic therapy of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis. PMID:25222140

Law, Ryan; Baron, Todd H

2015-02-01

205

The "golden hours" of management in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

In the past decade, a significant amount of active and enthusiastic research has changed the way we treat acute pancreatitis (AP) within the first 24 hours of presentation. We highlight the importance of rapid initiation of treatment to help prevent the considerable morbidity and mortality that can occur when interventions are delayed. We review recent data that validate simple and accurate tools for prognostication of AP to replace the older, more tedious methods that relied on numerous factors and required up to 48 hours to complete. Additionally, we aim to provide evidence-based guidelines and end points for fluid resuscitation. Finally, we hope to bring clarification to two previously controversial topics in AP treatment: the use of prophylactic antibiotics and early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. PMID:22858994

Fisher, Jessica M; Gardner, Timothy B

2012-08-01

206

Laparoscopy in Afferent Loop Obstruction Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: We describe an afferent loop obstruction caused by an adhesion band in a case of distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y end-to-side jejunal anastomosis for cancer. Methods: An initial clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis was ruled out by a computed tomography scan, which revealed intestinal obstruction; it was then confirmed on laparoscopy. Definitive treatment was laparoscopic adhesiolysis. A complete review of the literature concerning afferent loop obstructions is presented. Results: The treatment was successful, with minimal postoperative pain, and the 5-day hospital stay was uncomplicated. The patient remains asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: The authors advocate minimally invasive surgery as a complete diagnostic and therapeutic alternative to emergency laparotomy in cases where afferent loop syndrome is suspected, and acknowledge that prompt surgery has a higher rate of success and reduces operative morbidity and mortality. PMID:16882437

Pettinato, Giovanna; Romessis, Matheos; Ferrari Bravo, Andrea; Barozzi, Geraldine; Giovanetti, Maurizio

2006-01-01

207

Hypertrygliceridemia-induced Acute Pancreatitis Following Hyperlipidemic Abdominal Crisis  

PubMed Central

Hypertriglyceridemia is a well established cause of acute pancreatitis (AP). Multiple mechanism are proposed to explain this phenomenon, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Clinical manifestations are similar to other forms of AP. Although amylase and lipase levels exclude the diagnosis of AP in normolipidemic patients, they may be normal in hypertriglyceridemia-induced AP. Further evaluation with imaging studies are needed for diagnosis. A less known entity “hyperlipidemic abdominal crisis” is a prior clinical state before development to AP. We describe a young male patient without any previously diagnosed metabolic disorder presenting to emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting where normal amylase in lactescent serum was detected. His abdomen computed tomography (CT) was reported as normal. His symptoms were relieved with antiemetic and histamine-2 blocker and he was diagnosed with hypertriglyceridemia and dyspepsia. Readmission with recurrence of symptoms after 3 hours resulted in hospitalization where the second CT showed edematous AP.

Akay, Serhat; Ardic, Murat Enis; Erkan, Nazif

2011-01-01

208

Acute pancreatitis successfully diagnosed by diffusion-weighted imaging: a case report.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established diagnostic method of acute stroke. The latest advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology have greatly expanded the utility of DWI in the examination of various organs. Recent studies have revealed the usefulness of DWI for imaging of the liver, kidney, ovary, and breast. We report a patient with acute pancreatitis detected by DWI and discussed the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. A 50-year old man presented with a primary complaint of abdominal pain. We performed both DWI and computed tomography (CT) for this patient. The signal intensity in a series of DWI was measured and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated to differentiate inflammation from normal tissue. Two experienced radiologists evaluated the grade of acute pancreatitis by comparing the CT findings. Initially, the pancreas and multiple ascites around the pancreas produced a bright signal and ADC values were reduced on DWI. As the inflammation decreased, the bright signal faded to an iso-signal and the ADC values returned to their normal level. There was no difference in the abilities of DWI and CT images to detect acute pancreatitis. However, our case indicates that DWI can evaluate the manifestations of acute pancreatitis using no enhancement material and has the potential to replace CT as a primary diagnostic strategy for acute pancreatitis. PMID:18803364

Shinya, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshifumi; Guiquing, Zhang; Yamamoto, Fumio; Yamashita, Yuichi

2008-09-21

209

Prevention of experimental acute pancreatitis by intraduodenal trypsin inhibitor in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

To confirm that trypsin activity is a most important initiating factor in closed duodenal loop pancreatitis in rats, we observed the course of acute pancreatitis when trypsinogen activation was inhibited by intraduodenal infusion of a potent synthetic trypsin inhibitor (TI, nafamostat mesilate) but the other conditions were left unchanged. Intraduodenal and intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation was inhibited for 16 hr after

Hideki Ono; Tetsuo Hayakawa; Takaharu Kondo; Tokimune Shibata; Motoji Kitagawa; Yuzo Sakai; Seiki Kiriyama; Hiroshi Sobajima

1990-01-01

210

Role of platelet-activating factor in pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury in the rat.  

PubMed Central

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis induced by infusion of bile salt into the pancreatic duct in rats is consistently associated with acute lung injury similar to the adult respiratory distress syndrome. The role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in this pancreatitis-associated remote organ failure (lung injury) was investigated. Pulmonary tissue levels of PAF were increased gradually and reached a level of 1345 +/- 455 pg/g (6 times the control level) at 12 hours after induction of pancreatitis, whereas pancreatic PAF levels were undetectable and blood PAF remained unchanged. This local pulmonary PAF accumulation occurred at approximately the same time as the progression of lung injury. Pulmonary responses detected (i.e., eicosanoid production, leukocytic infiltration, Evan's blue extravasation, beta-glucuronidase release) were attenuated to varying degrees by treatment of rats in which pancreatitis was initiated with the PAF receptor antagonists (WEB2170 and BN52021). Rat lung lavages were examined after a 12-hour course of pancreatitis and no changes in PAF concentration, surfactant content, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity were noted. Intravenous administration of PLA2 promoted pulmonary PAF production in experimental rats with pancreatitis but not in normal rats. This observation indicates that PLA2, which was determined to be elevated in plasma during pancreatitis, may be responsible for the accumulation of PAF in the lung. In conclusion, pancreatitis-associated lung injury appears to result from an endogenous inflammatory response in which PAF may play an important role. Images Figure 1 PMID:1562055

Zhou, W.; McCollum, M. O.; Levine, B. A.; Olson, M. S.

1992-01-01

211

Continuous regional arterial infusion for acute pancreatitis: a propensity score analysis using a nationwide administrative database  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) of a protease inhibitor and an antibiotic may be effective in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, CRAI has not yet been validated in large patient populations. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of CRAI based on data from a national administrative database covering 1,032 Japanese hospitals. Methods In-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs were compared in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups, using propensity score analysis to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results A total of 17,415 eligible patients with acute pancreatitis were identified between 1 July and 30 September 2011, including 287 (1.6%) patients who underwent CRAI. One-to-one propensity-score matching generated 207 pairs with well-balanced baseline characteristics. In-hospital mortality rates were similar in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups (7.7% vs. 8.7%; odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.44–1.78, P?=?0.720). CRAI was associated with significantly longer median hospital stay (29 vs. 18 days, P?acute pancreatitis, but was associated with longer hospital stay and higher costs. Randomized controlled trials in large numbers of patients are required to further evaluate CRAI for this indication. PMID:24088324

2013-01-01

212

Pancreatitis-imaging approach.  

PubMed

Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a signi?cant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

2014-08-15

213

Grp78 Heterozygosity Regulates Chaperone Balance in Exocrine Pancreas with Differential Response to Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is abundant in the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. To test the role of ER homeostasis in acute pancreatitis, we manipulated GRP78 levels, a major ER chaperone, in mice. Grp78+/+ and +/? littermates were fed either a regular diet (RD) or a high-fat diet. Acinar cells were examined for ER structure by electron microscopy, and ER chaperone levels were assessed by immunoblotting. Pancreatitis was induced by cerulein injection, and multiple pathological parameters were analyzed. Grp78+/? mice showed decreased GRP78 expression in acinar cells. Exocrine pancreata of RD-fed Grp78+/? mice in an outbred C57BL/6 × 129/sv genetic background exhibited ER lumen dilation, a reduction in chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT), and exacerbated pancreatitis associated with high CHOP induction. With the high-fat diet regimen, Grp78 heterozygosity triggered GRP94 up-regulation and restoration of GRP78, CNX, and CRT to wild-type levels, corresponding with mitigated pancreatitis on cerulein insult. Interestingly, after backcrossing into the C57BL/6 background, RD-fed Grp78+/? mice exhibited an increase in GRP94 and levels of CNX and CRT equivalent to wild type, associated with decreased experimental pancreatitis severity. Administration of a chemical chaperone, 4-phenolbutyrate, was protective against cerulein-induced death. Thus, in exocrine pancreata, Grp78 heterozygosity regulates ER chaperone balance, in dietary- and genetic background–dependent manners, and improved ER protein folding capacity might be protective against pancreatitis. PMID:20971738

Ye, Risheng; Mareninova, Olga A.; Barron, Ernesto; Wang, Miao; Hinton, David R.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Lee, Amy S.

2010-01-01

214

Alcoholic pancreatitis: mechanisms of viral infections as cofactors in the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis and fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute and chronic pancreatitis is asso- ciated with alcohol abuse, but symptomatic pancre- atitis develops in only a small proportion of persons (10-20%) who abuse alcohol. This apparent par- adox has led to the notion that additional cofactors are involved in the development of alcoholic pan- creatitis. Potential cofactors, such as diet and smoking, have been suggested, but there are

Thomas R. Jerrells; Debbie Vidlak; Jennifer M. Strachota

2007-01-01

215

Vascular Access System for Continuous Arterial Infusion of a Protease Inhibitor in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis  

SciTech Connect

We used a vascular access system (VAS) for continuous arterial infusion (CAI) of a protease inhibitor in two patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The infusion catheter was placed into the dorsal pancreatic artery in the first patient and into the gastroduodenal artery in the second, via a femoral artery approach. An implantable port was then connected to the catheter and was secured in a subcutaneous pocket prepared in the right lower abdomen. No complications related to the VAS were encountered. This system provided safe and uncontaminated vascular access for successful CAI for acute pancreatitis.

Ganaha, Fumikiyo; Yamada, Tetsuhisa; Yorozu, Naoya; Ujita, Masuo; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Tada, Shimpei [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Aoto Hospital, 6-41-2 Aoto, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8506 (Japan)

1999-09-15

216

Enrichment of Murine CD68+CCR2+ and CD68+CD206+ Lung Macrophages in Acute Pancreatitis-Associated Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the risk factors for developing this syndrome. Among the inflammatory cells, macrophages have a key role in determining the severity of the acute lung injury. In the lungs, macrophages constitute a heterogeneous cell population distributed in different compartments. Changes in not only the macrophage count, but also in their phenotype have been seen during the course of lung injury. A murine ductal ligation model of acute pancreatitis showed substantial morphological changes in the pancreas and lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed neutrophil recruitment into both organs after 9 hours and later on. F4/80+ cells in the pancreas increased in the ligated animals, though there was not a significant difference in their number in the lungs as compared to sham operated animals. Flow cytometry analysis of lung macrophages demonstrated an enrichment of F4/80? CD68+CCR2+ and F4/80? CD68+CD206+ lung macrophages in ligated animals (AP) as compared to the sham operated group. The level of interleukin-6 in plasma increased 3 hours after ligation compared to the sham operated group, as a first indicator of a systemic inflammatory response. This study suggests a role for F4/80? CD68+ macrophages in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in acute pancreatitis. Studying lung macrophages for different phenotypic markers, their polarization, activation and recruitment, in the context of acute lung injury, is a novel area to potentially identify interventions which may improve the outcome of acute lung injury. PMID:23110041

Akbarshahi, Hamid; Menzel, Mandy; Posaric Bauden, Monika; Rosendahl, Ann; Andersson, Roland

2012-01-01

217

Angiopoietin-1 gene-modified human mesenchymal stem cells promote angiogenesis and reduce acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can serve as a vehicle for gene therapy. Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) plays an important role in the regulation of endothelial cell survival, vascular stabilization, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs might be a potential therapeutic approach for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs with or without transfection with lentiviral vectors containing the ANGPT1 gene were delivered through the tail vein of rats 12 h after induction of SAP. Administration of MSCs alone significantly reduced pancreatic injury and inflammation, as reflected by reductions in pancreatitis severity scores and serum amylase and lipase levels as well as reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-6). Furthermore, administration of ANGPT1-transfected MSCs resulted in not only further reductions in pancreatic injury and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, but also promotion of pancreatic angiogenesis. These results suggest that MSCs and ANGPT1 have a synergistic role in the treatment of SAP. ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs may be developed as a potential novel therapy strategy for the treatment of SAP. PMID:25120736

Hua, Jie; He, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Dao-Hai; Lin, Sheng-Ping; Gong, Jian; Meng, Hong-Bo; Yang, Ting-Song; Sun, Wei; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-Shun

2014-01-01

218

The Novel Cytokine Interleukin-33 Activates Acinar Cell Proinflammatory Pathways and Induces Acute Pancreatic Inflammation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown. Methods/Results In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a) IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b) mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c) plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d) pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-? stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK) and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2?). Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue. Significance As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation. Conclusion IL-33 is induced in acute pancreatitis, activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation. PMID:23418608

Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Twait, Erik C.; Williard, Deborah E.; Yuan, Zuobiao; Meyerholz, David K.; Samuel, Isaac

2013-01-01

219

The Role of IL-6, 8, and 10, sTNFr, CRP, and Pancreatic Elastase in the Prediction of Systemic Complications in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Background and Aim. Early assessment of severity in acute pancreatitis (AP) is a key measure to provide rational and effective management. The aim of our study is to determine the prognostic value of interleukins (IL) 6, 8, and 10, soluble receptor for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFr), pancreatic elastase (E1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) as predictors of systemic complications in AP. Patients and Methods. A hundred and fifty patients with confirmed AP were enrolled in the study. The severity of AP was defined according to Atlanta criteria. Measurements of interleukins and sTNFr were performed on the first day of admission. CRP and E1 levels were assessed on admission and after 48 hours. ROC analysis was performed for all parameters. Results. Interleukins and sTNFr significantly differentiated patients with systemic complications from those without. Elevation of IL-6 showed the highest significance as a predictor (P = 0.001). CRP and elastase levels did not differ between mild and severe cases on admission, but reached statistical significance when measured on the third day (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, resp.). Conclusion. Our study confirmed that IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and sTNFr measured on admission, and CRP and pancreatic elastase measured on third day of admission represent valuable prognostic factors of severity and systemic complications of AP. PMID:23476635

Fisic, E; Poropat, G; Bilic-Zulle, L; Licul, V; Milic, S; Stimac, D

2013-01-01

220

The Role of IL-6, 8, and 10, sTNFr, CRP, and Pancreatic Elastase in the Prediction of Systemic Complications in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. Early assessment of severity in acute pancreatitis (AP) is a key measure to provide rational and effective management. The aim of our study is to determine the prognostic value of interleukins (IL) 6, 8, and 10, soluble receptor for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFr), pancreatic elastase (E1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) as predictors of systemic complications in AP. Patients and Methods. A hundred and fifty patients with confirmed AP were enrolled in the study. The severity of AP was defined according to Atlanta criteria. Measurements of interleukins and sTNFr were performed on the first day of admission. CRP and E1 levels were assessed on admission and after 48 hours. ROC analysis was performed for all parameters. Results. Interleukins and sTNFr significantly differentiated patients with systemic complications from those without. Elevation of IL-6 showed the highest significance as a predictor (P = 0.001). CRP and elastase levels did not differ between mild and severe cases on admission, but reached statistical significance when measured on the third day (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, resp.). Conclusion. Our study confirmed that IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and sTNFr measured on admission, and CRP and pancreatic elastase measured on third day of admission represent valuable prognostic factors of severity and systemic complications of AP. PMID:23476635

Fisic, E.; Poropat, G.; Bilic-Zulle, L.; Licul, V.; Milic, S.; Stimac, D.

2013-01-01

221

Intracellular activation of trypsinogen in transgenic mice induces acute but not chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Premature intra-acinar activation of trypsinogen is widely considered key for both the initiation of acute pancreatitis and the development of chronic pancreatitis. However, the biological consequences of intracellular trypsinogen activation have not been directly examined. To do so, a new mouse model was developed. Methods Mice were engineered to conditionally express an endogenously activated trypsinogen within pancreatic acinar cells (PACE-trypon). Hallmarks of pancreatitis were determined and findings were correlated to the level (zygosity) and extent (temporal and spatial) of conditional PACE-trypon expression. Furthermore, the impact of acinar cell death in PACE-trypon mice was assessed and compared with a model of selective diphtheria toxin (DT)-mediated induction of acinar apoptosis. Results Initiation of acute pancreatitis was observed with high (homozygous), but not low (heterozygous) levels of PACE-trypon expression. Subtotal (maximal-rapid induction) but not limited (gradual-repetitive induction) conditional PACE-trypon expression was associated with systemic complications and mortality. Rapid caspase-3 activation and apoptosis with delayed necrosis was observed, and loss of acinar cells led to replacement with fatty tissue. Chronic inflammation or fibrosis did not develop. Selective depletion of pancreatic acinar cells by apoptosis using DT evoked similar consequences. Conclusions Intra-acinar activation of trypsinogen is sufficient to initiate acute pancreatitis. However, the primary response to intracellular trypsin activity is rapid induction of acinar cell death via apoptosis which facilitates resolution of the acute inflammation rather than causing chronic pancreatitis. This novel model provides a powerful tool to improve our understanding of basic mechanisms occurring during pancreatitis. PMID:21471572

Gaiser, Sebastian; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Liu, Yan; Tsou, Lilian; Chu, Jun; Lee, Woojin; Longnecker, Daniel S; Logsdon, Craig D; Ji, Baoan

2014-01-01

222

Incretin based drugs and risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes: cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether the use of incretin based drugs, compared with sulfonylureas, is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Design Population based cohort study. Setting 680 general practices in the United Kingdom contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants From 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2012, 20?748 new users of incretin based drugs were compared with 51?712 users of sulfonylureas and followed up until 31 March 2013. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for acute pancreatitis in users of incretin based drugs compared with users of sulfonylureas. Models were adjusted for tenths of high dimensional propensity score (hdPS). Results The crude incidence rate for acute pancreatitis was 1.45 per 1000 patients per year (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.11) for incretin based drug users and 1.47 (1.23 to 1.76) for sulfonylurea users. The rate of acute pancreatitis associated with the use of incretin based drugs was not increased (hdPS adjusted hazard ratio: 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1.70) relative to sulfonylurea use. Conclusions Compared with use of sulfonylureas, the use of incretin based drugs is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. While this study is reassuring, it does not preclude a modest increased risk, and thus additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24764569

2014-01-01

223

Protective effect of lawsone on L-Arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  

PubMed

The efficacy of lawsone against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis was determined at 24 h by determination of serum levels of amylase, lipase and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, C-reactive proteins and interleukin (IL)], pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], nitrate/nitrite levels, and the wet weight/body weight ratio. Lawsone and methylprednisolone treatments significantly attenuated the L-arginine- induced increases in pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio, and decreased the serum levels of amylase and lipase, and TNF-alpha and IL-6 and significantly lowered pancreatic levels of MPO, TBARS, and nitrate/nitrite. The histoimmunological findings further proved the amelioration of pancreatic injury by lawsone and further proved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent property of lawsone. PMID:23678547

Biradar, Sandeep; Veeresh, B

2013-03-01

224

Pancreatic Cancer as a Model: Inflammatory Mediators, Acute-phase Response, and Cancer Cachexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Patients with pancreatic cancer frequently develop the syndrome of cancer cachexia. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been\\u000a strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In patients with pancreatic cancer an acute-phase response (an index\\u000a of pro-inflammatory cytokine activity) is associated with accelerated weight loss, hypermetabolism, anorexia, and a shortened\\u000a duration of survival. However, little is known about the primary significance

Kenneth C. H. Fearon; Matthew D. Barber; J. S. Falconer; Donald C. McMillan; James A. Ross; Tom Preston

1999-01-01

225

Acute pancreatitis during immunosuppression with tacrolimus following an allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tacrolimus is increasingly used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and therapy in the allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) setting. Pancreatitis, previously described as a side-effect of cyclosporine, has not been reported in allo-SCT recipients receiving tacrolimus. We present here a case of acute pancreatitis in a 28-year-old patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who received an unrelated umbilical cord blood

Y Nieto; P Russ; G Everson; SI Bearman; PJ Cagnoni; RB Jones; EJ Shpall

2000-01-01

226

Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus. PMID:24497695

Mylarappa, Prasad; Javali, Tarun; Prathvi; Ramesh, D.

2014-01-01

227

Noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma.  

