Sample records for severe acute pancreatitis

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Severe Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishakha; Gupta, OP; Rao, Tarun; Rao, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical continent. Severe dengue is life threatening. Various atypical presentations of dengue have been documented. But we present a rare and fatal complication of severe dengue in form of acute pancreatitis. A 27-year-old male had presented with severe dengue in decompensated shock and with pain in abdomen due to pancreatitis. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in dengue is not clearly understood, but various mechanisms are postulated. The awareness and timely recognition of this complication is very important for proper management. PMID:24926168

  2. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

  3. Prognostic intraoperative factors in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Popa, CC

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious disease. Triggered by the local inflammation of the pancreas, it can cause inflammation in various organs and systems in the body. It is important to identify severe forms of acute pancreatitis with an increased morbidity and mortality rate. Lately, internationally, numerous clinical and paraclinical factors predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis have been proposed. The purpose of the study is to identify the prognostic intraoperative factors of severity. The prospective study was conducted over a period of four years, between 2007 and 2010 and included 238 patients treated in a surgical clinic in Bucharest. 103 patients experienced a severe form of acute pancreatitis, which means 67.95% of all operations practiced. We monitored intraoperative factors, in particular: the presence and/ or the extent of pancreatic necrosis, common bile duct lithiasis and intraperitoneal fluid, parameters proposed to become statistically prognostic factors in the development and long-term morbidity of acute pancreatitis. The presence and/ or extension of necrosis was identified in the histopathology only in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. 71.43% of the patients with common bile duct lithiasis and 73.91% of the patients with inflammatory intraperitoneal fluid had severe acute pancreatitis. Most patients who developed postoperative complications (86.49%) or who required a surgical intervention (85.71%), presented a severe form of the disease. Conclusions: pancreatic necrosis, common bile duct lithiasis and intraperitoneal fluid may contribute to a more precise prediction of severity, as confirmed by international literature.

  4. Laboratory Markers of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rau; M. K. Schilling; H. G. Beger

    2004-01-01

    Background: A large array of parameters has been proposed for the biochemical stratification of severity and prediction of complications in acute pancreatitis. However, the number of accurate and readily available variables for routine application is still limited. Methods: The literature was reviewed for laboratory markers of acute pancreatitis with special regard to their clinical usefulness and test performance for stratifying

  5. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  6. Metabolic Management of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Windsor; Hisham Hammodat

    2000-01-01

    .   The metabolic management of severe acute pancreatitis involves early identification of patients with severe pancreatitis,\\u000a aggressive fluid resuscitation, organ support, and careful monitoring in an intensive care environment. Recent evidence has\\u000a helped to define the roles of enteral feeding, prophylactic antibiotics, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, computed\\u000a tomography, and fine-needle aspiration for bacteriology. The most difficult decision in the management of

  7. Severe hypertriglyceridemia-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Morozzi, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. In some cases, inborn errors of metabolism such as lipoprotein lipase deficiency, apoprotein C-II deficiency, and familial hypertriglyceridemia have been reported as causes of severe hypertriglyceridemia. More often, severe hypertriglyceridemia describes various clinical conditions characterized by high plasma levels of triglycerides (>1000 mg/dL), chylomicron remnants, or intermediate density lipoprotein like particles, and/or chylomicrons. International guidelines on the management of acute pancreatitis are currently available. Standard therapeutic measures are based on the use of lipid-lowering agents (fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, niacin, ?-3 fatty acids), low molecular weight heparin, and insulin in diabetic patients. However, when standard medical therapies have failed, non-pharmacological approaches based upon the removal of triglycerides with therapeutic plasma exchange can also provide benefit to patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Plasma exchange could be very helpful in reducing triglycerides levels during the acute phase of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis, and in the prevention of recurrence. The current evidence on management of acute pancreatitis and severe hypertriglyceridemia, focusing on symptoms, treatment and potential complications is reviewed herein. PMID:23551669

  8. Peritoneal lavage with aprotinin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rikard Berling; Anders Borgström; Kjell Ohlsson

    1998-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a Although high-dose aprotinin given intraperitoneally to patients with severe acute pancreatitis seems to inhibit activated\\u000a trypsin in the peritoneal cavity, the treatment has little effect on the balance between proteases and antiproteases. Plasma\\u000a levels of leukocyte proteases were high in all the patients, indicating leukocyte activation to be an important feature of\\u000a the pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis.

  9. Granulocyte elastase in assessment of severity of acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Gross; J. Schölmerich; H.-G. Leser; R. Salm; M. Lausen; K. Rückauer; U. Schöffel; L. Lay; A. Heinisch; E. H. Farthmann; W. Gerok

    1990-01-01

    Complexes of granulocyte elastase and a1-antitrypsin are markers for granulocyte activation. In 75 patients with acute pancreatitis these complexes were immunologically determined daily in plasma during the first week of hospitalization. Patients were classified into three groups: mild pancreatitis (I, =1 complication, N=34), severe pancreatitis (II, =2 complications, N= 29), lethal outcome (III, N=12). Initially, granulocyte elastase (mean±sem) was lower

  10. [Principles of intensive care in severe acute pancreatitis in 2008].

    PubMed

    Darvas, Katalin; Futó, Judit; Okrös, Ilona; Gondos, Tibor; Csomós, Akos; Kupcsulik, Péter

    2008-11-23

    Acute pancreatitis is a dynamic, often progressive disease; 14-20% require intensive care in its severe form due to multiorgan dysfunction and/or failure. This review was created using systematic literature review of articles published on this subject in the last 5 years. The outcome of severe acute pancreatitis is determined by the inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction - the prognostic scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Glasgow Prognostic Index, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Scale, Ranson Scale) can be used to determine outcome. Clinical signs (age, coexisting diseases, confusion, obesity) and biochemistry values (serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatinine, urea, calcium) have important prognostic roles as well. Early organ failure increases the risk of late abdominal complications and mortality. Intensive care can provide appropriate multi-function patient monitoring which helps in early recognition of complications and appropriate target-controlled treatment. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis aims at reducing systemic inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction and, on the other side, at increasing the anti-inflammatory response. Oral starvation for 24-48 hours is effective in reducing the exocrine activity of the pancreas; the efficacy of protease inhibitors is questionable. Early intravascular volume resuscitation and stable haemodynamics improve microcirculation. Early oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation provide adequate oxygenation. Electrolyte and acid-base control can be as important as tight glucose control. Adequate pain relief can be achieved by thoracic epidural catheterization. Early enteral nutrition with immunonutrition should be used. There is evidence that affecting the coagulation cascade by activated protein C can play a role in reducing the inflammatory response. The complex therapy of acute pancreatitis includes appropriate antibiotics, thrombo-embolic prophylaxis and in certain cases plasmapheresis and/or haemofiltration. Reducing intraabdominal pressure may be necessary in the acute phase. Intensive care multidisciplinary teamwork can reduce the mortality of severe acute pancreatitis from 30% to 10%. PMID:19004743

  11. [Efficacy of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) for severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Nobuya; Hirano, Takeshi; Moriguchi, Takeshi; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2004-11-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is involved in the development of pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and influences the prognosis. We should suppress BT to prevent pancreatic infection and improve survival rate. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is rational treatment. We should aim at effective SDD, ensuring the following 4 points: (1) enteral antimicrobials, in combination with, (2) parenteral antibiotics given immediately on admission, (3) hand hygiene, (4) surveillance cultures of throat and rectum. Starting enteral feeding as soon as possible and avoiding long-term SDD is useful for maintaining the defenses of the intestinal mucosa and preventing emergence of resistant bacteria. We used glutamine and dietary fiber besides SDD and were able to reduce pancreatic infection. PMID:15552890

  12. Android Fat Distribution as Predictor of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Mery; Valeria Rubio; Andrés Duarte-Rojo; Jorge Suazo-Barahona; Mario Peláez-Luna; Pilar Milke; Guillermo Robles-Díaz

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Obesity is considered an independent risk factor for the development of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this study was to define the type of fat distribution related to severity in AP. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with first-time AP underwent measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness on admission. Severity was defined according to Atlanta

  13. Early Antibiotic Treatment for Severe Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, E Patchen; Tellado, Jose M.; Soto, Norberto E.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Barie, Philip S.; Dugernier, Thierry; Imrie, Clement W.; Johnson, Colin D.; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Laterre, Pierre-Francois; Maravi-Poma, Enrique; Kissler, Jorge J. Olsina; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Utzolino, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: In patients with severe, necrotizing pancreatitis, it is common to administer early, broad-spectrum antibiotics, often a carbapenem, in the hope of reducing the incidence of pancreatic and peripancreatic infections, although the benefits of doing so have not been proved. Methods: A multicenter, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study set in 32 centers within North America and Europe. Participants: One hundred patients with clinically severe, confirmed necrotizing pancreatitis: 50 received meropenem and 50 received placebo. Interventions: Meropenem (1 g intravenously every 8 hours) or placebo within 5 days of the onset of symptoms for 7 to 21 days. Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoint: development of pancreatic or peripancreatic infection within 42 days following randomization. Other endpoints: time between onset of pancreatitis and the development of pancreatic or peripancreatic infection; all-cause mortality; requirement for surgical intervention; development of nonpancreatic infections within 42 days following randomization. Results: Pancreatic or peripancreatic infections developed in 18% (9 of 50) of patients in the meropenem group compared with 12% (6 of 50) in the placebo group (P = 0.401). Overall mortality rate was 20% (10 of 50) in the meropenem group and 18% (9 of 50) in the placebo group (P = 0.799). Surgical intervention was required in 26% (13 of 50) and 20% (10 of 50) of the meropenem and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.476). Conclusions: This study demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups for pancreatic or peripancreatic infection, mortality, or requirement for surgical intervention, and did not support early prophylactic antimicrobial use in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:17457158

  14. [Protocol for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with necrosis].

    PubMed

    Barreda, Luis; Targarona, Javier; Rodriguez, César

    2005-01-01

    The Severe Acute Pancreatic Unit of Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital was officially created in the year 2000. Up to date, we have cared for more than 195 patients with Pancreatic Necrosis. All of them have been treated under a management protocol presented by us. This has helped us to standardize treatment and also to compare results with work groups around the world. This Protocol comes from our own experience and that of our colleagues abroad with a wide knowledge in this kind of pathology abroad, with whom we maintain close ties. PMID:16021203

  15. Pioglitazone attenuates the severity of sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Xu; Xiao-Jiang Zhou; Ling-Quan Chen; Jiang Chen; Yong Xie; Long-Hua Lv; Xiao-Hua Hou

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of pioglitazone, a specifi c peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) ligand, on development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pancreas. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (160-200 g) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 18 in each group): severe acute pancreatitis group,

  16. Criteria for the diagnosis and severity stratification of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Makoto; Takeda, Kazunori; Matsuno, Seiki; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Koizumi, Masaru; Hirota, Masahiko; Ito, Tetsuhide; Kataoka, Keisho; Kitagawa, Motoji; Inui, Kazuo; Takeyama, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent diagnostic and therapeutic progress for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remarkably decreased the case-mortality rate. To further decrease the mortality rate of SAP, it is important to precisely evaluate the severity at an early stage, and initiate appropriate treatment as early as possible. Research Committee of Intractable Diseases of the Pancreas in Japan developed simpler criteria combining routinely available data with clinical signs. Severity can be evaluated by laboratory examinations or by clinical signs, reducing the defect values of the severity factors. Moreover, the severity criteria considered laboratory/clinical severity scores and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) findings as independent risk factors. Thus, CE-CT scans are not necessarily required to evaluate the severity of acute pancreatitis. There was no fatal case in mild AP diagnosed by the CE-CT severity score, whereas case-mortality rate in those with SAP was 14.8%. Case-mortality of SAP that fulfilled both the laboratory/clinical and the CE-CT severity criteria was 30.8%. It is recommended, therefore, to perform CE-CT examination to clarify the prognosis in those patients who were diagnosed as SAP by laboratory/clinical severity criteria. Because the mortality rate of these patients with SAP is high, such patients should be transferred to advanced medical units. PMID:24124324

  17. Early Enteral Feeding in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Can It Prevent Secondary Pancreatic (Super) Infection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lehocky; Michael G. Sarr

    2000-01-01

    Sepsis continues to account for a second peak in mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The prevention of these septic complications and subsequent development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome remains a major focus for investigators, yet despite considerable clinical and experimental work addressing its etiology, septic complications remain high. Several studies have been designed to demonstrate the mechanism of

  18. Diagnosis, objective assessment of severity, and management of acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dervenis; C. D. Johnson; C. Bassi; E. Bradley; C. W. Imrie; M. J. McMahon; I. Modlin

    1999-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Background  The diagnosis, early assessment, and management of severe acute pancreatitis remain difficult clinical problems. This article\\u000a presents the consensus obtained at a meeting convened to consider the evidence in these areas. The aim of the article is to\\u000a provide outcome statements to guide clinical practice, with an assessment of the supporting evidence for each statement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Working groups considered the

  19. Multisystemic production of interleukin 10 limits the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-L Van Laethem; R Eskinazi; H Louis; F Rickaert; P Robberecht; J Devičre

    1998-01-01

    Background—Interleukin 10 (IL-10) decreases the severity of experimental acute pancreatitis. The role of endogenous IL-10 in modulating the course of pancreatitis is currently unknown.Aims—To examine the systemic release of IL-10 and its messenger RNA production in the pancreas, liver, and lungs and analyse the effects of IL-10 neutralisation in caerulein induced acute pancreatitis in mice.Methods—Acute necrotising pancreatitis was induced by

  20. Significance of apoptotic cell death in systemic complications with severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi Takeyama

    2005-01-01

    In severe acute pancreatitis, multiple organ failure in the early stage after onset, and sepsis in the late stage, due to infection of pancreatic or peripancreatic devitalized tissue, contribute to its high mortality. In analogy with sepsis, evidence has accumulated of the significance of apoptotic cell death in the systemic manifestations associated with acute pancreatitis. Since we identified apoptosis-inducing activity

  1. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with severe acute pancreatitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira; Moreira, Alecsandro; Baima, Julio P; Franzoni, Leticia de C; Lima, Talles B; Yamashiro, Fabio da S; Coelho, Kunie Yabuki Rabelo; Sassaki, Ligia Y; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Romeiro, Fernando G; Silva, Giovanni F

    2014-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare disease that affects women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Although infrequent, the disease can cause maternal mortality. The diagnosis is not always clear until the pregnancy is terminated, and significant complications, such as acute pancreatitis, can occur. Pancreatic involvement typically only occurs in severe cases after the development of hepatic and renal impairment. To date, little knowledge is available regarding how the disease causes pancreatitis. Treatment involves supportive measures and pregnancy interruption. In this report, we describe a case of a previously healthy 26-year-old woman at a gestational age of 27 wk and 6 d who was admitted with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. This case illustrates the clinical and laboratory overlap between acute fatty liver of pregnancy and pancreatitis, highlighting the difficulties in differentiating each disease. Furthermore, the hypothesis for this overlapping is presented, and the therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:25068005

  2. Dexamethasone and dextran 40 treatment of 32 patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zi-Fa Wang; Chang Liu; Yi Lu; Rui Dong; Jun Xu; Liang Yu; Ying-Min Yao; Qing-Guang Liu; Cheng-En Pan

    AIM: Based on the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis and our experimental studies, to investigate the effect of dexamethasone and dextran in treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with severe acute pancreatitis were treated with 0.5-1 mg\\/kg per day dexamethasone for 3-5 d, and 500-1 000 mL\\/d of dextran 40 for 7 d, besides the routine

  3. Severe acute pancreatitis: advances and insights in assessment of severity and management.

    PubMed

    Brisinda, Giuseppe; Vanella, Serafino; Crocco, Anna; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina; Santullo, Francesco; Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    The patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Often, there is no correlation between the degree of structural damage to pancreas and clinical manifestation of the disease. The effectiveness of any treatment is related to the ability to predict severity accurately, but there is no ideal predictive system or biochemical marker. Severity assessment is indispensable to the selection of proper initial treatment in the management of acute pancreatitis. The use of multiparametric criteria and the evaluation of severity index permit us to select high-risk patients. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning and contrast-enhanced MRI play an important role in severity assessment. The adoption of multiparametric criteria proposed together with morphological evaluation consents the formulation of a discreetly reliable prognosis on the evolution of the disease a few days from onset. PMID:21659951

  4. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a critical mediator of severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Sakai; Atsushi Masamune; Akihiko Satoh; Jun Nishihira; Tetsuya Yamagiwa; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), originally described as an inhibitor of the random migration of macrophages, has been shown recently to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as sepsis. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of MIF in acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods: Hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and edematous pancreatitis were

  5. [Role of free radicals in the development of severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Tadao, Manabe; Yuji, Okada

    2004-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease which leads to acinar cell damage, interstitial edema, and hemorrhage. Some patients develop severe acute pancreatitis and result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Acute pancreatitis is initiated by the activation of pancreatic enzyme in acinar cells. Following activation of trypsinogen into trypsin, local inflammation is initiated and activated inflammatory mediators are produced. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes release lysosomal enzymes, oxygen free radicals, vasoactive substances, and proinflammatory mediators. In the course of the development of acute pancreatitis oxygen-free radicals and their derivatives play an important role as the molecular trigger in constituting lesions in the pancreas. Damaged acinar cells as well as activated neutrophils and macrophages produce large amount of oxygen radicals in acute pancreatitis. The hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, the hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen are key elements capable of cellular injury in acute pancreatitis. These highly reactive species cause various reactions, such as destruction of lipid membranes by peroxidation of fatty acids and destruction of lysosomal membranes. The oxygen radicals generated in the circulation might injure the capillary endothelium, and play an important role in accelerating the progression of acute pancreatitis. The imbalance of oxygen radical generating and oxygen radical scavenging processes is considered to lead to the cell injury in acute pancreatitis. These oxygen radicals are not only restricted in the pancreatic tissue, but involved in the systemic manifestation of the disease, particularly in the lungs, liver, and blood. PMID:15552883

  6. Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Lee, Gyeong Bok; Shin, Dong Gue; Park, Sang Su; Yun, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog; Cho, Dong Hui

    2014-06-01

    The side effects of tamoxifen are generally mild, including the effect on lipoprotein metabolism. However, there are few cases of severe tamoxifen induced hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is a marked risk factor for acute pancreatitis and approximately 2% to 5% of cases of acute pancreatitis are related to drugs. We report on tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a 40 years old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus occurred by dexamethasone. She was treated with insulin infusion and fenofibrate, and goserelin acetate was started instead of tamoxifen after discharge from the hospital. Also, probable pathogenic hypotheses about the correlation between tamoxifen and dexamethasone induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on severe acute pancreatitis are provided. Clinicians should take care of risks of severe acute pancreatitis on using tamoxifen, especially for patients with dexamethasone induced diabetes mellitus. These individuals should undergo pre-post tamoxifen lipid screening and careful history taking of drugs, including dexamethasone. PMID:25035662

  7. Severe acute pancreatitis due to tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Lee, Gyeong Bok; Shin, Dong Gue; Park, Sang Su; Yun, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog

    2014-01-01

    The side effects of tamoxifen are generally mild, including the effect on lipoprotein metabolism. However, there are few cases of severe tamoxifen induced hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is a marked risk factor for acute pancreatitis and approximately 2% to 5% of cases of acute pancreatitis are related to drugs. We report on tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in a 40 years old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus occurred by dexamethasone. She was treated with insulin infusion and fenofibrate, and goserelin acetate was started instead of tamoxifen after discharge from the hospital. Also, probable pathogenic hypotheses about the correlation between tamoxifen and dexamethasone induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on severe acute pancreatitis are provided. Clinicians should take care of risks of severe acute pancreatitis on using tamoxifen, especially for patients with dexamethasone induced diabetes mellitus. These individuals should undergo pre-post tamoxifen lipid screening and careful history taking of drugs, including dexamethasone. PMID:25035662

  8. Acute kidney injury in severe acute pancreatitis: an experience from a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Pahwa, Naresh; Jain, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We aimed in our study to explore the risk factors of AKI in patients with SAP and assess the prognosis of patients with SAP and AKI. This is a retrospective study consisting of analysis of outcome and complications encountered in 72 severe acute pancreatitis patients admitted to a tertiary care center at Indore, India, from May 2011 to April 2012. We encountered 14 AKI cases in the SAP study patients. There was a significant association of diabetes and alcohol with AKI in patients with SAP. Alcohol was found to be an independent significant risk factor for AKI in SAP. All the eight patients with SAP who expired had AKI. None of the patients of SAP without AKI expired during the study. We conclude that the patients with SAP with AKI have a greater mortality rate as compared with the SAP patients without AKI. PMID:25579716

  9. Study of the Protective Effects of Dexamethasone on Multiple Organ Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Ping Zhang; Ling Zhang; Ying Wang; Qi Hui Cheng; Jian Mei Wang; Wei Cai

    Context Pancreas, lung, kidney and liver injury has been proven to play an important role in severe acute pancreatitis. Objective To observe the protective effects of dexamethasone on multiple organs (pancreas, lung, kidney and liver) in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Animals One hundred and thirty-five Sprague-Dawley rats. Design Ninety rats were prepared as severe acute pancreatitis models and were

  10. Antioxidant Inhibits HMGB1 Expression and Reduces Pancreas Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Wei Zhang; Qi Yu Zhang; Meng Tao Zhou; Na Xin Liu; Tong Ke Chen; Ye Fan Zhu; Liang Wu

    2010-01-01

    Background  Pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis is still unclear, which leads to a lack of proper treatment in severe acute pancreatitis\\u000a therapeutic strategy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To investigate the effect of treatment with antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on pancreas injury in rats with severe\\u000a acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 144 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly allocated into a sham operation group

  11. Experimental evidence of obesity as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Louis Frossard; Pierre Lescuyer; Catherine M Pastor

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas, is increasing worldwide. Pancreatic injury is mild in 80%-90% of patients who recover without complications. The remaining patients may de- velop a severe disease with local complications such as acinar cell necrosis, abscess and remote organ injury including lung injury. The early prediction of the sever- ity of the disease

  12. Early Nasogastric Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Eckerwall, Gunilla E.; Axelsson, Jakob B.; Andersson, Roland G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early, nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Summary Background Data: In SAP, the magnitude of the inflammatory response as well as increased intestinal permeability correlates with outcome. Enteral feeding has been suggested superior to parenteral feeding due to a proposed beneficial effect on the gut barrier. Methods: Fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to TPN or EN groups. The nutritional regimen was started within 24 hours from admission and EN was provided through a nasogastric tube. The observation period was 10 days. Intestinal permeability was measured by excretion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrations of antiendotoxin core antibodies (Endocab). Interleukins (IL)-6 IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the systemic inflammatory response. Morbidity and feasibility of the nutritional route were evaluated by the frequency of complications, gastrointestinal symptoms, and abdominal pain. Results: PEG, Endocab, CRP, IL-6, APACHE II score, severity according to the Atlanta classification (22 patients), and gastrointestinal symptoms or abdominal pain did not significantly differ between the groups. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN patients (21 of 26 vs. 7 of 23; P < 0.001). Total complications (25 vs. 52; P = 0.04) and pulmonary complications (10 vs. 21; P = 0.04) were significantly more frequent in EN patients, although complications were diagnosed dominantly within the first 3 days. Conclusion: In predicted SAP, nasogastric early EN was feasible and resulted in better control of blood glucose levels, although the overall early complication rate was higher in the EN group. No beneficial effects on intestinal permeability or the inflammatory response were seen by EN treatment. PMID:17122621

  13. A new pathological scoring method for adrenal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenhong; Hui, Yuanjian; Yu, Jia; Wang, Weixing; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Xincheng

    2014-12-01

    These studies investigated the appearance and function of adrenal glands in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and established a new histopathological score to evaluate adrenal histopathological changes. Severe acute pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The damage of SAP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A2 and pancreatic histopathology. Light and electron microscopy of adrenal gland, and the levels of serum corticosterone were investigated. These results showed that the generally ascending trend of adrenal pathological score was inversely proportional to the generally descending trend of serum corticosterone levels, but parallel with the changes of pancreatic histopathology. Herein, the new adrenal histopathological score was effective in the evaluation of adrenal injury following SAP. It may indirectly reflect the variation of serum cortisol levels and the severity of pancreatitis to a certain extent. PMID:24947411

  14. Effects of time interval for hemofiltration on the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En-Qiang Mao; Yao-Qing Tang; Sheng-Dao Zhang

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of time interval for hemofiltration (HF) on the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients with severe acute pancreatitis were included in the study. Atlanta classification system was applied for stratification. They were randomly divided into short veno-venous HF group, (SVVH, Group 1, 20 patients); and long veno-venous HF group (LVVH, Group

  15. Surgical intervention in severe acute pancreatitis: 476 cases in 20 years.

    PubMed Central

    Kune, G. A.; Brough, W.

    1989-01-01

    During a 20-year period 1967-86, 476 consecutive cases of severe acute pancreatitis were managed by one surgeon (GAK) and the role and results of surgical intervention in this group were reviewed. Of the 173 cases undergoing surgery, 77 were laparotomies for diagnosis, seven for the excision of necrotic pancreatic tissue and 89 for postpancreatitis complications (18 pseudocysts, 53 pancreatic abscesses, one large bowel perforation, 17 patients with persistent obstructive jaundice and one case of acute haemorrhage into a cyst causing obstructive jaundice). There were 50 deaths (11%) of whom 38 died early in the course of the disease, two died following total pancreatectomy and 10 died as a consequence of a pancreatic abscess. Based on this experience and on the current understanding of this condition, the place of surgery in severe acute pancreatitis is discussed briefly. PMID:2923415

  16. A randomised, double blind, multicentre trial of octreotide in moderate to severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, W; Buchler, M; Malfertheiner, P; Beger, H; Adler, G; Gaus, W; the, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The pharmacological inhibition of exocrine pancreatic secretion with the somatostatin analogue octreotide has been advocated as a specific treatment of acute pancreatitis.?AIM—To investigate the efficacy of octreotide in acute pancreatitis in a randomised, placebo controlled trial.?METHODS—302 patients from 32 hospitals, fulfilling the criteria for moderate to severe acute pancreatitis within 96 hours of the onset of symptoms, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: group P (n=103) received placebo, while groups O1 (n=98) and O2 (n=101) received 100 and 200 µg of octreotide, respectively, by subcutaneous injection three times daily for seven days. The primary outcome variable was a score composed of mortality and 15 typical complications of acute pancreatitis.?RESULTS—The three groups were well matched with respect to pretreatment characteristics. An intent to treat analysis of all 302 patients revealed no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to mortality (P: 16%; O1: 15%; O2: 12%), the rate of newly developed complications, the duration of pain, surgical interventions, or the length of the hospital stay. A valid for efficacy analysis (251 patients) also revealed no significant differences.?CONCLUSIONS—This trial shows no benefit of octreotide in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.???Keywords: acute pancreatitis; somatostatin; octreotide; randomised controlled multicentre trial PMID:10369711

  17. Failure to follow evidence-based best practice guidelines in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vlada, Adrian C; Schmit, Bradley; Perry, Andrew; Trevino, Jose G; Behrns, Kevin E; Hughes, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis have been established. This study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that deviation from guidelines occurs frequently. Methods With institutional review board approval, the outside medical records of patients with severe pancreatitis who were transferred to the study institution during the period from July 2005 to May 2012 were reviewed. Severe pancreatitis was defined using the Atlanta Classification criteria. Records were reviewed with respect to published guidelines defining the appropriate use of imaging, antibiotics and nutritional support. Results A total of 538 patients with acute pancreatitis were identified. Of 67 patients with severe acute pancreatitis, 44 (66%) were male. The mean age of the patients was 55 years. Forty-five of 61 (74%) patients for whom relevant data were available were imaged upon admission, but only 15 (31%) patients were imaged appropriately by computerized tomography with i.v. contrast to assess the presence of necrosis or other complications. In patients for whom relevant data were available, prophylactic antibiotics were initiated in the absence of culture data or a specific infectious target in 26 (53%) patients. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was administered to 38 (60%) of 63 patients for whom relevant data were available; only 10 (17%) patients received enteric feeding. No nutritional support was provided to 15 (23%) patients. Conclusions Adherence to best practice guidelines in the treatment of severe pancreatitis is poor. The consistent application of current knowledge might improve outcomes in these patients. PMID:24028271

  18. Rosiglitazone attenuates the severity of hyperlipidemic severe acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    NIYAZ, BATUR; ZHAO, KAI-LIANG; LIU, LI-MIN; CHEN, CHEN; DENG, WEN-HONG; ZUO, TENG; SHI, QIAO; WANG, WEI-XING

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) ligand regulates adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity, and exerts antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms by which PPAR-? ligands affect hyperlipidemia with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone, a PPAR-? ligand, on hyperlipidemia with SAP in a rat model. The hyperlipidemia was induced with a high-fat diet and SAP was induced by the administration of sodium taurocholate (TCA). The hyperlipidemia was shown to aggravate the severity of the sodium taurocholate-induced SAP. However, rosiglitazone demonstrated significant antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects in the rats with high-lipid diet-induced hyperlipidemia and SAP. PMID:24137303

  19. High-mobility group box 1 protein and its role in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Wei-Qin

    2015-02-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which belongs to the subfamily of HMG-1/-2, is a highly conserved single peptide chain consisting of 215 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of approximately 24894 Da. HMGB1 is a ubiquitous nuclear protein in mammals and plays a vital role in inflammatory diseases. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain with a poor prognosis. Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas (duration of less than six months), for which the severe form is called severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). More and more studies have shown that HMGB1 has a bidirectional effect in the pathogenesis of SAP. Extracellular HMGB1 can aggravate the pancreatic inflammatory process, whereas intracellular HMGB1 has a protective effect against pancreatitis. The mechanism of HMGB1 is multiple, mainly through the nuclear factor-?B pathway. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptors (TLR), especially TLR-2 and TLR-4, are two major types of receptors mediating the inflammatory process triggered by HMGB1 and may be also the main mediators in the pathogenesis of SAP. HMGB1 inhibitors, such as ethyl pyruvate, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, can decrease the level of extracellular HMGB1 and are the promising targets in the treatment of SAP. PMID:25663762

  20. High-mobility group box 1 protein and its role in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Wei-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which belongs to the subfamily of HMG-1/-2, is a highly conserved single peptide chain consisting of 215 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of approximately 24894 Da. HMGB1 is a ubiquitous nuclear protein in mammals and plays a vital role in inflammatory diseases. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain with a poor prognosis. Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas (duration of less than six months), for which the severe form is called severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). More and more studies have shown that HMGB1 has a bidirectional effect in the pathogenesis of SAP. Extracellular HMGB1 can aggravate the pancreatic inflammatory process, whereas intracellular HMGB1 has a protective effect against pancreatitis. The mechanism of HMGB1 is multiple, mainly through the nuclear factor-?B pathway. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptors (TLR), especially TLR-2 and TLR-4, are two major types of receptors mediating the inflammatory process triggered by HMGB1 and may be also the main mediators in the pathogenesis of SAP. HMGB1 inhibitors, such as ethyl pyruvate, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, can decrease the level of extracellular HMGB1 and are the promising targets in the treatment of SAP. PMID:25663762

  1. Endoscopic management of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Vincent C; Tarnasky, Paul R

    2013-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis represents numerous unique challenges to the practicing digestive disease specialist. Clinical presentations of acute pancreatitis vary from trivial pain to severe acute illness with a significant risk of death. Urgent endoscopic treatment of acute pancreatitis is considered when there is causal evidence of biliary pancreatitis. This article focuses on the diagnosis and endoscopic treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis. PMID:24079788

  2. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduces neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changhui; Merza, Mohammed; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is known to be a rate-limiting step in mediating tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammation and organ damage in AP remain elusive. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signalling in AP. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) before infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic and lung tissues as well as blood were collected 24h after pancreatitis induction. Pretreatment with FTS decreased serum amylase levels by 82% and significantly attenuated acinar cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage and oedema formation in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the inflamed pancreas by 42%. In addition, administration of FTS decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines as well as circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-mobility group box 1 in animals exposed to taurocholate. Moreover, treatment with FTS reduced taurocholate-induced MPO levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras signalling had no effect on neutrophil expression of Mac-1 in mice with pancreatitis. Moreover, FTS had no direct impact on trypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results indicate that Ras signalling controls CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in severe AP. Thus, our findings highlight a new signalling mechanism regulating neutrophil recruitment in the pancreas and suggest that inhibition of Ras signalling might be a useful strategy to attenuate local and systemic inflammation in severe AP. PMID:25460024

  3. Clinical effects of laparotomy with perioperative continuous peritoneal lavage and postoperative hemofiltration in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Caronna; Michele Benedetti; Andrea Morelli; Monica Rocco; Loretta Diana; Giampaolo Prezioso; Maurizio Cardi; Monica Schiratti; Gabriele Martino; Gianfranco Fanello; Federica Papini; Francesco Farelli; Roberto L Meniconi; Michele Marengo; Giuseppe Dinatale; Piero Chirletti

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The elevated serum and peritoneal cytokine concentrations responsible for the systemic response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. Prompted by reports underlining the importance of reducing circulating inflammatory mediators in severe acute pancreatitis, we designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of laparotomy followed by continuous perioperative

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: An Indication for a Decompressing Laparotomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Gecelter; Bashar Fahoum; Syed Gardezi; Moshe Schein

    2002-01-01

    Background: The currently prevailing paradigm calls for non-operative management of severe acute pancreatitis for as long as there is no evidence of infection. Our purpose in presenting this anecdotal experience is to propose that there is a subset of patients who may need a laparotomy in the absence of infection in order to decompress a clinically significant abdominal compartment syndrome

  5. Significant Expression of Interleukin 15 in Rat Experimental Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kamei; T. Yasuda; T. Ueda; F. Qiang; H. Shiozaki; H. Ohyanagi; Y. Takeyama

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is a contributor to high mortality. We recently demonstrated that the serum interleukin (IL)-15 level is a predictor of the complications and mortality in clinical SAP. The aim was to investigate the role of IL-15 in experimental SAP. Materials and Methods: SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 3 and

  6. [Complications in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Krska, Z; Pesková, M; Sváb, J; Výborný, J

    1998-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is discussed from the point of view her complications. The survey of local, organ and system complication is demonstrated, and the Atlanta classification is recalled. The complications are demonstrated at the mild acute pancreatitis and also at the severe acute pancreatitis. The complications are demonstrated on the own group of patients (period 1995-1997). Severe respiratory failure came later, but the letality was high. The renale or hepatorenale failure came formerly and equally as DIC were combined with practically absolutely letality. PMID:10084859

  7. Combined effects of sivelestat and resveratrol on severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houhong; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Amao; Gong, Huihui; Ma, Panpan; Chen, Li

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive research and clinical efforts made in the management of acute pancre-atitis during the past few decades, to date no effective cure is available and the mortality from severe acute pancre-atitis remains high. Given that lung is the primary cause of early death in acute pancreatitis patients, novel therapeutic approaches aiming to prevent lung injury have become a subject of intensive investigation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that sivelestat, a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, is effective in protecting against lung failure in rats with taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. As part of the analyses extended from that study, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of sivelestat and/or resveratrol in the protection against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The extended analyses demonstrated the following: (1) sodium taurocholate induced apparent lung injury and dysfunction manifested by histological anomalies, including vacuolization and apoptosis of the cells in the lung, as well as biochemical aberrations in the blood (an increase in amylase concentration and a decrease in partial arterial oxygen pressure) and increases in activities of reactive oxygen species, interleukin 6, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, lung edema, bronchotracho alveolar lavage protein concentration, and bronchotracho alveolar lavage cell infiltration in the lung; and (2) in lung tissues, either sivelestat or resveratrol treatment effectively attenuated the taurocholate-induced abnormalities in all parameters analyzed except for serum amylase concentration. In addition, combined treatment with both sivelestat and resveratrol demonstrated additive protective effects on pancreatitis-associated lung injury compared with single treatment. PMID:24785170

  8. The Isolated Perfused Liver Response to a ‘Second Hit’ of Portal Endotoxin during Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian J. Mole; Mark A. Taylor; Neil V. McFerran; Thomas Diamond

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: During severe acute pancreatitis (AP), the liver may show an exaggerated response to the inflammatory products of gut injury transported in the portal vein. Our aim was to explore liver proinflammatory mediator production after a ‘second hit’ of portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during AP. Methods: Twenty-four rats underwent one of three ‘first-hit’ scenarios: (1) severe AP induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholic

  9. Role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Kamei; Takeo Yasuda; Takashi Ueda; Fu Qiang; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Hitoshi Shiozaki

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/purpose  Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a regulator of immunity and an amplifier of inflammatory signaling.\\u000a The aim was to clarify the role of TREM-1 in the pathophysiology of experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 3 and 20% sodium deoxycholate (DCA) into the biliopancreatic ducts in rats (DCA\\u000a pancreatitis). Soluble TREM-1 levels

  10. A simple taurocholate-induced model of severe acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Hui; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Li, Chu-Jun; Yang, Zu-Li; Xiang, Jun; Song, Hu; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, Jun-Rong; Diao, De-Chang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gut barrier damage and intestinal bacteria translocation in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), a simple rat model of SAP was induced and studied. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced by uniformly distributed injection of 3.8% Na taurocholate (1 mL/kg) beneath the pancreatic capsule. Rats in the control group were injected with normal saline in the identical location. RESULTS: Serum amylase, plasma endotoxin, intestinal permeability, and pancreatitis pathology scores were all markedly higher in the pancreatitis group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The bacterial infection rate was significantly higher in the SAP group than in the control group (P < 0.01), observed in parallel by both bacterial culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Acute damage of the pancreas was observed histologically in SAP rats, showing interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, acinar cell necrosis and hemorrhage. The microstructure of the intestinal mucosa of SAP rats appeared to be destroyed with loose, shortened microvilli and rupture of the intercellular junction, as shown by electron microscopy. CONCLUSION: Significant gut barrier damage and intestinal bacterial translocation were definitely observed with few potential study confounders in this SAP rat model, suggesting that it may be an appropriate animal model for study of gut barrier damage and bacterial translocation in SAP. PMID:19960573

  11. [Treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Guzeev, A I

    1978-08-01

    The experience with the treatment of 482 patients with acute pancreatitis under the conditions of a central district hospital is presented. An outline for the conservative treatment depending upon the severity of the patient's status, when admitted to a surgical department, is suggested. 80 cases were operated upon; most of them with destructive forms of pancreatitis and with complications of the disease. The success of the treatment of acute pancreatitis depends upon complex, intensive conservative treatment rendered in due time. Total lethality was 6.2%, the postoperative one-32.5%. PMID:695204

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of early veno-venous hemofiltration for severe acute pancreatitis in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Jiang; Xin-Zu Chen; Qing Xia; Wen-Fu Tang; Lei Wang; Xia Q; Tang WF

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most cost-effective hemofiltration modality for early management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in China. METHODS: We carried out a search of Pub-Medline and Chinese Biomedical Disk database. Controlled clinical trials on Chinese population were included in the analysis. The four decision branches that were analyzed were: continuous or long-term veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH\\/LVVH), short-term veno-venous hemofiltration (SVVH),

  13. Biochemical markers of acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W R Matull; S P Pereira; J W O’Donohue

    2006-01-01

    Serum amylase remains the most commonly used biochemical marker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but its sensitivity can be reduced by late presentation, hypertriglyceridaemia, and chronic alcoholism. Urinary trypsinogen-2 is convenient, of comparable diagnostic accuracy, and provides greater (99%) negative predictive value. Early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis can be made by well validated scoring systems at

  14. The hydrocortisone protection of glycocalyx on the intestinal capillary endothelium during severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shun-Liang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-Yang; Liang, Zhong-Yan; Yu, Wen-Qiao; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2015-05-01

    Malfunctioning of the intestinal microcirculation secondary to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause injuries to the intestinal mucosal barrier, translocation of gut flora, and sepsis. The glycocalyx on the vascular endothelium helps maintain its normal function through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of vascular permeability and inhibition of intercellular adhesion. It is unknown that whether pancreatitis inflicts injuries to the intestinal mucosal barrier through damaging glycocalyx or stabilizing glycocalyx can be a potential therapeutic target in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier during SAP. Injecting sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of Sprague-Dawley rats induced SAP. Intestinal perfusion, changes in endothelial glycocalyx, and the associated molecular mechanisms were assessed by laser Doppler velocimetry, electron microscopy, and the levels of heparan sulfate, syndacan-1, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the superior mesenteric vein. Protective effects of hydrocortisone treatment in the intestinal microcirculation during SAP were evaluated. Degradation of the glycocalyx in intestinal vascular endothelium developed 3 h after the onset of SAP in rats. By 12 h, significant reduction of intestinal perfusion was observed. The concomitant elevated levels of TNF-? in the superior mesenteric vein suggest that TNF-? is involved in the degradation of the glycocalyx. With the use of hydrocortisone, intestinal perfusion was improved and the degradation of glycocalyx was reduced. The degradation of glycocalyx is involved in the malfunction of the intestinal microcirculation. The massive release of TNF-? participates in this process and leads to glycocalyx degradation. Hydrocortisone may be a good therapy to prevent this process. PMID:25565639

  15. Resistin is not an appropriate biochemical marker to predict severity of acute pancreatitis: A case-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maramhy, Hamdi; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I; Sawalhi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess levels of serum resistin upon hospital admission as a predictor of acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. METHODS: AP is both a common and serious disease, with severe cases resulting in a high mortality rate. Several predictive inflammatory markers have been used clinically to assess severity. This prospective study collected data from 102 patients who were diagnosed with an initial acute biliary pancreatitis between March 2010 and February 2013. Measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were obtained and serum resistin levels were analyzed at the time of hospital admission using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, resistin levels were measured from a control group after matching gender, BMI and age. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (60 females and 42 males) were diagnosed with acute gallstone-induced pancreatitis. The mean age was 45 years, and mean BMI value was 30.5 kg/m2 (Obese, class?I). Twenty-two patients (21.6%) had severe AP, while eighty-eight patients had mild pancreatitis (78.4%). Our results showed that BMI significantly correlated with pancreatitis severity (P = 0.007). Serum resistin did not correlate with BMI, weight or WC. Furthermore, serum resistin was significantly higher in patients with AP compared to control subjects (P < 0.0001). The mean resistin values upon admission were 17.5 ng/mL in the severe acute biliary pancreatitis group and 16.82 ng/mL in the mild AP group (P = 0.188), indicating that resistin is not an appropriate predictive marker of clinical severity. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for developing severe AP. Further, although there is a correlation between serum resistin levels and AP at the time of hospital admission, resistin does not adequately serve as a predictive marker of clinical severity. PMID:25386084

  16. Perirenal space blocking restores gastrointestinal function in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Chu, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Wei-Feng; Qi, Shi-Fang; Yang, Yan-Hui; Ge, Peng-Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of perirenal space blocking (PSB) on gastrointestinal function in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Forty patients with SAP were randomly allocated to receive PSB or no PSB (NPSB). All the SAP patients received specialized medical therapy (SMT). Patients in the PSB group received PSB + SMT when hospitalized and after diagnosis, whereas patients in the NPSB group only received SMT. A modi?ed gastrointestinal failure (GIF) scoring system was used to assess the gastrointestinal function in SAP patients after admission. Pain severity (visual analog scale, 0 to 100) was monitored every 24 h for 72 h. RESULTS: Modified GIF score decreased in both groups during the 10-d study period. The median score decrease was initially significantly greater in the PSB group than in the NPSB group after PSB was performed. During the 72-h study period, pain intensity decreased in both groups. The median pain decrease was significantly greater in the PSB group than in the NPSB group at single time points. Patients in the PSB group had significantly lower incidences of hospital mortality, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and pancreatic infection, and stayed in the intensive care unit for a shorter duration. However, no difference in terms of operation incidence was found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: PSB could ameliorate gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure during the early stage of SAP. Moreover, PSB administration could improve prognosis and decrease the mortality of SAP patients. PMID:24379596

  17. Minimally invasive procedures in severe acute pancreatitis treatment – assessment of benefits and possibilities of use

    PubMed Central

    Jackowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) consists of an extremely varied complex of pathological symptoms and clinical conditions, ranging from mild gastric complaints to multi-organ failure resulting in death. Aim To present the authors’ own experience regarding surgical treatment for pancreatic necrosis complicated by infection using different methods, including classic and laparoscopic methods as well as those combined with percutaneous techniques. Material and methods In the period 2007–2010, 34 patients with the diagnosis of severe AP were treated at the Department of General, Gastroenterological and Oncological Surgery, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University. In 7 patients classic necrosectomy with repeated peritoneal flushing was performed (type 1), in 5 patients laparotomy with active drainage (type 2), in 12 video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (type 3), and in 10 only percutaneous drainage methods (type 4). Results Total duration of hospitalisation was from 10 to 192 days. The highest death rate was observed for type 1 procedures. Significant differences with regard to the absolute number of postoperative complications between different groups were not observed; however, their quality varied. Classic methods were used in patients whose general and local condition was more severe. Conclusions When AP and its complications are diagnosed, a suitable method of surgical treatment has to be selected extremely precisely and in an individualised way. Minimally invasive methods used in selected patients provide better outcomes and higher safety superseding classic, open techniques of surgical treatment. PMID:25097683

  18. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pancreatitis in children include physical injury, certain medications, gallstones, or problems in the anatomy of the ducts ( ... some treatable causes of acute pancreatitis. These include gallstone disease, high blood calcium, high blood triglycerides, and ...

  19. Comparative Effects of Several Therapatic Agents on Hepatic Damage Induced by Acute Experimental Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukaddes E?refo?lu; Mehmet Gül; Fahri Turan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) depends upon the degree of pancreatic necrosis and the intensity of multisystem\\u000a organ failure. The liver contributes to the systemic manifestations of AP by releasing some cytokines. This study was undertaken\\u000a to examine comparative effects of melatonin, antioxidant mixture containing L(+)-ascorbic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, pentoxifylline and l-arginine on hepatic damage induced by

  20. Nutrition in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemant M. Kocher; Christos Dervenis; Attila Oláh; William R. Murray; Barry Clements; Clement W. Imrie

    \\u000a Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases in gastroenterology\\/surgery. The incidence of acute pancreatitis ranges\\u000a from 10 to 46 per 100,000 people per year. Recent studies have suggested a slightly higher incidence of acute pancreatitis\\u000a at 56.5 per 100,000 people, which may be linked to socioeconomic deprivation (Ellis et al. 2009). Two percent of all hospital\\u000a admissions are

  1. Regional Arterial Infusion with Lipoxin A4 Attenuates Experimental Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fajing; Xie, Jianming; Wang, Weiming; Xie, Yangyun; Sun, Hongwei; Jin, Yuepeng; Xu, Dan; Chen, Bicheng; Andersson, Roland; Zhou, Mengtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate the therapeutic effect of regional arterial infusion (RAI) with Aspirin-Triggered Lipoxin A4 (ATL) in experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Materials and Methods SAP was induced by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Rats with SAP were treated with ATL (the ATL group) or physiological saline (the SAP group) infused via the left gastric artery 30 min after injection of sodium taurocholate. The sham group was subjected to the same surgical procedure, though without induction of SAP. Serum levels of amylase, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were measured at 12 and 24 h after induction of SAP. Ascitic fluid, the pancreatic index (wet weight ratio) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the pancreas were determined and histopathological findings were evaluated. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), NF-?B p65, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the pancreas were estimated by immunofluorescence and western blot, respectively. Results ATL rats had lower serum levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 (P<0.01), PLA2 (P<0.05), and amylase levels (P<0.05) studied as compared with the SAP group. The pancreatic index in the ATL group decreased only at 24 h as compared with the SAP group (P<0.05). The histopathological findings and MPO levels in the pancreas significantly decreased in the ATL group as compared to the SAP group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Immunofluorescence and western blot showed that ATL attenuated the expression of NF-?B p65, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 in the pancreas, and increased the expression of HO-1 in SAP animals. Conclusions We demonstrated that RAI with ATL attenuated the severity of experimental SAP, maybe achieved by improving the expression of HO-1, and down-regulating the NF-?B signaling pathway, with decreased expression of ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 and reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25265022

  2. Piperine ameliorates the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gi-Sang Bae; Min-Sun Kim; Jinsu Jeong; Hye-Youn Lee; Kyoung-Chel Park; Bon Soon Koo; Byung-Jin Kim; Tae-Hyeon Kim; Seung Ho Lee; Sung-Yeon Hwang; Yong Kook Shin; Ho-Joon Song; Sung-Joo Park

    2011-01-01

    Piperine is a phenolic component of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), fruits used in traditional Asian medicine. Our previous study showed that piperine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether piperine reduces the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Administration of piperine reduced histologic damage and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the pancreas and

  3. Clinical effects of continuous high volume hemofiltration on severe acute pancreatitis complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Wang; Wei-Qin Li; Wei Zhou; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of continuous high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: A total of 28 SAP patients with an average of 14.36±3.96 APACHE II score were involved. Diagnostic criteria for SAP standardized by the Chinese Medical Association and diagnostic criteria for MODS standardized by

  4. Arpin contributes to bacterial translocation and development of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen-Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Ju, Hui; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Su; Zhang, Dian-Liang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of Arpin protein and tight junction (TJ) proteins in the intestinal mucosa on bacterial translocation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Fifty SAP patients were identified as study objects and then classified into two groups according to the presence of bacterial translocation (BT) in the blood [i.e., BT(+) and BT(-)]. Twenty healthy individuals were included in the control group. BT was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, colonic mucosal tissue was obtained by endoscopy and the expression of TJ proteins and Arpin protein was determined using immunofluorescence and western blotting. RESULTS: Bacterial DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of 62.0% of patients (31/50) with SAP. The expression of TJ proteins in SAP patients was lower than that in healthy controls. In contrast, Arpin protein expression in SAP patients was higher than in healthy controls (0.38 ± 0.19 vs 0.28 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Among SAP patients, those positive for BT showed a higher level of claudin-2 expression (0.64 ± 0.27 vs 0.32 ± 0.21, P < 0.05) and a lower level of occludin (OC) (0.61 ± 0.28 vs 0.73 ± 0.32, P < 0.05) and zonula occludens-1 (0.42 ± 0.26 vs 0.58 ± 0.17, P = 0.038) expression in comparison with BT (-) patients. Moreover, the level of Arpin expression in BT (+) patients was higher than in BT (-) patients (0.61 ± 0.28 vs 0.31 ± 0.24, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Arpin protein affects the expression of tight junction proteins and may have an impact on BT. These results contribute to a better understanding of the factors involved in bacterial translocation during acute pancreatitis.

  5. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Raizner, Aileen; Phatak, Uma Padhye; Baker, Kenneth; Patel, Mohini G.; Husain, Sohail Z.; Pashankar, Dinesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Necrotizing pancreatitis is very rare in children. In this case series, we describe the etiologic factors, course, and outcome of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in children. Study Design We performed a retrospective study of children with necrotizing pancreatitis diagnosed over the last 21 years at Yale New Haven Children’s Hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scan criteria were used to diagnose necrotizing pancreatitis and to assess severity index. Charts were reviewed to collect demographic data, etiology, details of hospital stay, complications, and outcome. Results Eight children (mean age 12.8 years; range 4 to 20.7 years) had necrotizing pancreatitis. Etiologic factors were medications, diabetes, gallstones, and alcohol. All patients had a prolonged hospitalization (9 to 40 days; mean 18 days) and five patients required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. During the hospital stay, patients developed complications involving the respiratory, hematological, renal, metabolic, and circulatory systems. All patients had aggressive supportive medical therapy and none required surgical intervention. There were no deaths attributable to pancreatitis. Late complications following hospital discharge occurred in six patients and included pseudocysts, transient hyperglycemia, diabetes, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The CT severity index correlated with the risk of complications. Conclusions Acute necrotizing pancreatitis has a variable etiology in children. CT scan is useful for the diagnosis and assessment of severity. Necrotizing pancreatitis in children is associated with severe acute and late complications and requires intensive medical therapy. PMID:23102790

  6. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A C J Windsor; S Kanwar; A G K Li; E Barnes; J A Guthrie; J I Spark; F Welsh; P J Guillou; J V Reynolds

    1998-01-01

    Background—In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis.Aims—To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical

  7. Efficacy of glucocorticoids in rodents of severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Yang, Zhen; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nonghua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of corticosteroid in the management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains contentious and is still being debated despite many pre-clinical studies demonstrating benefits. The limitations of clinical research on corticosteroid in SAP are disparities with regard to benefit, a lack of adequate safety data and insufficient understanding of its mechanisms of action. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroid in experimental SAP and take a closer look at the relation between the animal studies and prospective trials. Methods: Studies investigating corticosteroid use in rodent animal models of SAP were identified by searching multiple three electronic databases through October 2013, and by reviewing references lists of obtained articles. Data on mortality, changes of ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas were extracted. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled efficacy. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: We identified 15 published papers which met our inclusion criteria. Corticosteroid prolonged survival by a factor of 0.35 (95% CI 0.21-0.59). Prophylactic use of corticosteroid showed efficacy with regards to ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas, whereas therapeutic use did not. Efficacy was higher in large dose and dexamethasone groups. Study characteristics, namely type of steroids, rout of delivery, genders and strains of animal, accounted for a significant proportion of between-study heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was observed. Conclusions: On the whole, corticosteroids have showed beneficial effects in rodent animal models of SAP. Prophylactic use of corticosteroid has failed to validate usefulness in prophylaxis of postendoscopic retrogradcholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Further appropriate and informative animal experiments should be performed before conducting clinical trials investigating therapeutic use in SAP. PMID:25120741

  8. Effects of early enteral nutrition on immune function of severe acute pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Kui; Mu, Xin-Wei; Li, Wei-Qin; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Shu-Yun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the immune function and clinical outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive EEN or delayed enteral nutrition (DEN). Enteral nutrition was started within 48 h after admission in EEN group, whereas from the 8th day in DEN group. All the immunologic parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after admission. The clinical outcome variables were also recorded. RESULTS: Sixty SAP patients were enrolled to this study. The CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the CRP levels in EEN group became significantly lower than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. In contrast, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in EEN group became significantly higher than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. No difference of CD8+ T-lymphocyte percentage, IgM and IgA levels was found between the two groups. The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and pancreatic infection as well as the duration of intensive care unit stay were significantly lower in EEN group than in DEN group. However, there was no difference of hospital mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EEN moderates the excessive immune response during the early stage of SAP without leading to subsequent immunosuppression. EEN can improve the clinical outcome, but not decrease the hospital mortality of SAP patients. PMID:23431120

  9. Effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on survival and microcirculation in severe acute pancreatitis: a randomized experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe acute pancreatitis is still a potentially life threatening disease with high mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) on survival, microcirculation, tissue oxygenation and histopathologic damage in an experimental animal model of severe acute pancreatitis in a prospective animal study. Methods In this study, 34 pigs were randomly assigned into 2 treatment groups. After severe acute pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of glycodesoxycholic acid in Group 1 (n?=?17) bupivacaine (0.5%; bolus injection 2 ml, continuous infusion 4 ml/h) was applied via TEA. In Group 2 (n?=?17) no TEA was applied. During a period of 6 hours after induction, tissue oxygen tension (tpO2) in the pancreas and pancreatic microcirculation was assessed. Thereafter animals were observed for 7 days followed by sacrification and histopathologic examination. Results Survival rate after 7 days was 82% in Group 1 (TEA) versus 29% in Group 2: (Control) (P <0.05). Group 1 (TEA) also showed a significantly superior microcirculation (1,608?±?374 AU versus 1,121?±?510 AU; P <0.05) and tissue oxygenation (215?±?64 mmHg versus 138?±?90 mmHG; P <0.05) as compared to Group 2 (Control). Consecutively, tissue damage in Group 1 was reduced in the histopathologic scoring (5.5 (3 to 8) versus 8 (5.5 to 10); P <0.05). Conclusions TEA led to improved survival, enhanced microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygenation and resulted in less histopathologic tissue-damage in an experimental animal model of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:24314012

  10. Involvement of interstitial cells of Cajal in experimental severe acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang-Liang; Liu, Ming-Dong; Chen, Min; Zou, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe the changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in rats with experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: A total of twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 12), namely the sham (S) group and the SAP group; the SAP rat model was established by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate (1.0 mL/kg) into the pancreatic duct. Twenty-four hours later intestinal motility was assessed by testing small intestinal propulsion rate, and then the rats were sacrificed. The pancreas and jejunum were resected and underwent routine pathologic examination. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect c-kit-positive cells in the jejunum. Expression of c-kit mRNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of c-kit protein was evaluated by Western blotting. Ultrastructure of ICC was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: There was bleeding, necrosis and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration in pancreatic tissue in the SAP group, while in jejunal tissue we observed a markedly denuded mucosal layer, loss of villous tissue and a slightly dilated muscular layer. The small intestinal propulsion rate was 68.66% ± 2.66% in the S group and 41.55% ± 3.85% in the SAP group. Compared with the S group, the rate of the SAP group decreased sharply. The density of c-kit-positive cells in the SAP group was significantly lower than in the S group; the respective mean densities were 88.47 ± 10.49 in the S group and 56.11 ± 7.09 in the SAP group. The levels of c-kit protein and mRNA were 0.36 ± 0.04 and 1.29 ± 0.91 in the SAP group, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the S group (0.53 ± 0.06, 0.64 ± 0.33, respectively). In the SAP group, ICC profiles showed the same change tendency, such as vacuolation of mitochondria, irregular vacuoles and loosened desmosome-like junctions. CONCLUSION: Decreased c-kit-positive cells and ultrastructural changes in ICC resulting from blockade of the c-kit signaling pathway are involved in the intestinal dysmotility associated with SAP. PMID:23599644