PubMed

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in severe acute asthma is controversial but may benefit this population by preventing intubation. We report on a 35-year-old male asthma patient who presented to our emergency department via emergency medical services. The patient was responsive, diaphoretic, and breathing at 35 breaths/min on 100% oxygen with bag-mask assistance, with S(pO2) 88%, heart rate 110-120 beats/min, blood pressure 220/110 mm Hg, and temperature 35.8 °C. NIV at 12/5 cm H2O and FIO2 0.40 was applied, and albuterol at 40 mg/h was initiated. Admission arterial blood gas revealed a pH of 6.95, P(aCO2) 126 mm Hg, and P(aO2) 316 mm Hg. After 90 min of therapy, P(aCO2) was 63 mm Hg. Improvement continued, and NIV was stopped 4 h following presentation. NIV tolerance was supported with low doses of lorazepam. The patient was transferred to the ICU, moved to general care the next morning, and discharged 3 days later. We attribute our success to close monitoring in a critical care setting and the titration of lorazepam. PMID:24782556

Cappiello, Jhaymie L; Hocker, Michael B

2014-10-01

228

Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine naďve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patients not responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy. PMID:25401001

Kedia, Saurabh; Ahuja, Vineet; Tandon, Rakesh

2014-11-15

229

Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine naďve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patients not responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy. PMID:25401001

Kedia, Saurabh; Ahuja, Vineet; Tandon, Rakesh

2014-01-01

230

Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to an Incarcerated Paraoesophageal Hernia: A Rare Cause for a Common Problem  

PubMed Central

This is a rare case report of acute pancreatitis secondary to a massive incarcerated paraoesophageal hernia. The pathogenesis resulted from obstruction of the distal pancreatic duct after displacement of the pancreatic head and body into the thorax as part of a Type IV paraoesophageal hernia. Although this condition is rare, the patient made steady progress following laparotomy and open repair of hernia. She made a good recovery after prompt therapy, therefore, this report can be a guide to the diagnosis and treatment of similar conditions. PMID:24653652

Boyce, Kathryn; Campbell, William; Taylor, Mark

2014-01-01

231

Trypsinogen gene mutations in patients with chronic or recurrent acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Three-point mutations (R117H, N211, A16V) within the cationic trypsinogen gene have been identified in patients with hereditary pancreatitis (HP). A genetic background has also been discussed for idiopathic juvenile chronic pancreatitis (IJCP), which closely mimicks the clinical pattern of HP, and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis because only a small number of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis. This prompted us to screen 104 patients in our well-defined pancreatitis cohort for the currently known cationic trypsinogen gene mutations. The R117H mutation was detected in seven patients (six patients of two clinically classified HP families, one patient with clinically classified IJCP) and the A16V mutation in one IJCP patient. No cationic trypsinogen gene mutations were found in the remaining 96 patients with chronic and recurrent acute pancreatitis of various etiologies. Our results demonstrate the need for genetic testing to exclude HP, particularly in the presence of an atypical or unknown family history. In addition, cationic trypsinogen gene mutations are no predisposing factor in patients with chronic and recurrent acute pancreatitis of different etiologies. PMID:11138965

Truninger, K; Köck, J; Wirth, H P; Muellhaupt, B; Arnold, C; von Weizsäcker, F; Seifert, B; Ammann, R W; Blum, H E

2001-01-01

232

Late-Onset Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Accompanying Acute Pancreatitis and Hyperammonemia  

PubMed Central

Hyperammonemia related to urea cycle disorders is a rare cause of potentially fatal encephalopathy that is encountered in intensive care units (ICUs). Left undiagnosed, this condition may manifest irreversible neuronal damage. However, timely diagnosis and treatment initiation can be facilitated simply by increased awareness of the ICU staff. Here, we describe a patient with acute severe pancreatitis who developed hyperammonemia and encephalopathy without liver disease. Urea cycle disorder was suspected and hemodialysis was initiated. Following reduction of ammonia levels, subsequent treatment included protein restriction and administration of arginine and sodium benzoate. The patient was discharged to home after 47 days with plasma ammonia within normal range and without neurological symptoms. In clinical care settings, patients with neurological symptoms unexplained by the present illness should be assessed for serum ammonia levels to disclose any urea cycle disorders to initiate timely treatment and improve outcome. PMID:24073003

Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar; Fonseca, Gilton Marques; Jukemura, José

2013-01-01

233

Epstein-barr virus infection with acute pancreatitis associated with cholestatic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Infection-induced acute hepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis is associated with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis E virus. Although rare, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection should be considered also in the differential diagnosis if the patient has acute hepatitis combined with pancreatitis. We report a case of EBV infection with cholestatic hepatitis and pancreatitis with review of literature. An 11-year-old female was admitted due to 1-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting without any clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. Diagnosis of reactivated EBV infection was made by the positive result of viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM, VCA IgG, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen and heterophile antibody test. We performed serologic tests and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography to exclude other viral or bacterial infection, autoimmune disorder, and structural problems. The patient's symptoms recovered rapidly and blood chemistry returned to normal with conservative treatment similar to previously reported cases. PMID:24010108

Kang, Seok-Jin; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

2013-03-01

234

Antibiotics as Part of the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND—Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS—In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir,

Indi Trehan; Hayley S. Goldbach; Lacey N. LaGrone; Guthrie J. Meuli; Richard J. Wang; Kenneth M. Maleta; Mark J. Manary

2013-01-01

235

The effect of erythropoietin to pulmonary injury and mast cells secondary to acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening necroinflammatory disease that is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute lung injury even in its very first days. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone considered as an antiapoptotic and cytoprotective with observed receptors of anti-inflammatory effect on organs apart from the liver and the kidneys. In this study, the effects of EPO on pulmonary mast cells and on secondary injury caused by acute pancreatitis are investigated. Methods Twenty one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups—sham, control, and EPO groups—with 7 rats per group. Pancreatitis was induced by administering 4.5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. A 1000 U/kg/day dosage (three times) of EPO was administered to the EPO group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, amylase, and troponin I in the serum were studied; and lung, kidney, brain, and heart tissues were examined histopathologically. Results There were no histopathological changes in the other organ tissues except for the lung tissue. Compared to the control group, the EPO group showed significantly reduced alveolar hemorrhage, septal neutrophil infiltration, lung wall thickness score, and mast cell count in the lung tissue. Conclusions Administration of EPO reduces the mast cell count and lung wall thickness, and it reduces the alveolar hemorrhage and septal infiltration induced by acute pancreatitis. PMID:24761770

2014-01-01

236

Acute pancreatitis associated with herpes zoster: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a type of herpes virus known to cause varicella, mainly in young children, and herpes zoster in adults. Although generally non-lethal, VZV infection can be associated with serious complications, particularly in adults. Acute pancreatitis caused by VZV infection is a rare event, with reports primarily concerning immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 44-year-old immunocompetent female who developed acute pancreatitis associated with VZV infection. The patient presented with vomiting and persistent pain in the upper quadrant less than one week after diagnosis and treatment for a herpes zoster-related rash with stabbing pain on the abdomen and dorsal right trunk side. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed based on abdominal pain, elevated levels of urine and serum amylase, and findings of peri-pancreatic exudation and effusions by computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. This case highlights that, though rare, acute pancreatitis should be considered in VZV patients who complain of abdominal pain, especially in the epigastric area. Early detection and proper treatment are needed to prevent the condition from deteriorating further and to minimize mortality.

Wang, Zhen; Ye, Jun; Han, Yue-Hua

2014-01-01

237

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating-peptide and its receptor antagonists in development of acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating-peptide (PACAP) is a late member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family of brain-gut peptides. It is unknown whether PACAP takes part in the development of acute pancreatitis and whether PACAP or its antagonists can be used to suppress the progression of acute pancreatitis. We investigated the actions of PACAP and its receptor antagonists in acute pancreatitis on rats. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with caerulein or 3.5% sodium taurocholate. The rats were continuously infused with 5-30 ?g/kg PACAP via jugular vein within the first 90 min, while 10-100 ?g/kg PACAP6-27 and (4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17) VIP (PACAP receptor antagonists) were intravenously infused for 1 h. Biochemical and histopathological assessments were made at 4 h after infusion. Pancreatic and duodenal PACAP concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chinese ink-perfused pancreas was fixed, sectioned and cleared for counting the functional capillary density. RESULTS: PACAP augmented caerulein-induced pancreatitis and failed to ameliorate sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. ELISA revealed that relative concentrations of PACAP in pancreas and duodenum were significantly increased in both sodium taurocholate- and caerulein-induced pancreatitis compared with those in normal controls. Unexpectedly, PACAP6-27 and (4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17) VIP could induce mild acute pancreatitis and aggravate caerulein-induced pancreatitis with characteristic manifestations of acute hemorrhagic/necrotizing pancreatitis. Functional capillary density of pancreas was interpreted in the context of pancreatic edema, and calibrated functional capillary density (calibrated FCD), which combined measurement of functional capillary density with dry weight/wet weight ratio, was introduced. Hyperemia or congestion, rather than ischemia, characterized pancreatic microcirculatory changes in acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: PACAP may take part in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in rats. The two PACAP receptor antagonsits might act as partial agonists. Calibrated functional capillary density can reflect pancreatic microcirculatory changes in acute pancreatitis. PMID:15641142

Chen, You-Dai; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Hong-Kai; Yan, Wen-Wei; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Gao-Ping; Peng, Xiao-Hui

2005-01-01

238

Antiretroviral drugs and acute pancreatitis in HIV/AIDS patients: is there any association? A literature review.  

PubMed

In HIV-seropositive individuals, the incidence of acute pancreatitis may achieve 40% per year, higher than the 2% found in the general population. Since 1996, when combined antiretroviral therapy, known as HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), was introduced, a broad spectrum of harmful factors to the pancreas, such as opportunistic infections and drugs used for chemoprophylaxis, dropped considerably. Nucleotide analogues and metabolic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis have emerged as new conditions that can affect the pancreas. To evaluate the role of antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV/AIDS in a scenario of high incidence of acute pancreatitis in this population, a systematic review was performed, including original articles, case reports and case series studies, whose targets were HIV-seropositive patients that developed acute pancreatitis after exposure to any antiretroviral drugs. This association was confirmed after exclusion of other possible etiologies and/or a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis after re-exposure to the suspected drug. Zidovudine, efavirenz, and protease inhibitors are thought to lead to acute pancreatitis secondary to hyperlipidemia. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, despite being powerful inhibitors of viral replication, induce a wide spectrum of side effects, including myelotoxicity and acute pancreatitis. Didanosine, zalcitabine and stavudine have been reported as causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis. They pose a high risk with cumulative doses. Didanosine with hydroxyurea, alcohol or pentamidine are additional risk factors, leading to lethal pancreatitis, which is not a frequent event. In addition, other drugs used for prophylaxis of AIDS-related opportunistic diseases, such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and pentamidine, can produce necrotizing pancreatitis. Despite comorbidities that can lead to pancreatic involvement in the HIV/AIDS population, antiretroviral drug-induced pancreatitis should always be considered in the diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and elevated pancreatic enzymes. PMID:24728257

Oliveira, Natalia Mejias; Ferreira, Felipe Augusto Yamauti; Yonamine, Raquel Yumi; Chehter, Ethel Zimberg

2014-01-01

239

[Classification of an acute pancreatitis: revision by international consensus in 2012 of classification, adopted in Atlanta].  

PubMed

In 1992 on symposium in Atlanta the general classification of an acute pancreatitis, adopted by world medical society for practical application, was proposed. Due to results of multiple investigations there were enhanced the data about an acute pancreatitis pathophysiology, the organs insufficiency, and improvement of the noninvasive and invasive methods of visualization and treatment, what caused necessity to revise the classification. Web-consultations were conducted in 2007 yr to guarantee a wide participation of pancreatologists. After first meeting the working group have directed the document project to 11 national and international associations of pancreatologists. In 2012 yr the definite conclusions, concerning consensus, were published. PMID:25509427

Kryvoruchko, I A; Kopchak, V M; Usenko, O Iu; Honcharova, N M; Balaka, S M; Teslenko, S M; Andreieshchev, S A

2014-09-01

240

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model. Images Figure 3. PMID:10024105

Closa, D; Sabater, L; Fernández-Cruz, L; Prats, N; Gelpí, E; Roselló-Catafau, J

1999-01-01

241

Metabolic pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis and management  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is a medical emergency. Alcohol and gallstones are the most common etiologies accounting for 60%-75% cases. Other important causes include postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure, abdominal trauma, drug toxicity, various infections, autoimmune, ischemia, and hereditary causes. In about 15% of cases the cause remains unknown (idiopathic pancreatitis). Metabolic conditions giving rise to pancreatitis are less common, accounting for 5%-10% cases. The causes include hypertriglyceridemia, hypercalcemia, diabetes mellitus, porphyria, and Wilson's disease. The episodes of pancreatitis tend to be more severe. In cases of metabolic pancreatitis, over and above the standard routine management of pancreatitis, careful management of the underlying metabolic abnormalities is of paramount importance. If not treated properly, it leads to recurrent life-threatening bouts of acute pancreatitis. We hereby review the pathogenesis and management of various causes of metabolic pancreatitis. PMID:24083160

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Krishna, S.V.S.; Lakhtakia, Sandeep; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

2013-01-01

242

Gut origin sepsis, macrophage function, and oxygen extraction associated with acute pancreatitis in the rat.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the gut plays a role in the development of bacterial complications, which are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. The present study evaluated the enteric bacterial translocation, bacterial homeostasis, and reticuloendothelial system function in experimental acute pancreatitis induced by intraductal injection of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate in the rat. The incidence of bacterial translocation from the gut to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and lungs significantly increased after 12 hours and to the systemic circulation, ascites, and pancreas at 24 hours. The number of anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli decreased in the colon and distal ileum from 6 or 12 hours, whereas the number of Escherichia coli increased from 12 hours. The systemic uptake rate of radiolabeled bacteria decreased from 6 hours after induction of acute pancreatitis. The uptake of radiolabeled bacteria by Kupffer cells decreased from 6 hours, whereas the uptake by macrophages from blood, lungs, and the intestine increased. A decrease in macrophage killing capacity was noted, reflected by an increase in the number of cultured viable bacteria from isolated macrophages. The whole-body oxygen extraction rate increased 4 to 24 hours after induction of pancreatitis, whereas the gut oxygen extraction rate decreased at 2 and 4 hours, followed by an increase at 12 to 24 hours. These data show that translocation of enteric bacteria occurs during the early stage of acute pancreatitis and that the MLN-thoracic duct-circulation may be a major route of bacterial dissemination. Compromised gut oxygen metabolism, overexaggerated intestinal macrophages, and impaired host immune function may be involved in the development of infectious complications associated with acute pancreatitis. PMID:8661835

Wang, X; Andersson, R; Soltesz, V; Leveau, P; Ihse, I

1996-01-01

243

Extrapancreatic organ impairment during acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction. Effect of N-acetylcysteine.  

PubMed

Multiple organ failure is frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to study pulmonary, hepatic and renal complications developed in the course of AP experimentally induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO), differentiating the complications caused by AP itself, from those directly caused by bile duct obstruction (BDO), after ligating the choledocus. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered as a therapeutic approach. Myeloperoxidase activity revealed neutrophil infiltration in lungs from 12 h after BDO, even if AP was not triggered. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity indicated hepatocyte death from 48 h after BDO, and from 24 h following BPDO-induced AP onwards, an effect delayed until 48 h by NAC treatment. Rats with single cholestasis (BDO) and rats with BPDO-induced AP showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin concentration from 12 h onwards, whose values were reduced by NAC treatment at early BPDO. No renal failure was found during 120 h of bile-pancreatic obstruction. Our results showed lung and liver impairment as a result of BDO, even if AP does not develop. Pancreatic damage and extrapancreatic complications during AP induced by BPDO were palliated by NAC treatment. PMID:17877536

Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; De Dios, Isabel

2007-10-01

244

Extrapancreatic organ impairment during acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction. Effect of N-acetylcysteine  

PubMed Central

Summary Multiple organ failure is frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to study pulmonary, hepatic and renal complications developed in the course of AP experimentally induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO), differentiating the complications caused by AP itself, from those directly caused by bile duct obstruction (BDO), after ligating the choledocus. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered as a therapeutic approach. Myeloperoxidase activity revealed neutrophil infiltration in lungs from 12 h after BDO, even if AP was not triggered. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity indicated hepatocyte death from 48 h after BDO, and from 24 h following BPDO-induced AP onwards, an effect delayed until 48 h by NAC treatment. Rats with single cholestasis (BDO) and rats with BPDO-induced AP showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin concentration from 12 h onwards, whose values were reduced by NAC treatment at early BPDO. No renal failure was found during 120 h of bile-pancreatic obstruction. Our results showed lung and liver impairment as a result of BDO, even if AP does not develop. Pancreatic damage and extrapancreatic complications during AP induced by BPDO were palliated by NAC treatment. PMID:17877536

Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; De Dios, Isabel

2007-01-01

245

The utilization of antibiotics in the management of acute pancreatitis--experience from one transitional country university hospital.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyze the evidence-based use of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and to identify factors influencing the introduction of antibiotic therapy in the setting of transitional country clinical hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Internal Medicine at University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Data were collected from hospital records of patients treated for acute pancreatitis from January 1st, 2005 till December 31st, 2005. Data collected from patients' histories were compared with indications for antibiotic treatment and antibiotics with demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in acute pancreatitis which were obtained from published literature. Logistic regression was used to identify factors with a significant impact on deciding on the introduction of antibiotic therapy, and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors with a significant impact on the cost of treatment. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Antibiotic therapy was used in 67.7% of patients with acute pancreatitis. Combination of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was most frequently administered, either as monotherapy or in combination with metronidazole and/or gentamicin (37.3%), followed by cefuroxime (32.8%) and cefoperazone (26.9%). The choice of antibiotic was appropriate in 35.8% of study patients; however in 29.9% of patients who were administered antibiotics had no indication for this therapy; and 46.9% of patients who had indications for receiving antibiotic therapy didn't receive it. In the groups of patients treated with antibiotics, the cost of treatment was significantly higher compared to groups of patients who were not treated with antibiotics (p = 0.0035; p = 0.0026). In addition to antibiotic therapy, the cost of treatment was significantly influenced by the length of hospital stay and treatment at intensive care unit. The use of antibiotics in the setting of transitional country university hospital in patients with acute pancreatitis is not evidence-based. Decision on the introduction of antibiotic therapy is not based on objective parameters of disease severity or evidence of therapeutic efficacy of particular antibiotics. The cost of treatment is significantly increased by the use of antibiotic therapy. PMID:19149227

Marusi?, Sre?ko; Si?aja, Mario; Kujundzi?, Milan; Bani?, Marko; Jaksi?, Ozren; Vrazi?, Hrvoje

2008-12-01

246

A Meta-Analysis of Enteral Nutrition and Total Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To analyze the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. Randomized controlled trials of TPN and EN in patients with acute pancreatitis were searched in NCBI and CBM databases and The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Six studies were enrolled into the analysis, and the details about the trial designs, characters of the subjects, results of the studies were reviewed by two independent authors and analyzed by STATA 11.0 software. Results. Compared with TPN, EN was associated with a significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infection complications (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436?0.709, P = .000), MOF (RR = 0.395, 95% CI 0.272?0.573, P = .003), surgical interventions (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436?0.709, P = .000), and mortality (RR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.238?0.764, P = .167). There was no statistic significance in non-pancreatitis-related complications (RR = 0.853, 95% CI 0.490?1.483, P = .017). However, EN had a significantly higher incidence of non-infection-related complications (RR = 2.697, 95% CI 1.947?3.735, P = .994). Conclusion. EN could be the preferred nutrition feeding method in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:21687619

Quan, Heming; Wang, Xingpeng; Guo, Chuanyong

2011-01-01

247

Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury through Promoting Gastrointestinal Motility in Rats with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Objective. Gastrointestinal disfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) were common in acute pancreatitis (AP). The effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and ALI in rats with AP was investigated to verify the theory of “lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related” in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, and EA group. AP model was established by three injections of 20% L-arginine at 1?h intervals. EA were applied to bilateral ST-25 and ST-36 for 30 minutes twice a day after modeling for 3 days. Arterial blood, pancreas, lung, and intestinal tissues were collected for detecting the inflammatory factors and histopathology. Intestinal propulsion rate (IPR) was also measured at 72?h. Results. EA treatment improved IPR and increased CCK-8 level compared with model group (P < 0.05). It lowered the serum levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and increased the level of IL-4 with no effect on IL-10. EA treatment reduced serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in the lung and the pathologic scores of pancreas, lung and intestine were decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. EA treatment could promote gastrointestinal motility through inhibiting VIP, and promoting CCK expression and regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators to ameliorate ALI in AP. PMID:24876883

Guo, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Zhao, Xian-Lin; Wan, Mei-Hua; Tang, Wen-Fu

2014-01-01

248

Tracheal stenosis mimicking severe acute asthma  

PubMed Central

Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is a rare but serious clinical entity that rarely develops when intubation is less than a week. These patients may remain asymptomatic for a variable period and are often misdiagnosed as asthmatic. The authors report a case of a middle-aged lady who was initially misdiagnosed as having acute asthma after brief tracheal intubation. PMID:22789696

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Dildar, Babar; Husain, Shahid Javed; Khan, Mohammad Faisal

2010-01-01

249

Tracheal stenosis mimicking severe acute asthma.  

PubMed

Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is a rare but serious clinical entity that rarely develops when intubation is less than a week. These patients may remain asymptomatic for a variable period and are often misdiagnosed as asthmatic. The authors report a case of a middle-aged lady who was initially misdiagnosed as having acute asthma after brief tracheal intubation. PMID:22789696

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Dildar, Babar; Husain, Shahid Javed; Khan, Mohammad Faisal

2010-01-01

250

Attenuation of nociception in a model of acute pancreatitis by an NK-1 antagonist.  