  11. Continuous regional arterial infusion and laparotomic decompression for severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Yin; Yin, Zhen-Yu; Peng, You-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal decompression plus continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) via a drug delivery system (DDS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We presented our recent experience in 8 patients with SAP. The patients developed clinical ACS, which required abdominal decompression. During the operation, a DDS was inserted into the peripancreatic artery (the catheter was inserted from the right gastroepiploic artery until it reached the junction between the pancreaticoduodenal and gastroduodenal artery). Through this DDS, a protease inhibitor, antibiotics and octreotide were infused continuously. The duration of the regional artery infusion ranged from 8 to 41 d. The outcomes and the changes in the APACHE II score, computed tomography (CT) severity index and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of the patients were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Eight patients with an initial APACHE IIscore of 18.9 (range, 13-27) and a Balthazar CT severity index of 9.1 (range, 7-10) developed severe local and systemic complications. These patients underwent subsequent surgical decompression and CRAI therapy because of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). After a mean interval of 131.9 ± 72.3 d hospitalization, 7 patients recovered with decreased APACHE II scores, CT severity indexes and IAP. The mean APACHE II score was 5.4 (range, 4-8), the CT severity index was 2.3 (range, 1-3), and IAP decreased to 7.7 mmHg (range, 6-11 mmHg) 60 d after operation. One patient died of multiple organ failure 1 wk after surgery. CONCLUSION: CRAI and laparotomic decompression might be a therapeutic option for SAP patients with ACS. PMID:22171133

  12. Nasogastric nutrition is efficacious in severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nally, Deirdre M; Kelly, Enda G; Clarke, Mary; Ridgway, Paul

    2014-12-14

    In patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP), enteral nutrition is delivered by nasojejunal (NJ) tube to minimise pancreatic stimulation. Nasogastric (NG) feeding represents an alternative route. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of NG feeding. Secondary objectives were to compare the NG and NJ routes and assess the side effects of the former. The primary endpoint was exclusive NG feeding with delivery of 75% of nutritional targets. Additional outcomes included change to total parenteral nutrition (TPN), increased pain or disease severity, vomiting, diarrhoea, delivery rate reduction and tube displacement. Among the retrieved studies, six were found to be eligible for the qualitative review and four for the meta-analysis. NG nutrition was received by 147 patients; exclusive NG feeding was achieved in 90% (133/147). Of the 147 patients, 129 (87%) received 75% of the target energy. In studies where all subjects received exclusive NG nutrition, 82% (seventy-four of the ninety patients) received >75% of the intended energy. Compared with NJ nutrition, there was no significant difference in the delivery of 75% of nutritional targets (pooled risk ratio (RR) 1.02; 95% CI 0.75, 1.38.) or no increased risk of change to TPN (pooled RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.45, 2.48), diarrhoea (pooled RR 1.28; 95% CI 0.62, 2.66), exacerbation of pain (pooled RR 1.10; 95% CI 0.47, 2.61) or tube displacement (pooled RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.11, 1.73). Vomiting and diarrhoea were the most common side effects of NG feeding (13.3 and 12.9%, respectively). With respect to the delivery of nutrition, 11.2% of the patients required delivery rate reduction and 3.4% dislodged the tube. Other side effects included elevated levels of aspirates (9.1%), abdominal distension (1.5%), pain exacerbation (7.5%) and increased disease severity (1.6%). In conclusion, NG feeding is efficacious in 90% of patients. Further research is required to optimise the delivery of NG nutrition and examine 'gut-rousing' approaches to nutrition in patients with severe AP. PMID:25333639

  13. Vascular Endothelial Injury and Apoptosis in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ning; Xia, Qing; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zeng, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We explored mechanisms of vascular endothelial injury that lead to systemic multiple organ failure by detecting the soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR), von Willebrand factor (vWF), serum nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA expression in a severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rat model. Compared to controls, the levels of TNF-?, vWF, and sEPCR were significantly increased in the experimental group at 12 hours and 24 hours and the NO level was significantly decreased. After 12 hours, the aortic endothelial apoptosis index and Bax mRNA expression in aortic endothelial cells had increased in the experimental group, but Bcl-2 mRNA levels had decreased. All these changes appeared at both 12?h and 24 hours. The results indicated that vascular endothelial injury and apoptosis markers were elevated in SAP. Endothelial injury and increased apoptosis in the experimental group were related to the increased expression of TNF-?. PMID:25688263

  14. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-?B and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  15. Effects of Gender on Severity, Management and Outcome in Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chin-Li; Li, Chung-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to examine gender differences in severity, management, and outcome among patients with acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) because available data are insufficient and conflicting. Methods We analyzed 13,110 patients (50.6% male) with first-attack ABP from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2009. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the development of severe ABP and the provision of treatment measures. Gender difference was assessed using multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equations models. Results The odds of gastrointestinal bleeding (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.76) and local complication (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05–1.82) were 44% and 38% higher in men than in women, respectively. Compared with women, men had 24% higher odds of receiving total parenteral nutrition (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00–1.52), but had 18% and 41% lower odds of receiving cholecystectomy (aOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72–0.93) and hemodialysis (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42–0.83), respectively. Hospital mortality was higher in men than in women (1.8% vs. 1.1%, p?=?0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, men had 81% higher odds of in-hospital death than women (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.15–2.86). Among patients with severe ABP, hospital mortality was 11.0% and 7.5% in men and women (p<0.001), respectively. The adjusted odds of death remained higher in men than in women with severe ABP (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10–2.68). Conclusions Gender is an important determinant of outcome in patients with ABP and may affect their treatment measures. PMID:23469006

  16. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-?B Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiao; Liao, Kang-Shu; Zhao, Kai-Liang; Zuo, Teng; Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Yu, Jia; Guo, Wen-Yi; He, Xiao-Bo; Abliz, Ablikim; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2), a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO? selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group) or normal saline (SO and SAP group) through tail intravenously (6?mL/kg) and compensated subcutaneously (20?mL/kg) after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1) serum Cr and BUN, (2) pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3) renal MDA, (4) renal MPO, (5) serum IL-1?, IL-6, and renal TNF-?, HMGB1, and (6) tyrosine nitration, I?B degradation, and NF-?B activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-?B by affecting I?B nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  17. A New Combination Therapy in Severe Acute Pancreatitis—Hyperbaric Oxygen Plus 3-Aminobenzamide

    PubMed Central

    Inal, Volkan; Mas, Mehmet Refik; Isik, Ahmet Turan; Comert, Bilgin; Ayd?n, Sezai; Mas, Nukhet; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Tasci, Ilker; Yamanel, Levent; Cinar, Esref; Unal, Mehmet Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) plus 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) cotreatment on tissue oxidative stress parameters (TOSp), tissue histopathology scores (THSc), and bacterial translocations (Bact-Trans) in an experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods Seventy-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 5 groups. Group 1 received sham. Severe AP was induced by intraductal taurocholate infusion and then group 2 received saline, group 3 received 3-AB, group 4 received 3-AB plus HBO, and group 5 received HBO. 3-Aminobenzamide (10 mg/kg per day, once daily, intraperitoneal) and saline (1 mL/kg) were started right after the induction, whereas HBO (2,8 atm pressure, BID, 90 minutes each) was started at the sixth hour. The rats were euthanized at the 54th hour, and TOSp, THSc, and Bact-Trans were studied. Results In treatment groups 3 and 5, Bact-Trans (P < 0.05, P < 0.05), TOSp (P < 0.05, P < 0.05), and THSc (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) were significantly lower than controls. In addition to these findings, group 4 (cotreatment) showed the most significant effect on Bact-Trans and THSc (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) and also better in TOSp (P < 0.02). Conclusions Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition by 3-AB and HBO treatment alone was effective in the course of severe AP, and favorable with cotreatment because of the improved cascades of inflammatory process by different aspects. PMID:25347462

  18. Taurine Attenuates Liver Injury by Downregulating Phosphorylated p38 MAPK of Kupffer Cells in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidong Wei; Qingyong Huang; Jinzheng Li; Zuojin Liu; Haibo You; Yong Chen; Jianping Gong

    This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of taurine on liver injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).\\u000a Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: a sham operation (SO), a SAP (established by infusion of 5% taurocholate), and\\u000a a SAP given taurine (Taur). At 12 and 24 h post-operation, taurine pretreatment significantly attenuated hepatic tissue injury\\u000a induced by SAP,

  19. Elevated plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFRp60) reflect severity of acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kaufmann; G. P. Tilz; A. Lueger; U. Demel

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of activated leukocytes in acute pancreatitis, we measured soluble receptors of tumour necrosis factor\\u000a alpha (sTNFR, p60 subtype) in plasma and evaluated the association of sTNFR with the clinical severity of the disease. Design: Prospective, descriptive study. Setting: A medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. Patients: 25 consecutive ICU admissions of adult

  20. Zinc supplement modulates oxidative stress and antioxidant values in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin-qing; Su, Shi-yue; Fang, Mao-yong

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress is a main factor in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The ability of zinc (Zn) to retard oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. This study aims to examine the levels of free oxygen radicals and antioxidant enzyme in SAP rats and know the effect of Zn supplementation on free oxygen radicals and antioxidant system in rats with SAP. Forty-five male Wistar rats were divided into three groups-the SAP group (n=15), the Zn-treated group (n=15), and the controlled group (n=15). For the SAP group, sodium taurocholate is injected into the pancreatic duct to induce SAP; for the Zn-treated group, Zn (5 mg/kg) is subcutaneously injected immediately after injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Firstly, the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), which are the toxic products of oxidative stress, is measured. Secondly, the levels of free oxygen radicals in the liver and kidney are detected. The result showed that the activity of GSH-Px and SOD was lower in the SAP group than that in the controlled group, although the content of plasma MDA increased. However, the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in the Zn-treated group was not significantly decreased after comparing with the controlled group; in the mean time, the content of MDA was not significantly increased either. Moreover, the content of free radical in liver and kidney was higher in the SAP group compared with the controlled group, but the content of free radical in the Zn-treated group was not higher than that in the controlled group (p>0.05). All of the above indicated that Zn may recover the activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes and decrease the content of free radical for the SAP group rats. In conclusion, the content of free radical increase may be one of the reasons that SAP rats are injured, and it is possible for Zn to be used to treat SAP through scavenging free radical and increasing the activity of SOD and GSH-Px of erythrocyte. PMID:24771310

  1. From Moderately Severe to Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Circulating MiRNAs Play Role as Potential Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Min; Jiang, Lisha; Lu, Guoming; Huang, Mindan; Guo, Jizhong; Liu, Side

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia induced acute pancreatitis (HTAP) continues to rise in China. It has systemic complications and high mortality, making the early assessment of the severity of this disease even more important. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) could be novel, non-invasive biomarkers for disease progression judgment. This study aimed to identify the potential role of serum miRNAs as novel biomarkers of HTAP progression. HTAP patients were divided into two groups: moderately severe (HTMSAP) and severe (HTSAP), healthy people were used as control group. The serum miRNA expression profiles of these three groups were determined by microarray and verified by qRT-PCR. The functions and pathways of the targeted genes of deregulated miRNAs were predicted, using bioinformatics analysis; miRNA-mRNA network was generated. Moreover, the correlation between miR-181a-5p and pancreatitis metabolism related substances were studied and the serum concentration of inflammatory cytokines and miRNAs at different time points during the MSAP and SAP were investigated, respectively. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of miRNAs was studied. Significant changes in the serum concentration of the following miRNAs of HTAP patients (P<0.05) were discovered: miR24-3p, 361-5p, 1246, and 222-3p (constantly upregulated), and 181a-5p (constantly downregulated) (P<0.05). Bioinformatics analysis predicted that 13 GOs and 36 pathways regulated by overlap miRNAs were involved in glucose, fat, calcium (Ca++), and insulin metabolism (P<0.001). miRNA-mRNA network revealed that the overlap miRNAs targeted genes participating in pancreas metabolism and miR-181a-5p, the only downregulated miRNA, had good negative correlation with triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and fast blood glucose (FBG), but a positive correlation with Ca++. When compared with inflammatory cytokines, the changes of all five overlap miRNAs were more stable. It was found that when used for evaluating the progression of HTAP, miRNAs showed good AUC. These data suggested that serum miRNAs have the potential to be excellent HTAP biomarkers. PMID:25365448

  2. Statin Pretreatment in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luiz Almeida; Sandra Nassa Sampietre; Ana Maria Mendonça Coelho

    2008-01-01

    Context Some authors have found beneficial effect of statins in certain inflammatory conditions, but the effect of statins on acute pancreatitis is not yet defined. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on an experimental model of mild and severe acute pancreatitis. Animals One hundred and one Wistar rats with cerulein or taurocholate-induced acute

  3. Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Sai, Jin Kan; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often different than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Several scoring systems have been proposed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly differ between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our understanding of the pathology, optimal treatment, assessment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pancreatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severe acute pancreatitis in children is becoming better understood and more controllable. PMID:25400985

  4. Activated Protein C Improves the Severity of Severe Acute Pancreatitis via Up-Regulating the Expressions of Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor and Thrombomodulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Ping; Zhang Yongping; Qiao Minmin; Yao Weiyan; Yuan Yaozong

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims  Activated protein C (APC) is increasingly understood to have diverse regulatory functions in inflammation. However, the exact\\u000a mechanism of action remains unclear in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects\\u000a of APC on expressions of thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), and its subsequent effect on\\u000a the severity

  5. Therapeutic effect of Qingyi decoction in severe acute pancreatitis-induced intestinal barrier injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Chen, Hai-Long; Liu, Ge-Liang; Owusu, Lawrence; Wang, Yu-Xi; Wang, Guan-Yu; Xu, Cai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Qingyi decoction on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in intestinal barrier injury. METHODS: Fifty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), Qingyi decoction-treated (QYT), dexamethasone-treated (DEX), and verapamil-treated (VER) groups. The SAP model was induced by retrograde infusion of 1.5% sodium deoxycholate into the biliopancreatic duct of the rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h post-SAP induction. Arterial blood, intestine, and pancreas from each rat were harvested for investigations. The levels of serum amylase (AMY) and diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined using biochemical methods, and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? level was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Pathologic changes in the harvested tissues were investigated by microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. The expressions of sPLA2 at mRNA and protein levels were detected by reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot, respectively. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay was used to investigate apoptosis of epithelial cells in the intestinal tissues. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the expression of sPLA2 at both the mRNA and protein levels increased significantly in the SAP group (0.36 ± 0.13 vs 0.90 ± 0.38, and 0.16 ± 0.05 vs 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively; Ps < 0.01). The levels of AMY, TNF-? and DAO in serum were also significantly increased (917 ± 62 U/L vs 6870 ± 810 U/L, 59.7 ± 14.3 ng/L vs 180.5 ± 20.1 ng/L, and 10.37 ± 2.44 U/L vs 37.89 ± 5.86 U/L, respectively; Ps < 0.01). The apoptosis index of intestinal epithelial cells also differed significantly between the SAP and control rats (0.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.26 ± 0.06; P < 0.01). The serum levels of DAO and TNF-?, and the intestinal apoptosis index significantly correlated with sPLA2 expression in the intestine (r = 0.895, 0.893 and 0.926, respectively; Ps < 0.05). The levels of sPLA2, AMY, TNF-?, and DAO in the QYT, VER, and DEX groups were all decreased compared with the SAP group, but not the control group. Qingyi decoction intervention, however, gave the most therapeutic effect against intestinal barrier damage, although the onset of its therapeutic effect was slower. CONCLUSION: Qingyi decoction ameliorates acute pancreatitis-induced intestinal barrier injury by inhibiting the overexpression of intestinal sPLA2. This mechanism may be similar to that of verapamil.

  6. Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Wang, Tao; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Tao; Xu, Chuan; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zheng-cai; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied. Methods Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid. Results Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD (P = -0.008) were all independent predictors of PCD. Conclusions Infected (peri)pancreatic collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease. PMID:25659143

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine, Qing Ying Tang, ameliorates the severity of acute lung injury induced by severe acute pancreatitis in rats via the upregulation of aquaporin-1

    PubMed Central

    GAO, ZHENMING; XU, JUNFENG; SUN, DEGUANG; ZHANG, RIXIN; LIANG, RUI; WANG, LIMING; FAN, RONG

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) is expressed in lung endothelial cells and regulates water transport; thus, AQP-1 plays an important role in a number of edema-associated lung diseases. Qing Yin Tang (QYT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to effectively reduce the mortality rate of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The current study aimed to investigate the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of QYT on ALI induced by SAP, particularly the effects on the expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue. ALI was established in Wister rats who were subsequently divided into four groups: SHAM, ALI, dexamethasone (DEX) and QYT groups (n=8 per group). In the QYT group, 20 ml/kg QYT was administered by gavage immediately following the induction of SAP. Blood and lung tissues were collected 8 h following the induction of pancreatitis. The lung wet/dry ratio, as well as the levels of blood gases, serum amylase and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), were measured at 4, 8 and 12 h following SAP-associated ALI induction surgery. The expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed with regard to the levels of serum amylase, wet/dry ratio, partial pressure of oxygen, serum TNF-? and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue between the QYT and DEX groups; however, a statistically significant difference was observed when compared with the ALI group. The expression levels of AQP-1 significantly increased (P<0.05) and lung edema was alleviated in the QYT and DEX groups, when compared with ALI group. Therefore, the expression level of AQP-1 is associated with pulmonary edema. QYT protects the lungs from injury induced by SAP via the upregulation of AQP-1, which suppresses TNF-? expression. PMID:25371738

  8. Infective severe acute pancreatitis: A comparison of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Sun, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Shao, Cheng-Wei; Zuo, Chang-Jing; Hao, Jun; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Feng, Xiao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy compared with computed tomography (CT) for detecting secondary infections associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in swine. METHODS: Six healthy swine were assigned to a normal control group (group A, n = 6). SAP was induced in group B (n = 9) and C (n = 18), followed by inoculation of the resulting pancreatic necroses with inactive Escherichia coli (E. coli) (group B) and active E. coli (group C), respectively. At 7 d after inoculation, a CT scan and a series of analyses using infecton imaging (at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h after the administration of 370 MBq of intravenous infecton) were performed. The scintigrams were visually evaluated and semi-quantitatively analyzed using region of interest assignments. The differences in infecton uptake and changes in the lesion-background radioactive count ratios (L/B) in the 3 groups were recorded and compared. After imaging detection, histopathology and bacterial examinations were performed, and infected SAP was regarded as positive. The imaging findings were compared with histopathological and bacteriological results. RESULTS: In group A, 6 animals survived without infection in the pancreas. In group B, 7/9 swine survived and one suffered from infection. In group C, 15/18 animals survived with infection. Hence, the number of normal, non-infected and infected SAP swine was 6, 6 and 16, respectively. The sensitivity, speci?city, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the infecton method were 93.8% (15/16), 91.7% (11/12), 92.9% (26/28), 93.8% (15/16) and 91.7% (11/12), whereas these values for CT were 12.5% (2/16), 100.0% (12/12), 50.0% (14/28), 100.0% (2/2) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. The changes in L/B for the infected SAP were significantly different from those of the non-infected and normal swine (P < 0.001). The mean L/B of the infectious foci at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h was 1.17 ± 0.10, 1.71 ± 0.30, 2.46 ± 0.45, 3.36 ± 0.33, 2.04 ± 0.37 and 1.1988 ± 0.09, respectively. At 3 h, the radioactive counts (2350.25 ± 602.35 k) and the mean L/B of the infectious foci were significantly higher than that at 0.5 h (P = 0.000), 1 h (P = 0.000), 2 h (P = 0.04), 4 h (P = 0.000) and 6 h (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy may be an effective procedure for detecting SAP secondary infections with higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT. PMID:23946594

  9. Circulating Cytokine Levels in Acute Pancreatitis—Model of SIRS\\/CARS Can Help in the Clinical Assessment of Disease Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Gunjaca; Josip Zunic; Mihaela Gunjaca; Zdenko Kovac

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response during acute pancreatitis and its predictive\\u000a value on severity of disease. A hospital-based prospective clinical study was conducted. Twenty patients with acute pancreatitis\\u000a were enrolled during a 12-month period. Plasma concentrations of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined at days 1,\\u000a 2, 3, 6, and

  10. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  11. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  12. Diagnostic Value of Surfactant Protein-A in Severe Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Ning; Zhu, Ming-Hui; Xie, Jun; Ye, Ji-Ru; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Dan-Qian; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background The complexity of multiple-item criteria in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often causes inconvenience for physicians in the management of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We evaluated whether serum SP-A levels in the presence of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) can be qualitatively assessed for diagnosis of SAP-induced ARDS. Material/Methods Eighty rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=40 each) – the sham-operated (SO) group and the SAP group – and then randomly subdivided into 4 subgroups in a time-course manner. Furthermore, rats in the SAP group were subdivided into the SAP induced-ARDS group (ARDS group) and the SAP without ARDS group (non-ARDS group) according to the diagnostic standard of ARDS. The diagnostic cut-off values of SP-A for SAP-induced ARDS were determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results Serum SP-A levels in Baseline, SO group, SAP group, ARDS group, and non-ARDS group were 43.15±14.29, 51.91±16.99, 193.4±35.37, 198.0+29.73, and 185.7±43.21 ug/ml, respectively. The best cut-off value for the serum SP-A level for the diagnosis of SAP-induced ARDS was 150 ug/ml and the area under the ROC curve of SP-A was 0.88. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of SP-A in the diagnosis of SAP-induced ARDS were 100.0%, 81.8%, 71.4%, 100.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions Serum SP-A levels may allow the detection of SAP-induced ARDS and may help to support the clinical diagnosis of ARDS. The optimal serum SP-A cut-off value to discriminate SAP-induced ARDS and other groups (SO group and non-ARDS group) is around 150 ug/ml. PMID:25256693

  13. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

  14. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Seema; Shaffer, Lemuel; Cavens, Paula; Blankstein, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term and was successfully treated with postpartum therapeutic plasma exchange. Patient also developed several other complications related to her substantial hypertriglyceridemia including preeclampsia, chylous ascites, retinal detachment, pleural effusion, and chronic pericarditis. This patient had no previous family or personal history of lipid abnormality and had four successful prior pregnancies without developing gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Such a severe hypertriglyceridemia is usually seen in patients with familial chylomicronemia syndromes where hypertriglyceridemia is exacerbated by the pregnancy, leading to fatal complications such as acute pancreatitis. PMID:24995138

  15. Severe hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Natasha; Ahmed, Seema; Shaffer, Lemuel; Cavens, Paula; Blankstein, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term and was successfully treated with postpartum therapeutic plasma exchange. Patient also developed several other complications related to her substantial hypertriglyceridemia including preeclampsia, chylous ascites, retinal detachment, pleural effusion, and chronic pericarditis. This patient had no previous family or personal history of lipid abnormality and had four successful prior pregnancies without developing gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Such a severe hypertriglyceridemia is usually seen in patients with familial chylomicronemia syndromes where hypertriglyceridemia is exacerbated by the pregnancy, leading to fatal complications such as acute pancreatitis. PMID:24995138

  16. Valsartan-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Can, Burak; Sali, Mursel; Batman, Adnan; Yilmaz, Hasan; Korkmaz, Ugur; Celebi, Altay; Senturk, Omer; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is uncommon among patients treated with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. A 58-year-old man presented with nausea, vomiting and constant pain in the epigastrium that radiated to the flanks. He received treatment with valsartan (160 mg daily) for hypertension. The clinical, biochemical and radiological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. After the patient achieved a clinical and biochemical recovery, the valsartan therapy was started again. Six weeks later, he returned to the hospital with an attack of pancreatitis. Subsequently, he returned with repeated attacks of pancreatitis twice, and the valsartan was discontinued. Ten months after the treatment, the patient had no complaints. When severe abdominal symptoms occur for no apparent reason during treatment with valsartan, a diagnosis of pancreatitis should be considered. PMID:24694480

  17. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, C P; Wang, K G; Su, T H; Yang, Y C

    1995-09-01

    During August 1989-August 1994 at the referral-based obstetric practice of MacKay Memorial Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan, obstetricians saw 8 pregnant women with acute pancreatitis. All but 1 patient had gallstones and/or hyperlipidemia. None had ever been diagnosed with pancreatitis or gallstones in the past. None suffered from alcoholism. One woman was lost to follow-up at 33 weeks gestation. No pregnant woman died. Magnesium sulfate and nifedipine controlled preterm labor in 2 patients. Two women underwent cesarean section (fetal distress and elective). Pancreatitis struck all but 1 during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. One woman presented at 23 weeks gestation with loss of consciousness, abnormally low volume of circulating plasma in the body, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and a dead fetus. She also had diabetes mellitus which had gone untreated for 2 years. After spontaneous delivery of the dead fetus, she developed metabolic encephalopathy, sepsis, respiratory distress, and acute renal failure. She completely recovered and left the hospital 62 days after arriving. Physicians instituted conservative treatment for pancreatitis and a fat-restricted diet for hyperlipidemia. Labor was induced in 3 women after determining fetal lung maturity. Pancreatitis symptoms diminished after delivery. At 2 weeks postpartum, they underwent cholecystectomy. In fact, all but 3 women underwent cholecystectomy. Five patients had a fever greater than 38 degrees Celsius upon admission. Three patients were jaundiced. All 8 patients experienced nausea and/or vomiting and abdominal pain. Six women had low serum calcium levels. Only 1 had a serum lactic dehydrogenase level above 350 IU/L. Primiparous women were just as likely to develop pancreatitis during pregnancy as multiparous women. These findings suggest that early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acute pancreatitis are essential to a favorable outcome. PMID:7660765

  18. [Acute pancreatitis: an overview of the management].

    PubMed

    Rebours, V

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decades, the incidence and the number of hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis have increased in the Western countries. The two most common etiological factors of acute pancreatitis are gallstones (including small gallstones or microlithiasis) and alcohol abuse. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant mortality (4-10%) and 25% in case of pancreatic necrosis, especially. Edematous pancreatitis is benign and oral feeding can be restarted once abdominal pain is decreasing and inflammatory markers are improving. Enteral tube feeding should be the primary therapy in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis who require nutritional support. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis can be administered via either the nasojejunal or nasogastric route. In case of necrosis, preventive antibiotics are not recommended. The single indication is infected necrosis confirmed by fine needle aspiration. The incidence trends of acute pancreatitis possibly reflect a change in the prevalence of main etiological factors (e.g. gallstones and alcohol consumption) and cofactors such as tobacco, obesity and genetic susceptibility. Priority is to search for associated causes, especially in cases with atypical symptoms. In case of first acute pancreatitis in patients older than 50 years, the presence of a tumor (benign or malignant) has to be specifically ruled out, using CT-scan, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:24837648

  19. H2S mitigates severe acute pancreatitis through the PI3K/AKT-NF-?B pathway in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Lan-Ying; Hu, Chang-Lun; Chen, Dai-Xing; Gan, Tian; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Zhao, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in a rat model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of saline containing 20% L-Arg (250 mg/100 g) hourly for over 2 h to induce SAP. The rats were treated with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg/kg) or different dosages of NaHS (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg). PAG or NaHS was administered 1 h before induction of pancreatitis. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last L-Arg injection. Blood and pancreas tissues were collected. RESULTS: The H2S and cystathionine-?-lyase mRNA levels in SAP rats were signi?cantly lower than those in the control group, and treatment with PAG further reduced the H2S level. Nevertheless, H2S was significantly increased after NaHS administration compared with the SAP group, and the degree of upregulation was associated with the NaHS dosage. NaHS reduced the levels of plasma amylase, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase in pancreatic tissue. NaHS suppressed the degradation of I?B? and the activity of nuclear factor-?B, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT. CONCLUSION: H2S plays an anti-inflammatory role in SAP in vivo.

  20. NSAIDs and Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The resulting pain is the main symptom of acute pancreatitis and it should be alleviated as soon as possible. NSAIDs are the first line therapy for pain and they are generally administered to acute pancreatitis patients upon admission to the hospital. In addition, these drugs have also been used to prevent post-endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, there are several reports indicating that NSAIDs may be the actual cause of acute pancreatitis. We carried out a literature search on PubMed/MEDLINE; all full text papers published in from January 1966 to November 2009 on the use of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis were collected; the literature search was also supplemented by a review of the bibliographies of the papers evaluated. Thus, in this article, we will systematically review the current literature in order to better illustrate the role of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis, in particular: i) NSAIDs as a cause of acute pancreatitis; ii) their use to prevent post-retrograde ERCP pancreatitis and iii) their efficacy for pain relief in the acute illness of the pancreas.