PubMed

Substance P (SP) acting at the NK-1 neurokinin receptor has a well-documented role in the transmission and maintenance of nociceptive information. SP is found in the majority of fibers innervating the pancreas, and it is up-regulated after pancreatic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the NK-1 receptors in the maintenance of pancreatic nociception. Using a newly developed rat model of acute pancreatic nociception that persists for 1 week, the NK-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord and pancreas was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting procedures. The effects of a specific NK-1 antagonist, CP99,994, on the behavioral manifestations of pancreatic nociception were determined. The antagonist was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally to differentiate peripheral and central effects. Injection of CP-100,263, the inactive enantiomer of CP-99,994 was used as a control for nonspecific effects of the antagonist. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis revealed an up-regulation of the NK-1 receptor occurs in the pancreas but not at the spinal cord level. The NK-1 antagonist was able to attenuate the nociceptive behaviors in rats with pancreatitis when applied intraperitoneally with a short duration of effectiveness. Intrathecal application of the antagonist was ineffective. These results suggest the involvement of pancreatic NK-1 receptors in the maintenance of nociception during pancreatic inflammation. PMID:15006476

Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P; Westlund, Karin N

2004-03-01

251

Spontaneous regression of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm regression is a rare event. In particular, the spontaneous regression of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm has, to our knowledge, been previously documented in only two case reports. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanism of this event remains unclear. However, it is fully known that this vascular complication is potentially life-threatening and presents a high mortality rate if untreated. We report the case of a 49-year-old man affected by acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography was performed, and showed a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery. This patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to treat the pancreatitis, while the vascular complication was managed with a careful and conservative treatment. On day 6 of hospitalization, a second computed tomography scan was performed and revealed complete regression of the pseudoaneurysm. This case describes the diagnosis and management of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm following acute pancreatitis and its spontaneous regression. PMID:23750106

Castillo-Tandazo, Wilson; Ortega, José; Mariscal, César

2013-01-01

252

Are genetically modified mice useful for the understanding of acute pancreatitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of patients with acute pancre- atitis has greatly improved due to a better understand- ing of the pathophysiology of the disease. This patho- physiology includes the activation and release of pancreatic enzymes in the interstitium, the autodiges- tion of the pancreas, and a multiple organ dysfunction after their release into the systemic circulation. More- over, significant evidence exists that

CATHERINE M. PASTOR; JEAN-LOUIS FROSSARD

2001-01-01

253

The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and ?-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Rados?aw; Jab?onowska, Monika; ?ciskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanis?aw

2014-01-01

254

Effects of ?–3 Fatty Acids on Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of?–3 fatty acids (?3FA) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. The induction of ANP resulted in significant increases in mortality rate, intestinal permeability, bacterial infection in pancreas and extrapancreatic organs, and serum activity of urea and amylase, alanine transferase (ALT), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrotizing factor-?

E. Alhan; C. Erçin; B. V. Kural

2006-01-01

255

PGC-1? expression is increased in leukocytes in experimental acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) induces a systemic inflammatory disease that is responsible for high mortality rates, particularly when it is complicated by infection. Therefore, differentiating sepsis from the systemic inflammation caused by AP is a serious clinical challenge. Considering the high metabolic rates of leukocytes in response to stress induced by infection, we hypothesized that the transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1?), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, would be distinctly expressed during inflammation or infection and, therefore, could constitute a useful marker to differentiate between these two conditions. Rats were subjected to injection of taurocholate into the main pancreatic duct, which caused a severe AP with high amylase levels and white blood cell counts. In these animals, a marked increase in PGC-1? mRNA levels in circulating leukocytes was observed 48 h after the surgical procedure, a time when bacteremia is present. Antibiotic treatment abolished PGC-1? up-regulation. Moreover, PGC-1? expression was higher in peritoneal macrophages from animals subjected to a bacterial insult (cecal ligation and puncture) than in animals with AP. In isolated macrophages, we also observed that PGC-1? expression is more prominent in the presence of a phagocytic stimulus (zymosan) when compared to lipopolysaccharide-induced aseptic inflammation. Moreover, abolishing PGC-1? expression with antisense oligos impaired zymosan phagocytosis. Together, these findings suggest that PGC-1? is differentially expressed during aseptic inflammation and infection and that it is necessary for adequate phagocytosis. These results could be useful in developing new tests for differentiating infection from inflammation for clinical purposes in patients with AP. PMID:24562467

Llimona, Flávia; de Lima, Thais Martins; Moretti, Ana Iochabel; Theobaldo, Mariana; Jukemura, Jose; Velasco, Irineu Tadeu; Machado, Marcel C C; Souza, Heraldo Possolo

2014-08-01

256

Oxidative stress in severe acute illness  

PubMed Central

The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione–glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin–oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+–NADH (and NADP–NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686

Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.

2015-01-01

257

Pancreatic panniculitis: a rare complication of pancreatitis secondary to ERCP.  

PubMed

Panniculitis is an uncommon and rare complication of systemic fat necrosis in patients with pancreatic diseases. The skin manifestations are independent of the severity of the pancreatic pathology and can occur at any time. The lesions can precede, be concomitant with or rarely follow the pancreatic illness. We report a case of acute pancreatitis post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) for common bile duct stone, with subcutaneous panniculitis. We noted a complete resolution within two weeks after the treatment of the pancreatic pathology. PMID:24630514

Makhoul, Elias; Yazbeck, Charbel; Urbain, Daniel; Mana, Fazia; Mahanna, Saba; Akiki, Bassem; Elias, Edouard

2014-03-01

258

A case of recurrent arrhythmia in an acute pancreatitis patient--pathophysiological explanation using shortage of 'repolarization reserve'.  

PubMed

We report a case of a patient with acute pancreatitis who developed serious heart rhythm abnormalities on three occasions, two of which were associated with administration of the first generation antihistamine chloropyramine, and the third one with hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. Dysrhythmic events consisted of bigeminy, multifocal ventricular extrasystoles and torsades de pointes-like ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic changes in acute pancreatitis in the absence of previous heart disease can occur in more than half of the cases. Antihistamines are medications that are known to produce heart rhythm disturbances, especially the second generation drugs astemizole and terfenadine. This is the first report of chloropyramine causing dysrhythmia. It seems that acute pancreatitis patients are especially prone to heart dysrhythmia caused by different factors such as electrolyte disturbances and pronounced vagal tone. Acute pancreatitis may be added to the list of risk factors with altered 'repolarization reserve', predisposing to drug-induced QT interval prolongation and possible torsades de pointes occurrence. PMID:24697004

Uvelin, Arsen; Hajdukovi?, Danica; Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Kolak, Radmila; Lazuki?, Aleksandra; Vickovi?, Sanja; Gojkovi?, Zoran

2013-12-01

259

Pioglitazone, a specific ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, protects pancreas against acute cerulein-induced pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the effect of pioglitazone, a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) ligand, on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) and on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the pancreas. METHODS: AP was induced in rats by subcutaneous infusion of cerulein for 5 h. Pancreatic blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Plasma lipase activity, interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-10 were determined. Pancreatic weight and histology were evaluated and pancreatic DNA synthesis and blood flow as well as pancreatic mRNA for IL-1? and HSP70 were assessed in rats treated with pioglitazone alone or in combination with cerulein. RESULTS: Pioglitazone administered (10-100 mg/kg i.g.) 30 min before cerulein, attenuated dose-dependently the pancreatic tissue damage in cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) as demonstrated by the improvement of pancreatic histology, reduction in plasma lipase activity, plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory IL-1? and its gene expression in the pancreas and attenuation of the pancreatitis-evoked fall in pancreatic blood flow. CIP increased pancreatic HSP70 mRNA and protein expression in the pancreas and this effect was enhanced by pioglitazone treatment. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone attenuates CIP and the beneficial effect of this pioglitazone is multifactorial probably due to its anti-inflammatory activities, to the suppression of IL-1? and to the overexpression of HSP70. PPAR? ligands could represent a new therapeutic option in the treatment of AP. PMID:16419161

Konturek, Peter C; Dembinski, Artur; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Burnat, Grzegorz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Hahn, Eckhart G; Dembinski, Marcin; Tomaszewska, Romana; Konturek, Stanislaw J

2005-01-01

260

Phospholipase A2 mediates nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages and acute lung injury in pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Reportedly, nitric oxide (NO) derived from alveolar macrophages (AMs) and increased serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity are associated with the pathogenesis of lung injury in acute pancreatitis. The authors examined the possibility that PLA2 causes, in part, the induction of NO production by AMs in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by selective pancreatic duct ligation (SPL). AMs were stimulated with PLA2 or SPL rat serum, with or without administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. Then NO production from the AMs was measured by the Griess method, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression of AMs was analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cytotoxic effects of AMs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by a 51Cr release assay. In vivo, the effect of quinacrine on lung injury was determined by measuring the arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2), lung weight, and lung permeability using Evans blue dye concentration of SPL rat. RESULTS: In vitro, the serum with high PLA2 activity induced NO production by rat AMs. PLA2 (50 ng/ml) induced significant amounts of NO production, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression, and cytotoxicity toward the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in normal rat AMs, and these activities were significantly inhibited by quinacrine. In vivo, rats with pancreatitis that were given quinacrine showed decreased concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the PaO2, lung edema, and lung permeability were improved significantly. CONCLUSION: PLA2 induces AMs to release NO, which contributes to lung injury in acute pancreatitis. This lung injury was prevented by the administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. Images Figure 4. PMID:10077051

Tsukahara, Y; Morisaki, T; Horita, Y; Torisu, M; Tanaka, M

1999-01-01

261

Effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Intestinal barrier disruption followed by bacterial translocation seems to play a role in secondary pancreatic infection in acute pancreatitis. The use of probiotics as a possible adjuvant strategy in the treatment of acute pancreatitis needs to be investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a prophylactically administered multispecies probiotic mixture on the markers of acute pancreatitis and on the occurrence of bacterial translocation. Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups of 10 rats each: (1) the PS group, in which the rats were given probiotic supplementation prior to induction of acute pancreatitis; (2) the WP group, in which the rats underwent surgery to induce acute pancreatitis without prior probiotic supplementation; and (3) the control group, in which the rats underwent sham surgery. For 14 days before surgery, animals in the PS group received a single daily dose containing ~1.2 × 109 colony-forming units of a probiotic mixture administered intragastrically as a bolus. On day 15, the animals underwent surgery to induce acute pancreatitis (PS and WP groups) or simulated surgery (control group). Blood samples were collected to determine leukocyte count, amylase and lipase activities, and glucose and calcium concentrations immediately before and 6 and 12 hours after the beginning of the procedure. Samples of pancreas, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes were harvested for microbiologic and histopathologic analysis after the last blood sample collection. The pathologist examining the histopathology was blinded to treatment assignment. Results: The mean leukocyte count was significantly increased in the PS group compared with the WP group (P = 0.018), whereas the serum amylase and lipase activities and the serum glucose and calcium concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Comparing the risk for tissue colonization in the PS group with that of the WP group, the odds ratio (OR) for pancreas was 2.91 (95% CI, 0.13–67.10); liver, 66.55 (95% CI, 1.89–2282.66); spleen, 88.58 (95% CI, 3.04–2583.08); and mesenteric lymph nodes, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.06–25.48). When the risks for histopathologic changes were compared between the 2 groups, the OR for acinar necrosis was 1.73 (95% CI, 0.21–12.17); steatonecrosis, 12.08 (95% CI, 1.26–115.54); hemorrhage, 1.38 (95% CI, 0.21–9.53); and leukocyte infiltration, 5.91 (95% CI, 0.64–54.89). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation before the induction of acute pancreatitis was associated with a greater degree of bacterial translocation and pancreatic tissue damage in this animal model. PMID:24683225

Horst, Nara L.; Marques, Ruy Garcia; Diestel, Cristina F.; Matzke, Bianca D.; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo R.; Simőes, Fernanda Correia; Andrade, Arnaldo F.B.; Lobăo, Wagner I.; Vaz, Luiz Carlos A.; Portela, Margareth C.; Braga, José Ueleres; Melo, Paulo A.

2009-01-01

262

Catalpol ameliorates sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis in rats via inhibiting activation of nuclear factor kappa B.  

PubMed

Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia glutinosa, is reported to exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptotic effects. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether catalpol ameliorates experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by sodium taurocholate (STC). AP was induced in rats via retrograde injection of 4% STC (0.1 mL/100 g) into the biliopancreatic duct. Rats were pre-treated with saline or catalpol (50 mg/kg) 2 h before STC injection. At 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, the severity of AP was evaluated using biochemical and morphological analyses. Pretreatment with catalpol led to a significant reduction in serum amylase and lipase activities, pancreatic histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? levels, and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). Moreover, administration of catalpol increased the viability of pancreatic acinar cells and inhibited NF-?B expression in vitro. Our results collectively support the potential of catalpol as a highly effective therapeutic agent for treatment of AP. PMID:25000266

Xiao, Wen Qin; Yin, Guo Jian; Fan, Yu Ting; Qiu, Lei; Cang, Xiao Feng; Yu, Ge; Hu, Yan Ling; Xing, Miao; Wu, De Qing; Wang, Xing Peng; Hu, Guo Yong; Wan, Rong

2014-01-01

263

Catalpol Ameliorates Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Inhibiting Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B  

PubMed Central

Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia glutinosa, is reported to exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptotic effects. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether catalpol ameliorates experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by sodium taurocholate (STC). AP was induced in rats via retrograde injection of 4% STC (0.1 mL/100 g) into the biliopancreatic duct. Rats were pre-treated with saline or catalpol (50 mg/kg) 2 h before STC injection. At 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, the severity of AP was evaluated using biochemical and morphological analyses. Pretreatment with catalpol led to a significant reduction in serum amylase and lipase activities, pancreatic histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? levels, and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). Moreover, administration of catalpol increased the viability of pancreatic acinar cells and inhibited NF-?B expression in vitro. Our results collectively support the potential of catalpol as a highly effective therapeutic agent for treatment of AP. PMID:25000266

Xiao, Wen Qin; Yin, Guo Jian; Fan, Yu Ting; Qiu, Lei; Cang, Xiao Feng; Yu, Ge; Hu, Yan Ling; Xing, Miao; Wu, De Qing; Wang, Xing Peng; Hu, Guo Yong; Wan, Rong

2014-01-01

264

Spontaneous rupture of a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma presenting as an acute abdomen  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant pancreatic neoplasm. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on spontaneous rupture of acinar cell carcinoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 39-year-old Azari male presented with a history of sudden onset, acute epigastric pain of 12-h duration. Eight hours later the patient's general condition rapidly deteriorated, blood pressure was decreased to 90/70 mm/Hg and heart rate was increased to 120 beat/min. Emergent abdominal computed tomography scan showed a well-defined hypo-dense, necrotic mass, measured 12 cm × 12 cm that was originating from the uncinate process of pancreas with marked free peritoneal fluid and extensive haziness of retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat compatible with marked bleeding. Emergent abdominal operation was performed and histopathology revealed acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. DISCUSSION Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) usually presents with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. To best of our knowledge, no report has been made of spontaneous rupture of ACC. CONCLUSION Pancreatic carcinoma may present as acute abdomen due to rupture of underlying neoplasm. PMID:22543229

Mohammadi, Afshin; Porghasem, Jalal; Esmaeili, Arefeh; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad

2012-01-01

265

Oral administration of sepimostat mesilate prevents acute alcohol pancreatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

The preventive effect of a novel synthetic serine protease inhibitor, sepimostat mesilate (sepimostat), on acute alcohol pancreatic injury, induced by exocrine hyperstimulation and ethanol administration, was assessed and compared with that of a similar protease inhibitor, camostat mesilate (camostat). Conscious rats were infused with 1 microg mL(-1) h(-1) caerulein intravenously for 6 h and with 0.1 g mL(-1) h(-1) ethanol for 9 h, with the latter infusion beginning 3 h after the start of the caerulein infusion. Sepimostat or camostat was administered orally 1 h before the caerulein infusion. Rats infused with caerulein plus ethanol showed increased plasma amylase and lipase activities, and aggravated pancreatic interstitial oedema when compared with rats given caerulein alone. Sepimostat at 10 and 30 mg kg(-1) prevented the increase in plasma amylase and lipase activities caused by caerulein plus ethanol infusion. Sepimostat at 30 mg kg(-1) suppressed the histological change. Camostat did not show any preventive effects at the equivalent dose. When conscious rats were infused with 1 microg mL(-1) h(-1) caerulein alone intravenously for 6 h, plasma amylase and lipase activities were increased compared with rats given saline. Neither drug prevented the increase in these activities at 30mg kg(-1). Our results suggest that sepimostat has superior preventive effects on alcohol-induced acute pancreatic injury compared with camostat. Sepimostat may thus be a useful drug in the therapy of alcohol-induced pancreatitis. PMID:10467964

Yuasa, C; Irimura, K; Oda, M; Fukui, K; Oka, T

1999-07-01

266

Recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates the severity of chronic pancreatitis induced by TNBS in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in the department of gastroenterology, with the main symptoms of exocrine and/or endocrine insufficiency and abdominal pain. The pathogenic mechanism of CP is still not fully clarified and the aims of treatment now are to relieve symptoms. In this study, we attempted to find a connection between interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic pancreatitis, and then the therapeutic effect of recombinant IL-1Ra was also detected in the CP model. Chronic pancreatitis was induced by intraductal infusion of TNBS in SD rats followed by a consecutive administration of rIL-1Ra, and the histological changes and collagen content in the pancreas were measured, as well as the abdominal hypersensitivity. We found that rhIL-1Ra could attenuate the severity of chronic pancreatic injury, modulate the extracellular matrix secretion, focal proliferation and apoptosis, and cellular immunity in TNBS-induced CP. Interestingly, rIL-1Ra could also block the pancreatitis-induced referred abdominal hypersensitivity. In conclusion, IL-1Ra may play a protective role in CP and rIL-1Ra would be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CP, while its possible mechanisms and clinical usage still need further investigation. PMID:25559498

Xu, Chunfang; Shen, Jiaqing; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Zhenyu; He, Zhilong; Zhuang, Xiaohui; Xu, Ting; Shi, Yuqi; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Han, Wei

2015-02-15

267

In Vivo Imaging with Fluorescent Smart Probes to Assess Treatment Strategies for Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Endoprotease activation is a key step in acute pancreatitis and early inhibition of these enzymes may protect from organ damage. In vivo models commonly used to evaluate protease inhibitors require animal sacrifice and therefore limit the assessment of dynamic processes. Here, we established a non-invasive fluorescence imaging-based biomarker assay to assess real-time protease inhibition and disease progression in a preclinical model of experimental pancreatitis. Methods Edema development and trypsin activation were imaged in a rat caerulein-injection pancreatitis model. A fluorescent “smart” probe, selectively activated by trypsin, was synthesized by labeling with Cy5.5 of a pegylated poly-L-lysine copolymer. Following injection of the probe, trypsin activation was monitored in the presence or absence of inhibitors by in vivo and ex vivo imaging. Results We established the trypsin-selectivity of the fluorescent probe in vitro using a panel of endopeptidases and specific inhibitor. In vivo, the probe accumulated in the liver and a region attributed to the pancreas by necropsy. A dose dependent decrease of total pancreatic fluorescence signal occurred upon administration of known trypsin inhibitors. The fluorescence-based method was a better predictor of trypsin inhibition than pancreatic to body weight ratio. Conclusions We established a fluorescence imaging assay to access trypsin inhibition in real-time in vivo. This method is more sensitive and dynamic than classic tissue sample readouts and could be applied to preclinically optimize trypsin inhibitors towards intrapancreatic target inhibition. PMID:23409095

Agarwal, Abhiruchi; Boettcher, Andreas; Kneuer, Rainer; Sari-Sarraf, Farid; Donovan, Adriana; Woelcke, Julian; Simic, Oliver; Brandl, Trixi; Krucker, Thomas

2013-01-01

268

Controlled trial of high-dose octreotide in treatment of acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis were sequentially allocated to treatment with high-dose octreotide (N=9) or to act as controls (N=10). All other aspects of treatment were similar and were according to a strict treatment protocol. There was no significant difference between the two groups on admission with regard to recognized criteria of poor prognosis. The octreotide-treated group required significantly

N. Beechey-Newman

1993-01-01

269

Acute pancreatitis and gastric dilatation in a patient with anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed Central

A case is described in which a young woman undergoing treatment for anorexia nervosa developed gastric dilatation and acute pancreatitis. Two previous reports have described these as complications of anorexia nervosa and in view of this case attention is drawn to a possible association between these conditions. The importance of monitoring the anorectic patient's clinical state during the early phase of treatment is stressed. PMID:3991401

Backett, S. A.

1985-01-01

270

Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract AIM: Taraxacum,officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy,for inflammatory,diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TO on cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: TO at 10 mg\\/kg was orally administered, followed by 75 µg\\/kg CCK octapeptide injected subcutaneously,three times after 1, 3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated

Sang-wan Seo; Hyun-na Koo; An Hyo-jin; Kang-beom Kwon; Byung-cheal Lim; Eun-a Seo; Do-gon Ryu; Goo Moon; Hong-yeoul Kim; Hyung-min Kim; Seung-heon Hong

2005-01-01

271

Does the pain-protective GTP cyclohydrolase haplotype significantly alter the pattern or severity of pain in humans with chronic pancreatitis?  

PubMed Central

Background Pain is often a dominant clinical feature of chronic pancreatitis but the frequency and severity is highly variable between subjects. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms contribute to variations in clinical pain patterns. Since genetic variations in the GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) gene have been reported to protect some patients from pain, we investigated the effect of the "pain protective haplotype" in well characterized patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) or recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2). Results Subjects in the NAPS2 study were asked to rank their pain in one of 5 categories reflecting different levels of pain frequency and severity. All subjects were genotyped at rs8007267 and rs3783641 to determine the frequency of the GCH1 pain-protective haplotype. In Caucasian subjects the frequency of the pain-protective GCH1 haplotype was no different in the control group (n = 236), CP patients (n = 265), RAP patients (N = 131), or in CP patients subclassified by pain category compared to previously reported haplotype frequencies in the general Caucasian population. Conclusion The GCH1 pain-protective haplotype does not have a significant effect on pain patterns or severity in RAP or CP. These results are important for helping to define the regulators of visceral pain, and to distinguish different mechanisms of pain. PMID:19014702

Lazarev, Mark; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M Michael; Dai, Feng; Anderson, Michelle A; Max, Mitchell B; Whitcomb, David C

2008-01-01

272

Effects of intensive insulin therapy combined with low molecular weight heparin anticoagulant therapy on severe pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The current study explored the effects of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) combined with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulant therapy on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 134 patients with SAP that received treatment between June 2008 and June 2012 were divided randomly into groups A (control; n=33), B (IIT; n=33), C (LMWH; n=34) and D (IIT + LMWH; n=34). Group A were treated routinely. Group B received continuous pumped insulin, as well as the routine treatment, to maintain the blood sugar level between 4.4 and 6.1 mmol/l. Group C received a subcutaneous injection of LMWH every 12 h in addition to the routine treatment. Group D received IIT + LMWH and the routine treatment. The white blood cell count, hemodiastase, serum albumin, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and prothrombin time were recorded prior to treatment and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after the initiation of treatment. The intestinal function recovery time, incidence rate of multiple organ failure (MOF), length of hospitalization and fatality rates were observed. IIT + LMWH noticeably increased the white blood cell count, hemodiastase level, serum albumin level and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen in the patients with SAP (P<0.05). It markedly shortened the intestinal recovery time and the length of stay and reduced the incidence rate of MOF, the surgery rate and the fatality rate (P<0.05). It did not aggravate the hemorrhagic tendency of SAP (P>0.05). IIT + LMWH had a noticeably improved clinical curative effect on SAP compared with that of the other treatments. PMID:24944612

DU, JUN-DONG; ZHENG, XI; HUANG, ZHI-QIANG; CAI, SHOU-WANG; TAN, JING-WANG; LI, ZHAN-LIANG; YAO, YONG-MING; JIAO, HUA-BO; YIN, HUI-NAN; ZHU, ZI-MAN

2014-01-01

273

Red cell distribution width to platelet ratio: New and promising prognostic marker in acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of red cell distribution width (RDW) to platelet ratio (RPR) to predict in-hospital mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Between January 2010 and June 2012, 102 patients with AP were recruited to the study. In this retrospective cohort study, for all subjects, demographic data on hospital admission, AP etiology, co-morbid diseases, organ failure assessment, laboratory parameters and length of hospital stay were examined. Additionally, we used a non-invasive prediction method in addition to the RPR to evaluate the disease severity. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the impact of RPR on hospital admission to predict mortality. RESULTS: The male-female ratio (59/43) was 1.37 with a median age of 56.5 years (17-89 years). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, RDW and RPR were presented as independent and significant variables on admission to predict mortality. The RPR obtained on hospital admission was persistently higher among non-survivors than among survivors (P < 0.0001). The median RPR was 0.000087 in the non-survivor group and 0.000058 in the survivor group. RPR with a cutoff value of 0.000067 presented an area under the curve of 0.783 (95%CI: 0.688-0.878) in receiver operating characteristic curves and could predict the mortality of approximately 80% of the patients. CONCLUSION: We identified RPR as a valuable, novel laboratory test to predict mortality in AP. PMID:25339831

Çetinkaya, Erdinç; ?enol, Kaz?m; Saylam, Bar??; Tez, Mesut

2014-01-01

274

Ecstasy: A common cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Ecstasy is a synthetic amphetamine recently identified as a possible cause of acute liver injury. This drug is consumed by young people and has a marked effect on improving sociability. The extent of ecstasy-associated severe hepatic damage is unknown to date.Methods: The clinical histories of 62 patients with acute liver failure admitted to the Intensive Care Liver Unit between

Victoria Andreu; Antoni Mas; Miquel Bruguera; Joan Manuel Salmerón; Vicente Moreno; Santiago Nogué; Joan Rodés

1998-01-01

275

Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been reported in Hong Kong. We investigated the viral cause and clinical presentation among 50 patients. Methods We analysed case notes and microbiological findings for 50 patients with SARS, representing more than five separate epidemiologically linked transmission clusters. We defined the clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe

JSM Peiris; ST Lai; LLM Poon; Y Guan; LYC Yam; W Lim; J Nicholls; WKS Yee; WW Yan; MT Cheung; VCC Cheng; KH Chan; DNC Tsang; RWH Yung; TK Ng; KY Yuen

2003-01-01

276

Multicenter Approach to Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States: The North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2)  

PubMed Central

Background Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are complex syndromes associated with numerous etiologies, clinical variables and complications. We developed the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2) to be sufficiently powered to understand the complex environmental, metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying RAP and CP. Methods Between August 2000 and September 2006, a consortium of 20 expert academic and private sites prospectively ascertained 1,000 human subjects with RAP or CP, plus 695 controls (spouse, family, friend or unrelated). Standardized questionnaires were completed by both the physicians and study subjects and blood was drawn for genomic DNA and biomarker studies. All data were double-entered into a database and systematically reviewed to minimize errors and include missing data. Results A total of 1,000 subjects (460 RAP, 540 CP) and 695 controls who completed consent forms and questionnaires and donated blood samples comprised the final dataset. Data were organized according to diagnosis, supporting documentation, etiological classification, clinical signs and symptoms (including pain patterns and duration, and quality of life), past medical history, family history, environmental exposures (including alcohol and tobacco use), medication use and therapeutic interventions. Upon achieving the target enrollment, data were organized and classified to facilitate future analysis. The approaches, rationale and datasets are described, along with final demographic results. Conclusion The NAPS2 consortium has successfully completed a prospective ascertainment of 1,000 subjects with RAP and CP from the USA. These data will be useful in elucidating the environmental, metabolic and genetic conditions, and to investigate the complex interactions that underlie RAP and CP. PMID:18765957

Whitcomb, David C.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Adam, Slivka; Hawes, Robert H.; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Bishop, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; Lo, Simon K.; DeMeo, Mark T.; Steinberg, William M.; Kochman, Michael L.; Etemad, Babak; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Elinoff, Beth; Greer, Julia B.; O’Connell, Michael; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M. Michael

2008-01-01

277

Roles of Cav 3.2 and TRPA1 channels targeted by hydrogen sulfide in pancreatic nociceptive processing in mice with or without acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), formed by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), targets Cav 3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T channels) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), facilitating somatic pain. Pancreatitis-related pain also appears to involve activation of T channels by H2 S formed by the upregulated CSE. Therefore, this study investigates the roles of the Cav 3.2 isoform and/or TRPA1 in pancreatic nociception in the absence and presence of pancreatitis. In anesthetized mice, AP18, a TRPA1 inhibitor, abolished the Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn caused by injection of a TRPA1 agonist into the pancreatic duct. As did mibefradil, a T-channel inhibitor, in our previous report, AP18 prevented the Fos expression following ductal NaHS, an H2 S donor. In the mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, the referred hyperalgesia was suppressed by NNC 55-0396 (NNC), a selective T-channel inhibitor; zinc chloride; or ascorbic acid, known to inhibit Cav 3.2 selectively among three T-channel isoforms; and knockdown of Cav 3.2. In contrast, AP18 and knockdown of TRPA1 had no significant effect on the cerulein-induced referred hyperalgesia, although they significantly potentiated the antihyperalgesic effect of NNC at a subeffective dose. TRPA1 but not Cav 3.2 in the dorsal root ganglia was downregulated at a protein level in mice with cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The data indicate that TRPA1 and Cav 3.2 mediate the exogenous H2 S-induced pancreatic nociception in naďve mice and suggest that, in the mice with pancreatitis, Cav 3.2 targeted by H2 S primarily participates in the pancreatic pain, whereas TRPA1 is downregulated and plays a secondary role in pancreatic nociceptive signaling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25267397

Terada, Yuka; Fujimura, Mayuko; Nishimura, Sachiyo; Tsubota, Maho; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawabata, Atsufumi

2015-02-01

278

Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole.  

PubMed

Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diagnosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously. PMID:24434395

Redondo-Pachon, Maria Dolores; Enriquez, Ricardo; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Millan, Isabel; Romero, Alberto; Amorós, Francisco

2014-01-01

279

The simultaneous incidence of acute pancreatitis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a rare duo in a patient with SLE  

PubMed Central

A young female presented with acute abdominal pain of two days duration consistent with acute pancreatitis. During her stay in the hospital she had a sudden drop in hemoglobin to 6 g/dl without any overt blood loss. On evaluation, it was evident that she had acute pancreatitis, in addition to displaying features of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She had been a known case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and had discontinued her treatment. She was managed with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Her clinical condition improved, and she has been regularly attending our clinic for the last 2 years. According to a literature search in Medline, it would appear that this is the first report of a case in which SLE with autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been associated with acute pancreatitis in a single case. PMID:25276114

Masoodi, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

280

Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1b with High Viral Load  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis, an uncommon side effect of pegylated interferon ? (PEG-IFN ?) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy, has rarely been reported in the English language literature. Here, acute pancreatitis associated with PEG-IFN plus RBV treatment is described in three patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1b with high serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels. The patients had been started on weekly subcutaneous injections of PEG-IFN ? (60, 80, and 90 ?g) plus a daily oral dose of RBV (600 mg). The therapy was discontinued, however, because of the onset of acute pancreatitis (after 15 weeks, 48 weeks, and 3 weeks respectively). The drug-induced pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated levels of amylase and lipase and the absence of other identifiable causes. High tumor necrosis factor-? was found in one patient and high interleukin-6 in the other two. The immune system stimulated by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy might have caused the acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of the onset of drug-induced pancreatitis by PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy. PMID:21103256

Ando, Kenji; Kim, Soo Ryang; Imoto, Susumu; Nakajima, Taisuke; Mita, Keiji; Fukuda, Katsumi; Taniguchi, Miyuki; Sasase, Noriko; Muramatsu, Akira; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

2009-01-01

281

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY LIGATION-INDUCED ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

Background Bile-pancreatic duct ligation in rats causes acute pancreatic inflammation. We performed serial morphologic evaluation of the exocrine pancreas after duct ligation to facilitate further investigations using the model. Methods The pancreas was excised from 74 rats after 0, 1, 3, 5, 24 or 48 h of duct ligation or sham operation. A pathologist evaluated one hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slide from each rat. Confirmatory immunostaining was performed with markers for apoptosis (activated caspase-3), proliferation (cyclin D3), neutrophils (myeloperoxidase), and macrophages (CD68). Results Interstitial edema and WBC infiltration were apparent at 24 h and increased at 48 h. Progressive periods of duct ligation were characterized by ductular ectasia (1–3 h), acinar vacuolization (5–48 h), leukocytic margination and neutrophil exocytosis (5–48 h), ductule epithelium hypertrophy and proliferation (24–48 h), and discernible loss of zymogen granules (48 h). Conclusion Ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in rats is a useful model to investigate early events in disease pathogenesis. PMID:17936429

Meyerholz, David K.; Samuel, Isaac

2007-01-01

282

Therapeutic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in a rat model of cerulean-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Seventy male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups. Acute edematous pancreatitis was induced by subcutaneous cerulein injection (20 ?g/kg) four times at 1-h intervals. CAPE (30 mg/kg) was given by subcutaneous injection at the beginning (CAPE 1 group) and 12 h after the last cerulein injection (CAPE 2 group). Serum amylase, lipase, white blood cell count, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels were measured, and pancreatic histopathology was assessed. RESULTS: In the AP group, amylase and lipase levels were found to be elevated and the histopathological evaluation showed massive edema and inflammation of the pancreas, with less fatty necrosis when compared with sham and control groups. Amylase and lipase levels and edema formation decreased significantly in the CAPE therapy groups (P < 0001); especially in the CAPE 2 group, edema was improved nearly completely (P = 0001). Inflammation and fatty necrosis were partially recovered by CAPE treatment. The pathological results and amylase level in the placebo groups were similar to those in the AP group. White blood cell count and TNF-? concentration was nearly the same in the CAPE and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: CAPE may be useful agent in treatment of AP but more experimental and clinical studies are needed to support our observation of beneficial effects of CAPE before clinical usage of this agent. PMID:19891017

Buyukberber, Mehmet; Sava?, M Cemil; Bagci, Cahit; Koruk, Mehmet; Gulsen, Murat T; Tutar, Ediz; Bilgic, Tugba; Ceylan, Nurdan Ö

2009-01-01

283

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Main Content Area Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Research SARS-CoV caused an infectious disease ... CoV , and in 2013 with H7N9 influenza virus. SARS-CoV Summary According to the World Health Organization, ...

284

A Novel Coronavirus Associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

background A worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been associated with exposures originating from a single ill health care worker from Guangdong Prov- ince, China. We conducted studies to identify the etiologic agent of this outbreak. methods We received clinical specimens from patients in six countries and tested them, using virus isolation techniques, electron-microscopical and histologic studies,

Thomas G. Ksiazek; Dean Erdman; Cynthia Goldsmith; Sherif R. Zaki; Teresa Peret; Shannon Emery; Suxiang Tong; Carlo Urbani; James A. Comer; Pierre E. Rollin; Scott Dowell; Ai-Ee Ling; Charles Humphrey; Wun-Ju Shieh; Jeannette Guarner; Christopher D. Paddock; Paul Rota; Joseph DeRisi; Jyh-Yuan Yang; Nancy Cox; James Hughes; James W. LeDuc; William Bellini; Larry J. Anderson

2010-01-01

285

Lung pathology of fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Summary Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel infectious disease with global impact. A virus from the family Coronaviridae has been identified as the cause, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. Methods Post-mortem tissue samples from six patients who died from SARS in February and March, 2003, and an open lung biopsy from one of these patients

John M Nicholls; Leo L M Poon; Kam C Lee; Wai F Ng; Sik T Lai; Chung Y Leung; Chung M Chu; Pak K Hui; Kong L Mak; Wilina Lim; Kin W Yan; Kwok H Chan; Ngai C Tsang; Yi Guan; Kwok Y Yuen; J S Malik Peiris

2003-01-01

286

Severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Taiwan, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified on February 25, 2003, a total of 3032 cases of suspected or probable SARS were reported prior to July 5, 2003. Among these cases, 664 cases were classified as probable SARS based on the clinical case definitions and 346 had a positive result for the SARS-associated

Po-Ren Hsueh; Pan-Chyr Yang

287

Identification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a condition of unknown cause that has re- cently been recognized in patients in Asia, North America, and Europe. This report summarizes the initial epidemiologic findings, clinical description, and diagnostic findings that followed the identification of SARS in Canada. methods SARS was first identified in Canada in early March 2003. We collected epidemiologic,

Susan M. Poutanen; Donald E. Low; Bonnie Henry; Sandy Finkelstein; David Rose; Karen Green; Raymond Tellier; Ryan Draker; Dena Adachi; Melissa Ayers; Adrienne K. Chan; Danuta M. Skowronski; Irving Salit; Andrew E. Simor; Arthur S. Slutsky; Patrick W. Doyle; Mel Krajden; Martin Petric; Robert C. Brunham; Allison J. McGeer

1995-01-01

288

Elevated Deoxycholic Acid and Idiopathic Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report With 48 Months of Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Recurrent pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening condition with a well-established differential diagnosis. In a significant number of cases, no explanation exists. This case report documents one patient with a clear pattern of recurrent acute pancreatitis and no identifiable cause despite great effort. After 7 years of recurrent symptoms, she was found to have marked elevation of fecal deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid used to precipitate pancreatitis in animal models. This report documents cessation of symptoms/hospitalizations with normalization of her fecal DCA levels. This secondary bile acid is easily measured in stool. Needed now is an observational study of fecal DCA levels in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:24891995

2014-01-01

289

Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?  

PubMed Central

The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5’ region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

2014-01-01

290

Nutritional rehabilitation of children < 6 mo with severe acute malnutrition.  

PubMed

The authors studied the outcome of 108 infants severe acute malnutrition (SAM) admitted in the Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres (NRC) at a teaching hospital. The most common symptom that the children presented with, was acute diarrhoea (35.2 %) followed by failure to gain weight (26.9 %). Seventy five (69.4 %) infants were cured after nutritional rehabilitation and 29 (26.8 %) were non responders. Fifty two (48 %) infants showed good weight gain after proper counseling or supplementary suckling technique alone. PMID:24271875

Singh, Dharmendra K; Rai, Ruchi; Mishra, Prakash Chandra; Maurya, Manisha; Srivastava, Anubha

2014-08-01

291

Effect of resveratrol on activation of nuclear factor kappa-B and inflammatory factors in rat model of acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To observe the effect of resveratrol on nuclear factor Kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and the inflammatory response in sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (control), severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) group, and severe acute pancreatitis group treated with resveratrol (RES). A SAP model was established by injecting 4% sodium taurocholate 1 mL/kg through puncturing the pancreatic duct. In Res group, Res was given at 30 mg/kg b.m. intraperitoneally after the SAP model was successfully established. Eight animals from each group were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 h after modeling. The expression of NF-?B activation of pancreas was detected by immunohistochemical staining, whereas the levels of TNF-? and IL-8 in pancreatic tissues were estimated by radioimmunoassay. The pathological changes of pancreas and lungs were examined microscopically. RESULTS: Much less hyperemia, edema, dust-colored necrotic focus and soaps were noticed in pancreas in RES group than in SAP group. In RES group, hemorrhage, exudates and infiltration of inflammatory cells in pancreas and interstitial edema, destruction of alveolar wall in lung were significantly less than in SAP group. In the SAP group, the activation of NF-?B in pancreatic tissues was enhanced significantly at any measure point compared with control group (64.23±10.72% vs 2.56±0.65%, 55.86±11.34% vs 2.32±0.42%, 36.23±2.30% vs 2.40±0.36%,P <0.01), TNF-?,IL-8 were also increased and reached their peak at 6 h and then declined. The activation of NF-?B and the levels of TNF-? and IL-8 in RES group were significantly lower than those in SAP group (P<0.01): activation (52.63±9.45% vs 64.23±10.72%, 40.52±8.40% vs 55.86±11.34%, 29.83±5.37% vs 36.23±2.30%), TNF-? (132.76±15.68 pg/mL vs 158.36±12.58 pg/mL, 220.32±23.57 pg/mL vs 247.67± 11.62 pg/mL, 175.68±18.43 pg/mL vs 197.35±12.57 pg/mL) and IL-8 (0.62±0.21 ?g/L vs 0.83±0.10 ?g/L, 1.10±0.124 ?g/L vs 1.32±0.18 ?g/L, 0.98±0.16 ?g/L vs 1.27±0.23 ?g/L). CONCLUSION: The activation of NF-?B is involved in the inflammatory response of rats with SAP. Resveratrol could effectively inhibit the expression of NF-?B activation, alleviate the severity of SAP through its anti-inflammatory effects and regulate the inflammatory mediators. PMID:15641139

Meng, Yong; Ma, Qing-Yong; Kou, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Jun

2005-01-01

292

Severe acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

As copper sulphate pentahydrate (CSP) is a common compound used in agriculture and industry, chronic occupational exposures to CSP are well known, but acute poisoning is rare in the Western world. This case report describes acute poisoning of a 33-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting an unknown amount of CSP. On admission to the hospital, she had symptoms and signs of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, dehydration, renal dysfunction and methaemoglobinaemia with normal serum copper level. Therapy included early gastric lavage, fluid replacement, vasoactive drugs, furosemide, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, and antidotes methylene blue and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS). However, the patient developed severe intravascular haemolysis, acute severe hepatic and renal failure, as well as adrenal insufficiency. After prolonged, but successful hospital treatment, including haemodialysis and IV hydrocortisone, the patient was discharged with signs of mild renal and liver impairment. Our conclusion is that in severe cases of copper poisoning early supportive measures are essential. In addition, antidotes such as methylene blue for methaemoglobinaemia and chelating agent such as DMPS improve morbidity and survival of severely poisoned victims. PMID:18407869

Sinkovic, Andreja; Strdin, Alenka; Svensek, Franci

2008-03-01

293

The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Infection on Outcome in Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Little is known regarding the impact of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in acute pancreatitis (AP). We conducted a population-based assessment of the impact of HAI on outcome in AP. Methods Patient data was obtained from the Cardinal Health Clinical Outcomes Research Database, a large population-based dataset. Cases with principal diagnosis ICD9-CM 577.0 (AP) between Jan 2004 and Jan 2005 were identified. These cases were linked with recently reported HAI data collected by the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Identification of HAI was based upon definitions set forth by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We conducted a 5:1 multivariate propensity matched cohort study in order to determine the independent contribution of HAI to in-hospital mortality, length-of-stay and hospital charges. Results From 177 participating hospitals, there were 11,046 AP cases identified. Eighty-two (0.7%) patients developed an HAI. Mortality in the overall AP population was 1.2% vs. 11.4% among 405 matched non-HAI controls vs. 28.4% among patients that developed HAI (X2 p<0.0001). Fifteen percent of all deaths were associated with an HAI. Both average LOS and hospital charges were significantly increased among patients with HAI compared to matched non-HAI controls. Conclusions We determined that HAI had a major impact on mortality in AP. Patients that developed HAI also had significantly increased LOS and hospital charges. These differences were not explained by increased disease severity alone. Reducing HAI is an important step to improving outcome in AP. PMID:18616944

Wu, Bechien U; Johannes, Richard S.; Kurtz, Stephen; Banks, Peter A.

2008-01-01

294

Severe thrombocytopenia associated with acute folic acid deficiency and severe hemorrhage in two patients.  

PubMed Central

Severe thrombocytopenia associated with acute folic acid deficiency in two inpatients is described. Both patients had severe hemorrhagic manifestations. A similar syndrome has previously been described in patients who have undergone extensive surgery or dialysis or both. The present cases show that acute folic acid deficiency can occur in other circumstances and may go unrecognized because other signs in the peripheral blood of a megaloblastic process may be minimal. A good response was obtained with folic acid therapy. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6607097

Easton, D. J.