  1. Abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in early stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Li, Fei; Sun, Jia-Bang; Jia, Jian-Guo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study retrospectively the influence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with early acute pancreatitis (AP) (during the first week after admission) on physiological functions, and the association of the presence of IAH/ACS and outcome. METHODS: Patients (n = 74) with AP recruited in this study were divided into two groups according to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) determined by indirect measurement using the transvesical route via Foley bladder catheter during the first week after admission. Patients (n = 44) with IAP ? 12 mmHg were assigned in IAH group, and the remaining patients (n = 30) with IAP < 12 mmHg in normal IAP group. For analysis of the influence of IAH/ACS on organ function and outcome, the physiological parameters and the occurrence of organ dysfunction during intensive care unit (ICU) stay were recorded, as were the incidences of pancreatic infection and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: IAH within the first week after admission was found in 44 patients (59.46%). Although the APACHE II scores on admission and the Ranson scores within 48 h after hospitalization were elevated in IAH patients in early stage, they did not show the statistically significant differences from patients with normal IAP within a week after admission (16.18 ± 3.90 vs 15.70 ± 4.25, P = 0.616; 3.70 ± 0.93 vs 3.47 ± 0.94, P = 0.285, respectively). ACS in early AP was recorded in 20 patients (27.03%). During any 24-h period of the first week after admission, the recorded mean IAP correlated significantly with the Marshall score calculated at the same time interval in IAH group (r = 0.635, P < 0.001). Although ACS patients had obvious amelioration in physiological variables within 24 h after decompression, the incidences of pancreatitic infection, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death in the patients with ACS were significantly higher than that in other patients without ACS (pancreatitic infection: 60.0% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001; septic shock: 70.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001; MODS: 90.0% vs 31.5%, P < 0.001; mortality: 75.0% vs 3.7%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: IAH/ACS is a frequent finding in patients admitted to the ICU because of AP. Patients with IAP at approximately 10-12 mmHg and early signs of changes in physiologic variables should be seriously considered for urgent decompression to improve survival. PMID:18567084

  2. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  3. Effects and mechanisms of alveolar type II epithelial cell apoptosis in severe pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    LIU, GELIANG; ZHANG, JINGWEN; CHEN, HAILONG; WANG, CHAO; QIU, YANG; LIU, YUEJIAN; WAN, JIAJIA; GUO, HUISHU

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of alveolar type II epithelial cell (AEC II) apoptosis in severe pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the intervening role of Qingyi decoction (QYT). An SAP model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to observe the pathological changes in the pancreas and lung tissue. AEC II apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the free Ca2+ concentration in AECs II was determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. A radioimmunoassay was performed to determine serum TNF-? content. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax and caspase-8 in the lung tissue. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of lung tissue sections in the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) group showed pathological changes from control tissue, consistent with acute lung injury (ALI). Flow cytometry showed that the level of AEC II apoptosis in the SAP group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group (P<0.01). Laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that the free Ca2+ concentration in the AECs II of the SAP group was also significantly increased compared with that in the control (P<0.01). Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that the TNF-? levels were significantly increased in the SAP group compared with those in the control group (P<0.01), and qPCR results showed that the levels of Bax and caspase-8 apoptotic gene expression in the AECs II of the SAP group were significantly elevated (P<0.01). The aforementioned indicators were significantly lower following drug treatment compared with the levels observed in the SAP model group. These results suggest that AEC II apoptosis is involved in the ALI procedure associated with SAP. The mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway may have key regulatory roles in AEC II apoptosis. The use of QYT may significantly reduce the extent of lung injury. PMID:24520246

  4. Comparison of early enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis with prebiotic fiber supplementation versus standard enteral solution: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarkan Karakan; Meltem Ergun; Ibrahim Dogan; Mehmet Cindoruk; Selahattin Unal

    AIM: To compare the beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition (EN) with prebiotic fiber supplementation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with severe AP, who required stoppage of oral feeding for 48 h, were randomly assigned to nasojejunal EN with or without prebiotics. APACHE ? score, Balthazar's CT score and CRP were assessed daily during

  5. Severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with lipoprotein lipase deficiency in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A van Walraven; J. B. C de Klerk; R. R Postema

    2003-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl with lipoprotein lipase deficiency experienced recurring episodes of abdominal pain. She initially underwent appendectomy for suspected appendicitis; however, the appendix was normal. Pancreatitis was subsequently identified as the cause of her pain.

  6. Acute pancreatitis after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tabakovic, Mithat; Salkic, Nermin N; Bosnjic, Jasmina; Alibegovic, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare but life-threatening complication in patients with transplanted kidney. The incidence of acute pancreatitis after kidney transplantation ranges from 2% to 7%, with mortality rate between 50 and 100%. We report a case of a female patient aged 46 years, developing an interstitial acute pancreatitis 8 years following a renal transplantation. The specific aethiological factor was not clearly established, although possibility of biliary pancreatitis with spontaneous stone elimination and/or medication-induced pancreatitis remains the strongest. Every patient after renal transplantation with an acute onset of abdominal pain should be promptly evaluated for presence of pancreatitis with a careful application of the most appropriate diagnostic procedure for each individual patient. PMID:23259142

  7. Upregulated but insufficient generation of activated protein C is associated with development of multiorgan failure in severe acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Outi Lindstrom; Leena Kylanpaa; Panu Mentula; Pauli Puolakkainen; Esko Kemppainen; Reijo Haapiainen; Jose A Fernandez; John H Griffin; Heikki Repo; Jari Petaja

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Disturbed protein C (PC) pathway homeostasis might contribute to the development of multiple organ failure (MOF) in acute pancreatitis (AP). We therefore evaluated circulating levels of PC and activated protein C (APC), evaluated monocyte deactivation in AP patients, and determined the relationship of these parameters to MOF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients in the intensive care unit were categorized

  8. [Biofunctional symmetry of individual values of clinic-laboratory indices in patients, suffering severe forms of an acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Sipliv'i?, V A; Kon', K V; Robak, B I; Evtushenko, A V

    2012-02-01

    Individual values of clinic-laboratory indices were analyzed in 125 patients, suffering severe forms of an acute pancreatitis (AP). In the early postoperative period there were analyzed 65 indices: clinical analysis of the blood, 24 hematological indices, biochemical analysis of the blood, coagulogram, estimates according to the ASSES, APACHE II, SAPS, SAPS II, SAPS III scales. There was established, that in 83.1% of patients in severe forms of an AP the ratio or the values difference of clinic-laboratory indices in dynamics of postoperative period are depicted according to the "Golden section" rule with deviation no more than 10-15%. In the patients, suffering sterile pancreonecrosis, in comparison with those, suffering infected pancreonecrosis and in the patients with infected pancreonecrosis without retroperitoneal space cellular tissue affection in comparison with patients, suffering infected pancreonecrosis and the retroperitoneal space cellular tissue affection there were more signs, the values ratio or difference of which have deviated from the "Golden section" rule no more than by 5%. While estimating the patients state severity in those, suffering severe forms of AP, using special scales, most precisely the coincidence with a "Golden section" rule was noted, according to scales ASSES and SAPS III. Prognostically unfavorable was a progressive increase of the points sum according to ASSES scale in dynamics of postoperative period. PMID:22629801

  9. Embryonic natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis complicated by abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui-ming; Guo, Shao-qing; Liao, Xiu-min; Zhang, Li; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study aimed to estimate the value of embryonal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (ENOTES) in treating severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The patients, who were randomized into an ENOTES group and an operative group, underwent ENOTES and laparotomy, respectively. The results and complications of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Enterocinesia was observed earlier in the ENOTES group than in the operative group. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of patients in the ENOTES group was lower than that of the operative group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th post-operative day (P<0.05). The cure rate was 96.87% in the ENOTES group, which was statistically different from 78.12% in the operative group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in complications and mortality between the two groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with surgical decompression, ENOTES associated with flexible endoscope therapy is an effective and minimal invasive procedure with less complications.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to help evaluate the presence and degree of pancreatic necrosis, and is crucial for identifying complications of acute pancreatitis and predicting prognosis. The purpose of this article is to describe MRI techniques for acute pancreatitis, to review the spectrum of pancreatic and peripancreatic patterns, as well as to survey various complications secondary to acute pancreatitis on MRI. The role of MRI in the initial evaluation and staging of acute pancreatitis is emphasized. PMID:21160684

  11. Prebiotics in ImmunoModulation for Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Refaat A. Hegazi

    \\u000a Intestinal mucosal immune system plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis and its associated\\u000a complications. Prebiotics restore intestinal bacteria flora in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, they exert\\u000a beneficial anti-infective and metabolic effects. Earlier studies show that prebiotics improve clinical outcome in patients\\u000a with severe acute pancreatitis. More research is warranted to study the effects

  12. Protective effect of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on severe acute pancreatitis-induced myocardial injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    LI, NAN; TIAN, YING; WANG, CHUNLI; ZHANG, PENG; YOU, SHENGYI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on myocardial injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In total, 30 rats were randomly divided into sham, SAP and decoction treatment groups. SAP was induced by a retrograde pancreatic duct injection of 5% sodium taurocholate in the SAP and decoction treatment groups. Rats in decoction treatment group also received intragastric administration of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction. The serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, myocardial Na+-K+-ATPase activity was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry. Myocardial apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay and pathological changes to the heart and pancreas were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared with the rats in the sham group, rats in the SAP and decoction treatment groups exhibited significantly higher levels of serum CK-MB and LDH, apoptosis index and pathological scores, and had significantly lower levels of Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. However, when compared with the SAP group, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH, the pathological scores of the pancreas and heart, and the myocardial cell apoptosis index in the decoction treatment group were significantly lower. Furthermore, the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly increased in the decoction treatment group when compared with the SAP group. Therefore, Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction was shown to exert a protective effect on myocardial injury induced by SAP in rats. PMID:25780399

  13. Retrocrural Space Involvement on Computed Tomography as a Predictor of Mortality and Disease Severity in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haotong; Ebner, Lukas; Jiang, Shiming; Wu, Yi; Christe, Andreas; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Luo, Zhulin; Tian, Fuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Background Because computed tomography (CT) has advantages for visualizing the manifestation of necrosis and local complications, a series of scoring systems based on CT manifestations have been developed for assessing the clinical outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP), including the CT severity index (CTSI), modified CTSI, etc. Despite the internationally accepted CTSI having been successfully used to predict the overall mortality and disease severity of AP, recent literature has revealed the limitations of the CTSI. Using the Delphi method, we establish a new scoring system based on retrocrural space involvement (RCSI), and compared its effectiveness at evaluating the mortality and severity of AP with that of the CTSI. Methods We reviewed CT images of 257 patients with AP taken within 3–5 days of admission in 2012. The RCSI scoring system, which includes assessment of infectious conditions involving the retrocrural space and the adjacent pleural cavity, was established using the Delphi method. Two radiologists independently assessed the RCSI and CTSI scores. The predictive points of the RCSI and CTSI scoring systems in evaluating the mortality and severity of AP were estimated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Principal Findings The RCSI score can accurately predict the mortality and disease severity. The area under the ROC curve for the RCSI versus CTSI score was 0.962±0.011 versus 0.900±0.021 for predicting the mortality, and 0.888±0.025 versus 0.904±0.020 for predicting the severity of AP. Applying ROC analysis to our data showed that a RCSI score of 4 was the best cutoff value, above which mortality could be identified. Conclusion The Delphi method was innovatively adopted to establish a scoring system to predict the clinical outcome of AP. The RCSI scoring system can predict the mortality of AP better than the CTSI system, and the severity of AP equally as well. PMID:25222846

  14. Dynamic nature of organ failure in severe acute pancreatitis: the impact of persistent and deteriorating organ failure

    PubMed Central

    Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Dutta, Usha; Appasani, Sreekanth; Singh, Kartar; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims In acute pancreatitis (AP), patients with persistent organ failure [POF, duration of organ failure (OF) ?48 h] and transient organ failure (TOF, duration of OF <48 h) have different outcomes. We have compared the clinical course and outcome of patients with severe AP (SAP) with TOF and POF in the first week of hospitalization as well as the impact of change in the OF score in the first week on patient outcome. Methods Consecutive patients with SAP were evaluated for OF and its dynamics during the first week of hospitalization. The modified multiple organ failure score (MOFS) was used to identify OF, grade its severity and monitor its progression. The clinical course and outcome of patients were studied. Results Of 114 patients, mean age 39.2 ± 13.7 years, 37 (32.5%) patients had no OF, 34 (29.8%) had TOF and 43(37.7%) had POF. Patients with POF had the higher infected necrosis, increased requirement for percutaneous drain placement, surgery and higher mortality as compared with those with TOF. The odds ratio for mortality with persistent and deteriorating OF was 26.2 [confidence interval (CI) 5.1–134.9] compared with only persistent OF. Conclusion The dynamics of OF in the first week of SAP predicts the clinical course and outcome. Persistent and deteriorating OF indicates a poor outcome. PMID:23750495

  15. Myocardial function in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Ramirez-Schon, G; Shah, P M; Agarwal, N; Delguercio, L R; Reynolds, B M

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with acute pancreatitis had 68 physiologic cardiopulmonary assessments performed, and they were compared with 61 performed on normal postoperative patients, and 113 on 41 cirrhotics. It was found that the patients with pancreatitis have an elevated cardiac index (CI), which is not due to the hyperdynamic hemodynamic state found in cirrhotics. In spite of this, the Sarnoff curves demonstrated that pancreatitis was accompanied by a myocardial depression p less than 0.03, not found in hyperdynamic cirrhotics. Cirrhotics are unable to increase their oxygen consumption in response to an increase in CI, as do normal patients or those with acute pancreatitis. In cirrhotics the hemodynamic lesion occurs at the capillary level with the opening of arteriovenous shunts which rob the tissues of their nutritive blood supply, while the patient with acute pancreatitis has a primary myocardial depression and his peripheral vasculature reacts like that of a normal person. PMID:7247538

  16. Acute Pancreatitis in Obesity: Adipokines and Dietary Fish Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayder H. Al-Azzawi; Terence E. Wade; Deborah A. Swartz-Basile; Sue Wang; Henry A. Pitt; Nicholas J. Zyromski

    2011-01-01

    Background  Acute pancreatitis is a substantial clinical problem accounting for 240,000 hospital admissions yearly in the United States.\\u000a Obesity is epidemic and is clearly an independent risk factor for increased severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Adipose tissue\\u000a is an endocrine organ that secretes a variety of metabolically active substances termed adipokines. However, the role of adipokines\\u000a in modulating acute pancreatitis severity

  17. Taurine attenuates liver injury by downregulating phosphorylated p38 MAPK of Kupffer cells in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sidong; Huang, Qingyong; Li, Jinzheng; Liu, Zuojin; You, Haibo; Chen, Yong; Gong, Jianping

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of taurine on liver injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: a sham operation (SO), a SAP (established by infusion of 5% taurocholate), and a SAP given taurine (Taur). At 12 and 24 h post-operation, taurine pretreatment significantly attenuated hepatic tissue injury induced by SAP, and concurrently, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, and amylase levels were significantly reduced by taurine pretreatment. Compared with the SO group, the total and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) expression and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity of Kupffer cells (KCs) were significantly higher in the SAP group, but taurine pretreatment inhibited the total and phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression and NF-?B activity of KCs in the SAP group. The increase of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-l? in cultured supernate of the SAP rat-derived KCs was also significantly inhibited by taurine pretreatment. These results suggest that taurine pretreatment ameliorated liver injury in rats with SAP mainly by inhibiting phosphorylated p38 MAPK and NF-?B activity in KCs, which may play an important role in liver injury. PMID:21833764

  18. Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study of a platelet activating factor antagonist, lexipafant, in the treatment and prevention of organ failure in predicted severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C; Kingsnorth, A; Imrie, C; McMahon, M; Neoptolemos, J; McKay, C; Toh, S; Skaife, P; Leeder, P; Wilson, P; Larvin, M; Curtis, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Platelet activating factor (PAF) is believed to amplify the activity of key mediators of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in acute pancreatitis, resulting in multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that a potent PAF antagonist, lexipafant, could dampen SIRS and reduce organ failure in severe acute pancreatitis.?METHODS—We conducted a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentre trial of lexipafant (100 mg/24 hours intravenously for seven days commenced within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms) involving 290 patients with an APACHE II score >6. Power calculations assumed that complications would be reduced from 40% to 24%. Secondary end points studied included severity of organ failure, markers of the inflammatory response, and mortality rate.?FINDINGS—Overall, 80/138 (58%) patients in the placebo group and 85/148 (57%) in the lexipafant group developed one or more organ failures. The primary hypothesis was invalidated by the unexpected finding that 44% of patients had organ failure on entry into the study; only 39 (14%) developed new organ failure. Organ failure scores were reduced in the lexipafant group only on day 3: median change ?1 (range ?4 to +8) versus 0 (?4 to +10) in the placebo group (p=0.04). Systemic sepsis affected fewer patients in the lexipafant group (13/138 v 4/148; p=0.023). Local complications occurred in 41/138 (30%) patients in the placebo group and in 30/148 (20%) in the lexipafant group (20%; p=0.065); pseudocysts developed in 19 (14%) and eight (5%) patients, respectively (p=0.025). Deaths attributable to acute pancreatitis were not significantly different. Interleukin 8, a marker of neutrophil activation, and E-selectin, a marker of endothelial damage, decreased more rapidly in the lexipafant group (both p<0.05); however, absolute values were not different between the two groups.?INTERPRETATION—The high incidence of organ failure within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms undermined the primary hypothesis, and power calculations for future studies in severe acute pancreatitis will need to allow for this. Lexipafant had no effect on new organ failure during treatment. This adequately powered study has shown that antagonism of PAF activity on its own is not sufficient to ameliorate SIRS in severe acute pancreatitis???Keywords: platelet activating factor; organ failure; systemic inflammatory response syndrome; lexipafant; acute pancreatitis PMID:11115824

  19. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark R.; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of drug-induced pancreatitis cases are mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Management of drug-induced pancreatitis requires withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Methods This review focuses on differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, drug-mediated effects, treatments, and mechanisms of pancreatitis, with an emphasis on drug-induced pancreatitis. Results Although only a minority of cases associated with acute pancreatitis are linked to drugs, clinical presentation and mechanisms of injury to the pancreas are not well understood by clinicians in terms of individual drug effects in the mediation or modulation of injury to the pancreas. In recent years, a large number of commonly prescribed medications has been linked to drug-induced pancreatitis pathogenesis. Although mechanisms are proposed, the exact cause of injury is either not well understood or controversial. Conclusion Future investigation into the mechanisms of pancreatitis and an appreciation by clinicians of the drugs commonly linked to the condition will help establish earlier diagnosis and quicker cessation of offending drugs in the treatment of drug-induced acute pancreatitis.

  20. Thymosin Alpha 1 is Associated with Improved Cellular Immunity and Reduced Infection Rate in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Patients in a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinying Wang; Weiqin Li; Chenglin Niu; Liya Pan; Ning Li; Jieshou Li

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, double-blinded pilot trial study was to evaluate the effects of Thymosin alpha 1 use in the early\\u000a phase on immunomodulation and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 24 patients with\\u000a SAP were randomized to receive either conventional therapy for SAP or immunomodulatory therapy (TA1 group). The patients in\\u000a the

  1. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Sainio; E Kemppainen; P Puolakkainen; R Haapiainen; T Schröder; E Kivilaakso; V Valtonen; M Taavitsainen; L Kivisaarl

    1995-01-01

    SummaryDespite improvements in surgical treatment and intensive care, mortality from severe acute pancreatitis remains high. We have carried out a randomised study of 60 consecutive patients with alcohol-induced necrotising pancreatitis to find out whether early antibiotic treatment can improve outcome.30 patients were assigned cefuroxime (4·5 g\\/day intravenously) from admission. In the second group, no antibiotic treatment was given until clinical

  2. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan J. De Waele; Ari K. Leppäniemi

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is approximately 60–80%.\\u000a It is usually an early phenomenon, partly related to the effects of the inflammatory process, causing retroperitoneal edema,\\u000a fluid collections, ascites, and ileus, and partly iatrogenic, resulting from aggressive fluid resuscitation. It also can manifest\\u000a at a later stage, often associated with local pancreatic

  3. Early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin improves outcome and enhances multi-organ protection in a model of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CONG; SU, XUAN; ZHOU, XUAN; WANG, LI-LI; LI, BEI; CHEN, LI; LV, FA-QIN; LI, TAN-SHI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin on the outcome of a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham-operated (C), SAP model (M), saline lavage (SL), intravenous ulinastatin (IU), early ulinastatin lavage (EUL) and late ulinastatin lavage (LUL). Intraperitoneal lavage or injection were performed immediately subsequent to the establishment of the SAP model in groups SL, IU and EUL and 3 h later in group LUL. Intraperitoneal lavage with or without ulinastatin was performed for 3 h. The survival time of the rats in groups C, M, EUL and LUL was recorded over a 12-h period and the median survival time was calculated. At 3 h after the induction of SAP, histopathological analyses were performed and the biochemical parameters of groups C, M, SL, IU and EUL were assessed. Groups EUL and LUL exhibited an increased median survival time compared with Group M, with the survival time of the rats in group EUL markedly longer than that in the group LUL rats. Group SL, IU and EUL rats were found to have reduced plasma activities of amylase, lipase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, with the biggest change observed in the group EUL rats. Furthermore, the intervention in groups SL and EUL was more effective at reducing creatinine and urea levels than that in group IU. Rats in group EUL exhibited a greater inhibition of the SAP-induced increase in troponin T levels than rats in groups SL and IU. The pathological severity scores of the pancreas, liver, kidney and lung in group EUL were significantly lower than those in groups M and better than those in groups SL and IU. In conclusion, early intraperitoneal lavage with ulinastatin significantly improves the median survival time and protects multi-organ function in an SAP model. PMID:25780405

  4. Expression of TREM-1 mRNA in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Yu Wang; Ren-Yi Qin; Zheng-Ren Liu; Manoj Kumar Gupta; Qing Chang; Manoj Kumar

    AIM: To explore the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) mRNA in acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we examined the expression of TREM-1 mRNA in 10 cases of mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), 8 cases of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and 10 cases of healthy control subjects. And we also examined

  5. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-10-01

    The present article analyzes the main presentations on acute pancreatitis (AP) in Digestive Disease Week 2013. Perfusion computed tomography allows early diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin predicts the development of acute renal failure, severe AP and death. Factors associated with greater fluid sequestration in AP are alcoholic etiology, an elevated hematocrit, and the presence of criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome; fluid sequestration is associated with a worse outcome. True pseudocysts (fluid collections without necrosis for more than 4 weeks) are a highly infrequent complication in AP. Patients with necrotic collections have a poor prognosis, especially if associated with infection. A meta-analysis on fluid therapy suggests that early aggressive fluid administration is associated with higher mortality and more frequent respiratory complications. According to a meta-analysis, enteral nutrition initiated within 24 hours of admission improves the outcome of AP compared with later initiation of enteral nutrition. Pentoxifylline could be a promising alternative in AP; a double-blind randomized study showed that this drug reduced the length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, as well as the need for intensive care unit admission. The association of octreotide and celecoxib seems to reduce the frequency of organ damage compared with octreotide alone. Mild AP can be managed in the ambulatory setting through hospital-at-home units after a short, 24-hour admission. PMID:24160959

  6. Action of Antiproteases on the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Chia Chen; Sun-Sang Wang; Fa-Yauh Lee

    Summary The spectrum of acute pancreatitis ranges from mild edematous disease to a severe necrotizing process which is usually accompanied by local or systemic complications and even mortality. Early deaths (within the first week) due to severe acute pancreatitis are generally caused by massive inflammatory responses which result in multiple organ failure. Although the exact mechanisms which trigger the inflammatory

  7. Role of high mobility group box-1 and protection of growth hormone and somatostatin in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Wu, M; Ma, B J; Cai, D A; Yin, B B

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effects of growth hormone (G) and somatostatin (S) in SAP rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 each: sham-operated, SAP, SAP+saline, SAP+G, SAP+S and SAP+G+S. Ileum and pancreas tissues of rats in each group were evaluated histologically. HMGB1 mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. Levels of circulating TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were also measured. In the SAP group, interstitial congestion and edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial hemorrhage occurred in ileum and pancreas tissues. The levels of HMGB1, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6 and endotoxin were significantly up-regulated in the SAP group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and the 7-day survival rate was 0%. In the SAP+G and SAP+S groups, the inflammatory response of the morphological structures was alleviated, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were significantly decreased compared with those in the SAP group, and the survival rate was increased. Moreover, in the SAP+G+S group, all histological scores were significantly improved and the survival rate was significantly higher compared with the SAP group. In conclusion, HMGB1 might participate in pancreas and ileum injury in SAP. Growth hormone and somatostatin might play a therapeutic role in the inflammatory response of SAP. PMID:25387675

  8. Role of high mobility group box-1 and protection of growth hormone and somatostatin in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Wu, M; Ma, B J; Cai, D A; Yin, B B

    2014-09-12

    In this study, we investigated the potential role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effects of growth hormone (G) and somatostatin (S) in SAP rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 each: sham-operated, SAP, SAP+saline, SAP+G, SAP+S and SAP+G+S. Ileum and pancreas tissues of rats in each group were evaluated histologically. HMGB1 mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. Levels of circulating TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were also measured. In the SAP group, interstitial congestion and edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial hemorrhage occurred in ileum and pancreas tissues. The levels of HMGB1, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6 and endotoxin were significantly up-regulated in the SAP group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and the 7-day survival rate was 0%. In the SAP+G and SAP+S groups, the inflammatory response of the morphological structures was alleviated, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were significantly decreased compared with those in the SAP group, and the survival rate was increased. Moreover, in the SAP+G+S group, all histological scores were significantly improved and the survival rate was significantly higher compared with the SAP group. In conclusion, HMGB1 might participate in pancreas and ileum injury in SAP. Growth hormone and somatostatin might play a therapeutic role in the inflammatory response of SAP. PMID:25229664

  9. Protective effect of exogenous IGF-I on the intestinalmucosal barrier in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-zhen; Wang, Shi-wen; Zhang, You-cheng; Sun, Zhi-jiang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can result in intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) dysfunction. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effect of IGF-I on the intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with SAP and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a sham operation (SO group, n=24), a SAP group not treated with IGF-I (SAP group, n=24), and a SAP group treated with IGF-I (IGF-I group, n=24). SAP was induced in the rats by injecting 5.0% sodium taurocholate into the biliary-pancreatic duct. The SO rats were given an infusion of normal saline instead. The rats in the IGF-I group underwent the SAP procedure and were given a subcutaneous injection of IGF-I at 30 minutes before the operation and at 3 hours after the operation. Eight rats in each group were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 24 hours after operation. Apoptosis of mucosal cells in the small intestine was determined by TUNEL. The levels of endotoxin and DAO and serum amylase were also measured. Pathologic changes in the small intestine were monitored. Changes of bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression in the small intestine were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The levels of serum amylase were lower in the IGF-I group than in the SAP group at all three time points (P<0.05). The levels of endotoxin in the IGF-I group were higher than those in the SAP group at 6 hours, but lower in the IGF-I group than in the SAP group at 12 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The levels of diamine oxidase were higher in the IGF-I group at 6 hours but lower than those in the SAP group at 12 and 24 hours. The pathological score of the small intestine was lower in the IGF-I group than in the SAP group, and the difference was statistically significant at 12 and 24 hours. The pathologic changes observed under electron microscopy were better in the IGF-I group than those in the SAP group. The apoptosis index of intestinal epithelial cells was significantly decreased in the IGF-I group compared with the SAP group. Compared with the SO group, the mRNA expression levels of bax were increased at each time point in the SAP group, and were significantly decreased in the IGF-I group as compared with the SAP group at each time point (P<0.05). The expression levels of bcl-2 were weak and not different between the SO group and the SAP group (P>0.05). They were significantly increased in the IGF-I group versus the SO and SAP groups (P<0.05). The ratio of bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression levels at each time point in the SAP group were significantly higher than those in the SO group, but they were obviously decreased in the IGF-I group. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous IGF-I seems to protect mucosal cells in the small intestine against SAP-induced apoptosis and could alleviate SAP-induced injury of the intestinal mucosa. The underlying mechanisms include enhanced mRNA expression of bcl-2 and inhibition of bax mRNA expression. PMID:25215066

  10. Significance of resistin expression in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    XUE, LE-NING; WANG, XIAO-YONG; TAN, YONG; LIN, MIN; ZHANG, WEI; XU, KE-QUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of resistin in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP) and investigate its significance in the pathogenesis of AP. In total, 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10), including the normal control, sham-operated, acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) groups. Following the establishment of animal models, the levels of serum resistin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-1? were measured using ELISA. Resistin expression in the pancreatic tissues was detected using an immunohistochemical method. In addition, the mRNA expression of resistin in the pancreatic tissues was analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of serum amylase, serum resistin, TNF-?, IL-1? and CRP were all significantly higher in the AEP and ANP groups when compared with the control and sham-operated groups (P<0.01), as were the pancreas/body weight ratios and pathological scores of the pancreas. These increases were more significant in the ANP group than in the AEP group (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of resistin in the pancreatic tissues were markedly higher in the AEP and ANP groups when compared with the control and sham-operated groups (P<0.01), particularly in the pancreatic tissues of the ANP group, which exhibited notably higher levels compared with the AEP group. The serum resistin level was found to positively correlate with the serum levels of CRP, TNF-? and IL-1?, and the pathological scores of the pancreatic tissues. In conclusion, the results indicated that resistin may be associated with the occurrence and development of AP; thus, the protein may be a valuable indicator for assessing the severity of AP. PMID:25780448

  11. Do the Effects of Pentoxifylline on the Inflammatory Process and Pancreatic Infection Justify Its Use in Acute Pancreatitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Siqueira Matheus; Ana Maria M. Coelho; Sandra Sampietre; Jose Jukemura; Rosely A. Patzina; Jose Eduardo Monteiro Cunha; Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    2009-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. At the present time, no specific therapy has been shown to be uniformly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pentoxifylline on the pancreatic and systemic inflammatory process, pancreatic infection, and mortality rate in severe acute

  12. [Artificial nutrition in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Harsányi, László

    2005-05-29

    Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Despite increasing knowledge and available guidelines in the fields of nutritional support in pancreatic diseases there do still exist a lot of controversies, aversions, delusions in the clinical work. Hungarian Society of Clinical Nutrition has already published it's own guideline on nutrition in pancreatic diseases in 2002. European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) also published a Consensus Statement based on the proposals of an international Consensus Conference with active Hungarian participation. The aim of this article is to clear up habitual considerations of some physicians and to share current knowledge from physiology/pathophysiology to quality control upon these guidelines, meta-analyses, and, the daily practice of Hungarian pioneers of nutrition support in pancreatic diseases. PMID:15997665

  13. Acute idiopathic pancreatitis in pregnancy: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Sung Hoon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Song, Dong Jin; Jeong, Cheol Yoon; Lee, Dong Hyun; Whang, Il Soon

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a rare event, and can be associated with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Gallstone disease is thought to be the most common causative factor of acute pancreatitis, but, in many cases, the cause remains unclear. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman at 35 wk of gestation, who presented with severe pain confined to the upper abdomen and radiating to the back. The patient was diagnosed with acute idiopathic pancreatitis, which was managed conservatively; she recovered within several days and then delivered a healthy baby. Therefore it is important to consider acute pancreatitis when a pregnant woman presents with upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting in order to improve fetal and maternal outcomes for patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473197

  14. Impact of Global Fxr Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis and Genetic Variation in the FXR Locus in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Schaap, Frank G.; Smits, Alexander J. J.; Kremer, Andreas E.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Kroese, Alfons B. A.; Rijkers, Ger. T.; Schipper, Marguerite E. I.; Verheem, André; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Erpecum, Karel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious complications often occur in acute pancreatitis, related to impaired intestinal barrier function, with prolonged disease course and even mortality as a result. The bile salt nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is expressed in the ileum, liver and other organs including the pancreas, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-?B activation and is implicated in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth and translocation. Here we explore, with the aid of complementary animal and human experiments, the potential role of FXR in acute pancreatitis. Methods Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced using the CCK-analogue cerulein in wild-type and Fxr-/- mice. Severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed using histology and a semi-quantitative scoring system. Ileal permeability was analyzed in vitro by Ussing chambers and an in vivo permeability assay. Gene expression of Fxr and Fxr target genes was studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Serum FGF19 levels were determined by ELISA in acute pancreatitis patients and healthy volunteers. A genetic association study in 387 acute pancreatitis patients and 853 controls was performed using 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the complete FXR gene and two additional functional SNPs. Results In wild-type mice with acute pancreatitis, ileal transepithelial resistance was reduced and ileal mRNA expression of Fxr target genes Fgf15, SHP, and IBABP was decreased. Nevertheless, Fxr-/- mice did not exhibit a more severe acute pancreatitis than wild-type mice. In patients with acute pancreatitis, FGF19 levels were lower than in controls. However, there were no associations of FXR SNPs or haplotypes with susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, or its course, outcome or etiology. Conclusion We found no evidence for a major role of FXR in acute human or murine pancreatitis. The observed altered Fxr activity during the course of disease may be a secondary phenomenon. PMID:25470824

  15. Acute Pancreatitis Due to a Duodenal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Sung Ik; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Ban Seok; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Oh, Kong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal ulcers and acute pancreatitis are two of the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal diseases among the general population. However, duodenal ulcer-induced pancreatitis is very rarely reported worldwide. This report elaborates on a distinct medical treatment that contributes to partial or complete treatment of acute pancreatitis induced by a duodenal ulcer scar. PMID:25505728

  16. Acute pancreatitis induced by anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ben Kridis, W; Khanfir, A; Frikha, M

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis is rare (1.4-2%). This report describes a 20-year-old female patient who developed acute pancreatitis while being treated for neurosarcoma of abdominal wall with the ifosfamide and doxorubicin regimen. Although it is unusual, it is important to consider chemotherapeutic agents as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24455804

  17. On the protective mechanisms of nitric oxide in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Werner, J; Castillo, C; Rivera, J; Kollias, N; Lewandrowski, K; Rattner, D; Warshaw, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—Ectopic protease activation, microcirculatory changes, and leucocyte activation are the main events in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be a key mediator in the normal and inflamed pancreas. ?Aims—To investigate the targets on which NO exerts its effect in caerulein induced pancreatitis. ?Methods—Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats which additionally received either the NO synthase substrate, L-arginine; the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside; or the NO synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). At six hours, pancreatic injury (oedema, leucocyte content, ectopic trypsinogen activation) was analysed and pancreatic oxygenation and perfusion were determined. A direct influence of NO on amylase secretion and trypsinogen activation was evaluated separately in vitro. ?Results—Both NO donors reduced the grade of inflammation. L-NAME increased the severity of inflammation, while decreasing pancreatic tissue oxygenation. Although neither amylase secretion nor intracellular trypsinogen activation in caerulein stimulated pancreatic acini was influenced by either NO donors or inhibitors, both NO donors decreased intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) and pancreatic oedema in vivo, and L-NAME increased TAP. ?Conclusions—NO protects against injury caused by pancreatitis in the intact animal but has no discernible effect on isolated acini. It is likely that in pancreatitis NO acts indirectly via microcirculatory changes, including inhibition of leucocyte activation and preservation of capillary perfusion. ?? Keywords: acute pancreatitis; nitric oxide; microcirculation; leucocytes; pancreatic secretion PMID:9863487

  18. Platelet-Activating Factor and Platelet-Activating Factor Antagonists in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pancreatitis causes platelet-activating factor (PAF) to be released which induces systemic effects that contribute to circulatory disturbances and multiple organ failure. PAF has also been implicated as a key mediator in the progression of severe acute pancreatitis, which can lead to complications and unacceptably high mortality rates. Mode of Action of PAF in Acute Pancreatitis: Synthesis of PAF

  19. Pathophysiology of Acute Experimental Pancreatitis: Lessons from Genetically Engineered Animal Models and New Molecular Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Schäfer; Anne Barbara Tietz; Burkhard Göke

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis is growing and worldwide population-based studies report a doubling or tripling since the 1970s. 25% of acute pancreatitis are severe and associated with histological changes of necrotizing pancreatitis. There is still no specific medical treatment for acute pancreatitis. The average mortality resides around 10%. In order to develop new specific medical treatment strategies for acute

  20. [Acute pancreatitis in the post-partum period. Apropos of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    El Mansari, O; Zentar, A; Mejdane, A; Touiti, D; Nazih, M; Janati, M I; Taobane, A; Moulay, I

    1996-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy is a rare and serious combination that poses difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Three cases of acute pancreatitis occurred in the post-partum period. Based on these cases and a literature review, we analyzed the different aspects of this interesting association. Biliary origin is particularly evident. Acute pancreatitis after delivery is a serious problem compared to other forms of acute pancreatitis. Late diagnosis caused by circumstances of happening contribute to the severity at least partially. PMID:8763574

  1. Perfusion Measurement in Acute Pancreatitis Using Dynamic Perfusion MDCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre E. Bize; Alexandra Platon; Christoph D. Becker; Pierre-Alexandre Poletti

    OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to determine whether MDCT with perfusion imaging could help in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis in the initial phase of the disease. One hundred six patients with abdominal pain were prospectively enrolled in this study. CONCLUSION. Patients were separated into two groups: P1 (severe) and P2 (mild) acute pancreatitis. Mean perfusion value was 24.8 mL\\/100

  2. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  3. Pomalidomide suppresses cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Jen Tsai; Chinpiao Chen; Sung-Ho Chen; Yen Ta Huang; Ted H. Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Background  An overproduction of proinflammatory mediators in severe acute pancreatitis contributes to the systemic inflammatory response,\\u000a which may lead to multiorgan damage and even death. Thus, inflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and\\u000a interleukin (IL)-1?, may be novel targets for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate\\u000a the therapeutic effects of pomalidomide (or CC-4047),

  4. Peritoneal lavage efficiently eliminates protease-alpha-2-macroglobulin complexes and components of the contact system from the peritoneal cavity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aasen, A O; Ruud, T E; Roeise, O; Bouma, B N; Stadaas, J O

    1989-01-01

    Trypsin (Try), plasma kallikrein (KK) and plasmin activities together with coagulation factor XII (F XII, Hageman factor), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), plasma prekallikrein (PKK), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M), C1 inhibitor (C1Inh), and functional plasma kallikrein inhibition (KKI) values were studied in peritoneal fluid and lavage taps of 9 patients with severe acute pancreatitis treated with peritoneal lavage. Both immunochemical methods and functional techniques based on chromogenic peptide substrate assays were used. In the exudate obtained before peritoneal lavage was performed, F XII was 52%, HMWK was 30%, PKK was 40%, alpha 2-M was 29% and C1Inh was 57% of standard plasma pool values, determined by immunochemical technique. Functional plasma KKI values were zero, whereas Try activities determined by chromogenic peptide substrate technique were markedly elevated in the exudate. Using a prepacked HR 10/30 Superose Tm 12 column (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) and chromogenic peptide substrate assays, Try and KK activities were detected in the alpha 2-M containing fractions of the peritoneal exudate demonstrating KK-alpha 2-M and Try-alpha 2-M complex formation. The peritoneal lavage procedure efficiently eliminated components of the contact system and protease activities. In the first lavage tap, Try activities were markedly reduced compared to values found in the exudate and concentrations of F XII, HMWK, PKK, alpha 2-M and C1Inh were all zero. In consecutive lavage taps Try values were also zero. The study shows that the lavage procedures efficiently clears the peritoneal cavity for protease-alpha 2-M complexes generated during acute pancreatitis. Also, components of the contact system found in peritoneal exudate, and which might serve as substrates for the protease-alpha 2-M complexes, are rapidly eliminated by the procedure. PMID:2469582

  5. Acute Pancreatitis and Splenic Vein Thrombosis due to Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; ?çer, Mustafa; Zengin, Y?lmaz; Gülo?lu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a condition characterised by the activation of the normally inactive digestive enzymes due to an etiological factor and digestion of the pancreatic tissues, resulting in extensive inflammation and leading to local, regional, and systemic complications in the organism. It may vary from the mild edematous to the hemorrhagic and severely necrotising form. The most common causes are biliary stones and alcohol abuse. In this case study, we would like to present a patient with AP due to hypertriglyceridemia (HPTG), which is a rare cause of pancreatitis, and splenic vein thrombosis, which is a rare complication of pancreatitis. PMID:25802772

  6. Role of Macrophage Inflammatory Peptide2 in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Pancreatitis-Associated Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M Pastor; Laura Rubbia-Brandt; Antoine Hadengue; Martha Jordan; Philippe Morel; Jean Louis Frossard

    2003-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of variable severity, and leukocytes are thought to play a key role in the development of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The effects of mediators released by these inflammatory cells may induce tissue damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), in the pathogenesis

  7. ICAM-1 and Acute Pancreatitis Complicated by Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XiPing Zhang; Dijiong Wu; Xinge Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Summary One of the most common complications of acute pancreatitis is acute lung injury, during which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role by participating in leukocyte adhesion and activation as well as by inducing the \\

  8. Acute mediastinitis arising from pancreatic mediastinal fistula in recurrent pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choe, In Soo; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Sun Moon; Song, Kyung Ho; Koo, Hoon Sup; Park, Jung Ho; Pyo, Jin Sil; Kim, Ji Yeong; Choi, In Seok

    2014-01-01

    Acute mediastinitis is a fatal disease that usually originates from esophageal perforation and surgical infection. Rare cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis can occur following oral cavity and pharynx infection or can be a complication of pancreatitis. The most common thoracic complications of pancreatic disease are reactive pleural effusion and pneumonia, while rare complications include thoracic conditions, such as pancreaticopleural fistula with massive pleural effusion or hemothorax and extension of pseudocyst into the mediastinum. There have been no reports of acute mediastinitis originating from pancreatitis in South Korea. In this report, we present the case of a 50-year-old female suffering from acute mediastinitis with pleural effusion arising from recurrent pancreatitis that improved after surgical intervention. PMID:25356062

  9. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mark E; Nelson, Rendon C; Rosen, Max P; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Hindman, Nicole M; Kamel, Ihab R; Kaur, Harmeet; Piorkowski, Robert J; Qayyum, Aliya; Yarmish, Gail M

    2014-12-01

    The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. The Atlanta Classification by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group recently modified the terminology for the clinical course and the morphologic changes identified on imaging, primarily contrast- enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The two distinct clinical courses of the disease are classified as (1) early phase, which lasts approximately 1 week, and (2) late phase, which starts after the first week and can last for months after the initial episode. The two, primary, morphologic changes are acute, interstitial edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis. Timing of imaging, primarily MDCT, is based on the clinical phases and is, therefore, important for these imaging guidelines. Ultrasound's role is to detect gallstones after the first episode. MDCT plays a primary role in the management of acutely ill patients, only after a minimum of 48-72 hours and generally after one week. MR plays a supplementary role to MDCT. Follow-up MDCT guides management and therapy: percutaneous aspiration of fluid collections and/or placement of large caliber catheters in infected necrosis. PMID:25364960

  10. Acute Severe Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. McFadden

    2003-01-01

    Acute severe asthma remains a major economic and health burden. The natural history of acute decompensations is one of resolution and only about 0.4% of patients succumb overall. Mortality in medi- cal intensive care units is higher but is less than 3% of hospital ad- missions. \\

  11. Comparison of early enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis with prebiotic fiber supplementation versus standard enteral solution: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Karakan, Tarkan; Ergun, Meltem; Dogan, Ibrahim; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Unal, Selahattin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition (EN) with prebiotic fiber supplementation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with severe AP, who required stoppage of oral feeding for 48 h, were randomly assigned to nasojejunal EN with or without prebiotics. APACHE II score, Balthazar’s CT score and CRP were assessed daily during the study period. RESULTS: The median duration of hospital stay was shorter in the study group [10 ± 4 (8-14) d vs 15 ± 6 (7-26) d] (P < 0.05). The median value of days in intensive care unit was also similar in both groups [6 ± 2 (5-8) d vs 6 ± 2 (5-7) d]. The median duration of EN was 8 ± 4 (6-12) d vs 10 ± 4 (6-13) d in the study and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). Deaths occurred in 6 patients (20%), 2 in the study group and 4 in the control group. The mean duration of APACHE II normalization (APACHE II score < 8) was shorter in the study group than in the control group (4 ± 2 d vs 6.5 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). The mean duration of CRP normalization was also shorter in the study group than in the control group (7 ± 2 d vs 10 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nasojejunal EN with prebiotic fiber supplementation in severe AP improves hospital stay, duration nutrition therapy, acute phase response and overall complications compared to standard EN therapy. PMID:17569144

  12. Acute idiopathic pancreatitis: clinical and diagnostic contribution.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Montesano, G; Gallinaro, L; Bertagni, A; Turano, R; Hueck, S; Illuminati, G

    1997-01-01

    Acute idiopathic pancreatitis is a term used when no underlying cause can be identified on routine investigations. However more specialized investigations, such as endoscopic, endoscopic retrocolangio pancreopathy (CPRE), may detect aetiological factors, particularly biliary sludge and pancreatic duct abnormalities. The authors, reviewing the current literature, report their caseload of idiopathic pancreatitis. They conclude that CPRE is indicated if ultrasonography shows a calibre of the common duct at the superior limits of normal values and in each idiopathic recurrent AP. PMID:9444796

  13. Misdiagnosis of Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  14. Misdiagnosis of abdominal pain in pregnancy: acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  15. Activation of cellular immune response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A; Pérez-Mateo, M; Viedma, J A; Carballo, F; Sánchez-Payá, J; Liras, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators have recently been implicated as potential markers of severity in acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the value of neopterin and polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase as markers of activation of cellular immunity and as early predictors of disease severity. PATIENTS: Fifty two non-consecutive patients classified according to their clinical outcome into mild (n = 26) and severe pancreatitis (n = 26). METHODS: Neopterin in serum and the PMN elastase/A1PI complex in plasma were measured during the first three days of hospital stay. RESULTS: Within three days after the onset of acute pancreatitis, PMN elastase was significantly higher in the severe pancreatitis group. Patients with severe disease also showed significantly higher values of neopterin on days 1 and 2 but not on day 3 compared with patients with mild disease. There was a significant correlation between PMN elastase and neopterin values on days 1 and 2. PMN elastase on day 1 predicted disease severity with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 91.6%. Neopterin did not surpass PMN elastase in the probability of predicting disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that activation of cellular immunity is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and may be a main contributory factor to disease severity. Neopterin was not superior to PMN elastase in the prediction of severity. PMID:9245935

  16. Immune-Manipulation of the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis. What Can Be Expected?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Rosa Ceciliato; Bhajat Barakat; Roberto Corinaldesi

    Summary Severe acute pancreatitis still has a high mortality rate and multiple organ failure is considered to be a severe complication of the disease. Activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes have an important role in the development of multiple organ failure which may result from acute pancreatitis and they are an important pathogenetic factor in the severity of this disease. Therefore, a logical

  17. Hormonal protection in acute pancreatitis by ghrelin, leptin and melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jaworek, Jolanta; Konturek, Stanis?aw Jan

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a nonbacterial disease of the pancreas. The severe form of this ailment is characterized by high mortality. Whether acute pancreatitis develops as the severe type or resolves depends on the intensity of the inflammatory process which is counteracted by the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the hormones ghrelin, leptin and melatonin are able to modulate the immune function of the organism and to protect the pancreas against inflammatory damage. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the application of these substances prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis significantly attenuated the intensity of the inflammation and reduced pancreatic tissue damage. The pancreatic protective mechanisms of the above hormones have been related to the mobilization of non-specific immune defense, to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and modulation of cytokine production, to the stimulation of heat shock proteins and changes of apoptotic processes in the acinar cells, as well as to the activation of antioxidant system of the pancreatic tissue. The protective effect of ghrelin seems to be indirect and perhaps dependent on the release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Leptin and ghrelin, but not melatonin, employ sensory nerves in their beneficial action on acute pancreatitis. It is very likely that ghrelin, leptin and melatonin could be implicated in the natural protection of the pancreatic gland against inflammatory damage because the blood levels of these substances increase in the initial phase of pancreatic inflammation. The above hormones could be a part of the innate resistance system which might remove noxious factors and could suppress or attenuate the inflammatory process in the pancreas. PMID:25493003

  18. Hormonal protection in acute pancreatitis by ghrelin, leptin and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, Jolanta; Konturek, Stanis?aw Jan

    2014-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a nonbacterial disease of the pancreas. The severe form of this ailment is characterized by high mortality. Whether acute pancreatitis develops as the severe type or resolves depends on the intensity of the inflammatory process which is counteracted by the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the hormones ghrelin, leptin and melatonin are able to modulate the immune function of the organism and to protect the pancreas against inflammatory damage. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the application of these substances prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis significantly attenuated the intensity of the inflammation and reduced pancreatic tissue damage. The pancreatic protective mechanisms of the above hormones have been related to the mobilization of non-specific immune defense, to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and modulation of cytokine production, to the stimulation of heat shock proteins and changes of apoptotic processes in the acinar cells, as well as to the activation of antioxidant system of the pancreatic tissue. The protective effect of ghrelin seems to be indirect and perhaps dependent on the release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Leptin and ghrelin, but not melatonin, employ sensory nerves in their beneficial action on acute pancreatitis. It is very likely that ghrelin, leptin and melatonin could be implicated in the natural protection of the pancreatic gland against inflammatory damage because the blood levels of these substances increase in the initial phase of pancreatic inflammation. The above hormones could be a part of the innate resistance system which might remove noxious factors and could suppress or attenuate the inflammatory process in the pancreas. PMID:25493003

  19. Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Maire, F; Chatel, P; Luton, D; Hammel, P

    2014-02-01

    This article aims to draw together recent thinking on pregnancy and acute pancreatitis (AP), with a particular emphasis on pregnancy complications, birth outcomes and management of AP during pregnancy contingent on the etiology. AP during pregnancy is a rare but severe disease with a high maternal-fetal mortality, which has recently decreased thanks to earlier diagnosis and some maternal and neonatal intensive care improvement. AP usually occurs during the third trimester or the early postpartum period. The most common causes of AP are gallstones (65 to 100%), alcohol abuse and hypertriglyceridemia. Although the diagnostic criteria for AP are not specific for pregnant patients, Ranson and Balthazar criteria are used to evaluate the severity and treat AP during pregnancy. The fetal risks from AP during pregnancy are threatened preterm labor, prematurity and in utero fetal death. In cases of acute biliary pancreatitis during pregnancy, a consensual strategy could be adopted according to the gestational age, and taking in consideration the high risk of recurrence of AP (70%) with conservative treatment and the specific risks of each treatment. This could include: conservative treatment in first trimester and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in second trimester. During the third trimester, conservative treatment or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in early postpartum period are recommended. A multidisciplinary approach, including gastroenterologists and obstetricians, seems to be the key in making the best choice for the management of AP during pregnancy. PMID:24355941

  20. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis due to egg allergy presenting as acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Sandra C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 25-year-old female with newly diagnosed egg allergy, presenting with both peripheral and duodenal eosinophilia suspicious for eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG). The EG was severe enough to have likely caused acute pancreatitis. Cessation of all egg products lead to resolution of all symptoms. This represents the first report of EG manifesting as pancreatitis due to egg ingestion. PMID:25668683

  1. Role of liver in modulating the release of inflammatory cytokines involved in lung and multiple organ dysfunction in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Liu, Weiyan; Liu, Xiqiang; Sheng, Meng; Pei, Yaofei; Lei, Ruoqing; Zhang, Shengdao; Tao, Ran

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the role of liver in modulating remote organ dysfunction during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). We used sodium taurocholate and endotoxin to induce SAP in the rats and confirmed the development of this condition by measuring serum and ascite levels of the biomarkers of liver and lung damage. Our results showed that expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? was up-regulated sequentially, first in the gut, then in the liver, and finally in lung. Moreover, the SAP-induced increase in the expressions of TNF-? and IL-6 occurring in gut, liver, and lung was directly related to the increase in time. However, in liver and lung, the transcriptional activity of NF-?B and expression of TNF-? at 4 and 8 h were not increased. The distribution sequence of the pro-inflammatory cytokines to various organs was determined by their detection in the blood from portal vein and inferior vena cava. Although liver received TNF-? during 0.5-8 h of the SAP induction, the release of this cytokine into vena cava was not increased in this period of time. In conclusion, our results suggest that the aggravation of SAP leading to development of MODS exhibited the gut-liver-lung cytokine axis. Furthermore, this study indicates that liver performs both protective and stimulatory activities in the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine generation and their distribution to remote organs, such as lungs. PMID:25260395

  2. Acute pancreatitis owing to very high triglyceride levels treated with insulin and heparin infusion

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Madan Raj; Mainali, Naba Raj; Gupta, Shobhit; Singla, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis in the USA. The treatment approach for hypertriglyceridaemia to date has largely been conservative including weight loss, exercise and avoidance of medications that raise triglyceride levels. This approach, however, is not practical in cases of acute pancreatitis due to severely elevated triglycerides. A small number of case reports have been published supporting the treatment of acute pancreatitis due to severely elevated triglyceride levels with insulin and heparin. We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a young woman due to a triglyceride level of 15?215?mg/dl who was successfully treated with insulin and heparin. PMID:23608843

  3. Clinical pancreatic disorder I: Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2011-07-01

    The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1˝ day there were 169 different abstracts and a "How do I do it session." Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted - all abstracts are similarly presented - and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way) to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered - and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them …) in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as "just another little abstract" - and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall.Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a "clinical highlight section" of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor's choices are the highlighted ones.The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this "abstract of abstracts", it was worth the efforts - and without efforts there will be little progress. PMID:22555122

  4. Clinical value of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) determinations in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Rau; Gerald Steinbach; Colin M. Krüger; Katja Baumgart; Martin Schilling; Hans G. Beger

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundLipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a class 1 acute-phase protein that binds and transfers bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study investigated the clinical value of measuring LBP for stratifying biochemical severity in acute pancreatitis by using a recently developed fully automated assay technique.Patients and methodsWe studied 71 patients with acute pancreatitis of whom 41 presented with a necrotizing course. Necrotizing pancreatitis was

  5. Serum interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 in patients with acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C-C Chen; S-S Wang; R-H Lu; F-Y Chang; S-D Lee

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDProinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.AIMSTo measure the serial serum levels of interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 in patients with acute pancreatitis and analyse the relation of these anti-inflammatory cytokines to disease severity.METHODSIn 50 patients with acute pancreatitis, the serum concentrations of interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 were determined on days one, two, three,

  6. Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karakayali, Feza Y

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

  7. Effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production on pancreatic infection in experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Maria M.; Sampietre, Sandra; Patzina, Rosely; Jukemura, Jose; Cunha, Jose Eduardo M.; Machado, Marcel C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Acute pancreatitis is one the important causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS results in gut barrier dysfunction that allows bacterial translocation and pancreatic infection to occur. Indomethacin has been used to reduce inflammatory process and bacterial translocation in experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production on pancreatic infection. Materials and methods. An experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) was utilized. The animals were divided into three groups: sham (surgical procedure without AP induction); pancreatitis (AP induction); and indomethacin (AP induction plus administration of 3 mg/kg of indomethacin). Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, PGE2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were measured 2 h after the induction of AP. We analyzed the occurrence of pancreatic infection with bacterial cultures performed 24 h after the induction of AP. The occurrence of pancreatic infection (considered positive when the CFU/g was >105), pancreatic histologic analysis, and mortality rate were studied. Results. In spite of the reduction of IL-6, IL-10, and PGE2 levels in the indomethacin group, TNF-? level, bacterial translocation, and pancreatic infection were not influenced by administration of indomethacin. The inhibition of PGE2 production did not reduce pancreatic infection, histologic score, or mortality rate. Conclusion. The inhibition of PGE2 production was not able to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic infection and does not have any beneficial effect in this experimental model. Further investigations will be necessary to discover a specific inhibitor that would make it possible to develop an anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:18345325

  8. A Novel Model of Severe Gallstone Pancreatitis: Murine Pancreatic Duct Ligation Results in Systemic Inflammation and Substantial Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac Samuel; Zuobiao Yuan; David K. Meyerholz; Erik Twait; Deborah E. Williard; Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2010-01-01

    Background: Suitable experimental models of gallstone pancreatitis with systemic inflammation and mortality are limited. We developed a novel murine model of duct-ligation-induced acute pancreatitis associated with multiorgan dysfunction and severe mortality. Methods: Laparotomy was done on C57\\/BL6 mice followed by pancreatic duct (PD) ligation, bile duct (BD) ligation without PD ligation, or sham operation. Results: Only mice with PD ligation

  9. Use of probiotics in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Necrotic tissue infection can worsen the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and probiotics have been shown to be beneficial in reducing the infection rate in animal experiments and primary clinical trials. However, the results of multicenter randomized clinical trials have been contradictory. Our aim in this study was to systematically review and quantitatively analyze all randomized controlled trials with regard to important outcomes in patients with predicted SAP who received probiotics. Methods A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted using specific search terms. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of probiotic with placebo treatment in patients with predicted SAP. Mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed- and random-effects models. A meta-analysis on the use of probiotics in the treatment of critically ill patients was also performed to serve as a reference. Results In this study, 6 trials comprising an aggregate total of 536 patients were analyzed. Significant heterogeneities were observed in the type, dose, treatment duration and clinical effects of probiotics in these trials. Systematic analysis showed that probiotics did not significantly affect the pancreatic infection rate (RR?=?1.19, 95% CI?=?0.74 to 1.93; P?=?0.47), total infections (RR?=?1.09, 95% CI?=?0.80 to 1.48; P?=?0.57), operation rate (RR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?0.43 to 3.47; P?=?0.71), length of hospital stay (MD?=?2.45, 95% CI?=??2.71 to 7.60; P?=?0.35) or mortality (RR?=?0.72, 95% CI?=?0.42 to 1.45; P?=?0.25). Conclusions Probiotics showed neither beneficial nor adverse effects on the clinical outcomes of patients with predicted SAP. However, significant heterogeneity was noted between the trials reviewed with regard to the type, dose and treatment duration of probiotics, which may have contributed to the heterogeneity of the clinical outcomes. The current data are not sufficient to draw a conclusion regarding the effects of probiotics on patients with predicted SAP. Carefully designed clinical trials are needed to validate the effects of particular probiotics given at specific dosages and for specific treatment durations. PMID:24684832