1984-01-01

295

A pH-sensitive, neurogenic pathway mediates disease severity in a model of post-ERCP pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has a high risk of pancreatitis although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel expressed on C and Ad fibres of primary sensory neurons and is activated by low pH. TRPV1 activation causes release of inflammatory mediators that produce oedema and neutrophil infiltration. We previously demonstrated that neurogenic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a TRPV1 agonist that, in high doses, defunctionalises C and Ad fibres. When we discovered that the pH of radio-opaque contrast solutions used for ERCP was 6.9, we hypothesised that low pH may contribute to the development of contrast-induced pancreatitis via activation of TRPV1. Methods Rats underwent equal pressure pancreatic ductal injection of contrast solutions at varying pH with or without RTX. Results Contrast solution (pH 6.9) injected into the pancreatic duct caused a significant increase in pancreatic oedema, serum amylase, neutrophil infiltration, and histological damage. Solutions of pH 7.3 injected at equal pressure caused little damage. The severity of the pancreatitis was significantly increased by injection of solutions at pH 6.0. To determine if the effects of low pH were mediated by TRPV1, RTX was added to the contrast solutions. At pH levels of 6.0 and 6.9, RTX significantly reduced the severity of pancreatitis. Conclusions Contrast solutions with low pH contribute to the development of pancreatitis through a TRPV1-dependent mechanism. It is possible that increasing the pH of contrast solution and/or adding an agent that inhibits primary sensory nerve activation may reduce the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis. PMID:18625695

Noble, MD; Romac, J; Vigna, SR; Liddle, RA

2014-01-01

296

Expression of early growth response factor-1 in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and its significance  

PubMed Central

AIM: To observe the expressions of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) and tissue factor (TF) in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and to explore its significance. METHODS: A large dose of cerulein was used to create the experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats. The changes of Egr-1 mRNA and protein in rats were observed during 30 min to 4 h after the treatment and immunohistochemical method was used to observe the localized expression of Egr-1 in tissues. In addition to the mRNA expression of Egr-1 target gene, TF was also observed. A blank control group, and a bombesin-administered group were used for comparison. RESULTS: After the stimulation of a large dose of cerulein, the rats showed typical inflammatory changes of acute pancreatitis. Thirty minutes after the stimulation, the mRNA expression of Egr-1 in the pancreatic tissue reached its peak and then declined, while the expression of Egr-1 protein reached its peak 2 h after the stimulation. Histologically, 2 h after the stimulation, almost all pancreatic acinar cells had the expression of Egr-1 protein, which was focused in the nuclei. The mRNA expression of TF occurred 1 h after the stimulation and gradually increased within 4 h. However, a large dose of bombesin only stimulated the pancreatic tissue to produce a little mRNA expression of Egr-1 and no mRNA expression of Egr-1 protein and TF. CONCLUSION: Egr-1 as a pro-inflammatory transcription factor may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis by modulating the expression of TF. PMID:16124058

Gong, Lan-Bo; He, Li; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xue-Qing; Jiang, Bo

2005-01-01

297

Hepatitis E virus in patients with acute severe liver injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the incidence of hepatitis E (HepE) in individuals with acute liver injury severe enough to warrant treatment at a transplant unit. METHODS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen in developed countries causing severe illness, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying chronic liver disease. HepE infection is often under diagnosed, as clinicians can be reluctant to test patients who have not travelled to regions traditionally considered hyperendemic for HepE. There are few data regarding the significance of HEV in patients with very severe acute liver injury in developed countries. Eighty patients with acute severe liver injury attending the Scottish Liver Transplant unit were tested for HEV and anti-HEV IgG and IgM. Severe acute liver injury was defined as a sudden deterioration in liver function confirmed by abnormal liver function tests and coagulopathy or presence of hepatic encephalopathy. Eighty percent of these patients were diagnosed with paracetomol overdose. No patients had a history of chronic or decompensated chronic liver disease at time of sampling. IgG positive samples were quantified against the World Health Organization anti-HEV IgG standard. Samples were screened for HEV viral RNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Four cases of hepatitis E were identified. Three of the four cases were only diagnosed on retrospective testing and were initially erroneously ascribed to drug-induced liver injury and decompensated chronic liver disease, with the cause of the decompensation uncertain. One case was caused by HEV genotype 1 in a traveller returning from Asia, the other three were autochthonous and diagnosed on retrospective testing. In two of these cases (where RNA was detected) HEV was found to be genotype 3, the most prevalent genotype in developed countries. Three patients survived, two of whom had been misdiagnosed as having drug induced liver injury. The fourth patient died from sepsis and liver failure precipitated as a result of hepatitis E infection and previously undiagnosed cirrhosis. Histopathology data to date is limited to mainly that seen for endemic HepE. All patients, with the exception of patient 1, demonstrated characteristics of HepE infection, as seen in previously described locally acquired cases. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute severe liver injury, HEV testing should be part of the initial diagnostic investigation algorithm irrespective of suspected initial diagnosis, age or travel history. PMID:25018853

Crossan, Claire Louise; Simpson, Kenneth J; Craig, Darren G; Bellamy, Christopher; Davidson, Janice; Dalton, Harry R; Scobie, Linda

2014-01-01

298

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults for severe acute respiratory failure.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to examine the indications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This technique of oxygenation has significantly increased worldwide with the H1N1 flu pandemic. The goal of ECMO is to maintain a safe level of oxygenation and controlled respiratory acidosis under protective ventilation. The enthusiasm for ECMO should not obscure the consideration for potential associated complications. Before widespread diffusion of ECMO, new trials should test the efficacy of early initiation or CO2 removal in addition to, or even as an alternative to mechanical ventilation for severe ARDS. PMID:25128980

Rozé, H; Repusseau, B; Ouattara, A

2014-01-01

299

Long-term aspirin pretreatment in the prevention of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of long term pretreatment with low-, medium- and high-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) on a model of acute pancreatitis (AP) induced in rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were used. Three experimental groups, each consisting of eight animals, received low- (5 mg/kg per day), medium- (150 mg/kg per day) and high-dose (350 mg/kg per day) ASA in supplemented pellet chow for 100 d. Eight animals, serving as the AP-control group, and another eight, serving as reference value (RV) group, were fed with standard pellet chow for the same period. After pretreatment, AP was induced in the experimental animals by intraperitoneal administration of cerulein (2 × 50 ?g/kg), while the RV group received saline in the same way. Twelve hours after the second injection, the animals were sacrificed. Pancreatic tissue and plasma samples were collected. One part of the collected pancreatic tissues was used for histopathological evaluation, and the remaining portion was homogenized. Cytokine levels [tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6], hemogram parameters, biochemical parameters (amylase and lipase), nuclear factor-?B, aspirin triggered lipoxins and parameters related to the antioxidant system (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hemeoxygenase-1, catalase and superoxide dismutase) were measured. RESULTS: Cerulein administration induced mild pancreatitis, characterized by interstitial edema (total histopathological score of 5.88 ± 0.44 vs 0.25 ± 0.16, P < 0.001). Subsequent pancreatic tissue damage resulted in an increase in amylase (2829.71 ± 772.48 vs 984.57 ± 49.22 U/L, P = 0.001) and lipase (110.14 ± 75.84 U/L vs 4.71 ± 0.78 U/L, P < 0.001) in plasma, and leucocytes (6.89 ± 0.48 vs 4.36 ± 0.23, P = 0.001) in peripheral blood. Cytokines, IL-1? (18.81 ± 2.55 pg/?g vs 6.65 ± 0.24 pg/?g, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (14.62 ± 1.98 pg/?g vs 9.09 ± 1.36 pg/?g, P = 0.04) in pancreatic tissue also increased. Aspirin pretreatment reduced the increase in the aforementioned parameters to a certain degree and partially improved the histopathological alterations caused by cerulein. No evidence of side effects related to chronic ASA administration (e.g., inflammation or bleeding) was observed in the gastrointestinal tract in macroscopic and histopathological examination. CONCLUSION: Long term ASA pretreatment could prevent and/or ameliorate certain hematological, serological and histological alterations caused by cerulein-induced AP. PMID:23704822

Akyazi, Ibrahim; Eraslan, Evren; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Ekiz, Elif Ergül; Ç?rakli, Zeynep L; Haktanir, Damla; Bala, Deniz Aktaran; Özkurt, Mete; Matur, Erdal; Özcan, Mukaddes

2013-01-01

300

Subchondral acute inflammation in severe arthritis: a sterile osteomyelitis?  

PubMed

Although arthritis is often associated with synovial inflammation, the osseous changes in inflammatory and degenerative arthritis are principally reactive, and typically lack an acute inflammatory component. We have recently encountered several osteoarticular specimens removed at the time of large joint arthroplasty that have shown a distinctive pattern of subchondral acute inflammation (SCAI) resembling acute bacterial osteomyelitis. These microscopic findings heretofore have not been recognized as a component of the histopathology of arthritis. To determine the frequency of SCAI, we examined slides (mean four per case) from 164 hip arthroplasties performed at one of our institutions in a single year. A total of 10 cases of SCAI, including the 4 original examples (2 humeral head specimens, 2 femoral head specimens) and 6 identified from the slide review are described in this report. Eight patients were female and two were male (ages 54-86 years, mean 70, median 70). All had severe degenerative joint disease, six had rheumatoid arthritis, and three had osteonecrosis. In none was there a clinical or intraoperative suspicion of infection. Cultures of joint fluid or bone were not performed. In all cases, the inflammation was subchondral (within 1.0 cm of the joint surface), and it was frequently associated with subchondral cysts. In osteonecrotic foci, the suppurative inflammation was diffuse within the marrow space, whereas in viable bone it was nodular and vaguely granulomatous. Special stains for organisms were negative. None of the patients was treated with long-term IV antibiotics. There has been no septic loosening of the prostheses at follow-up intervals ranging from 5 to 36 months (mean: 17 months). Our observations, to the best of our knowledge, are novel. Although we cannot definitively exclude bacterial infection as a cause of SCAI, the histologic and clinical features suggest that SCAI likely represents a noninfectious sterile form of inflammation. Subchondral acute inflammation is possibly secondary to synovial fluid insudation into subchondral cancellous bone in the setting of severe osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:9989846

O'Connell, J X; Nielsen, G P; Rosenberg, A E

1999-02-01

301

Possible involvement of endogenous 5-HT in aggravation of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to elucidate the pathogenic role of endogenous 5-HT in pancreatitis. Injections of cerulein at hourly intervals caused edematous pancreatitis in mice characterized by hyperenzymemia and histological alterations. While the cerulein-induced hyperenzymemia was attenuated in mice pretreated with p-CPA, a 5-HT depletor, it was exaggerated by the preferential 5-HT2A agonist (DOI), but not by the preferential 5-HT2B agonist (BW723C86) or the preferential 5-HT2C agonist (mCPP). Selective 5-HT2A antagonists (risperidone, spiperone, ketanserin, AMI-193, and MDL 11,939) dose-dependently attenuated the hyperenzymemia; and their potency order, excepting that of ketanserin which has considerable affinity at the 5-HT2C receptor as well, paralleled their reported pKi values at the 5-HT2A receptor. Selective 5-HT2B (SB204741) and 5-HT2C (SB242084) antagonists hardly affected the hyperenzymemia. Although the non-selective 5-HT2A/2B/2C antagonists (metergoline, ritanserin, and methysergide) dose-dependently attenuated the hyperenzymemia, they were relatively less potent compared to their high pKi values at the 5-HT2A receptor. In another set of experiments, risperidone, but not SB204741 and SB242084, dose-dependently reversed the cerulein-induced histological alteration of the pancreas (inflammatory cell infiltration). These results suggest that endogenously released 5-HT activates 5-HT2A receptors to aggravate cerulein-induced pancreatitis. We propose that selective 5-HT2A antagonists may provide a new therapy for acute pancreatitis. PMID:17965538

Hamada, Kentaro; Yoshida, Masanori; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Yoshiki; Kanazashi, Shuichi; Kashihara, Yasunari; Takeuchi, Koji; Yamaguchi, Isamu

2007-11-01

302

Management of acute pancreatitis in dogs: a critical appraisal with focus on feeding and analgesia.  

PubMed

Knowledge about acute pancreatitis has increased recently in both the medical and veterinary fields. Despite this expansion of knowledge, there are very few studies on treatment interventions in naturally occurring disease in dogs. As a result, treatment recommendations are largely extrapolated from experimental rodent models or general critical care principles. General treatment principles involve replacing fluid losses, maintaining hydrostatic pressure, controlling nausea and providing pain relief. Specific interventions recently advocated in human medicine include the use of neurokinin-1 antagonists for analgesia and early interventional feeding. The premise for early feeding is to improve the health of the intestinal tract, as unhealthy enterocytes are thought to perpetuate systemic inflammation. The evidence for early interventional feeding is not supported by robust clinical trials to date, but in humans there is evidence that it reduces hospitalisation time and in dogs it is well tolerated. This article summarises the major areas of management of acute pancreatitis in dogs and examines the level of evidence for each recommendation. PMID:25586804

Mansfield, C; Beths, T

2015-01-01

303

Acute pancreatitis and reduction of H+ ion concentration in gastric secretions in experimental acute myocarditis produced by Indian red scorpion, Buthus tamulus, venom.  

PubMed

Crude venom (4 mg/kg) of scorpion (B. tamulus) was given in saline to anaesthetized dogs and rabbits. It produced a reduction in gastric H+ ion concentration in dogs with acute myocarditis. Simultaneously an increase in circulating amylase and lipase level was also observed. However 60% venom poisoned rabbits showed an elevated lipase level without a parallel increase in amylase. It is suggested that the venom acts directly on exocrine pancreas to cause acute pancreatitis. PMID:2606531

Murthy, K R; Medh, J D; Dave, B N; Vakil, Y E; Billimoria, F R

1989-03-01

304

Acute severe hip pain associated with labral calcific deposition disease.  

PubMed

Calcific tendinitis is a term used to describe radiographic evidence of calcific deposition within a tendon. This condition, also known as calcium deposition disease, has been described in the gluteus maximus, the peroneus longus tendon, the popliteus tendon, the longus colli muscle in the neck, and the tendon of the rectus femoris. However, most of the literature on calcific tendinitis relates to crystal deposition within the rotator cuff of the shoulder. The peri-articular pain related to calcium deposition may be indolent and chronic, and patients can have varying degrees of functional deficit. Patients also may present with an acute inflammatory event, with severe incapacitation and restricted passive range of motion and a clinical picture that is concerning for septic arthritis. Severe pain associated with calcific tendonitis usually occurs during the resorptive phase, where there is vascular infiltration of the calcium deposits and histologic evidence of phagocytosis. The authors report a case of calcium deposition disease found within the hip labrum with a clinical presentation of acute, atraumatic, debilitating pain in a patient with underlying femoroacetabular impingement. This clinical picture is similar to that described during the resorptive phase seen in calcific tendonitis of the shoulder. The authors attribute this presentation to acute rupture of the calcium deposit into the intra-articular joint space of the hip. To the authors' knowledge, there are no other reports of this clinical presentation in the literature. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(12):e1137-e1140.]. PMID:25437091

Jimenez, Christopher L; Beebe, Michael J; Maak, Travis G; Aoki, Stephen K

2014-12-01

305

Severe acute malnutrition during emergencies: burden management, and gaps.  

PubMed

Natural and man-made disasters, including floods, droughts, earthquakes, and armed conflicts, create nutrition crises. Unfortunately, the frequency and severity of such disasters have been increasing since the beginning of the 20th century, and their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is increasing every year. However, their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is underrecognized due to the ways in which global statistics are built and causes of death are reported. Fortunately, the success of the current protocol for treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and the integrated approach to treatment has created a momentum allowing expanded coverage of treatment of SAM, especially in humanitarian emergency contexts. For this progress to be maintained and accelerated, changes in nutrition information systems at the national and global levels are needed, and the persisting barriers to the expansion and integration of treatment of SAM into routine health systems need to be removed. Emergency funding approaches and objectives have to include sustaining and amplifying the achievements of the short-term palliative interventions. Nutrition programs implemented in emergency contexts have the capacity to contribute to answering priority research questions, and this capacity should be more optimally utilized. PMID:25069293

Bahwere, Paluku

2014-06-01

306

/sup 111/In-platelet and /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis  

SciTech Connect

An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and /sup 111/In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.

Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

1987-12-01

307

Genetics of pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Chronic pancreatitis is a syndrome characterized by chronic inflammation of the pancreas, with variable pain, calcifications, necrosis, fatty replacement, fibrosis and scarring and other complications. Disease susceptibility, severity, progression and pain patterns vary widely and do not necessarily parallel one another. Much of the variability in susceptibility to recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis is now clearly shown to be related to genetic differences between patients. This review highlights recent advances and future directions in genetic research. Recent findings The strongest risk factors are associated with genetic variations in PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, and to a lesser extent, CTRC and CASR. The latest research suggest that a single factor rarely causes pancreatitis, and the majority of patients with recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis have multiple variants in a gene, or epistatic interactions between multiple genes, coupled with environmental stressors. Summary Pancreatic diseases have a strong genetic component. Rather than a classic Mendelian disorder, recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis represents truly complex diseases with the interaction and synergism of multiple genetic and environmental factors. The future will require new predictive models to guide prevention and therapy. PMID:21844754

LaRusch, Jessica; Whitcomb, David C.

2013-01-01

308

The mtDNA nt7778 G/T Polymorphism Augments Formation of Lymphocytic Foci but Does Not Aggravate Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

A polymorphism in the ATP synthase 8 (ATP8) gene of the murine mitochondrial genome, G-to-T transversion at position 7778, has been suggested to increase susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The polymorphism also induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, secretory dysfunction and ?-cell mass adaptation. Here, we have used two conplastic mouse strains, C57BL/6N-mtAKR/J (B6-mtAKR; nt7778 G; control) and C57BL/6N-mtFVB/N (B6-mtFVB; nt7778 T), to address the question if the polymorphism also affects the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, two age groups of mice (3 and 12-month-old, respectively) were subjected to up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 µg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of ?-amylase and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissue. A comparison of cerulein-induced pancreatic tissue damage and increases of ?-amylase and MPO activities showed no differences between the age-matched groups of both strains. Interestingly, histological evaluation of pancreatic tissue of both untreated and cerulein-treated B6-mtAKR and B6-mtFVB mice also revealed the presence of infiltrates of immune cells surrounding ducts and vessels; a finding that is compatible with an early stage of AIP. After recovery from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (day 7 after the injections), 12-month-old B6-mtFVB mice but not B6-mtAKR mice displayed aggravated lymphocytic lesions. A comparison of 12-month-old mice with other age groups of both strains revealed that lymphocytic foci were largely absent in 3-month-old mice, while 24-month-old mice were more affected. Together, our data suggest that the mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Autoimmune-like lesions, however, may progress faster if additional tissue damage occurs. PMID:25010670

Müller, Sarah; Krüger, Burkhard; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Glass, Änne; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Jaster, Robert

2014-01-01

309

Necrotizing pancreatitis: diagnosis, imaging, and intervention.  

PubMed

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe form of acute pancreatitis characterized by necrosis in and around the pancreas and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis is diagnosed primarily on the basis of signs, symptoms, and laboratory test findings, the diagnosis and severity assessment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis are based in large part on imaging findings. On the basis of the revised Atlanta classification system of 2012, necrotizing pancreatitis is subdivided anatomically into parenchymal, peripancreatic, and combined subtypes, and temporally into clinical early (within 1 week of onset) and late (>1 week after onset) phases. Associated collections are categorized as "acute necrotic" or "walled off" and can be sterile or infected. Imaging, primarily computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, plays an essential role in the diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis and the identification of complications, including infection, bowel and biliary obstruction, hemorrhage, pseudoaneurysm formation, and venous thrombosis. Imaging is also used to help triage patients and guide both temporizing and definitive management. A "step-up" method for the management of necrotizing pancreatitis that makes use of imaging-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of fluid collections prior to endoscopic or surgical necrosectomy has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. The authors present an algorithmic approach to the care of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and review the use of imaging and interventional techniques in the diagnosis and management of this pathologic condition. PMID:25208277

Shyu, Jeffrey Y; Sainani, Nisha I; Sahni, V Anik; Chick, Jeffrey F; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Conwell, Darwin L; Clancy, Thomas E; Banks, Peter A; Silverman, Stuart G

2014-01-01

310

Unexpected fetal demise despite the reactive nonstress test during the conservative management of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Dealing with acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a challenging problem due to unexpected nature of the disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a complicated case of a 29-year-old pregnant woman with a mild acute pancreatitis whose pregnancy ended up with an unexpected fetal demise at her 34th gestational week. This unfortunate outcome led us reconsider our obstetrical approach to acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. CONCLUSION Based on this unfortunate event, we now think that obstetricians should keep in mind that even in the presence of reassuring NST and biophysical profile assessment, an unpredictable fetal loss can occur during the medical management of the pregnancies complicated with mild acute pancreatitis. DISCUSSION The subject patient of this case report was diagnosed with mild AP and underwent conservative medical management. Since the patient was stable and fetal well-being was confirmed with BPP and NST, the termination of pregnancy was out of question at that time. The occurrence of unexpected fetal death despite assuring parameters led us reconsider the approach to the pregnant women with mild AP. PMID:25460471

Avsar, Ayse Filiz; Yildirim, Melahat; Cinkaya, Aysegul

2014-01-01

311

Endovascular treatment of severe acute basilar artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Severe acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) has a high mortality rate but as yet no effective treatment has been developed. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of combined mechanical thrombectomy, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and emergent stent placement for patients with severe acute BAO. Eighteen patients who were unconscious after confirmed onset of BAO and who were given arterial interventional treatment from March 2011 to June 2013 at our department were included in this study. The mean age was 59.56years (range: 31-76years) and patients were in a critical physical condition upon admission, and had a mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 25.94 (range: 18-35). All patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy, 10 of whom received mechanical thrombectomy only. Of the others, eight were also treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, three were treated with emergent stent placement, and 17 were treated with recanalization with an achieved recanalized rate of 94.4%. The average number of passes through the stent was 1.5 (range: 1-3) and five patients died (27.8%). Thirteen patients survived, and the mean NIHSS score was 6.54 (range: 0-16). Seven patients showed a modified Rankin Scale score ?2, and the rate of good prognoses was 38.9%. In the treatment of patients with severe acute BAO, intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy combined with thrombolysis or stent placement are effective strategies to restore blood flow and preserve life, and these strategies have a low incidence of complications. PMID:25443091

Wang, Liang; Shi, Wanchao; Su, Zhiguo; Liu, Xiaozhi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhenlin; Lawton, Michael T

2015-01-01

312

Centers for Disease Control: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this Web site from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) will find a current and reliable source of information about Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The FAQs section offers a general overview of the disease and recent outbreak -- a good starting point for finding the facts behind the headline news. The site also offers recent CDC guidelines and recommendations geared toward medical professionals, travel advisories and related concerns, and links to World Health Organization and other international resources (WHO is coordinating the international investigation of the SARS outbreak).

2003-01-01

313

[Assessment and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Position document of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology, Catalan Society of Surgery and Catalan Society of the Pancreas].  

PubMed

The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing. AP is one of the gastrointestinal diseases that most frequently requires hospital admission in affected individuals. In the last few years, considerable scientific evidence has led to substantial changes in the medical and surgical treatment of this disease. New knowledge of the physiopathology of AP indicates that its severity is influenced by its systemic effects (organ failure), especially if the disease is persistent, and also by local complications (fluid collections or necrosis), especially if these become infected. Treatment should be personalized and depends on the patient's clinical status, the location of the necrosis, and disease stage. PMID:25458544

Boadas, Jaume; Balsells, Joaquin; Busquets, Juli; Codina-B, Antoni; Darnell, Anna; Garcia-Borobia, Francisco; Ginés, Ŕngels; Gornals, Joan; Gruartmoner, Guillem; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Merino, Xavier; Oms, Lluís; Puig, Ignasi; Puig-Diví, Valentí; Vaquero, Eva; Vida, Francesc; Molero, Xavier

2015-02-01

314

Frequency and risk factors of recurrent pain during refeeding in patients with acute pancreatitis: a multivariate multicentre prospective study of 116 patients.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The period of refeeding in patients with acute pancreatitis is critical because they may have pain relapse. A multicentre, multidimensional, prospective study was performed to assess the frequency and the risk factors of pain relapse in these patients. METHODS: Patients were included if they had acute pancreatitis severe enough to stop oral feeding for more than 48 hours. Clinical, biochemical, radiological, and therapeutic data were prospectively recorded and analysed by unidimensional and multidimensional analysis. The moment to refeed patients was chosen by the clinician but the diet was the same in all centres. RESULTS: A total of 116 patients were included with a Ranson's bioclinical score > or = 3 in 35% and a Balthazar's CT score > or = D in 42%. The cause of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 47% and alcohol misuse in 31%. During the oral refeeding period, 21% of the patients had pain relapse. This occurred on days 1 and 2 in 50% of patients. The duration of the painful period was longer in patients who relapsed than in others (p < 0.002). Pain relapse occurred in 39% of patients with a serum lipase concentration > 3x the upper limit of the normal range the day before refeeding and in 16% of other patients (p < 0.03). Patients with higher Balthazar's CT scores had pain relapse more often than the others (p < 0.002). None of the therapeutic procedures significantly modified the frequency of pain relapse. Using multidimensional analysis, Balathazar's CT score, period of pain, and serum lipase concentration the day before refeeding were independently associated with an increased risk of pain relapse. At a threshold of 0.5, a logistic score had a 37% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and 83% accuracy to predict pain relapse. Pain relapse nearly doubled total hospital stay and hospital stay after the first attempt at oral refeeding. CONCLUSION: Pain relapse occurred in one fifth of the patients with acute pancreatitis during oral refeeding and was more common in patients with necrotic pancreatitis and with longer periods of pain. The results of this study can be used to predict high risk patients and are a first step in the prevention of pain relapse. PMID:9071942

Lévy, P; Heresbach, D; Pariente, E A; Boruchowicz, A; Delcenserie, R; Millat, B; Moreau, J; Le Bodic, L; de Calan, L; Barthet, M; Sauvanet, A; Bernades, P

1997-01-01

315

BILIARY ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN MICE IS MEDIATED BY THE G PROTEIN-COUPLED CELL SURFACE BILE ACID RECEPTOR GPBAR1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS The mechanisms by which reflux of bile acids into the pancreas induces pancreatitis are unknown. We reasoned that key events responsible for this phenomenon might be mediated by Gpbar1, a recently identified and widely expressed G protein-coupled, cell surface, bile acid receptor. METHODS Acute pancreatitis was induced in wild type and Gpbar1?/? mice by either retrograde ductal infusion of taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate (TLCS) or supramaximal secretagogue stimulation with caerulein. In vitro experiments were performed in which acini obtained from wild type and Gpbar1?/? mice were exposed to either sub-micellar concentrations of TLCS (200–500 ?M) or a supramaximally stimulating concentration of caerulein (10 nM). RESULTS Gpbar1 is expressed at the apical pole of acinar cells and its genetic deletion is associated with reduced hyperamylasemia, edema, inflammation, and acinar cell injury in TLCS- but not in caerulein-induced pancreatitis. In vitro, genetic deletion of Gpbar1 is associated with markedly reduced generation of pathological calcium transients, intracellular activation of digestive zymogens, and cell injury when these responses are induced by exposure to TLCS but not when they are induced by exposure to caerulein. CONCLUSIONS Gpbar1 may play a critical role in the evolution of bile acid-induced pancreatitis by coupling exposure to bile acids with generation of pathological intracellular calcium transients, intra acinar cell zymogen activation, and acinar cell injury. Acute biliary pancreatitis may be a “receptor-mediated” disease and interventions that interfere with Gpbar1 function might prove beneficial in the treatment and/or prevention of biliary acute pancreatitis. PMID:19900448

PERIDES, GEORGE; LAUKKARINEN, JOHANNA M.; VASSILEVA, GALYA; STEER, MICHAEL L.

2009-01-01

316

Acute severe asthma: new approaches to assessment and treatment.  

PubMed

The precise definition of a severe asthmatic exacerbation is an issue that presents difficulties. The term 'status asthmaticus' relates severity to outcome and has been used to define a severe asthmatic exacerbation that does not respond to and/or perilously delays the repetitive or continuous administration of short-acting inhaled beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABA) in the emergency setting. However, a number of limitations exist concerning the quantification of unresponsiveness. Therefore, the term 'acute severe asthma' is widely used, relating severity mostly to a combination of the presenting signs and symptoms and the severity of the cardiorespiratory abnormalities observed, although it is well known that presentation does not foretell outcome. In an acute severe asthma episode, close observation plus aggressive administration of bronchodilators (SABAs plus ipratropium bromide via a nebulizer driven by oxygen) and oral or intravenous corticosteroids are necessary to arrest the progression to severe hypercapnic respiratory failure leading to a decrease in consciousness that requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission and, eventually, ventilatory support. Adjunctive therapies (intravenous magnesium sulfate and/or others) should be considered in order to avoid intubation. Management after admission to the hospital ward because of an incomplete response is similar. The decision to intubate is essentially based on clinical judgement. Although cardiac or respiratory arrest represents an absolute indication for intubation, the usual picture is that of a conscious patient struggling to breathe. Factors associated with the increased likelihood of intubation include exhaustion and fatigue despite maximal therapy, deteriorating mental status, refractory hypoxaemia, increasing hypercapnia, haemodynamic instability and impending coma or apnoea. To intubate, sedation is indicated in order to improve comfort, safety and patient-ventilator synchrony, while at the same time decrease oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Benzodiazepines can be safely used for sedation of the asthmatic patient, but time to awakening after discontinuation is prolonged and difficult to predict. The most common alternative is propofol, which is attractive in patients with sudden-onset (near-fatal) asthma who may be eligible for extubation within a few hours, because it can be titrated rapidly to a deep sedation level and has rapid reversal after discontinuation; in addition, it possesses bronchodilatory properties. The addition of an opioid (fentanyl or remifentanil) administered by continuous infusion to benzodiazepines or propofol is often desirable in order to provide amnesia, sedation, analgesia and respiratory drive suppression. Acute severe asthma is characterized by severe pulmonary hyperinflation due to marked limitation of the expiratory flow. Therefore, the main objective of the initial ventilator management is 2-fold: to ensure adequate gas exchange and to prevent further hyperinflation and ventilator-associated lung injury. This may require hypoventilation of the patient and higher arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) levels and a more acidic pH. This does not apply to asthmatic patients intubated for cardiac or respiratory arrest. In this setting the post-anoxic brain oedema might demand more careful management of PaCO(2) levels to prevent further elevation of intracranial pressure and subsequent complications. Monitoring lung mechanics is of paramount importance for the safe ventilation of patients with status asthmaticus. The first line of specific pharmacological therapy in ventilated asthmatic patients remains bronchodilation with a SABA, typically salbutamol (albuterol). Administration techniques include nebulizers or metered-dose inhalers with spacers. Systemic corticosteroids are critical components of therapy and should be administered to all ventilated patients, although the dose of systemic corticosteroids in mechanically ventilated asthmatic patients remains controversial. Anticholinergics, inhaled corticosteroid

Papiris, Spyros A; Manali, Effrosyni D; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Triantafillidou, Christina; Tsangaris, Iraklis

2009-01-01

317

Endoscopic treatment of gastric perforation caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis using over-the-scope clips: a case report.  

PubMed

Gastric perforation is a rare complication after acute necrotizing pancreatitis. We describe endoscopic closure of a gastric perforation that appeared 4 days after surgical necrosectomy including splenectomy due to necrotizing pancreatitis, using the over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system (Ovesco Endoscopy GmbH, Tübingen, Germany). The clips, which are made of nitinol, are loaded onto an application cap which is mounted on the distal tip of the endoscope. The lesion was closed with two clips and the patient recovered well without reinterventions. The lesions showed normal healing on follow-up. PMID:18072063

Kirschniak, A; Traub, F; Kueper, M A; Stüker, D; Königsrainer, A; Kratt, T

2007-12-01

318

Protective effects of sivelestat in a caerulein-induced rat acute pancreatitis model.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of sivelestat on acute pancreatitis (AP) in a rat model. Sivelestat is a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, which has been developed in Japan in 1991. Varying doses of sivelestat in normal saline were infused continuously in sivelestat-treated groups through osmotic pumps. Blood and pancreas samples were collected for serological and histopathological studies, and ten rats in each group were taken for survival observation. Increasing doses of sivelestat inhibits the expression of lipase, amylase, corticosterone, IL-1?, TNF-?, and nuclear factor-?B. Furthermore, sivelestat reduces the inflammatory cells infiltration, histological damage, and mortality rate. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant power and serum level of IL-4 in high-dose sivelestat-treated groups were increased. Our findings suggest that the increasing doses of sivelestat protect against caerulein-induced AP in rats, and this protection is possibly associated with the anti-inflammatory ability of sivelestat. PMID:23794035

Cao, Jun; Liu, Quanyan

2013-12-01

319

PET/CT with 18F-FDG-Labeled Autologous Leukocytes for the Diagnosis of Infected Fluid Collections in Acute Pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Early detection of infection in acute pancreatitis (AP) affects the choice of treatment and clinical outcome. We used PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled autologous leukocytes to detect infection in pancreatic or peripancreatic fluid collections in patients with AP. PMID:24994930

Bhattacharya, Anish; Kochhar, Rakesh; Sharma, Sarika; Ray, Pallab; Kalra, Naveen; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Mittal, Bhagwant R

2014-07-01

320

Acute nutrient regulation of the mitochondrial glutathione redox state in pancreatic ?-cells.  

PubMed

The glucose stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic ?-cells depends on increased production of metabolic coupling factors, among which changes in NADPH and ROS (reactive oxygen species) may alter the glutathione redox state (EGSH) and signal through changes in thiol oxidation. However, whether nutrients affect EGSH in ?-cell subcellular compartments is unknown. Using redox-sensitive GFP2 fused to glutaredoxin 1 and its mitochondria-targeted form, we studied the acute nutrient regulation of EGSH in the cytosol/nucleus or the mitochondrial matrix of rat islet cells. These probes were mainly expressed in ?-cells and reacted to low concentrations of exogenous H2O2 and menadione. Under control conditions, cytosolic/nuclear EGSH was close to -300 mV and unaffected by glucose (from 0 to 30 mM). In comparison, mitochondrial EGSH was less negative and rapidly regulated by glucose and other nutrients, ranging from -280 mV in the absence of glucose to -299 mV in 30 mM glucose. These changes were largely independent from changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and in mitochondrial pH. They were unaffected by overexpression of SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2) and mitochondria-targeted catalase, but were inversely correlated with changes in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, suggesting that they indirectly resulted from increased NADPH availability rather than from changes in ROS concentration. Interestingly, the opposite regulation of mitochondrial EGSH and NAD(P)H autofluorescence by glucose was also observed in human islets isolated from two donors. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that glucose and other nutrients acutely reduce mitochondrial, but not cytosolic/nuclear, EGSH in pancreatic ?-cells under control conditions. PMID:24678915

Takahashi, Hilton K; Santos, Laila R B; Roma, Letícia P; Duprez, Jessica; Broca, Christophe; Wojtusciszyn, Anne; Jonas, Jean-Christophe

2014-06-15

321

Contemporary review of drug-induced pancreatitis: A different perspective  

PubMed Central

Although gallstone and alcohol use have been considered the most common causes of acute pancreatitis, hundreds of frequently prescribed medications are associated with this disease state. The true incidence is unknown since there are few population based studies available. The knowledge of drug induced acute pancreatitis is limited by the availability and the quality of the evidence as the majority of data is extrapolated from case reports. Establishing a definitive causal relationship between a drug and acute pancreatitis poses a challenge to clinicians. Several causative agent classification systems are often used to identify the suspected agents. They require regular updates since new drug induced acute pancreatitis cases are reported continuously. In addition, infrequently prescribed medications and herbal medications are often omitted. Furthermore, identification of drug induced acute pancreatitis with new medications often requires accumulation of post market case reports. The unrealistic expectation for a comprehensive list of medications and the multifactorial nature of acute pancreatitis call for a different approach. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of drug induced acute pancreatitis and provide the perspective of deductive reasoning in order to allow clinicians to identify potential drug induced acute pancreatitis with limited data. PMID:25400984

Hung, Whitney Y; Abreu Lanfranco, Odaliz

2014-01-01

322

Accounts of severe acute obstetric complications in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background As maternal deaths have decreased worldwide, increasing attention has been placed on the study of severe obstetric complications, such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, and obstructed labor, to identify where improvements can be made in maternal health. Though access to medical care is considered to be life-saving during obstetric emergencies, data on the factors associated with health care decision-making during obstetric emergencies are lacking. We aim to describe the health care decision-making process during severe acute obstetric complications among women and their families in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using the pregnancy surveillance infrastructure from a large community trial in northwest rural Bangladesh, we nested a qualitative study to document barriers to timely receipt of medical care for severe obstetric complications. We conducted 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women reporting severe acute obstetric complications and purposively selected for conditions representing the top five most common obstetric complications. The interviews were transcribed and coded to highlight common themes and to develop an overall conceptual model. Results Women attributed their life-threatening experiences to societal and socioeconomic factors that led to delays in seeking timely medical care by decision makers, usually husbands or other male relatives. Despite the dominance of male relatives and husbands in the decision-making process, women who underwent induced abortions made their own decisions about their health care and relied on female relatives for advice. The study shows that non-certified providers such as village doctors and untrained birth attendants were the first-line providers for women in all categories of severe complications. Coordination of transportation and finances was often arranged through mobile phones, and referrals were likely to be provided by village doctors. Conclusions Strategies to increase timely and appropriate care seeking for severe obstetric complications may consider targeting of non-certified providers for strengthening of referral linkages between patients and certified facility-based providers. Future research may characterize the treatments and appropriateness of emergency care provided by ubiquitous village doctors and other non-certified treatment providers in rural South Asian settings. In addition, future studies may explore the use of mobile phones in decreasing delays to certified medical care during obstetric emergencies. PMID:22018330

2011-01-01

323

Astragaloside IV ameliorates acute pancreatitis in rats by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-?B.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (AS-IV; 3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O??-D-glucopyranosylcycloastragenol), which has been reported to have comprehensive pharmacological functions, on sodium taurocholate (NaTc)/L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats in vivo and in rat pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. NaTc-induced experimental AP was induced in rats by injecting 4% NaTc (0.1 ml/100 g) in the retrograde direction of the biliopancreatic duct. L-Arg-induced experimental AP was induced in rats by 2 intraperitoneal injections of 20% L-arg (3 g/kg), with an interval of 1 h between the injections. The rats were pre-treated AS-IV (50 mg/kg) or the vehicle (DMSO) 2 h prior to the induction of AP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, H&E staining, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the effects of AS-IV on AP. The results revealed that treatment with AS-IV significantly reduced serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic pathological alterations, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MPO activity, and the protein expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in vivo. Moreover, pre-treatment with AS-IV significantly increased the expression levels of manganese superoxide dismutase and cuprum/zinc superoxide dismutase. In the in vitro experiment, treatment of the cells with AS-IV aslo reduced rat pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and nuclear NF-?B activity, and enhanced the protein expression of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, this study indicates that the protective effects of AS-IV on experimental AP in rats may be closely related to the inhibition of NF-?B. In addition, our results indicate that AS-IV may exert potential antioxidant effects on AP. Therefore, AS-IV may be an effective therapeutic agent for AP. PMID:25604657

Qiu, Lei; Yin, Guojian; Cheng, Li; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Yu, Ge; Xing, Miao; Jia, Rongrong; Sun, Ruiqing; Ma, Xiuying; Hu, Guoyong; Wang, Xingpeng; Tang, Maochun; Zhao, Yan

2015-03-01

324

Astragaloside IV ameliorates acute pancreatitis in rats by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-?B  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (AS-IV; 3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-?-D-glucopyranosylcycloastragenol), which has been reported to have comprehensive pharmacological functions, on sodium taurocholate (NaTc)/L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats in vivo and in rat pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. NaTc-induced experimental AP was induced in rats by injecting 4% NaTc (0.1 ml/100 g) in the retrograde direction of the biliopancreatic duct. L-Arg-induced experimental AP was induced in rats by 2 intraperitoneal injections of 20% L-arg (3 g/kg), with an interval of 1 h between the injections. The rats were pre-treated AS-IV (50 mg/kg) or the vehicle (DMSO) 2 h prior to the induction of AP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, H&E staining, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the effects of AS-IV on AP. The results revealed that treatment with AS-IV significantly reduced serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic pathological alterations, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MPO activity, and the protein expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in vivo. Moreover, pre-treatment with AS-IV significantly increased the expression levels of manganese superoxide dismutase and cuprum/zinc superoxide dismutase. In the in vitro experiment, treatment of the cells with AS-IV aslo reduced rat pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and nuclear NF-?B activity, and enhanced the protein expression of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, this study indicates that the protective effects of AS-IV on experimental AP in rats may be closely related to the inhibition of NF-?B. In addition, our results indicate that AS-IV may exert potential antioxidant effects on AP. Therefore, AS-IV may be an effective therapeutic agent for AP. PMID:25604657

QIU, LEI; YIN, GUOJIAN; CHENG, LI; FAN, YUTING; XIAO, WENQIN; YU, GE; XING, MIAO; JIA, RONGRONG; SUN, RUIQING; MA, XIUYING; HU, GUOYONG; WANG, XINGPENG; TANG, MAOCHUN; ZHAO, YAN

2015-01-01

325

Outcome of endotherapy for pancreas divisum in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the rate of relapses of acute pancreatitis (AP), recurrent AP (RAP) and the evolution of endosonographic signs of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with pancreas divisum (PDiv) and RAP. METHODS: Over a five-year period, patients with PDiv and RAP prospectively enrolled were divided into two groups: (1) those with relapses of AP in the year before enrollment were assigned to have endoscopic therapy (recent RAP group); and (2) those free of recurrences were conservatively managed, unless they relapsed during follow-up (previous RAP group). All patients in both groups entered a follow-up protocol that included clinical and biochemical evaluation, pancreatic endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) every year and after every recurrence of AP, at the same time as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). RESULTS: Twenty-two were treated by ERCP and 14 were conservatively managed during a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 1.2 years. In the recent RAP group in whom dorsal duct drainage was achieved, AP still recurred in 11 (57.9%) after the first ERCP, in 6 after the second ERCP (31.6%) and in 5 after the third ERCP (26.3%). Overall, endotherapy was successful 73.7%. There were no cases of recurrences in the previous RAP group. EUS signs of CP developed in 57.9% of treated and 64.3% of untreated patients. EUS signs of CP occurred in 42.8% of patients whose ERCPs were successful and in all those in whom it was unsuccessful (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the rate of AP recurrences after endotherapy and in the prevalence of EUS signs suggesting CP when comparing patients with dilated and non-dilated dorsal pancreatic ducts within each group. CONCLUSION: Patients with PDiv and recent episodes of AP can benefit from endoscopic therapy. Effective endotherapy may reduce the risk of developing EUS signs of CP at a rate similar to that seen in patients of previous RAP group, managed conservatively. However, in a subset of patients, endotherapy, although successful, did not prevent the evolution of endosonographic signs of CP. PMID:25516660

Mariani, Alberto; Di Leo, Milena; Petrone, Maria Chiara; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio; Giussani, Antonella; Zuppardo, Raffaella Alessia; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Testoni, Pier Alberto

2014-01-01

326

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): epidemiology and clinical features  

PubMed Central

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged infectious disease with a significant morbidity and mortality. The major clinical features include persistent fever, chills/rigor, myalgia, malaise, dry cough, headache, and dyspnoea. Older subjects may present without the typical febrile response. Common laboratory features include lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, raised alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. The constellation of compatible clinical and laboratory findings, together with certain characteristic radiological features and lack of clinical response to broad spectrum antibiotics, should arouse suspicion of SARS. Measurement of serum RNA by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique has a detection rate of 75%–80% in the first week of the illness. PMID:15254300

Hui, D; Chan, M; Wu, A; Ng, P

2004-01-01

327

Gallstone pancreatitis: a review.  