  10. Eruptive xanthomas and acute pancreatitis in a patient with hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Desirée Pérez; Díaz, Juan Óscar Fernández; Bobes, Carmen Maciá

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and eruptive xanthomas are the only recognised direct complications of severe hypertriglyceridaemia. We present the case of a 33-years old male patient in whom the onset of a type 2 diabetes, added to an unknown familial hyperlipidemia, precipitated a dramatic raise of serum triglyceride levels, that cause in turn an acute pancreatitis and the appearance of dermic eruptive xanthomas. Translation This article is translated from Spanish, originally published in Archivos de Medicina. The original work is at doi:10.3823/001 PMID:18474088

  11. Alterations in intestinal motility and microflora in experimental acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Leveau; Xiangdong Wang; Vasile Soltesz; Ingemar Ihse; Roland Andersson

    1996-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a A delay in intestinal transit time appears as an early event in acute pancreatitis, preceding intestinal bacterial overgrowth\\u000a and translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Septic complications, primarily caused by bacteria of enteric origin, are frequent in severe acute pancreatitis. Impairment\\u000a in intestinal motility probably plays a pathophysiological role in the development of bacterial overgrowth and ensuing translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the present study, the

  12. Acute Suppuration of the Pancreatic Duct in a Patient with Tropical Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliane S. Deeb; Jasmeet Bajaj; Sandeep Bhargava; David Alcid; C. S. Pitchumoni

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Pancreatic sepsis secondary to infected necrosis, pseudocyst, or pancreatic abscess is a well-known clinical entity. Acute suppuration of the pancreatic duct (ASPD) in the setting of chronic calcific pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal obstruction with septicemia is a rare complication that is seldom reported. It is our aim to report a case of ASPD with Klebsiella ornithinolytica, in the absence

  13. Induction of Apoptosis by Crambene Protects Mice against Acute Pancreatitis via Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Adhikari, Sharmila; Clément, Marie Véronique; Wallig, Matthew; Bhatia, Madhav

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is a teleologically beneficial form of cell death in acute pancreatitis. Our previous work has demonstrated that induction of pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis by crambene protects mice against acute pancreatitis. However, little is known about how the induction of apoptosis reduces the severity of acute pancreatitis. Because the clearance of apoptotic cells might suppress inflammation and critically regulate immune responses, we postulate that clearance of apoptotic cells stimulates an anti-inflammatory response, which has a protective action against acute pancreatitis. To test this hypothesis, induction of apoptosis in acute pancreatitis in vivo and co-cultures of peritoneal resident macrophages with apoptotic acinar cells in vitro were used as experimental systems, testing expression of phagocytic receptors and levels of inflammatory mediators. Moreover, neutralizing anti-interleukin (IL)-10 monoclonal antibody (2.5 mg/kg) was used before the induction of apoptosis in acute pancreatitis, testing whether the protection from apoptosis induction would be removed. Our study showed that clearance of apoptotic acinar cells, which may occur essentially through the CD36-positive macrophage, stimulates the release of anti-inflammatory mediators like IL-10. IL-10 plays an important role in crambene-induced protection in acute pancreatitis. Thus, induction of pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis by crambene protects mice against acute pancreatitis via induction of anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:17456759

  14. CD40L is not involved in acute experimental pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aree Abdulla; Darbaz Awla; Bengt Jeppsson; Sara Regnér; Henrik Thorlacius

    2011-01-01

    Recent data suggest that platelets not only control thrombosis and hemostasis but may also regulate inflammatory processes such as acute pancreatitis. However, the specific role of platelet-derived mediators in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis is not known. Herein, we examined the role of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) in different models of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by repetitive caerulein

  15. Endoscopic therapy for acute recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason R; Romagnuolo, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Endoscopy plays an important role in both the diagnosis and the initial management of recurrent acute pancreatitis, as well as the investigation of refractory disease, but it has known limitations and risks. Sound selective use of these therapies, complemented with other lines of investigation such as genetic testing, can dramatically improve frequency of attacks and associated quality of life. Whether endoscopic therapy can reduce progression to chronic pancreatitis, or reduce the risk of malignancy, is debatable, and remains to be proven. PMID:24079791

  16. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Tonsi, Alfredo F; Bacchion, Matilde; Crippa, Stefano; Malleo, Giuseppe; Bassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century. PMID:19554647

  17. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  18. [Duodenal duplication revealed by acute pancreatitis: endoscopic treatment].

    PubMed

    Le Baleur, Yann; Dhalluin-Venier, Valérie; Thirot-Bidault, Anne; Rangheard, Anne-Sophie; Boytchev, Isabelle; Choury, André-Daniel; Fritsch, Jacques; Pelletier, Gilles; Buffet, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 17 year old man who presented with several episodes of acute pancreatitis due to a duodenal duplication. This was successfully treated by an incision by sphincterotome during interventional duodenoscopy. The patient is symptom free without recurrence 20 months after endoscopic treatment. PMID:17925766

  19. Cell Death and DAMPs in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Billiar, Timothy R; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and inflammation are key pathologic responses of acute pancreatitis (AP), the leading cause of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of AP by linking local tissue damage to systemic inflammation syndrome. Endogenous DAMPs released from dead, dying or injured cells initiate and extend sterile inflammation via specific pattern recognition receptors. Inhibition of the release and activity of DAMPs (for example, high mobility group box 1, DNA, histones and adenosine triphosphate) provides significant protection against experimental AP. Moreover, increased serum levels of DAMPs in patients with AP correlate with disease severity. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanism, diagnosis and management of AP. DAMPs might be an attractive therapeutic target in AP. PMID:25105302

  20. Plasma Calprotectin Levels in Patients Suffering from Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Carroccio; Pasquale Rocco; Pier Giorgio Rabitti; Lidia Di Prima; Giovanni Battista Forte; Angelo B. Cefalů; Franco Pisello; Girolamo Geraci; Generoso Uomo

    2006-01-01

    Calprotectin (Cal) concentration is elevated in acute inflammatory reactions and its increase in the plasma suggests a diagnostic\\u000a potential for Cal assay. This study aimed (a) to evaluate the Cal plasma levels in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis\\u000a (AP) and (b) to assess whether early assay of Cal plasma levels can be helpful in assessment of the severity of AP.

  1. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation and by increasing VEGF and leukocyte infiltration into the lung. PMID:25157787

  2. Early ERCP in Acute Gallstone Pancreatitis without Cholangitis: A Meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manley C U; Peter P S; Virgilio P Bane; Wendell Z Espinosa

    Context Early ERCP was reported to result in recovery from acute gallstone pancreatitis. To date, several RCTs comparing it to conservative treatment have yielded different results. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of early ERCP on the morbidity and mortality of acute gallstone pancreatitis without cholangitis. Methods We searched the following databases up to January 11th, 2008:

  3. [Severe acute asthma].

    PubMed

    Pagani, Jean-Luc; Oddo, Mauro; Schaller, Marie-Denise

    2004-06-01

    Acute severe asthma is defined by the occurrence of an acute exacerbation resistant to the initial medical treatment, complicated by life-threatening respiratory distress due to severe lung hyperinflation. The conventional therapeutic approach is based on oxygen therapy and on the combined treatment of inhaled beta2-agonists at repeated doses and systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled or systemic magnesium sulfate is also recommended. The unresponsiveness to the initial bronchodilating therapy and the development of respiratory distress requiring intubation significantly increases mortality, due to the complications induced by mechanical ventilation. In these situations, a ventilatory strategy, including controlled hypoventilation with permissive hypercapnia, aiming at preventing lung hyperinflation, is indicated. Non-invasive ventilation may be successful in certain patients and represents an effective alternative to intubation. In ventilated patients, helium-oxygen mixtures can be considered as adjunctive therapies. After having reviewed the basic pathophysiological principles, this article will focus on the current medical treatment and of the modalities of mechanical ventilation in acute severe asthma. PMID:15293440

  4. Management of Acute Pancreatitis Clinical Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Grace; Michael Lee; G McEntee; K Mealy; Frank E Murray

    2003-01-01

    It is intended that these guidelines will assist clinicians in the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis.\\u000aAIMS\\u000aThe specific aims of these guidelines are:-\\u000a(i) to assist the early diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis.\\u000a(ii) to promote risk stratification enabling a uniform standard of care throughout the country.\\u000a(iii)to improve referral patterns for patients requiring complex monitoring, investigation

  5. Effect of a pneumoperitoneum on systemic cytokine levels, bacterial translocation, and organ complications in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis with infected necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Strobel; D. Wachter; J. Werner; W. Uhl; C. A. Müller; M. Khalik; H. K. Geiss; W. Fiehn; M. W. Büchler; C. N. Gutt

    2006-01-01

    Background  Infection of pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is strongly associated with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction and is an absolute\\u000a indication for surgery. Patients with IPN are critically ill at the time of surgery and may benefit from a minimally invasive\\u000a approach with reduced surgical trauma. Recently, several minimally invasive necrosectomy techniques have been reported. However,\\u000a the effects and potential dangers of

  6. [Cryosurgery of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Q; Yao, Z

    1995-03-01

    Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis (AHNP) was induced by introduct retrograde injection of the autologous bile in canine. The cryoprobe was under the influence of temperature ranging from -160C to -190C for fifteen to eighteen seconds, and the frozen areas were about 80% surface of pancreas. Cryotherapy of AHNP strongly inhibited the development of the inflammation in pancreatic parenchyma. Postcryotherapy 24hr for remarkably decreased the activities of pancreatic enzymes. The activities of phospholipase A, lipase and amylase in serum decreased by 502.1%, 355.8%, 502.5% respectively in 7 days. The level of blood glucose decreased. At the second week, the fibroblasts were growing around the residual pancreatic aciner cells and insular cells rich in intact zymogen granules. The mortality (6.89%) of the treatment group within 48 hours was significantly lower than that of the control group (100%). PMID:7780815

  7. Acute pancreatitis in slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Naples, Lisa M; Lacasse, Claude; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Langan, Jennifer N; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2010-06-01

    Four adult, full-sibling slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The incident case presented with lethargy, anorexia, abdominal guarding, and a cranial abdominal mass. Serum was grossly lipemic, with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increased amylase and lipase activity. An exploratory laparotomy confirmed chylous peritonitis and included excision of a saponified spleno-duodenal mass, a partial pancreatectomy, and a splenectomy. Histopathology revealed severe, multifocal, subacute necrotizing and granulomatous pancreatitis. Within 13 days of the incident case, the second meerkat was identified with essentially identical clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. During subsequent physical examinations of apparently unaffected cohorts (n=12), physical and hematologic findings suggestive of pancreatitis were identified in the two remaining siblings of the first two cases. The definitive cause for these four cases is undetermined; however, common risk factors identified were obesity and hyperlipidemia, a change to a higher-fat diet, and genetic predisposition. To assess its usefulness in the diagnosis of meerkat pancreatitis, serum canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI and fPLI) concentrations were measured in serum samples (n=61) from two unrelated meerkat populations. Although these assays are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in domestic carnivores, similar correlation was not apparent for meerkats. In addition, hyperlipidemia was inconsistently present in many meerkats, with no apparent correlation to the development of clinical illness. Based on these observations, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for pancreatitis in meerkats are currently unavailable. PMID:20597219

  8. Role of hyaluronan in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Johnsson; Roger Hällgren; Gunnar Tufveson

    2000-01-01

    Background: The connective tissue component hyaluronan is accumulated locally in the damaged tissue during various inflammatory conditions. Owing to the strong water-binding capacity of this glycosaminoglycan, increased tissue content of hyaluronan is paralleled by the development of interstitial edema. The aim with the current experiment was to investigate whether hyaluronan is accumulated in acute pancreatitis and if increased levels of

  9. An assessment of clinical guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, S. A.; Cheruvu, C. V.; Collins, J.; Dix, F. P.; Eyre-Brook, I. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines have been issued for the management of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to audit the management of acute pancreatitis in one district general hospital, to determine the problems and benefits associated with the implementation of such guidelines. METHODS: Data were collected over the period 1991-1995 for all patients diagnosed as having acute pancreatitis who were admitted to one district general hospital. Data regarding severity grading, determination of aetiology and treatment of mild and severe pancreatitis were analysed in conjunction with the recommendations issued by the British Society of Gastroenterology Working Party on the management of acute pancreatitis in 1995. RESULTS: A total of 210 patients were admitted on 263 occasions; 16% of cases were severe but severity prediction was inaccurate. 56.1% had gallstone pancreatitis and 20.9% had idiopathic pancreatitis. Definitive treatment of gallstones was within the recommended time limit in only 70.1%. 27 patients experienced recurrent attacks of pancreatitis before definitive treatment of their gallstones, due either to inadequate investigation for gallstones after suboptimal ultrasound examination (n = 12) or to inappropriate delay before definitive treatment of gallstones (n = 15). Recommendations for the management of severe cases with early ITU/HDU admissions and CT scanning were not followed. 28 day mortality was 6.3%, median age of those dying was 80.5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable mortality can be achieved for acute pancreatitis despite failure to implement BSG guidelines for the management of severe acute pancreatitis. Inadequate investigation and treatment of gallstone disease leads to an unacceptable incidence of recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:11777135

  10. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  11. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-11-21

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  12. Acute scrotal pain as sole presentation of acute pancreatities

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Caroline; Abdelrazeq, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis has a myriad of different presentations although commonly presents with epigastric pain radiating to the back, nausea and vomiting. There are five case reports in the English literature of scrotal pain and swelling in severe alcoholic pancreatitis, two of which underwent surgical exploration. We present the first case of mild pancreatitis presenting with scrotal pain in the absence of any other symptoms or signs. We conclude that in any patient with unexplained scrotal pain, even in the absence of physical signs the possibility of pancreatitis should be considered. PMID:25528028

  13. Inhibition of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich containing family, pyrin-domain containing 3 inflammasome reduces the severity of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in obese mice.

    PubMed

    York, Jason M; Castellanos, Karla J; Cabay, Robert J; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2014-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), although most often a mild and self-limiting inflammatory disease, worsens to a characteristically necrotic severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in about 20% of cases. Obesity, affecting more than one-third of American adults, is a risk factor for the development of SAP, but the exact mechanism of this association has not been identified. Coincidental with chronic low-grade inflammation, activation of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich containing family, pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome increases with obesity. Lean mice genetically deficient in specific components of the NLRP3 inflammasome are protected from experimentally induced AP, indicating a direct involvement of this pathway in AP pathophysiology. We hypothesized that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the sulfonylurea drug glyburide would reduce disease severity in obese mice with cerulein-induced SAP. Treatment with glyburide led to significantly reduced relative pancreatic mass and water content and less pancreatic damage and cell death in genetically obese ob/ob mice with SAP compared with vehicle-treated obese SAP mice. Glyburide administration in ob/ob mice with cerulein-induced SAP also resulted in significantly reduced serum levels of interleukin 6, lipase, and amylase and led to lower production of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin 1? release in cultured peritoneal cells, compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice with SAP. Together, these data indicate involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity-associated SAP and expose the possible utility of its inhibition in prevention or treatment of SAP in obese individuals. PMID:25152324

  14. The role of NF-kappaB activation in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rakonczay, Z; Hegyi, P; Takács, T; McCarroll, J; Saluja, A K

    2008-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which, in its most severe form, is associated with multi-organ failure and death. Recently, signalling molecules and pathways which are responsible for the initiation and progression of this disease have been under intense scrutiny. One important signalling molecule, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), has been shown to play a critical role in the development of acute pancreatitis. NF-kappaB is a nuclear transcription factor responsible for regulating the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in immunity and inflammation. Many of these genes have been implicated as central players in the development and progression of acute pancreatitis. This review discusses recent advances in the investigation of pancreatic and extrapancreatic (lungs, liver, monocytes and macrophages, and endothelial cells) NF-kappaB activation as it relates to acute pancreatitis. PMID:17675325

  15. Post-ERP pancreatitis as a model for cytokine induced acute phase response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Messmann, H; Vogt, W; Holstege, A; Lock, G; Heinisch, A; von Fürstenberg, A; Leser, H G; Zirngibl, H; Schölmerich, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: By contrast with animal models, in most cases it is not possible to examine the systemic response in patients in the first hours after onset of acute pancreatitis. The aim was to determine whether endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERP)-induced pancreatitis can be used as a human model for the study of cytokine release and acute phase response in the first hours of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients undergoing ERP for different reasons were prospectively evaluated by sampling blood before and 0, 1, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours after ERP and, in patients who developed an acute post-ERP pancreatitis, daily until C reactive protein (CRP) was within normal range. A post-ERP pancreatitis was defined as a three-fold increase of amylase or lipase and at least two of the clinical symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and peritonism during 24 hours after ERP. RESULTS: Nine out of 70 patients developed an acute pancreatitis. Cytokines and other biochemical variables were measured in those nine and in 34 patients out of the 61 not developing pancreatitis. In the nine patients amylase and lipase increased within the first hour after ERP with maximum values between four and 12 hours. Interleukin-6 increased to maximal concentrations after 24-48 hours and the highest CRP concentrations were found 72 hours after ERP. Tumour necrosis factor did not change. CONCLUSION: Post-ERP pancreatitis is an ideal model in which to examine the initial cytokine and acute phase response in the first hours after the initiation of the disease. PMID:9155580

  16. Significant elevation of serum interleukin-18 levels in patients with acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ueda; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Takeo Yasuda; Naoki Matsumura; Hidehiro Sawa; Takahiro Nakajima; Tetsuo Ajiki; Yasuhiro Fujino; Yasuyuki Suzuki; Yoshikazu Kuroda

    2006-01-01

    Background  We have reported that peripheral lymphocyte reduction due to apoptosis is linked to the development of subsequent infectious\\u000a complications in patients with severe acute pancreatitis and that Th1 (helper T cell type 1)\\/Th2 (helper T cell type 2) balance\\u000a tends to cause Th1 suppression in experimental severe acute pancreatitis. It has been reported that interleukin (IL)-18 is\\u000a a cytokine produced

  17. The new revised classification of acute pancreatitis 2012.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Michael G; Banks, Peter A; Bollen, Thomas L; Dervenis, Christos; Gooszen, Hein G; Johnson, Colin D; Tsiotos, Gregory G; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to update the 1991 Atlanta Classification of acute pancreatitis, to standardize the reporting of and terminology of the disease and its complications. Important features of this classification have incorporated new insights into the disease learned over the last 20 years, including the recognition that acute pancreatitis and its complications involve a dynamic process involving two phases, early and late. The accurate and consistent description of acute pancreatitis will help to improve the stratification and reporting of new methods of care of acute pancreatitis across different practices, geographic areas, and countries. PMID:23632143

  18. Improvement of Impaired Microcirculation and Tissue Oxygenation by Hemodilution with Hydroxyethyl Starch plus Cell-Free Hemoglobin in Acute Porcine Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Freitag; Thomas G. Standl; Helge Kleinhans; André Gottschalk; Oliver Mann; Christian Rempf; Kai Bachmann; Andreas Gocht; Susan Petri; Jakob R. Izbicki; Tim Strate

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To avoid the progression from mild edematous acute pancreatitis (AP) to the severe necrotizing form, one therapeutic option is to improve pancreatic microcirculation and tissue oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of improved rheology (isovolemic hemodilution) plus enhanced oxygen supply (bovine hemoglobin HBOC-301) on pancreatic microcirculation, tissue oxygenation and survival in severe acute experimental

  19. Acute Obstructive Suppurative Pancreatic Ductitis in an Asymptomatic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2015-01-01

    Acute obstructive suppurative pancreatic ductitis (AOSPD), defined as suppuration from the pancreatic duct without associated pseudocyst, abscess, or necrosis, is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis. We present the first case of AOSPD in an asymptomatic patient with a polymicrobial infection and review the literature on this rare clinical entity. PMID:25688269

  20. Severe acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    The experiences of acute mountain sickness (AMS) as it has presented to a physician working in a general hospital at 1370 m in Kathmandu, nepal, are described. The features of 39 cases are analysed. It is suggested that AMS should be classified into benign and malignant forms. PMID:493196

  1. Alterations of Platelet Function, Number and Indexes during Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mimidis; V. Papadopoulos; J. Kotsianidis; D. Filippou; E. Spanoudakis; G. Bourikas; C. Dervenis; G. Kartalis

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Acute pancreatitis constitutes a systemic inflammatory process which is often accompanied by thrombosis and bleeding disorders. The role of platelets in the pathophysiology of the disease has not been elucidated yet. The present study focuses on two successive end-points: (1) the activation of platelets during acute pancreatitis and (2) the alterations of platelet number and indexes between onset and

  2. Change of Plasma Ghrelin Level in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binbin Liu; Xinguang Liu; Chaoshu Tang

    2006-01-01

    Background: Ghrelin is a new endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and it has many effects, including stimulating appetite, lipid metabolism and gastric motility. We investigated the change of plasma ghrelin concentration in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods: Blood samples were collected twice from each patient with acute pancreatitis. The first sample was obtained at the time of

  3. Histopathological Sequential Changes in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwinikumar Kudari; Jai Dev Wig; Kim Vaiphei; Rakesh Kochhar; Siddarth Majumdar; Rajesh Gupta; Thakur Deen Yadav; Rudra Prasad Doley

    Context Experimental models of acute pancreatitis have been developed in order to understand its pathophysiology and extrapancreatic manifestations. Objective The objective of our study was to study sequential changes in the pancreas and distant organs in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis in a rat model.

  4. The theory of 'persisting' common bile duct stones in severe gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    There have been uncertainties as to the role of common bile duct (CBD) stones in severe gallstone pancreatitis. In order to resolve this, ERCP findings in 131 patients with acute pancreatitis were compared with predicted severity, clinical course and final outcome. Significant associations were found between 'persisting' CBD stones, coincidental acute cholangitis, predicted severity and actual outcome. There was evidence for acute obstruction of both the CBD and the pancreatic duct by CBD stones. The theory was therefore proposed that small migrating stones tend to initiate the attack, whereas larger 'persisting' stones tend to convert a mild attack into a severe attack. This hypothesis resolves previously irreconcilable theories and lends support to the use of urgent endoscopic sphincterotomy for treatment, but only in cases predicted to be severe. Images fig. 4 PMID:2802482

  5. B Cell Activating Factor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family (BAFF) Behaves as an Acute Phase Reactant in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pongratz, Georg; Hochrinner, Hannah; Straub, Rainer H.; Lang, Stefanie; Brünnler, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) acts as an acute phase reactant and predicts severity of acute pancreatitis. Methods 40 patients with acute pancreatitis were included in this single center cohort pilot study. Whole blood and serum was analyzed on day of admission and nine consecutive days for BAFF, c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and leucocyte numbers. Different severity Scores (Ranson, APACHE II, SAPS II, SAPS III) and the clinical course of the patient (treatment, duration of stay, duration ICU) were recorded. Results Serum BAFF correlates with CRP, an established marker of severity in acute pancreatitis at day of admission with a timecourse profil similar to IL-6 over the first nine days. Serum BAFF increases with Ranson score (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2?=?10.8; p?=?0.03) similar to CRP (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2?=?9.4; p?=?0.05 ). Serum BAFF, IL-6, and CRP levels are elevated in patients that need intensive care for more than seven days and in patients with complicated necrotizing pancreatitis. Discriminant analysis and receiver operator characteristics show that CRP (wilks-lambda?=?0.549; ROC: AUC 0.948) and BAFF (wilks-lambda?=?0.907; ROC: AUC 0.843) serum levels at day of admission best predict severe necrotizing pancreatitis or death, outperforming IL-6, PCT, and number of leucocytes. Conclusion This study establishes for the first time BAFF as an acute phase reactant with predictive value for the course of acute pancreatitis. BAFF outperforms established markers in acute pancreatitis, like IL-6 and PCT underscoring the important role of BAFF in the acute inflammatory response. PMID:23342125

  6. Acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic hydatid cyst: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a major health problem worldwide. Primary hydatid disease of the pancreas is very rare and acute pancreatitis secondary to hydatid cyst has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented acute pancreatitis. A diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the pancreas, measuring 10 cm, was established by abdominal computed tomography before surgery. The treatment consisted of a distal pancreatectomy. The postoperative period was uneventful. Additionally, a review of the literature regarding case reports of acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic hydatid cyst is presented. PMID:22445170

  7. Acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic hydatid cyst: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Makni, Amin; Jouini, Mohamed; Kacem, Montassar; Safta, Zoubeir Ben

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a major health problem worldwide. Primary hydatid disease of the pancreas is very rare and acute pancreatitis secondary to hydatid cyst has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented acute pancreatitis. A diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the pancreas, measuring 10 cm, was established by abdominal computed tomography before surgery. The treatment consisted of a distal pancreatectomy. The postoperative period was uneventful. Additionally, a review of the literature regarding case reports of acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic hydatid cyst is presented. PMID:22445170

  8. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Motoo, E-mail: lmloltlolol@gmail.com; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  9. Acute pancreatitis with pancreatic abscess secondary to sealed jejunal diverticular perforation.

    PubMed

    King, Angela; Peters, Christopher John; Shorvon, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although most cases of acute pancreatitis are attributed to gallstones or alcohol, many remain idiopathic. The authors describe a case of acute pancreatitis in a 75-year-old gentleman who presented with acute epigastric pain, fevers and shortness of breath. Serum amylase was 2164. CT showed free mesenteric air, and a partly cystic/partly gas-containing mass in the uncinate lobe of the pancreas. Gastrograffin meal revealed duodenal and jejunal diverticular disease, but no contrast leak. Further CT analysis pinpointed fine tracts of air leading from a jejunal diverticulum up toward the pancreas, suggesting causation by a sealed jejunal diverticular perforation. He responded well to intravenous antibiotics and conservative management. Although small bowel diverticular disease is linked to chronic pancreatitis, evidence for association with acute pancreatitis is scarce. The authors believe this is the first reported case of jejunal diverticular disease causing acute pancreatitis, and it highlights micro-perforation as a potential disease mechanism. PMID:22665561

  10. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-? levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

  11. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-? levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

  12. Relationship between the exocrine and endocrine pancreas after acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Stephanie L M; Kennedy, James I C; Murphy, Rinki; Phillips, Anthony R J; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and time course of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Relevant literature cited in three major biomedical journal databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was reviewed independently by two authors. There were no language constraints but the search was limited to human studies. Studies included were cohort studies of adult patients who were discharged after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age or had a previous diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or chronic pancreatitis. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Subgroup analysis was conducted for patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes only and those who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus only. Subgroup analysis looking at the time course of concomitant pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was also conducted. Pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all outcome measures and P-values < 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Eight clinical studies comprising of 234 patients met all eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 43% (95%CI: 30%-56%). The pooled prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 29% (95%CI: 19%-39%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes was 40% (95%CI: 25%-55%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency among individuals with prediabetes alone and diabetes mellitus alone was 41% (95%CI: 12%-75%) and 39% (95%CI: 28%-51%), respectively. Further analysis showed that the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with prediabetes or diabetes decreases over time after an attack of acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency occurs in 40% of individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenesis of diabetes in this setting. PMID:25493036

  13. Association between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Keziban Uçar; Narc?, Hüseyin; Uçar, Y?ld?z; Uyar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether there are any alterations in red blood cell width in patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study of records of patients treated in emergency units and diagnosed with acute pancreatitis between January 2011 and April 2013. Records were investigated regarding patient age, sex, and causes of acute pancreatitis. Red blood cell width and amylase values obtained from the patients during diagnosis and after a full recovery from acute pancreatitis were added to the records. Results Recorded red blood cell width and amylase values of 104 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis were statistically compared according to the time of sample collection. Samples were collected in the post-diagnostic period and after full recovery. Values of red blood cell width and amylase were found to be significantly higher in samples collected during hospital admission in comparison to those obtained from patients after fully recovering from acute pancreatitis (p<0.05). Conclusions An increase in red blood cell width value is a marker of acute pancreatitis; therefore, we suggest that red blood cell width can be used as a tool for the early diagnosis and assessment of disease progression. PMID:25428195

  14. Role of CCL2, CCR2 and CCR4 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Louis Frossard; Sébastien Lenglet; Fabrizio Montecucco; Sabine Steffens; Katia Galan; Graziano Pelli; Laurent Spahr; Francois Mach; Antoine Hadengue

    2011-01-01

    Background and aimsAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of variable severity. Leucocytes are thought to play a key role in the development of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The interactions between inflammatory cells and their mediators are crucial for determining tissue damage. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (or CCL-2), CCR-2 and CCR-4 are chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in leucocyte trafficking. The

  15. Acute Suppuration of the Pancreatic Duct in a Patient with Tropical Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Liliane S.; Bajaj, Jasmeet; Bhargava, Sandeep; Alcid, David; Pitchumoni, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim Pancreatic sepsis secondary to infected necrosis, pseudocyst, or pancreatic abscess is a well-known clinical entity. Acute suppuration of the pancreatic duct (ASPD) in the setting of chronic calcific pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal obstruction with septicemia is a rare complication that is seldom reported. It is our aim to report a case of ASPD with Klebsiella ornithinolytica, in the absence of pancreatic abscess or infected necrosis. Case Report A 46-year-old Asian-Indian man with chronic tropical pancreatitis who was admitted with recurrent epigastric pain that rapidly evolved into septic shock. A CT scan of abdomen revealed a dilated pancreatic duct with a large calculus. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, vasopressors and activated recombinant protein C were initiated. Emergency ERCP showed the papilla of Vater spontaneously expelling pus. Probing and stenting was instantly performed until pus drainage ceased. Repeat CT scan confirmed the absence of pancreatic necrosis or fluid collection, and decreasing ductal dilatation. Dramatic clinical improvement was observed within 36 hours after intervention. Blood cultures grew Klebsiella ornithinolytica. The patient completed his antibiotic course and was discharged. Conclusion ASPD without pancreatic abscess or infected necrosis is an exceptional clinical entity that should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic sepsis. A chronically diseased pancreas and diabetes may have predisposed to the uncommon pathogen. The presence of intraductal pancreatic stones obstructing outflow played a major role in promoting bacterial growth, suppuration and septicemia. Immediate drainage of the pancreatic duct with endoscopic intervention is critical and mandatory. PMID:21490834

  16. [Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis. Criteria of letality (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P L; Lemoine, F; Regnier, B; Salvat, A; Lange, J; Julien, M; Germain, A

    1980-07-01

    A retrospective study of severity symptoms in a series of 102 patients operated upon for acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis showed that the risk of death was much significantly higher when shock (p less than 0,00001) and renal failure (p less than 0,0001) were present. The association, during the post-operative period, of shock and renal failure with one of the following symptoms: digestive haemorrhage, psychic disorders, pulmonary oedema, post-operative peritonitis and evisceration invariably proved fatal. It is suggested that controlled therapeutic trials should be carried out in patients presenting with these complications. PMID:6967596

  17. Management of hypertriglyceridaemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Amin, Tejal; Poon, Leona C Y; Teoh, T G; Moorthy, K; Robinson, Stephen; Neary, Nicola; Valabhji, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is a recognised rare complication in pregnancy. The reported incidence varies between 3 and 7 in 10?000 pregnancies and is higher in the third trimester. The commonest causes in pregnancy include gallstones, alcohol and hypertriglyceridaemia. Non-gallstone pancreatitis is associated with more complications and poorer outcome with hypertriglyceridaemia-induced acute pancreatitis having mortality rates ranging from 7.5 to 9.0% and 10.0 to 17.5% for mother and foetus, respectively. Case history: A 40-year-old para 4 woman, who presented at 15(+4) weeks' gestation, was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. Past medical history included Graves' disease and hypertriglyceridaemia. Fenofibrate was discontinued immediately after discovery of the pregnancy. Initial investigations showed elevated amylase (475.0?µ/L) and triglycerides (46.6?mmol/L). Imaging revealed an inflamed pancreas without evidence of biliary obstruction/gallstones hence confirming the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridaemia-induced acute pancreatitis. Laboratory tests gradually improved (triglyceride 5.2?mmol/L on day 17). On day 18, ultrasound confirmed foetal demise (18(+1) weeks) and a hysterotomy was performed as she had had four previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: Management of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced acute pancreatitis has poor outcomes when diagnosed in early pregnancy. Identifying those at risk pre-pregnancy and antenatally can allow close monitoring through pregnancy to optimise care. PMID:25072837

  18. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: can tigecycline be included in a therapeutic strategy?