PubMed

Gallstone disease is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in the Western world. In most cases, gallstone pancreatitis is a mild and self-limiting disease, and patients may proceed without complications to cholecystectomy to prevent future recurrence. Severe disease occurs in about 20% of cases and is associated with significant mortality; meticulous management is critical. A thorough understanding of the disease process, diagnosis, severity stratification, and principles of management is essential to the appropriate care of patients presenting with this disease. This article reviews these topics with a focus on surgical management, including appropriate timing and choice of interventions. PMID:24679420

Cucher, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Green, Donald J; Jie, Tun; Ong, Evan S

2014-04-01

328

Protective Effects and Mechanisms of G5 PAMAM Dendrimers against Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Caerulein in Mice.  

PubMed

In this study, generation 5 (G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with two different surface groups, G4.5-COOH and G5-OH, were investigated for their protective effects on pancreas injury in a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) mouse model. Both dendrimers significantly decreased pathological changes in the pancreas and reduced the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in pancreatic tissues. In addition, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly inhibited by the two dendrimers, not only in pancreatic tissues from AP mice but also in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages with LPS-induced inflammation. G4.5-COOH, which had better in vivo protective effects for AP than G5-OH, led to a significant reduction in the total number of plasma white blood cells (WBCs) and monocytes in AP mice, and its anti-inflammatory mechanism was related to inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B in macrophages. PMID:25479110

Tang, Yin; Han, Yingchun; Liu, Lu; Shen, Wenwen; Zhang, Huayu; Wang, Yunan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George; Qi, Rong

2015-01-12

329

Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in severely burned patients.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyolysis (RML) is a precarious complication in severely burned patients and the principal treatment goal is prevention of acute renal failure (ARF). This 10-year retrospective study analyses the causes for RML in severely burned patients and evaluates treatment algorithms. Eight of 714 patients (1%) were diagnosed with RML. Percentage TBSA burn was 25 ± 13%. The mean abbreviated burn severity index score (ABSI) was 9 ± 2. ARF was found in 75% (6/8) of the patients. Serum myoglobin (MB) was reduced by 41 ± 16% after 24-h treatment by solitary volume repletion (VR) and by 44 ± 20% through VR+continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Mortality was 50% (4/8). Peak mean CPK-levels were more than two and MB-levels more than four times higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Burns associated with RML result in poor survival. VR and CVVHDF are effective measures in treating RML. CVVHDF is effective in removing MB when using high flux filter membranes. Early CVVHDF (within 24h of diagnosis) with high-cut off membranes could reduce the risk of ARF and mortality. PMID:20965664

Stollwerck, Peter L; Namdar, Thomas; Stang, Felix H; Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Siemers, Frank

2011-03-01

330

Ascitic fluid and serum from rats with acute pancreatitis injure rat pancreatic tissues and alter the expression of heat shock protein 60.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory process in which cytokines and chemokines are involved. After onset, extrapancreatic stimuli can induce the expression of cytokines in pancreatic acinar cells, thereby amplifying this inflammatory loop. To further determine the role and mechanism of irritating agents in the pathogenesis of AP, rat pancreatic tissues were stimulated with ascitic fluid (APa) and serum (APs) from rats with AP or with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the alteration of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) expression was evaluated. Rat pancreas was removed and meticulously snipped to fragments. The snips were cultured for up to 48 h. During this period, the tissue viability as well as amylase and TNF-alpha levels in the supernatant and the HSP60 expression in the pancreatic tissue before and after stimulation by APa, APs, and LPS were assayed time-dependently. At different time-points during the culture, the viability and the amylase activity in the pancreatic tissue remained largely stable. After stimulation with APa, APs, or LPS for 1 h, the pancreatic tissues showed some damage, and this was followed by a sharp decrease in the viability accompanied by increased levels of amylase and TNF-alpha in the culture medium 2 or 4 h after stimulation (p < 0.05). In contrast, both the HSP60 mRNA and protein levels had a relatively high expression in the freshly prepared tissue fragments (0 h). As the culturing period was extended, the expression of HSP60 mRNA decreased only slightly; at the same time, the HSP60 protein levels decreased over a prolonged culture time, significantly so from 12 through 48 h (p < 0.05). After stimulation with APs, APa, or LPS, both the expression of HSP60 mRNA and protein in the tissue fragments increased slightly at 1 h and decreased significantly thereafter at 2 and 4 h (p < 0.05). APa, APs, or LPS induce injuries on isolated pancreatic tissues, accompanied by an altered HSP60 expression pattern in a time-dependent manner. PMID:20146106

Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Xue-Jin; Lv, Shuai; Li, Kun; Li, Yan-Na; Gao, Zhi-Rong; Feng, Jia-Yan; Chen, Chang-Jie; Schaefer, Claus

2010-09-01

331

Morphological features of fluid collections on endoscopic ultrasound in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: do they change over time?  

PubMed Central

Background There have been attempts to develop universally applicable nomenclature for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) in acute pancreatitis. But PFCs following acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) has not been studied by sensitive imaging techniques like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The aim of the study was to prospectively study morphological structure of pancreatic fluid collections occurring after ANP by serial EUS. Methods Patients with ANP having PFC at ?4 weeks of onset of symptoms seen at our center from October 2011 to November 2012 were prospectively followed up with EUS at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months respectively and the amount of solid content in the collection was quantified as percentage amount of echogenic material. The symptomatic patients undergoing EUS/percutaneous drainage also underwent EUS prior to drainage for assessment of solid content. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 7 patients were lost to follow up or refused EUS. Forty seven patients (34 males; mean age 36.7±11.6 years) were studied. Etiology of acute pancreatitis was alcohol (n=22), gallstones (n=10), idiopathic (10), gallstones+alcohol (n=3) and drug induced (n=2). Contrast enhanced computed tomography done after 3 days of onset of ANP had shown less than 30%, 30-50% and more than 50% necrosis in 6 (13%), 14 (30%) and 27 (57%) patients respectively. On EUS at 6 weeks, 41/47 (87%) patients had fluid collection with solid debris. Follow up EUS at 3 and 6 months revealed progressively decreasing solid content in PFCs. Conclusions All PFCs following ANP may not have solid necrotic content and over a period of time necrotic content tends to liquefy. This may have therapeutic implications. PMID:24975052

Rana, Surinder S.; Bhasin, Deepak K.; Reddy, Yalaka Rami; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Sharma, Ravi K.; Gupta, Rajesh

2014-01-01

332

Ifitm3 limits the severity of acute influenza in mice.  

PubMed

Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are a family of viral restriction factors that inhibit the entry processes of several pathogenic viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), in vitro. Here we report that IAV-infected knockout mice lacking the Ifitm locus on chromosome 7 exhibited accelerated disease progression, greater mortality, and higher pulmonary and systemic viral burdens as compared to wild type controls. We further observed that the phenotype of Ifitm3-specific knockout mice was indistinguishable from that of mice lacking the entire Ifitm locus. Ifitm3 was expressed by IAV target cells including alveolar type II pneumocytes and tracheal/bronchial respiratory epithelial cells. Robust Ifitm3 expression was also observed in several tissues in the absence of infection. Among murine Ifitm promoters, only that of Ifitm3 could be induced by type I and II interferons. Ifitm3 could also be upregulated by the gp130 cytokines IL-6 and oncostatin M on cells expressing appropriate receptors, suggesting that multiple cytokine signals could contribute to Ifitm3 expression in a cell or tissue-specific manner. Collectively, these findings establish a central role for Ifitm3 in limiting acute influenza in vivo, and provide further insight into Ifitm3 expression and regulation. PMID:22969429

Bailey, Charles C; Huang, I-Chueh; Kam, Christina; Farzan, Michael

2012-09-01

333

Ifitm3 Limits the Severity of Acute Influenza in Mice  

PubMed Central

Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are a family of viral restriction factors that inhibit the entry processes of several pathogenic viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), in vitro. Here we report that IAV-infected knockout mice lacking the Ifitm locus on chromosome 7 exhibited accelerated disease progression, greater mortality, and higher pulmonary and systemic viral burdens as compared to wild type controls. We further observed that the phenotype of Ifitm3-specific knockout mice was indistinguishable from that of mice lacking the entire Ifitm locus. Ifitm3 was expressed by IAV target cells including alveolar type II pneumocytes and tracheal/bronchial respiratory epithelial cells. Robust Ifitm3 expression was also observed in several tissues in the absence of infection. Among murine Ifitm promoters, only that of Ifitm3 could be induced by type I and II interferons. Ifitm3 could also be upregulated by the gp130 cytokines IL-6 and oncostatin M on cells expressing appropriate receptors, suggesting that multiple cytokine signals could contribute to Ifitm3 expression in a cell or tissue-specific manner. Collectively, these findings establish a central role for Ifitm3 in limiting acute influenza in vivo, and provide further insight into Ifitm3 expression and regulation. PMID:22969429

Bailey, Charles C.; Huang, I-Chueh; Kam, Christina; Farzan, Michael

2012-01-01

334

Acute gastric dilatation and acute pancreatitis in a patient with an eating disorder: solving a chicken and egg situation.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old woman with an eating disorder presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain following binge eating. A plain film X-ray demonstrated a huge dilatation of the stomach with a high air-fluid level. Serum amylase was 2,265 IU/L, and serum lipase was 2,001 IU/L. Abdominopelvic computed tomography scan revealed a massive gastric dilatation and completely compressed duodenum. The distended right colonic loop and small bowel loops were reduced to the pelvic area and the displaced small bowel and mesenteries tightly pulled on the mesenteric vasculature. After nasogastric tube decompression and irrigation, her abdominal pain subsided. On the 15th day after admission, a follow-up abdominopelvic computed tomography scan demonstrated mild edematous changes of the pancreas compatible with pancreatitis. PMID:21422680

Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won

2011-01-01

335

Inflammation of ectopic pancreatic tissue in a Meckel's diverticulum causing acute abdominal symptoms: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

An unusual case of acute abdomen was caused by the inflammation of ectopic pancreatic tissue in a Meckel's diverticulum. A 49-year-old man presented with acute abdominal pain, and the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established. During laparotomy, a normal appendix of unusual localization near the gallbladder and a Meckel's diverticulum with an inflamed tip were found. Histological examination showed acute inflammation of heterotopic pancreatic tissue along with normal ectopic gastric and duodenal mucosa within the wall of the diverticulum. Fat necrosis was also ascertained. The authors believe that this is the first report of acute inflammation of ectopic pancreatic tissue and the presence of normal ectopic gastric and duodenal tissue in the same Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:19223375

Zarand, Attila; Bajtai, Attila; Baranyai, Zsolt; Dede, Kristof; Jakab, Ferenc

2011-06-01

336

Fractalkine and TGF-?1 levels reflect the severity of chronic pancreatitis in humans  

PubMed Central

AIM: To clarify whether serum chemokine and cytokine levels can become useful biological and functional markers to assess the severity of chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study aimed at clarifying whether serum chemokine and cytokine levels can become useful biological and functional markers to assess the severity of CP. METHODS: Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1), and soluble type fractalkine (s-fractalkine) concentrations were examined in patients with CP (n = 109) and healthy controls (n = 116). Severity of disease was classified in patients with CP by a staging system. Relationships between stage-specific various clinical factors and serum MCP-1, TGF-?1, and s-fractalkine levels were investigated. Furthermore, 57 patients with non-alcoholic CP were similarly evaluated in order to exclude influence of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Patients with CP showed significant higher levels of serum TGF-?1 and s-fractalkine, but not MCP-1, compared to the controls. Serum TGF-?1 in the severe stage and s-fractalkine in the mild and the severe stage of CP significantly increased compared to those of controls. However, it was observed that both TGF-?1 and s-fractalkine levels were affected by alcohol intake. In patients with non-alcoholic CP, serum TGF-?1 showed significant increase in the moderate stage of CP, and serum s-fractalkine revealed significant increase in the early stage of CP. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the measurement of serum F-fractalkine is useful to diagnose early-stage CP. Moreover, the combined determination of both, s-fractalkine and TGF-?1, in human sera may be helpful in evaluating the severity status of CP. PMID:19030200

Yasuda, Mikihiko; Ito, Tetsuhide; Oono, Takamasa; Kawabe, Ken; Kaku, Toyoma; Igarashi, Hisato; Nakamura, Taichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

2008-01-01

337

Fish Oil-Enriched Nutritional Supplement Attenuates Progression of the Acute-Phase Response in Weight-Losing Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of an acute-phase protein response (APPR) has been suggested to shorten survival and contribute to weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Fatty acids derived from fish oil have been shown to alter proinflammatory cytokine production and acute-phase protein synthesis in vitro. The present study was designed to determine the effects of a fish oil- enriched nutritional supplement

Matthew D. Barber; James A. Ross; Tom Preston; Alan Shenkin; Kenneth C. H. Fearon

338

[Unapparent course of pancreatitis with pseudocyst development and cholestatic jaundice in anticonvulsive therapy with valproate].  

PubMed

Valproic acid is a reliable and comparatively safe drug in the treatment of special forms of absence seizures. Severe but very rare complications include acute liver necrosis and acute pancreatitis which may end lethally. A case of a previously unreported association of pancreatic pseudocyst and development of cholestatic icterus in conjunction with valproic acid therapy is presented. The clinical signs of icterus and chronic pancreatic failure disappeared when we terminated the therapy. PMID:3110488

Braun, E; Spannagel, B; Bundschu, H D

1987-05-01

339

Incidence of severe acute renal failure in adults: results of a community based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the age related incidence of severe acute renal failure in adults in two health districts in England. DESIGN--Prospective study of patients identified as having severe acute renal failure within a two year period; subsequent monitoring of outcome for a further two years. SETTING--Two health districts in Devon. SUBJECTS--Those adults in a population of 444,971 who developed severe acute

T G Feest; A Round; S Hamad

1993-01-01

340

Management of Critically Ill Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is frequently complicated with acute respiratory failure. In this article, we aim to focus on the management of the subgroup of SARS patients who are critically ill. Most SARS patients would require high flow oxygen supplementation, 20-30% required intensive care unit (ICU) or high dependency care, and 13-26% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In

Pamela Youde

341

Pancreatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... usually goes away in a few days with treatment. It is often caused by gallstones. Common symptoms are severe pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is usually a few days in the hospital ...

342

Early acute pancreatitis in a child with compound heterozygosis ?F508/R1438W/Y1032C cystic fibrosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent studies suggest an important role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in the development of pancreatitis. It occurs approximately in 20% of patients with cystic fibrosis and almost exclusively in pancreatic sufficient people. Newborn screening and improved panels of deoxyribonucleic acid mutation analysis techniques are revealing more rare and nonclassical pictures of the disease, generally associated with pancreatic sufficiency and with an increased risk of developing pancreatitis. Mutations R1438 and Y1032 are considered rare mutations, and, when singularly associated with ?F508, lead to a mild phenotype with pancreatic sufficiency and no detectable respiratory involvement. Case presentation We present the case of a Caucasian girl, aged six years, whose genotype was characterized by three different mutations ?F508, R1438W and Y1032C, never reported, together, in the same patient. She presented with a positive immunoreactive trypsinogen screening, a borderline sweat test, and, in the first years, a favorable pulmonary course, and pancreatic sufficiency. At the age of six years, she presented with a sudden episode of acute abdominal pain, anorexia and fever. A diagnosis of pancreatitis was made after clinical and laboratory examinations. Venous rehydration, bowel rest and therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid resulted in complete remission. The treatment was successful, with normalization of her symptoms and laboratory parameters within four weeks. Conclusion There has been a vast expansion in the understanding of the wide range of phenotypes associated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator dysfunction since the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The genotype-phenotype correlation in pancreatitis is rare compared to other organ manifestations, since this is seen almost exclusively among pancreatic sufficient patients with cystic fibrosis. Our study supports that compound heterozygosis ?F508-R1438W/Y1032C is a 'cystic fibrosis-causing genotype' characterized by an immunoreactive trypsinogen positive screening, abnormal sweat chloride testing, and pancreatic sufficiency, with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis at an early age. PMID:23883480

2013-01-01

343

Early fluid retention and severe acute mountain sickness.  

PubMed

Field studies of acute mountain sickness (AMS) usually include variations in exercise, diet, and environmental conditions over days and development of clinically apparent edemas. The purpose of this study was to clarify fluid status in persons developing AMS vs. those remaining without symptoms during simulated altitude with controlled fluid intake, diet, temperature, and without exercise. Ninety-nine exposures of 51 men and women to reduced barometric pressure (426 mmHg = 16,000 ft. = 4,880 m) were carried out for 8-12 h. AMS was evaluated by Lake Louise (LL) and AMS-C scores near the end of exposure. Serial measurements included fluid balance, electrolyte excretions, and plasma concentrations, regulating hormones, and free water clearance. Comparison between 16 subjects with the lowest AMS scores near the end of exposure ("non-AMS": mean LL = 1.0, range = 0-2.5) and 16 others with the highest AMS scores ("AMS": mean LL = 7.4, range = 5-11) demonstrated significant fluid retention in AMS beginning within the first 3 h, resulting from reduced urine flow. Plasma Na+ decreased significantly after 6 h, indicating dilution throughout the total body water. Excretion of Na+ and K+ trended downward with time in both groups, being lower in AMS after 6 h, and the urine Na+-to-K+ ratio was significantly higher for AMS after 6 h. Renal compensation for respiratory alkalosis, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide were not different between groups, with the latter tending to rise and aldosterone falling with time of exposure. Antidiuretic hormone fell in non-AMS and rose in AMS within 90 min of exposure and continued to rise in AMS, closely associated with severity of symptoms and fluid retention. PMID:15501929

Loeppky, Jack A; Icenogle, Milton V; Maes, Damon; Riboni, Katrina; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Roach, Robert C

2005-02-01

344

Acute chest syndrome in severity of sickle cell diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Sickle cell diseases (SCDs) are chronic inflammatory processes on capillary level. We tried to understand whether or not there are some positive correlations between acute chest syndrome (ACS) and severity of SCDs. Methods: All patients with the SCDs were taken into the study. Results: The study included 337 cases (167 females). There were 15 patients (4.4%) with the ACS. The mean ages were similar in both groups (29.4 versus 29.7 years in the ACS group and other, respectively, P > 0.05). The female ratios were similar in both groups, too (60.0% versus 49.0%, respectively, P > 0.05). Additionally, prevalences of associated thalassemia minors were similar in them (66.6% versus 65.5%, respectively, P > 0.05). Smoking was higher in the ACS group (20.0% versus 13.9%), but the difference was nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Although the mean white blood cell count and hematocrit value of peripheric blood were higher in the ACS group, the mean platelet count was lower in them, but the differences were nonsignificant again (P > 0.05 for all). On the other hand, although the painful crises per year, tonsilectomy, priapism, ileus, digital clubbing, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, cirrhosis, stroke, and mortality were higher in the ACS group, the difference was only significant for the stroke (P < 0.05), probably due to the small sample size of the ACS group. Conclusion: SCDs are chronic destructive processes on capillaries iniatiating at birth, and terminate with early organ failures in life. Probably ACS is one of the terminal consequences of the inflammatory processes that may indicate shortened survival in such patients.

Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Acipayam, Can; Aydogan, Akin; Akkucuk, Seckin; Oruc, Cem; Gokce, Cumali

2014-01-01

345

Glycyrrhizin attenuates tissue injury and reduces neutrophil accumulation in experimental acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte infiltration and acinar cell injury are characteristic features of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signaling pathways regulating inflammation and accumulation of leukocytes into pancreas tissue remains poorly elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Glycyrrhizin (GZ) on cerulein-induced AP in mice. AP was induced in male C57BL/6 by intraperitoneal injection of 50 ?g/kg cerulein hourly, with a total of 7 times. 1 hour after the last injection of cerulean, mice were treated with either 35 or 70 mg/kg of GZ. Serum amylases and lipases were measured using automated chromogenic assay, MCP-1 and MIP-2 concentrations were measured in the serum by ELISA, and the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells in the pancreas were evaluated by flow cytometry. We found that GZ treatment resulted in reduction (i) both amylase and lipase activities, (ii) the serum levels of both MCP-1 and MIP-2; and (iii) markedly attenuated cerulein-induced histopathological alternations and water contents. Furthermore, we observed that GZ significantly decreased the number of infiltrated monocytes and neutrophils into the pancreas tissue. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GZ attenuates AP signs and inhibits inflammatory cell recruitments into pancreas. PMID:24427330

Fakhari, Shohreh; Abdolmohammadi, Kamal; Panahi, Yaser; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Peirmohammadi, Hossein; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Moghadam, Alireza Salek; Jalili, Ali

2014-01-01

346

Glycyrrhizin attenuates tissue injury and reduces neutrophil accumulation in experimental acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Leukocyte infiltration and acinar cell injury are characteristic features of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signaling pathways regulating inflammation and accumulation of leukocytes into pancreas tissue remains poorly elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Glycyrrhizin (GZ) on cerulein-induced AP in mice. AP was induced in male C57BL/6 by intraperitoneal injection of 50 ?g/kg cerulein hourly, with a total of 7 times. 1 hour after the last injection of cerulean, mice were treated with either 35 or 70 mg/kg of GZ. Serum amylases and lipases were measured using automated chromogenic assay, MCP-1 and MIP-2 concentrations were measured in the serum by ELISA, and the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells in the pancreas were evaluated by flow cytometry. We found that GZ treatment resulted in reduction (i) both amylase and lipase activities, (ii) the serum levels of both MCP-1 and MIP-2; and (iii) markedly attenuated cerulein-induced histopathological alternations and water contents. Furthermore, we observed that GZ significantly decreased the number of infiltrated monocytes and neutrophils into the pancreas tissue. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GZ attenuates AP signs and inhibits inflammatory cell recruitments into pancreas. PMID:24427330

Fakhari, Shohreh; Abdolmohammadi, Kamal; Panahi, Yaser; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Peirmohammadi, Hossein; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Moghadam, Alireza Salek; Jalili, Ali

2014-01-01

347

Integrated traditional Chinese medicine improves acute pancreatitis via the downregulation of PRSS1 and SPINK1  

PubMed Central

Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (ITCM) is known to improve health in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. AP is associated with the expression of PRSS1 and SPINK1. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether ITCM was able to ameliorate AP by regulating the expression levels of protein, serine 1 (PRSS1) and serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1). A total of 100 AP patients were divided at random into two groups. The treatment group were treated externally with a herbal ITCM preparation, while the control group received a routine placebo treatment. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PRSS1 and SPINK1 were subsequently compared between the two groups. The results revealed that the health of the patients who had received ITCM improved significantly when compared with the control group patients (P<0.05). In addition, the expression levels of PRSS1 and SPINK1 were found to be lower in the treatment group when compared with the control group (P<0.05). Therefore, ITCM exhibited a significant therapeutic effect on AP and produced no side effects since the treatment was applied externally. ITCM may ameliorate AP by downregulating the expression of PRSS1 and SPINK1; thus, should be considered as a potential therapy for the development of drugs against AP.

GAO, QIANG; LIANG, NUSHENG

2015-01-01

348

Is alcoholic pancreatitis associated with enteroviral infection?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether enteroviral infection might trigger acute pancreatitis in patients made susceptible due to high alcohol consumption. METHODS: Patients with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis were analyzed for signs of simultaneous or preceding enteroviral infection. We studied the serum samples of 40 patients hospitalized for alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis and 40 controls recruited from an alcohol detoxification center. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect enterovirus RNA and diagnose acute viremia. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) enteroviral antibodies were measured using enzyme immunoassay to detect subacute and previous infections. The samples were considered positive when the antibody titers were ? 15 IU. Furthermore, using RT-PCR, we studied pancreatic biopsy samples obtained during surgery from nine patients with chronic pancreatitis, one patient with acute pancreatitis and ten control patients with pancreatic carcinoma for evidence of persisting enteroviral RNA in the pancreatic tissue. RESULTS: No enterovirus RNA indicating acute viremia was detected by RT-PCR in the serum samples of any patient or control. A high incidence of positive antibody titers was observed in both study groups: IgM antibodies had positive titers in 5/40 (13%) vs 4/40 (10%), P = 0.723; IgG in 15/40 (38%) vs 19/40 (48%), P = 0.366; and IgA in 25/40 (63%) vs 33/40 (83%), P = 0.045, patients and controls, respectively. Ten (25%) patients had severe pancreatitis and two (5%) required treatment in intensive care. The median length of hospitalization was 7 d (range: 3-47 d). The severity of acute pancreatitis or the length of hospitalization was not associated with enteroviral IgM, IgG or IgA antibodies. Five pancreatic biopsy samples tested positive with RT-PCR, three (8%) in the control group and two (5%) in the patient group (P = 0.64). CONCLUSION: The rate of enteroviral infection is not increased in patients with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis when compared to alcoholics with similar high alcohol use. PMID:23840120

Khan, Jahangir; Nordback, Isto; Seppänen, Hanna; Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Järvinen, Satu; Oikarinen, Sami; Tauriainen, Sisko; Räty, Sari; Hyöty, Heikki; Sand, Juhani

2013-01-01

349

Ibuprofen reduces energy expenditure and acute-phase protein production compared with placebo in pancreatic cancer patients.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen on the acute-phase protein response and resting energy expenditure (REE) of weight-losing patients with pancreatic cancer. Patients with irresectable pancreatic cancer (n = 16) were treated with either ibuprofen (1200 mg day-1 for 7 days (n = 10) or placebo (n = 6). A group of 17 age-related non-cancer subjects were also studied. Indirect calorimetry, anthropometry, multifrequency bioelectrical impedence analysis and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) estimation were performed immediately before and after treatment. Before treatment, total REE was significantly elevated in the pancreatic cancer patients compared with healthy controls (1499 +/- 71 vs 1377 +/- 58 kcal) (P < 0.02). Following treatment the mean REE of the ibuprofen group fell significantly (1386 +/- 89 kcal) compared with pretreatment values (1468 +/- 99 kcal) (P < 0.02), whereas no change was observed in the placebo group. Serum CRP concentration was also reduced in the ibuprofen-treated group (pre-ibuprofen, 51 mg l-1; post-ibuprofen, 29 mg l-1; P < 0.05). These results suggest that ibuprofen may have a role in abrogating the catabolic processes which contribute to weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:7541236

Wigmore, S. J.; Falconer, J. S.; Plester, C. E.; Ross, J. A.; Maingay, J. P.; Carter, D. C.; Fearon, K. C.

1995-01-01

350

Acute liver failure caused by severe acute hepatitis B: a case series from a multi-center investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Few data can be available regarding acute liver failure (ALF) caused by severe acute hepatitis B up to now. This study aims to report such cases from China. Findings We conducted a multi-center investigation on ALF from 7 tertiary hospitals in different areas of China. A total of 11 patients with ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B were finally identified. In these patients, there were 10 male and 1 female patients. As a serious complication, apparent hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients. Eventually, in these 11 patients, 4 survived and 7 died. 4 died of heavy bleeding, 2 died of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 1 died of irreversible coma. No patients received liver transplantation. Conclusions ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B is worthy of formal studies based on its rarity and severity. PMID:24958233

2014-01-01

351

Pneumomediastinum is a possible acute complication of severe occupational asthma.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma has been reported to be the most common chronic respiratory occupational disease in many developed countries, and as with other occupational lung diseases, occupational asthma is potentially preventable. We report the case of a 24-year-old baker who experienced pneumomediastinum as a consequence of workplace exposure. This is the first report of pneumomediastinum as an acute complication of occupational asthma, and it exemplarily shows that the lack of medical surveillance at the workplace may lead to an acute, although unusual, complication. PMID:22427480

Pala, Gianni; Pignatti, Patrizia; Moscato, Gianna

2012-03-01

352

Virus Research 120 (2006) 146155 Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus  

E-print Network

-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infectivity by peptides analogous to the viral spike protein Bruno Sainz Jr.a,, Eric C Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the cause of an atypical pneumonia reserved. Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus; Class I viral fusion protein

Wimley, William C.

353

The use of proteomics in the discovery of serum biomarkers from patients with severe acute respiratory  

E-print Network

respiratory syndrome Yi Ren1*, Qing-Yu He2, 3*= , Jianqing Fan4 , Brian Jones5 , Yuan Zhou6 , Yi Xie1 , Chung Research centre, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS amyloid A / Severe acute respiratory syndrome Received: March 10, 2004; revised: May 2, 2004; accepted

Fan, Jianqing

354

Ectopic pancreas presenting with pancreatitis and a mesenteric mass.  

PubMed

Ectopic pancreas is defined by the presence of abnormally situated pancreatic tissue that lacks contact with normal pancreas and possesses its own duct system and vascular supply. Ectopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Moreover, there are several reported cases of adult ectopic pancreatitis in the literature, but to date, only two cases of pediatric ectopic pancreatitis have been reported. We describe a 15-year-old female with acute right upper quadrant pain and elevated serum lipase and amylase, in whom the radiological diagnosis was mesenteric soft tissue mass with adjacent inflammatory changes. The surgical pathology diagnosis, however, was mesenteric ectopic pancreas complicated by pancreatitis. We advocate for ectopic pancreatitis to be considered in a pediatric patient with acute abdominal pain, laboratory findings consistent with pancreatitis, and imaging findings of a mesenteric mass and normal orthotopic pancreas. PMID:23331836

Ginsburg, Michael; Ahmed, Osman; Rana, Kuntal A; Boumendjel, Redouane; Dachman, Abraham H; Zaritzky, Mario

2013-01-01

355

Management of acute moderate and severe childhood malnutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute childhood malnutrition affects about a tenth of the world's children under 5 years of age, particularly those living in circumstances of extreme poverty in the developing world. Malnutrition is typically the result of an inadequate diet and is one of the most common diagnoses in children in he...

356

Unusually rapid ?-cell failure in a patient newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes presenting acutely with unprovoked severe hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state: a case report  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ?-cell failure on a background of insulin resistance results in the inability to compensate for fasting hyperglycaemia and eventually produces type 2 diabetes mellitus. We describe an interesting case of a patient who presented acutely with unprovoked severe hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state and was subsequently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus on a background of only impaired first phase insulin secretion 4 months prior. Glucagon stimulation test detected significant ?-cell failure necessitating long term exogenous insulin therapy which is highly unusual by virtue of the rapid apparent deterioration. PMID:19918352

Huang, Judy Chien-Chun; Cheng, Harriet; Muir, Kenneth Ross

2009-01-01

357

Serum M30 and M65 levels and effects of Ankaferd blood stopper in cerulein induced experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: The incidence of acute pancreatitis is increasing recently. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) on experimental model of cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. Group 1: Sham (n = 8), Group 2: Control group (n = 8), Group 3: Treatment group (n = 8), Group 4: Prophylaxis group (n = 8), Group 5: Prophylaxis treatment group (n = 8). Any practice was not administered to Group 1. Rats were treated with either 1 ml ABS or 1 ml saline via intraperitoneal route before and after inducing acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Amylase, cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?), and markers of apoptosis (M30 and M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with caspase 3 antibody. Results: We found a statistically significant improvement in histopathological scores in treatment group and prophylaxis group compared with controls. In treatment group, M30 and M65 levels were lower when compared with controls. In prophylaxis group, there was not a statistically significant difference in M30 levels, but M65 levels were lower when compared with controls. Conclusion: In this experimental acute pancreatitis model, we found high histopathological healing effects of ABS treatment and also prophylaxis. ABS treatment and prophylaxis reduced apoptosis. PMID:25126164

Akta?, Bora; Ba?ar, Ömer; Y?lmaz, Bar??; Ekiz, Fuat; Alt?nba?, Akif; Çoban, ?ahin; Büyükçam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Gini?, Zeynep; Yüksel, Osman; Deliba??, Tuncay

2014-01-01

358

Immune cells and immune-based therapy in pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Alcohol and gallstones are the most common etiologic factors in acute pancreatitis (AP). Recurrent AP can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Although the underlying pathophysiology of the disease is complex, immune cells are critical in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and determining disease severity. In this review, we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in both AP and CP, potential immune-based therapeutic targets, and animal models used to understand our knowledge of the disease. The relative difficulty of obtaining human pancreatic tissue during pancreatitis makes animal models necessary. Animal models of pancreatitis have been generated to understand disease pathogenesis, test therapeutic interventions, and investigate immune responses. Although current animal models do not recapitulate all aspects of human disease, until better models can be developed available models are useful in addressing key research questions. Differences between experimental and clinical pancreatitis need consideration, and when therapies are tested, models with established disease ought to be included. PMID:24710635

Xue, Jing; Sharma, Vishal; Habtezion, Aida

2014-05-01

359

The Epidemiology of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes for hospital admission in the US. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients’ quality of life. Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and is 1 of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect Blacks more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23622135

Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B.

2013-01-01

360

Recent Advances in Autoimmune Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune pancreatitis remains unclear, this report presents recent evidence of the clinical aspects of this disease: mild abdominal symptoms, usually without acute attacks of pancreatitis; occasional presence of obstructive jaundice; elevated levels of serum gammaglobulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, or IgG4; presence of autoantibodies; diffuse enlargement of the pancreas; irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct (sclerosing pancreatitis), often with intrapancreatic biliary stenosis or coexisting biliary lesions (sclerosing cholangitis similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis) seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; fibrotic changes with lymphocyte and IgG4-positive plasmacyte infiltration and obliterative phlebitis; occasional association with other systemic lesions (such as sialadenitis), retroperitoneal fibrosis, and interstitial renal tubular disorders; and response to steroid therapy. Based upon these findings, several sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Further studies and international consensus for diagnostic criteria and pathogenetic mechanisms are needed. PMID:21904518

Uchida, Kazushige; Fukui, Toshiro; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Takaoka, Makoto

2008-01-01

361

Glycyrrhizin Suppresses the Expressions of HMGB1 and Relieves the Severity of Traumatic Pancreatitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays important roles in a large variety of diseases; glycyrrhizin (GL) is recognized as an HMGB1 inhibitor. However, few studies have focused on whether glycyrrhizin can potentially improve the outcome of traumatic pancreatitis (TP) by inhibiting HMGB1. Methods A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n?=?20 in each): Control group, TP group and TP-GL group. Pancreatic trauma was established with a custom-made biological impact machine-III, and GL was administered at 15 minutes after the accomplishment of operation. To determine survival rates during the first 7 days after injury, another 60 rats (n?=?20 in each) were grouped and treated as mentioned above. At 24 hours of induction of TP, the histopathological changes in pancreas were evaluated and serum amylase levels were tested. Serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and HMGB1 were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. HMGB1 expressions in pancreas were measured using immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis. Results Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-? and IL-6 were increased dramatically in TP group at 24 hours after induction of TP. However, these indicators were reduced significantly by GL administration in TP-GL group comparing with TP group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, survival analysis showed that the seven-day survival rate in TP-GL group was significantly higher than that in TP group (85% versus 65%, P<0.05). GL treatment significantly decreased the pancreatic protein and mRNA expressions of HMGB1 and ameliorated the pancreatic injury in rats with TP. Conclusions Glycyrrhizin might play an important role in improving survival rates and ameliorating pancreatic injury of TP by suppression of the expressions of HMGB1 and other proinflammatory cytokine. PMID:25541713

Luo, Zhulin; Ren, Jiandong; Tian, Fuzhou; Tang, Lijun; Chen, Tao; Dai, Ruiwu

2014-01-01

362

Brand new SPINK1 and CFTR mutations in a child with acute recurrent pancreatitis: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 2,5 years old female, referred to our center for pancreatitis. Medical investigation revealed history of acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) since 1 year of age. Family history was negative for pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance excluded both biliary tract stenosis and anatomic abnormalities. Calcium metabolic disorders, viral and bacterial infections were ruled out. Molecular sequencing of CFTR revealed heterozygosis for the mutation S1235R, a CFTR-related disorders associated mutation. Fecal elastase-1 (E1) was 529 ?g/gr feces (normal value 200-500 ?g/gr feces). No mutation of PRSS1 gene was detected but heterozygosity for p.Lys41Asn (c.123G>C), a new mutation of SPINK1 gene, was revealed. We speculate that the association of both SPINK1 and CFTR gene mutations may be responsible of ARP in our patient. Further studies need to better elucidate the role of genetic factors in ARP, as well as the influence of environmental factors. PMID:24217635

Terlizzi, V; De Gregorio, F; Sepe, A; Amato, N; Arduino, C; Casale, A; Majo, F; Tomaiuolo, R; Castaldo, G; Raia, V

2013-12-01

363

Endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement for inflammatory pancreatic diseases  

PubMed Central

The role of endoscopic therapy in the management of pancreatic diseases is continuously evolving; at present most pathological conditions of the pancreas are successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), or both. Endoscopic placement of stents has played and still plays a major role in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, pancreas divisum, main pancreatic duct injuries, pancreatic fistulae, complications of acute pancreatitis, recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis, and in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. These stents are currently routinely placed to reduce intraductal hypertension, bypass obstructing stones, restore lumen patency in cases with dominant, symptomatic strictures, seal main pancreatic duct disruption, drain pseudocysts or fluid collections, treat symptomatic major or minor papilla sphincter stenosis, and prevent procedure-induced acute pancreatitis. The present review aims at updating and discussing techniques, indications, and results of endoscopic pancreatic duct stent placement in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the pancreas. PMID:18023085

Testoni, Pier Alberto

2007-01-01

364

The Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution, Ascorbic Acid and Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: We investigated the biochemical and histopathological effects of vitamin C, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and hypertonic solution on acute necrotizing pancreatitis and on lungs as a terminal organ. Materials and Methods: We included 48 Sprague-Dawley rats in the study, which were divided into six groups, each with eight rats. The rats in group 1 were sacrificed immediately, in order to determine normal reference values for biochemical and histopathological data. Twenty-four hours after giving intraperitoneal L-arginine to the remaining five groups, development of pancreatitis was shown through assessment of amylase and CRP values. Rats in group 2 were sacrificed at the 24th hour and assigned to the control group for biochemical or the histopathological data groups, in which pancreatitis was induced. The rats in the remaining four groups were given intravenous (IV) isotonic NaCl (group 3), IV vitamin C (group 4), subcutaneous LMWH (group 5), IV hypertonic NaCl (group 6) between 24–48 hours. Each group was assessed with respect to amylase, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), bicarbonate, base excess (BE), Ca++, ascorbic acid, and leukocyte at hour 72. Additionally, pancreatic and lung tissue was histopathologically evaluated. Results: In the treatment groups, amylase and leukocyte levels at the 72nd hour were found to be significantly lower than at the 24th hour (p<0.05). The most significant decrease in amylase and leukocyte levels was found in group 6, and damage to the pancreas was found to be lowest in groups 4 and 6. Conclusion: We observed that in rats, hypertonic NaCl solution and vitamin C reduced the amount of necrosis in the pancreas.

Sa??ro?lu, Tamer; Eren, Eryi?it; Tunca, Fatih; Meydan, Burhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin

2008-01-01

365

Relationship between Plasma Cortisol Levels and Stress Ulcer following Acute and Severe Head Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between plasma cortisol levels and stress ulcer following acute severe head injury. Patients and Methods: The plasma cortisol levels were prospectively measured by radioimmunoassay in 68 patients following acute head injury. The diagnosis of stress ulcer was based on clinical evidence and was confirmed by endoscopic examination. Results: Patients with stress

Zhong-Min Li; Le-Xin Wang; Li-Cheng Jiang; Jian-Xin Zhu; Feng-Yang Geng; Fu Qiang

2010-01-01

366

A patient with pancreas divisum, recurrent acute pancreatitis, and homozygosity for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator-associated protein 5T allele.  

PubMed

Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) have been reported to increase the risk of recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum. We assessed the CFTR gene in a young male patient with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography revealed that the patient had pancreas divisum, with an enlarged and tortuous pancreatic duct; he also had positive results from the cystic fibrosis sweat test. Genetic analysis did not identify any common CFTR mutations, but did show that he was homozygous for the 5T allele in intron 8 IVS8 5T-12TG (which affects splicing at intron 8). Endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting of papilla minor was performed. The IVS8 5T-12TG variant has been associated with abnormal organ development, therefore it is possible that CFTR has an important role in the development of the pancreatic duct. We propose this patient has recurrent acute pancreatitis resulting from a developmental defect associated with a suboptimal CFTR function. PMID:23416327

Montagnani, Marco; Cazzato, Salvatore; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Cevenini, Monica; Guidetti, Elena; Zvi, Ido Ben; Aldini, Rita; Saraceni, Giacomo; Cavoli, Carlotta; Garagnani, Paolo; Ferrari, Simona; Mantovani, Vilma

2013-05-01

367

Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy during pancreatic insufficiency.  

PubMed

Pancreatic stimulation and therefore digestion is a tightly controlled and hormonally mediated process. Any alterations affecting any of the systematic steps for successful digestion and absorption to occur will impair appropriate pancreatic enzymatic secretion, entry into the bowel lumen, functionality once inside the lumen, and thus appropriate mixing with foods and nutrients. Many causes of pancreatic insufficiency may require the initiation of pancreatic enzyme therapy, including but not limited to cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic surgery. This purpose of this article is to help clarify the conditions that cause pancreatic insufficiency, how to determine if the patient is malabsorbing, and the best use of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for treatment in these conditions. The first step in determining if pancreatic enzyme therapy is appropriate is to determine if the patient is malabsorbing specifically due to pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. An overview of the methods used to determine pancreatic insufficiency is provided, as well as appropriate treatment methods. Recent Food and Drug Administration regulations require a more thorough process, including randomized controlled trials to prove the safety and efficacy of pancreatic enzymes, to approve them for use. The studies used to verify efficacy also are examined. Last, dosing guidelines and some unconventional ways to administer pancreatic enzymes, such as during enteral feedings, are reviewed. PMID:24687867

Berry, Amy J

2014-06-01

368

Epidemiology of Acute Pancreatitis in Hospitalized Children in the United States from 2000–2009  

PubMed Central

Background Single-center studies suggest an increasing incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children. Our specific aims were to (i) estimate the recent secular trends, (ii) assess the disease burden, and (iii) define the demographics and comorbid conditions of AP in hospitalized children within the United States. Methods We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for the years 2000 to 2009. Extracted data were weighted to generate national-level estimates. We used the Cochrane-Armitage test to analyze trends; cohort-matching to evaluate the association of AP and in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and charges; and multivariable logistic regression to test the association of AP and demographics and comorbid conditions. Results We identified 55,012 cases of AP in hospitalized children (1–20 years of age). The incidence of AP increased from 23.1 to 34.9 (cases per 10,000 hospitalizations per year; P<0.001) and for all-diagnoses 38.7 to 61.1 (P<0.001). There was an increasing trend in the incidence of both primary and all-diagnoses of AP (P<0.001). In-hospital mortality decreased (13.1 to 7.6 per 1,000 cases, P<0.001), median length of stay decreased (5 to 4 days, P<0.001), and median charges increased ($14,956 to $22,663, P<0.001). Children with AP compared to those without the disease had lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.78–0.95), longer lengths of stay (aOR 2.42, 95% CI, 2.40–2.46), and higher charges (aOR 1.62, 95% CI,