    PubMed Central

    OCCHIONORELLI, S.; MORGANTI, L.; CULTRERA, R.; ANDREOTTI, D.; MACCATROZZO, S.; CAPPELLARI, L.; STANO, R.; VASQUEZ, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe and life-threatening disease. Infection, which occurs in about 30% of cases, is the most feared complication. Antibiotic therapy is still discussed and there are no clear recommendation in literature. These clinical series underline the importance of having a clear antibiotic protocol, including tigecycline, in the management of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Clinical series Six patients with clinical and radiological diagnosis of necrotizing acute pancreatitis are treated in Emergency Surgery Department, following a conservative management, which includes fluid resuscitation, intensive care unit and radiological monitoring, ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage and an antibiotic treatment protocol, that includes tigecycline. No one of the six patient undergo surgery (mean hospital stay: 44 days). In a six months follow-up all patients are alive and in good clinical conditions. Discussion Infection is the most important factor which determinate prognosis and outcome of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Antibiotic prophylaxis is still discussed and there are no clear antibiotic treatment guidelines in literature. Despite its side effects on pancreatic gland, tigecycline is successful in resolution of sepsis, caused by infected pancreatic necrosis. Conclusions Collaboration with infectivologist and a clear antibiotic protocol is fundamental to solve infected necrosis. Antibiotic treatment, set up as soon as possible, is successful in our six patients, as they recover without undergoing surgical procedures. Tigecycline offers broad coverage and efficacy against resistant pathogens for the treatment of documented pancreatic necrosis infection. However, further studies are necessary to fully understand the safety profile and efficacy of tigecycline. PMID:25827664

  19. Serial computed tomography scanning in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    London, N J; Neoptolemos, J P; Lavelle, J; Bailey, I; James, D

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with acute pancreatitis had abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans within 72 hours of admission, at one week and at six weeks. Twenty eight attacks were clinically severe, 74 clinically mild. Ninety three (91%) admission scans, 85 (84%) one week scans, and 52 (51%) six week scans were abnormal. The aetiology of the pancreatitis could be inferred from 28 (27%) of admission scans, the CT sign of fatty liver having a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 100% for alcoholic aetiology. The sensitivity of CT for gall stone aetiology was 34%, specificity 100%. The pancreatic size indices (max anteroposterior measurement of head x max anteroposterior measurement of body) of those patients with severe attacks were significantly greater than those with mild attacks on admission, at one week and at six weeks (p less than 0.004). Fourteen pseudocysts were detected by CT, five (36%) of which were clinically apparent. The pseudocyst size indices (max anteroposterior x max transverse measurement) of the pseudocysts which were clinically apparent were significantly greater than those which were not apparent (p less than 0.01) and only those pseudocysts with a size index greater than or equal to 15 cm2 required treatment. PMID:2651228

  20. The Role of Open Necrosectomy in the Current Management of Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, K.; Papavasiliou, C.; Al Nimer, A.; Lamprou, N.; Makridis, C.

    2013-01-01

    The optimal management of necrotizing pancreatitis continues to evolve. Currently, conservative intensive care treatment represents the primary therapy of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis, aiming at prevention of organ failure. Following this mode of treatment most patients with sterile necroses can be managed successfully. Surgery might be considered as an option in the late phase of the disease for patients with proven infected pancreatic necroses and organ failure. For these patients surgical debridement is still considered the treatment of choice. However, even for this subgroup of patients, the concept of operative strategy has been recently challenged. Nowadays, it is generally accepted that necrotizing pancreatitis with proven infected necroses as well as septic complications directly caused by pancreatic infection are strong indications for surgical management. However, the question of the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of pancreatic necroses remains unsettled. At the same time, recent advances in radiological imaging, new developments in interventional radiology, and other minimal access interventions have revolutionised the management of necrotizing pancreatitis. In light of these controversies, the present paper will focus on the current role of surgery in terms of open necrosectomy in the management of severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:23431472

  1. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Attila; Romics, Laszlo

    2014-11-21

    The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immunoenhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473164

  2. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: A review of the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Attila; Romics Jr, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immunoenhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473164

  3. Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: Fact or fiction

    PubMed Central

    Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069

  4. Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

    2014-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069

  5. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  6. [Acute pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Hritz, István; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Kelemen, Dezs?; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Szücs, Ákos; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Hegyi, Péter

    2015-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with significant morbidity and mortality that requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare evidence based guideline for the medical and surgical management of acute pancreatitis based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and, if it was necessary, complemented and/or modified the international guidelines. All together 42 relevant clinical questions were defined in 11 topics (Diagnosis and etiology, Prognosis, Imaging, Fluid therapy, Intensive care management, Prevention of infectious complications, Nutrition, Biliary interventions, Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography pancreatitis, Indication, timing and strategy for intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, Timing of cholecystectomy [or endoscopic sphincterotomy]). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guideline was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. 25 clinical questions with almost total (more than 95%) and 17 clinical questions with strong (more than 70%) agreement were accepted. The present guideline is the first evidence based acute pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide important help for tuition, everyday practice and for establishment of proper finance of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become as basic reference in Hungary. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(7), 244-261. PMID:25661970

  7. Interleukin 10 prevents necrosis in murine experimental acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Van Laethem; Arnaud Marchant; Anne Delvaux; Michel Goldman; Patrick Robberecht; Thierry Velu; Jacques Devičre

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Inflammatory events are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) recently emerged as a major anti-inflammatory cytokine, inhibiting the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes and\\/or macrophages. The potential protective role of IL-10 in a model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in mice was tested. Methods: Animals received two intraperitoneal injections of

  8. Acute Pancreatitis after Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberger, Richard C., E-mail: rihershberger@lumc.edu; Bornak, Arash; Aulivola, Bernadette; Mannava, Krishna [Loyola University Chicago Medical Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: We describe a case of severe acute pancreatitis after percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) and review the literature for the occurrence of this complication. Materials and Methods: A 53-year-old man with a history of bilateral external iliac artery stent placement sought care for acute onset of lifestyle-limiting left claudication. Angiography confirmed left external iliac stent occlusion, and PMT with the AngioJet Xpeedior catheter (Possis Medical, Minneapolis MN) was performed. Results: After PMT of the occluded external iliac artery, a residual in-stent stenosis required the placement of a second iliac stent. The procedure was complicated by severe acute pancreatitis. Other causes of pancreatitis were eliminated during the patient's hospital stay. A literature review revealed nine cases of acute pancreatitis after PMT. Conclusion: Although rare, pancreatitis can be a devastating complication of PMT. The development of pancreatitis seems to be related to the products of extensive hemolysis triggering an inflammatory process. To prevent this complication, we recommend that close attention be paid to the duration and extent of PMT, thereby avoiding extensive hemolysis and subsequent complications.

  9. Early phase of acute pancreatitis: Assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Phillip, Veit; Steiner, Jörg M; Algül, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially life-threatening disease with a wide spectrum of severity. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. According to the revised Atlanta classification system, AP can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Severe AP often takes a clinical course with two phases, an early and a late phase, which should both be considered separately. In this review article, we first discuss general aspects of AP, including incidence, pathophysiology, etiology, and grading of severity, then focus on the assessment of patients with suspected AP, including diagnosis and risk stratification, followed by the management of AP during the early phase, with special emphasis on fluid therapy, pain management, nutrition, and antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25133018

  10. Update on pathogenesis and clinical management of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Santamaría, Dulce M; Taxonera, Carlos; Giner, Manuel

    2012-06-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), defined as the acute nonbacterial inflammatory condition of the pancreas, is derived from the early activation of digestive enzymes found inside the acinar cells, with variable compromise of the gland itself, nearby tissues and other organs. So, it is an event that begins with pancreatic injury, elicits an acute inflammatory response, encompasses a variety of complications and generally resolves over time. Different conditions are known to induce this disorder, although the innermost mechanisms and how they act to develop the disease are still unknown. We summarize some well established aspects. A phase sequence has been proposed: etiology factors generate other conditions inside acinar cells that favor the AP development with some systemic events; genetic factors could be involved as susceptibility and modifying elements. AP is a disease with extremely different clinical expressions. Most patients suffer a mild and limited disease, but about one fifth of cases develop multi organ failure, accompanied by high mortality. This great variability in presentation, clinical course and complications has given rise to the confusion related to AP related terminology. However, consensus meetings have provided uniform definitions, including the severity of the illness. The clinical management is mainly based on the disease´s severity and must be directed to correct the underlying predisposing factors and control the inflammatory process itself. The first step is to determine if it is mild or severe. We review the principal aspects to be considered in this treatment, as reflected in several clinical practice guidelines. For the last 25 years, there has been a global increase in incidence of AP, along with many advances in diagnosis and treatment. However, progress in knowledge of its pathogenesis is scarce. PMID:22737590

  11. Update on pathogenesis and clinical management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Santamaría, Dulce M; Taxonera, Carlos; Giner, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), defined as the acute nonbacterial inflammatory condition of the pancreas, is derived from the early activation of digestive enzymes found inside the acinar cells, with variable compromise of the gland itself, nearby tissues and other organs. So, it is an event that begins with pancreatic injury, elicits an acute inflammatory response, encompasses a variety of complications and generally resolves over time. Different conditions are known to induce this disorder, although the innermost mechanisms and how they act to develop the disease are still unknown. We summarize some well established aspects. A phase sequence has been proposed: etiology factors generate other conditions inside acinar cells that favor the AP development with some systemic events; genetic factors could be involved as susceptibility and modifying elements. AP is a disease with extremely different clinical expressions. Most patients suffer a mild and limited disease, but about one fifth of cases develop multi organ failure, accompanied by high mortality. This great variability in presentation, clinical course and complications has given rise to the confusion related to AP related terminology. However, consensus meetings have provided uniform definitions, including the severity of the illness. The clinical management is mainly based on the disease´s severity and must be directed to correct the underlying predisposing factors and control the inflammatory process itself. The first step is to determine if it is mild or severe. We review the principal aspects to be considered in this treatment, as reflected in several clinical practice guidelines. For the last 25 years, there has been a global increase in incidence of AP, along with many advances in diagnosis and treatment. However, progress in knowledge of its pathogenesis is scarce. PMID:22737590

  12. Extension of pancreatic pseudocyst into psoas muscle in a setting of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Yashant; Anandpara, Karan Manoj; Hira, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are known to extend beyond the confines of the pancreatic bed due to the digestive nature of enzyme rich pancreatic fluid. Extension of a pseudocyst beyond the retroperitoneum, along the retrofascial plane within the psoas muscle is, however, unusual, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with right lumbar pain and painful ipsilateral hip extension. Imaging findings revealed extension of the pseudocyst into psoas along with features of acute pancreatitis. The pseudocyst was drained percutaneously under image guidance, which led to resolution of symptoms. PMID:25628323

  13. Increased nitric oxide activity in a rat model of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mufti, R; Williamson, R; Mathie, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) via induction of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is an important factor in the haemodynamic disturbances of several inflammatory states. ?Aims—To identify the role of NO in a caerulein induced model of acute pancreatitis in the rat. ?Methods—Arterial blood pressure and plasma NO metabolites were measured at zero and seven hours in adult male Wistar rats administered caerulein (n=10) or saline (n=10). Pancreatic activity of NOS (inducible and constitutive) was assayed biochemically. The pancreatic expression and cellular localisation of NOS and nitrotyrosine (a marker of peroxynitrite induced oxidative tissue damage) were characterised immunohistochemically. ?Results—Compared with controls at seven hours, the pancreatitis group displayed raised plasma NO metabolites (mean (SEM) 70.2(5.9) versus 22.7 (2.2) µmol/l, p<0.0001) and reduced mean arterial blood pressure (88.7 (4.6) versus 112.8 (4.1) mm Hg, p=0.008). There was notable iNOS activity in the pancreatitis group (3.1(0.34) versus 0.1 (0.01) pmol/mg protein/min, p<0.0001) with reduced constitutive NOS activity (0.62 (0.12) versus 0.96 (0.08) pmol/mg protein/min, p=0.031). The increased expression of iNOS was mainly localised within vascular smooth muscle cells (p=0.003 versus controls), with positive perivascular staining for nitrotyrosine (p=0.0012 versus controls). ?Conclusions—In this experimental model of acute pancreatitis, iNOS induction and oxidative tissue damage in the pancreas is associated with raised systemic NO and arterial hypotension. Excess production of NO arising from the inducible NO synthase may be an important factor in the systemic and local haemodynamic disturbances associated with acute pancreatitis. ?? Keywords: acute pancreatitis; nitric oxide; inducible nitric oxide synthase; peroxynitrite; caerulein induced pancreatitis PMID:9824587

  14. Cerebral infarction leading to hemiplegia: A rare complication of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Kolar Vishwanath; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Kishore, Ariga; Dutta, Tarun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Peripancreatic vascular thrombosis is a known complication of acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis. However, hemiplegia resulting from cerebral infarction due to cerebral arterial thrombosis is a rare complication of AP. Here, we report a case of alcohol related severe AP with multi-organ dysfunction, which was complicated by large left sided middle cerebral artery territory infarct - leading to right sided hemiplegia in a 48-year-old male patient. The neurological and vascular thrombotic complications of pancreatitis, their pathogenesis and management are discussed in brief. PMID:24339644

  15. Surgical management of acute pancreatitis in Italy: lessons from a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    De Rai, Paolo; Zerbi, Alessandro; Castoldi, Laura; Bassi, Claudio; Frulloni, Luca; Uomo, Generoso; Gabbrielli, Armando; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Cavallini, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy and to assess compliance with international guidelines. Methods A series of 1173 patients in 56 hospitals were prospectively enrolled and their data analysed. Results Twenty-nine patients with severe pancreatitis underwent surgical intervention. Necrosectomy was performed in 26 patients, associated with postoperative lavage in 70% of cases. A feeding jejunostomy was added in 37% of cases. Mortality was 21%. Of the patients with mild pancreatitis, 714 patients with a biliary aetiology were evaluated. Prophylactic treatment of relapses was carried out in 212 patients (36%) by cholecystectomy and in 161 using a laparoscopic approach. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was associated with cholecystectomy in 83 patients (39%). Forty-seven patients (22%) were treated at a second admission, with a median delay of 31 days from the onset of pancreatitis. Eighteen patients with severe pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy 37.9 days after the first admission. There were no deaths. Discussion The results indicate poor compliance with published guidelines. In severe pancreatitis, early surgical intervention is frequently performed and enteral feeding is seldom used. Only a small number of patients with mild biliary pancreatitis undergo definitive treatment (i.e. cholecystectomy) within 4 weeks of the onset of pancreatitis. PMID:20961367

  16. A prospective audit against national standards of the presentation and management of acute pancreatitis in the South of England

    PubMed Central

    Toh, S; Phillips, S; Johnson, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The incidence of acute pancreatitis shows regional variations in the UK.?AIMS—To document the incidence and presentation of acute pancreatitis in hospitals in Wessex, and to audit the process and outcome of management of patients against the UK guidelines.?METHODS—A prospective survey was carried out of all patients with acute pancreatitis in a one year period, in eight geographically adjacent acute hospitals in the Wessex region.?RESULTS—186 patients with acute pancreatitis were identified, an incidence of 152 per million in the adult population. Aetiology was: gallstones 33%, alcohol 20%, idiopathic 32%, other 15%. There were 60 severe cases with 17 deaths. Age and APACHE-II score had significant relations to outcome, but delay to admission, serum amylase level, aetiology, and sex did not. The mortality rate (9.1%) was within the audit standard of 10%. Some management goals were not met: in mild cases, only one third of patients with gallstone pancreatitis had definitive treatment within four weeks. In severe cases, there was poor use of objective severity stratification (19%), low admission rates to a high dependency unit or intensive care unit (67%), and only 33% of patients had computed tomography. Only seven of 17 patients with severe gallstone pancreatitis had an urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.?CONCLUSIONS—The incidence of clinically diagnosed acute pancreatitis in England continues to rise. Current management of acute pancreatitis is suboptimal when compared with evidence based UK guidelines but the mortality rate was within the guideline standard.???Keywords: acute pancreatitis; epidemiology; management; audit PMID:10644319

  17. [Endoscopic management of severe pancreatic and biliary diseases in children].

    PubMed

    Lamblin, G; Desjeux, A; Grimaud, J-C; Merot, T; Alessandrini, P; Barthet, M

    2008-10-01

    Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and choledocal lithiasis is a first-line treatment in adults. Nevertheless, due to technical difficulties such a management is not always feasible in children. This series reports our results in the management of pancreatic and biliary diseases in children. Seven children, two months to 12 years old, underwent endoscopic management of pancreatic and biliary diseases. Two of them had choledocal lithiasis with jaundice or acute pancreatitis, two had pancreatic pseudocyst due to abdominal traumatism, two had chronic pancreatitis with a communicating pseudocyst in one case, and one had a biliary leakage after traumatism. All the endoscopic treatments were performed under general anesthesia. In six cases, the duodenoscope was a regular one with a large operating channel (Olympus TJF 160; Japan) employed for children aged 33 months to 12 years. In the case of the two months child, a "rendez-vous" technique was performed with a percutaneous approach of the common bile duct followed by an endoscopic sphincteroclasy using an axial endoscope allowing the extraction of a choledocal stone. In two cases, post-traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts (eight and 12 year-old children) were managed with the transgastric insertion of two double pig-tail stents. In two cases, children with chronic pancreatitis (38 months and 12 years old) were managed with pancreatic sphincterotomy. Biliary leakage in an 11-year-old child was managed with biliary sphincterotomy and stenting. All the children became symptom-free without any procedural complications with an 11 months median follow-up. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic and biliary diseases is possible in children like in adults with the same procedures and results. PMID:18538966

  18. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Activated Polyamine Catabolism Is Associated with Coagulopathy: Effects of ?-Methylated Polyamine Analogs on Hemostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Hyvönen; R. Sinervirta; T. A. Keinänen; T. Fashe; N. Grigorenko; A. R. Khomutov; J. Vepsäläinen; L. Alhonen

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Polyamines are ubiquitous organic cations essential for cellular proliferation and tissue integrity. We have previously shown that pancreatic polyamine depletion in rats overexpressing the catabolic enzyme, spermidine\\/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), results in the development of severe acute pancreatitis, and that therapeutic administration of metabolically stable ?-methylated polyamine analogs protects the animals from pancreatitis-associated mortality. Our aim was to elucidate the

  19. Role of somatostatin and its analogues in the treatment of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Büchler, M W; Binder, M; Friess, H

    1994-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is caused by the activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and a possible treatment, therefore, is the inhibition of enzyme secretion. This approach is somewhat controversial, however, as it is not clear whether pancreatic secretion continues to occur during the course of acute pancreatitis. Animal studies show an appreciable reduction of secretion in the inflamed pancreas, but studies in humans are not conclusive. The use of somatostatin or its analogue, octreotide, has been investigated in several clinical studies. A meta analysis of six individual studies in which somatostatin was given for acute pancreatitis showed that somatostatin significantly reduces mortality. A trial in patients with moderate to severe acute pancreatitis showed a lower rate (although not statistically significant) of complications in patients treated with 3 x 200 and 3 x 500 micrograms/day octreotide, compared with controls and patients receiving a lower dose of octreotide. A further study showed a significant reduction in patient controlled analgesics in patients treated with octreotide compared with controls. Pain is the important clinical symptom of chronic pancreatitis, possibly resulting from an increased intraductal pressure during secretion. The effect on pain of the inhibition of pancreatic secretion by octreotide has been investigated in two studies. One showed no significant reduction in pain after treatment with octreotide for three days. In the other, in which octreotide was used for three weeks, significantly less pain and analgesic use was recorded during octreotide treatment than during placebo. The most common complication of chronic pancreatitis is the formation of pseudocysts. There is some evidence that octreotide may be useful in their treatment. PMID:7911442

  20. Electroacupuncture Protects against CCK-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo-Jin An; Ji-Hyun Lee; Hye-Jung Lee; Woong-Mo Yang; Seong-Kyu Park; Seung-Heon Hong; Hyung-Min Kim; Jae-Young Um

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to treat myalgia, adiposis and gastroenteropathy in Korea. EA as a complementary and alternative medicine has been accepted worldwide mainly for the treatment acute and chronic pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EA on acute pancreatitis induced by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK) in rats. Methods: Animals were

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of acute pancreatitis in two patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi Okura; Kozo Hayashi; Tetsuji Shingu; Goro Kajiyama; Yoshiyuki Nakashima; Keijiro Saku

    We present two diagnostically challenging cases of acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia accompanied with chylomicronemia caused with a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase and with the presence of type V hyperlipidemia. Both cases suffered from acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food and revealed the increase in parameters of inflammation without significant elevation of serum amylase levels. The imaging examination of

  2. Tissue-Specific Cytokine Production During Experimental Acute Pancreatitis (A Probable Mechanism for Distant Organ Dysfunction)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Norman; Gregory W. Fink; Woody Denham; Jun Yang; Gay Carter; Cheryl Sexton; Julie Falkner; William R. Gower; Michael G. Franz

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if cytokines are produced systemically during acute pancreatitis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated during acute pancreatitis and have been implicated in the progression of pancreatitis-associated multiple organ dysfunction. Whether these mediators are produced within all tissues or very few specific organs is not known. Edematous pancreatitis was induced in adult male mice by IP injection of

  3. Induction of M2 Polarization in Primary Culture Liver Macrophages from Rats with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong; Han, Chaoqun; Liu, Jun; Ding, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a major process of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), usually occurs after various activated proinflammatory cytokines, which are produced by macrophages such as liver macrophages. Macrophages can secrete not only proinflammatory mediators but also inhibitory inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, leading to two different functional states defined as “polarization”. The main purpose of this study was to demonstrate the polarization of liver macrophages during severe acute pancreatitis and to explore whether the polarization of these activated Liver macrophages could be reversed in vitro. Methods Liver macrophages were isolated from rats with acute pancreatitis. These primary culture macrophages were treated with IL-4 or regulatory T cells in vitro to reverse their polarization and was evaluated by measuring M1/M2 marker expression using real time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Results Acute pancreatitis was induced successfully by intra-pancreatic ductal injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. The liver macrophages demonstrated M1 polarization from 4 h to 16 h after the onset of acute pancreatitis. However, after IL-4 or Treg treatment, the polarization of the liver macrophages was reversed as indicated by increased expression of M2 markers and reduced expression of M1 markers. Furthermore, the effect of Treg on modulating macrophage polarization was slightly better than that of IL-4 in vitro. Conclusion Liver macrophages, a pivotal cell type in the pathogenesis of SAP, become M1 polarized during pancreatic inflammation. Treatment of these cells with IL-4 and Treg can reverse this activation in vitro. This method of altering macrophage polarization could be a prospective therapy for SAP. PMID:25259888

  4. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ?11 and IAP ?13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  5. Protective effects of endothelin-1 on acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masafumi Kogire; Kazutomo Inoue; Shun-Ichi Higashide; Kyoichi Takaori; Yoshiya Echigo; Yuan-Jun Gu; Shoichiro Sumi; Koutaro Uchida; Masayuki Imamura

    1995-01-01

    Endothelin-1, a 21-residue peptide isolated from vascular endothelial cells, has a broad spectrum of actions. To clarify the involvement of endothelin-1 in acute pancreatitis, we examined the effects of endothelin-1 and its receptor antagonist BQ-123 on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Rats were infused intravenously with heparin-saline (control), endothelin-1 (100 pmol\\/kg\\/hr), cerulein (5 µg\\/kg\\/hr), or cerulein plus endothelin-1 for 3.5 hr.

  6. Inflammatory mediators in human acute pancreatitis: clinical and pathophysiological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Mayer; B Rau; F Gansauge; H G Beger

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe time course and relationship between circulating and local cytokine concentrations, pancreatic inflammation, and organ dysfunction in acute pancreatitis are largely unknown.PATIENTS AND METHODSIn a prospective clinical study, we measured the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and IL-8, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, interleukin 1? receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and the soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and correlated our findings with organ and

  7. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    PubMed Central

    Hooshvar, Nina; Tice, Daphne; Kao, Elaine; Nawabi, Suhalia; Jones, Steven; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25709846

  8. Significantly elevated serum lipase in pregnancy with nausea and vomiting: acute pancreatitis or hyperemesis gravidarum?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amanda; Cluskey, Bethany; Hooshvar, Nina; Tice, Daphne; Devin, Courtney; Kao, Elaine; Nawabi, Suhalia; Jones, Steven; Zhang, Lihua; Dola, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25709846

  9. The Association of Viral Hepatitis and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.; Olsen, Harvey; Swanson, Virginia; Rinderknecht, Heinrich

    1972-01-01

    The histological features of 24 pancreases obtained from patients who died of causes other than hepatitis, pancreatitis or pancreatic tumors, included a variable degree of autolysis, rare foci of inflammatory reaction but no hemorrhagic fat necrosis or destruction of elastic tissue in vessel walls (elastolysis). Assays of elastase in extracts of these pancreases showed no free enzyme, but varying amounts of proelastase. A review of autopsy findings in 33 patients with fatal liver necrosis attributed to halothane anesthesia, demonstrated changes of acute pancreatitis only in two. On the other hand, a review of 16 cases of fulminant viral hepatitis revealed changes characteristic of acute pancreatitis in seven – interstitial edema, hemorrhagic fat necrosis, inflammatory reaction and frequently elastolysis in vessel walls. Determination of elastase in extracts of one pancreas showed the bulk of the enzyme in free form. Furthermore, assays of urinary amylase in 44 patients with viral hepatitis showed increased levels of this enzyme (2583 ± 398 mean value ± standard error, Somogyi units per 100 ml in 13, or 29.5 percent). The evidence suggests that acute pancreatitis may at times complicate viral hepatitis. Although direct proof of viral pancreatic involvement is not feasible at present, a rational hypothesis is advanced which underlines similar mechanisms of tissue involvement in both liver and pancreas that may be brought about by the hepatitis viruses. PMID:5070694

  10. Hyperlactatemia during acute severe asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rabbat; J. P. Laaban; A. Boussairi; J. Rochemaure

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate arterial lactate levels during treatment of acute severe asthma (ASA) and the prognostic value of arterial hyperlactatemia\\u000a in ASA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Prospective study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting A respiratory intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients 29 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU for ASA not intubated on admission and with a peak expiratory flow (PEF) < 150\\u000a l\\/min

  11. Heparin improves organ microcirculatory disturbances in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Dobosz; Lucjanna Mionskowska; Stanislaw Hać; Sebastian Dobrowolski; Dariusz Dymecki; Zdzislaw Wajda

    AIM: Microcirculatory disturbances are important early pathophysiological events in various organs during acute pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in microperfusion of the pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, colon, skeletal muscle, and to investigate the influence of heparin on the organ microcirculation in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced by 4 intraperitoneal injections of

  12. Low serum pancreatitis-associated protein does not exclude complications in mild acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janja Polanec; Zlatko P Pavelic; Igor Krizman; Joe Osredkar

    1997-01-01

    Normal serum PAP levels on admission to the hospital in patiens with acute pancreatitis has been proposed to help select the\\u000a patients who are not going to develop complications. The aims of this study were, first, to assess the specificity of serum\\u000a pancreatitis - associated protein (PAP) serology test and second, to evalute the usefulness of the test for prediciting

  13. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  14. Early enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis—benefits and limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attila Oláh; László Romics Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  The application of enteral feeding as part of the treatment of acute pancreatitis goes back more than a decade now. In this\\u000a review, the authors outline the indications and limitations of enteral feeding in the treatment of acute pancreatitis using\\u000a up-to-date evidence-based data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and discussion  Latest meta-analyses suggest that early enteral feeding reduces effectively the incidence of infective complications and

  15. Beneficial effect of octreotide treatment in acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janos Marton; Zsuzsanna Szasz; Zsuzsanna Nagy; Katalin Jarmay; Tamas Takacs; Janos Lonovics; Adam Balogh; Gyula Farkas

    1998-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusions  Octreotide treatment contributes to the regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in sodium taurocholate-induced\\u000a acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Owing to its complex effect, octreotide can partially ameliorate the deleterious consequences\\u000a of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Elevated TNF and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the peritoneal fluid may be considered\\u000a a consequence of the activation of peritoneal macrophages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  The effects

  16. Treating severe acute malnutrition seriously

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects approximately 13?million children under the age of 5 and is associated with 1–2?million preventable child deaths each year. In most developing countries, case fatality rates (CFRs) in hospitals treating SAM remain at 20–30% and few of those requiring care actually access treatment. Recently, community?based therapeutic care (CTC) programmes treating most cases of SAM solely as outpatients have dramatically reduced CFRs and increased the numbers receiving care. CTC uses ready?to?use therapeutic foods and aims to increase access to services, promoting early presentation and compliance, thereby increasing coverage and recovery rates. Initial data indicate that this combination of centre?based and community?based care is cost effective and should be integrated into mainstream child survival programmes. PMID:17449529

  17. [Suspected azodicarbonamide poisoning in a patient with acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Marcin; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the case of death of a 22-year old man due to acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis. Azodicarbonamide poisoning was suspected in this patient. Autopsy results, data from the literature and the knowledge about mechanisms of azodicarbonamide toxicity allowed for excluding poisoning with this substance as the cause of death. PMID:18432145

  18. Percutaneous Drainage of Suppurative Pylephlebitis Complicating Acute Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Nouira, Kais [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Radiology (Tunisia)], E-mail: nouira.kais@gnet.tn; Bedioui, Haykel [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Surgery (Tunisia); Azaiez, Olfa; Belhiba, Hend; Messaoud, Monia Ben [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Radiology (Tunisia); Ksantini, Rachid; Jouini, Mohamed [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Surgery (Tunisia); Menif, Emna [La Rabta Hospital, Department of Radiology (Tunisia)

    2007-11-15

    Suppurative pylephlebitis is a rare condition with a significant mortality rate, ranging from 50% to 80%. We report a case of suppurative pylephlebitis complicating acute pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage in a 40-year-old woman. The patient had an uneventful recovery.

  19. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis Causing a Highway to the Colon with Subsequent Road Closure: Pancreatic Colonic Fistula Presenting as a Large Bowel Obstruction Treated with Pancreatic Duct Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Justin; Schlepp, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Context. Colonic complications associated with acute pancreatitis have a low incidence but carry an increased risk of mortality with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic colonic fistula is most commonly associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or abscess formation and rarely forms spontaneously. Classic clinical manifestations for pancreatic colonic fistula include diarrhea, hematochezia, and fever. Uncommonly pancreatic colonic fistula presents as large bowel obstruction. Case. We report a case of a woman with a history of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who presented with large bowel obstruction secondary to pancreatic colonic fistula. Resolution of large bowel obstruction and pancreatic colonic fistula was achieved with pancreatic duct stenting. Conclusion. Pancreatic colonic fistula can present as large bowel obstruction. Patients with resolved acute pancreatitis who have radiographic evidence of splenic flexure obstruction, but without evidence of mechanical obstruction on colonoscopy, should be considered for ERCP to evaluate for PCF. PCF not associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or peritoneal abscess can be treated conservatively with pancreatic duct stenting.

  20. Pharmacological Prevention and Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis: Where Are We Now?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Georg Lankisch; Markus M. Lerch

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a disease of increasing prevalence, unchanged mortality over many decades, and limited treatment strategies. Progress has been made in developing therapies that reduce the rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-associated pancreatitis and in preventing infected pancreatic necrosis with intravenous carbapenems. Attempts at reducing pancreatic enzyme output or inhibiting the activity of digestive enzyme proteases have not yielded

  1. Prophylactic Glycine Administration Attenuates Pancreatic Damage and Inflammation in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. Ceyhan; A.-K. Timm; F. Bergmann; A. Günther; A. A. Aghdassi; I. E. Demir; J. Mayerle; M. Kern; M. M. Lerch; M. W. Büchler; H. Friess; P. Schemmer

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by premature zymogen activation, systemic inflammatory response resulting in inflammatory infiltrates, sustained intracellular calcium, neurogenic inflammation and pain. The inhibitory neurotransmitter and cytoprotective amino acid glycine exerts a direct inhibitory effect on inflammatory cells, inhibits calcium influx and neuronal activation and therefore represents a putative therapeutic agent in AP. Methods: To explore the impact

  2. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor attenuates acute lung injury induced by acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhen; Wu, Bao-Qiang; Duan, Yun-Fei; Sun, Zhen-Di; Luo, Guang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is known to induce injuries to extrapancreatic organs. Because respiratory dysfunction is the main cause of death in patients with severe AP, acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI) is a great challenge for clinicians. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of APALI. Material and methods Fifty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the AP group of rats that received injection of sodium deoxycholate into the common bile duct, the control group that underwent a sham operation, and the treatment group made by intraperitoneal injection of propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), into rats with AP. Histopathology of the lung was examined and the expression of CSE and TNF-? mRNA in lung tissue was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The H2S level in the serum was detected spectrophotometrically. Results The serum concentration of H2S and CSE and TNF-? expression in the lung were increased in AP rats modeled after 3 h and 6 h than in control rats (p < 0.05). Intraperitoneal injection of PAG could reduce the serum concentration of H2S, reduce CSE and TNF-? expression, and alleviate the lung pathology (p < 0.05). Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that the H2S/CSE system is crucially involved in the pathological process of APALI and represents a novel target for the therapy of APALI. PMID:25276170

  3. Dexamethasone Affects Inflammation but Not Trypsinogen Activation in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Muller; O. Belyaev; S. Appelros; M. Buchler; W. Uhl; A. Borgstrom

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Trypsinogen activation and inflammation are early events in acute pancreatitis. This experimental study aimed to show the effects of dexamethasone on them. Methods: Cerulein and taurocholate pancreatitis were induced in 2 groups of 12 Wistar rats each. Six animals per group were injected with dexamethasone 1 h prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis. Amylase, phospholipase A2, TNF-?, IL-6,

  4. Effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nara L. Horst; Ruy Garcia Marques; Cristina F. Diestel; Bianca D. Matzke; Carlos Eduardo R. Caetano; Fernanda Correia Simőes; Arnaldo F. B. Andrade; Wagner I. Lobăo; Luiz Carlos A. Vaz; Margareth C. Portela; José Ueleres Braga; Paulo A. Melo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intestinal barrier disruption followed by bacterial translocation seems to play a role in secondary pancreatic infection in acute pancreatitis. The use of probiotics as a possible adjuvant strategy in the treatment of acute pancreatitis needs to be investigated.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a prophylactically administered multispecies probiotic mixture on

  5. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Methimazole Treatment in a 51-Year-Old Korean Man: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Methimazole (MMI)-induced acute pancreatitis is very rare but severe adverse reaction. A 51-yr-old male developed a high fever, chills, and abdominal pain, two weeks after commencement on MMI for the treatment of Graves' disease. There was no evidence of agranulocytosis, and fever subsided soon after stopping MMI treatment. However, 5 hr after taking an additional dose of MMI, abdominal pain and fever developed again. His symptoms, biochemical, and imaging studies were compatible with acute pancreatitis. After withdrawal of MMI, he showed clinical improvement. This is the first case of MMI-induced acute pancreatitis in Korea. Clinicians should be aware of the rare but possible MMI-induced pancreatitis in patients complaining of fever and abdominal pain. Graphical Abstract PMID:25120331

  6. Severe acute malnutrition in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Mir Mobarak; Bhandari, Nita; Lin, Maung Maung; Joshi, Prakash Chandra; Angdembe, Mirak Raj; Wickramasinghe, V Pujitha; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Irianto, Sugeng Eko; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2014-06-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a common condition that kills children and intellectually maims those who survive. Close to 20 million children under the age of 5 years suffer from SAM globally, and about 1 million of them die each year. Much of this burden takes place in Asia. Six countries in Asia together have more than 12 million children suffering from SAM: 0.6 million in Afghanistan, 0.6 million in Bangladesh, 8.0 million in India, 1.2 million in Indonesia, 1.4 million in Pakistan, and 0.6 million in Yemen. This article is based on a review of SAM burden and intervention programs in Asian countries where, despite the huge numbers of children suffering from the condition, the coverage of interventions is either absent on a national scale or poor. Countries in Asia have to recognize SAM as a major problem and mobilize internal resources for its management. Screening of children in the community for SAM and appropriate referral and back referral require good health systems. Improving grassroots services will not only contribute to improving management of SAM, it will also improve infant and young child feeding and nutrition in general. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the key to home management of SAM without complications, is still not endorsed by many countries because of its unavailability in the countries and its cost. It should preferably be produced locally from locally available food ingredients. Countries in Asia that do not have the capacity to produce RUTF from locally available food ingredients can benefit from other countries in the region that can produce it. Health facilities in all high-burden countries should be staffed and equipped to treat children with SAM. A continuous cascade of training of health staff on management of SAM can offset the damage that results from staff attrition or transfers. The basic nutrition interventions, which include breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and management of acute malnutrition, should be scaled up in Asian countries that are plagued with the burden of malnutrition. PMID:25069289

  7. Minimally invasive intervention for infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hollemans, Robbert A; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J; Bollen, Thomas L; Timmer, Robin; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C

    2014-11-01

    Infected necrosis is the main indication for invasive intervention in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The 2013 IAP/APA guidelines state that percutaneous catheter drainage should be the first step in the treatment of infected necrosis. In 50-65% of patients, additional necrosectomy is required after catheter drainage, which was traditionally done by open necrosectomy. Driven by the perceived lower complication rate, there is an increasing trend toward minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy. The authors present an overview of current minimally invasive treatment options for necrotizing pancreatitis and review recent developments in clinical studies. PMID:25122506

  8. Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis and Pseudocyst Due to Mumps

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Frank R.; Kallick, Charles A.; Doolas, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    This is the first reported case of mumps hemorrhagic pancreatitis in a child, documented at operation, and by rising mumps titers and complicated by a pseudocyst. In severe cases when surgery is indicated, drainage of the lesser sac usually prevents pseudocyst formation. If a pseudocyst occurs, drainage is required to eliminate disabling pain and chronic pancreatitis. Live attenuated mumps vaccine may eliminate this source of pancreatitis from American children in the future. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4835960

  9. Hypericum perforatum attenuates the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Tiziana; Mazzon, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Muiŕ, Carmelo; Crisafulli, Concetta; Menegazzi, Marta; Malleo, Giuseppe; Suzuki, Hisanori; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2006-02-01

    A considerable body of recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress and exaggerated production of reactive oxygen species play a major role in several aspects of inflammation and shock. Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant species containing many polyphenolic compounds, namely flavonoids and phenolic acids. Because polyphenolic compounds have high antioxidant potential, in this study we evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein administration in male CD mice. Intraperitoneal injection of cerulein in mice resulted in a severe, acute pancreatitis, which was characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, tissue hemorrhage, and cell necrosis as well as increases in the serum levels of amylase and/or lipase in comparison to sham-treated mice. The infiltration of the pancreatic tissue of these animals with neutrophils (measured as increase in myeloperoxidase activity) was associated with expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase in the staining (immunoreactivity) for nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in the pancreas of cerulein-treated mice in comparison to sham-treated mice. In contrast, the degree of (a) pancreatic inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (b) expression of ICAM-1, (c) the staining for nitrotyrosine and PAR, and (d) myeloperoxidase activity was markedly reduced in pancreatic tissue sections obtained from cerulein-treated mice administered Hypericum perforatum extract (30 mg/kg, suspended in 0.2 mL of saline solution, o.s.). Moreover, the treatment with Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the mortality rate at 5 days after cerulein administration. Taken together, our results indicate that Hypericum perforatum extract reduces the development of acute pancreatitis. PMID:16525355

  10. Sesamol attenuates oxidative stress-mediated experimental acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, P-Y; Srinivasan, P; Deng, J-F; Liu, M-Y

    2012-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with no known cure. The initial events in acute pancreatitis may occur within the acinar cells. We examined the effect of sesamol on (i) a cerulein-induced pancreatic acinar cancer cell line, AR42J, and (ii) cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Sesamol inhibited amylase activity and increased cell survival. It also inhibited medium lipid peroxidation and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in AR42J cells compared with the cerulein-alone groups. In addition, in cerulein-treated rats, sesamol inhibited serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic edema, and lipid peroxidation, but it increased pancreatic glutathione and nitric oxide levels. Thus, we hypothesize that sesamol attenuates cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis by inhibiting the pancreatic acinar cell death associated with oxidative stress in rats. PMID:22076497

  11. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lupia, Enrico; Pigozzi, Luca; Goffi, Alberto; Hirsch, Emilio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A large body of experimental and clinical data supports the notion that inflammation in acute pancreatitis has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of local and systemic damage and is a major determinant of clinical severity. Thus, research has recently focused on molecules that can regulate the inflammatory processes, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), a family of lipid and protein kinases involved in intracellular signal transduction. Studies using genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibitors of different PI3K isoforms, in particular the class I PI3K? and PI3K?, have contributed to a greater understanding of the roles of these kinases in the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Recent data suggest that PI3Ks are also involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, and in particular of the class IB PI3K? isoform, has a significant role in those events which are necessary for the initiation of acute pancreatic injury, namely calcium signaling alteration, trypsinogen activation, and nuclear factor-?B transcription. Moreover, PI3K? is instrumental in modulating acinar cell apoptosis, and regulating local neutrophil infiltration and systemic inflammatory responses during the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. The availability of PI3K inhibitors selective for specific isoforms may provide new valuable therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical course of this disease. This article presents a brief summary of PI3K structure and function, and highlights recent advances that implicate PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25386068

  12. A systematic review of acute pancreatitis as an adverse event of type 2 diabetes drugs: from hard facts to a balanced position.

    PubMed

    Giorda, C B; Nada, E; Tartaglino, B; Marafetti, L; Gnavi, R

    2014-11-01

    The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use. PMID:24702687

  13. Antioxidant therapy in the management of acute, chronic and post-ERCP pancreatitis: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajad Mohseni; Salehi Monfared; Hamed Vahidi; Mohammad Abdollahi; Seyed Sajad

    We systematically reviewed the clinical trials which recruited antioxidants in the therapy of pancreatitis and evaluated whether antioxidants improve the outcome of patients with pancreatitis. Electronic bibliographic databases were searched for any studies which investigated the use of antioxidants in the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP) and in the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis

  14. The potential role of procalcitonin and interleukin 8 in the prediction of infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Rau; G Steinbach; F Gansauge; J M Mayer; A Grünert; H G Beger

    1997-01-01

    Background—Infection of pancreatic necrosis has a major impact on clinical course, management, and outcome in acute pancreatitis. Currently, guided fine needle aspiration is the only means for an early and accurate diagnosis of infected necrosis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a 116 amino acid propeptide of calcitonin, and interleukin 8 (IL-8), a strong neutrophil activating cytokine, are markers of severe inflammation and sepsis.Aims—To

  15. Intestinal microcirculation and gut permeability in acute pancreatitis: Early changes and therapeutic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert G. Hotz; Thomas Foitzik; Janine Rohweder; Joerg D. Schulzke; Micbael Fromm; Norbert S. F. Runkel; Heinz J. Bubr

    1998-01-01

    Translocation of bacteria from the intestine causes local and systemic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. Increased intestinal\\u000a permeability is considered a promoter of bacterial translocation. The mechanism leading to increased gut permeability may\\u000a involve impaired intestinal capillary blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate early changes in capillary\\u000a blood flow and permeability of the colon

  16. Complement activation and complement control proteins in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J T Whicher; M P Barnes; A Brown; M J Cooper; R Read; G Walters; R C Williamson

    1982-01-01

    Serum levels of the complement proteins C3, C4, C1 inhibitor (C1 INH), factor I (C3b inactivator) and factor H (BIH) and plasma levels of cleavage products of C3 (C3c) and factor B were measured in 26 patients with acute pancreatitis. Breakdown of C3 occurred in 19 patients, as shown by a reduction in C3 level and the presence of C3c.

  17. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: review of three cases and anaesthetic management.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R; Jacob, A; Brooks, H

    2012-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is rare in pregnancy, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000-3000 pregnancies. Gallstones are the commonest cause. Mortality and morbidity associated with pancreatitis have declined as diagnosis and management options improve. Presentation usually occurs in the third trimester or early postpartum period with severe epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and fever. Blood investigations show an elevated white cell count and increased liver enzyme concentrations. Ultrasound is safe but has lower sensitivity than computerised tomography for detecting gallstones. Management during pregnancy has traditionally been conservative, followed by cholecystectomy after delivery. Recurrence of pancreatitis during pregnancy may necessitate more urgent surgery. The second trimester is considered the safest for surgery, with early involvement of intensive care as the condition can deteriorate rapidly. We present three cases managed in our unit over a six-month period that illustrate the spectrum of disease and the successful use of a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:22959261

  18. Bile-Pancreatic Juice Exclusion Increases p38MAPK Activation and TNF-? Production in Ligation-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac Samuel; Smita Zaheer; Asgar Zaheer

    2005-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is associated with stress kinase activation and cytokine production. We hypothesize that bile-pancreatic juice exclusion activates p38MAPK and induces TNF-? production in ligation-induced acute pancreatitis. We compared rats with 1–3 h of duct ligation, duct ligation with duodenal bile-pancreatic juice replacement from a donor rat, and sham operation. Pancreatic homogenates were analyzed as follows: (a) Immunoblots using phospho-specific

  19. Pancreatic T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase deficiency ameliorates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical problem whose incidence has been progressively increasing in recent years. Onset of the disease is trigged by intra-acinar cell activation of digestive enzyme zymogens that induce autodigestion, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acinar cell injury. T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) is implicated in inflammatory signaling but its significance in AP remains unclear. Results In this study we assessed the role of pancreatic TCPTP in cerulein-induced AP. TCPTP expression was increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the early phase of AP in mice and rats. To directly determine whether TCPTP may have a causal role in AP we generated mice with pancreatic TCPTP deletion (panc-TCPTP KO) by crossing TCPTP floxed mice with Pdx1-Cre transgenic mice. Amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated panc-TCPTP KO mice compared with controls. In addition, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-6 were lower in panc-TCPTP KO mice. At the molecular level, panc-TCPTP KO mice exhibited enhanced cerulein-induced STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation accompanied by a decreased cerulein-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, and decreased ER stress and cell death. Conclusion These findings revealed a novel role for pancreatic TCPTP in the progression of cerulein-induced AP. PMID:24606867

  20. PPAR-gamma knockout in pancreatic epithelial cells abolishes the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, C Y; Duan, S Z; Usher, M G; Mortensen, R M

    2007-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists, such as the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), decrease acute inflammation in both pancreatic cell lines and mouse models of acute pancreatitis. Since PPAR-gamma agonists have been shown to exert some of their actions independent of PPAR-gamma, the role of PPAR-gamma in pancreatic inflammation has not been directly tested. Furthermore, the differential role of PPAR-gamma in endodermal derivatives (acini, ductal cells, and islets) as opposed to the endothelial or inflammatory cells is unknown. To determine whether the effects of a TZD, rosiglitazone, on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis are dependent on PPAR-gamma in the endodermal derivatives, we created a cell-type specific knock out of PPAR-gamma in pancreatic acini, ducts, and islets. PPAR-gamma knockout animals show a greater response in some inflammatory genes after caerulein challenge. The anti-inflammatory effect of rosiglitazone on edema, macrophage infiltration, and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines is significantly decreased in pancreata of the knockout animals compared with control animals. However, rosiglitazone retains its effect in the lungs of the pancreatic-specific PPAR-gamma knockout animals, likely due to direct anti-inflammatory effect on lung parenchyma. These data show that the PPAR-gamma in the pancreatic epithelia and islets is important in suppressing inflammation and is required for the anti-inflammatory effects of TZDs in acute pancreatitis. PMID:17463185

  1. [Sodium valproate as a cause of acute pancreatitis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Barreda, Luís; Rosas, Johana; Milian, William; Valdivia, Duilio; Targarona, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used medication approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of epilepsy, migraines and bipolar disorders. Adverse effects associated with VPA are typically benign, but there are more serious effects that are less frequent. These effects include hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity, possible polycystic ovaries with a potential sterile effect and acute pancreatitis. Even though acute pancreatitis is an adverse effect of very low frequency, it is very important due to the high mortality rate of patients with acute pancreatitis as a consequence of the use of valproic acid. In medical literature, by 2005, 80 cases of acute pancreatitis caused by valproic acid were reported, 33 of these cases were patients under the age of 18. This is a description of the clinical case of a 16 year old patient with necrotic pancreatitis caused by VPA, who was treated at the Acute Pancreatitis Unit of Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital. PMID:17053827

  2. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Lung Injury in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis Complicated by Endotoxemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoyuki Matsuda; Jun Nishihira; Yoshika Takahashi; Osamu Kemmotsu; Yuichi Hattori

    Acute pancreatitis accompanied by a subsequent infectious attack can often lead to multisystem organ dysfunction, including acute lung injury (ALI), but the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. In this study, we explored the roleof the priming insult by induction of cerulein pancreatitis, which was followed by the second attack due to endotoxemia, in the development of ALI in mice. Experi-

  3. Acute pancreatitis occurring in the early postpartum period: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Tatsuya; Chaen, Hideto; Imura, Hiroshi; Sudou, Kenji; Eguchi, Fuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis, which occurred after delivery in a woman who had an uneventful course of pregnancy and parturition. A 17-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department because of nausea and vomiting two hours after delivery, followed by severe abdominal and back pain. On admission, in addition to elevated serum and urine amylase, plain computed tomography demonstrated a swollen pancreas and high density in the peripancreatic lesion with a large amount of ascites, suggesting the presence of an inflammation of the pancreas as well as peripancreatic lesion. Accompanied by subsiding abdominal and back pain, serum amylase concentration gradually decreased and returned to a normal level on the 11th postpartum day. Acute pancreatitis must be kept in mind when evaluating patients presenting with abdominal pain after delivery. PMID:12951894

  4. Gene Polymorphisms of the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Makhija; Andrew Kingsnorth; Andrew Demaine

    Context Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is released by macrophages and lymphocytes and plays an important pathogenetic role in acute pancreatitis. It is present in large amounts in the serum and ascitic fluid in rats with experimental pancreatitis and its levels are elevated in humans with pancreatitis. Polymorphisms associated with inflammatory joint diseases exist in

  5. Changes in Plasma Levels of Homocysteine in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Fatih Yuzbasioglu; Mesut Ozkaya; Erman Cakal; Mustafa Goksu

    2008-01-01

    Summary The role of homocysteine role in inflammation and malignancy has been studied experimentally. Some researchers suggest that a relationship exists between pancreatitis and homocystinuria, possibly being secondary to occlusive vascular disease of the pancreas. To date, plasma homocysteine levels in pancreatic disease have not been studied. We aimed to analyze the homocysteine status in patients with acute pancreatitis, and

  6. Anatomical and functional characterization of a duodeno-pancreatic neural reflex that can induce acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Zhu, Yaohui; Shenoy, Mohan; Pai, Reetesh; Liu, Liansheng; Pasricha, Pankaj Jay

    2013-03-01

    Neural cross talk between visceral organs may play a role in mediating inflammation and pain remote from the site of the insult. We hypothesized such a cross talk exists between the duodenum and pancreas, and further it induces pancreatitis in response to intraduodenal toxins. A dichotomous spinal innervation serving both the duodenum and pancreas was examined, and splanchnic nerve responses to mechanical stimulation of these organs were detected. This pathway was then excited on the duodenal side by exposure to ethanol followed by luminal mustard oil to activate transient receptor potential subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1). Ninety minutes later, pancreatic inflammation was examined. Ablation of duodenal afferents by resiniferatoxin (RTX) or blocking TRPA1 by Chembridge (CHEM)-5861528 was used to further investigate the duodeno-pancreatic neural reflex via TRPA1. ~40% of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from the spinal cord originated from both duodenum and pancreas via dichotomous peripheral branches; ~50% splanchnic nerve single units responded to mechanical stimulation of both organs. Ethanol sensitized TRPA1 currents in cultured DRG neurons. Pancreatic edema and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after intraduodenal ethanol followed by mustard oil (but not capsaicin) but significantly decreased after ablation of duodenal afferents by using RTX or blocking TRPA1 by CHEM-5861528. We found the existence of a neural cross talk between the duodenum and pancreas that can promote acute pancreatitis in response to intraduodenal chemicals. It also proves a previously unexamined mechanism by which alcohol can induce pancreatitis, which is novel both in terms of the site (duodenum), process (neurogenic), and receptor (TRPA1). PMID:23306082

  7. Lamivudine treatment for severe acute HBV hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Lisotti; Francesco Azzaroli; Federica Buonfiglioli; Marco Montagnani; Flavio Alessandrelli; Giuseppe Mazzella

    Treatment for acute hepatitis B is recommended in order to reduce the risk of progression to fulminant hepatitis and the need of OLT. We report our experience on treatment with high dose lamivudine, in patients with severe acute HBV infection. The diagnosis was based on clinical and virological findings and exclusion of other known causes of liver damage. The decision

  8. Protective Effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Against Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Bok; Bae, Gi-Sang; Jo, Il-Joo; Seo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Heon; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sang-Hyun; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced via intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 ?g/kg) every hour for 6 times. In the LE, water extract (100, 250, or 500 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before the first injection of cerulein. Six hours after AP, blood, the pancreas, and the lung were harvested for further examination. In addition, pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using a collagenase method, and then, we investigated the acinar cell viability and cytokine productions. Results Treatment with LE reduced pancreatic damage and AP-associated lung injury and attenuated the severity of AP, as evidenced by the reduction in neutrophil infiltration, serum amylase and lipase levels, trypsin activity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, treatment with LE inhibited high mobility group box 1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, LE inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine productions, and high-mobility group box 1 expression. Furthermore, LE also inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Conclusions These results suggest that LE plays a protective role during the development of AP by inhibiting the activation of p38. PMID:25102438

  9. Valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis and multiorgan failure in a child.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Ayhan; Kendirli, Tanl; Odek, Ca?lar; Bekta?, Omer; Kulo?lu, Zarife; Kolo?lu, Meltem; Ince, Erdal; Deda, Gülhis

    2013-05-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is still an important antiepileptic drug, with the broadest spectrum used in all types of seizures and syndromes. It has serious adverse effects such as hepatotoxicity, hyperammonemic encephalopathy, coagulation disorders, and pancreatitis. The incidence of VPA-associated pancreatitis has been estimated to be 1:40,000. We present a 6-year-old boy who developed acute pancreatitis (AP) and multiple-organ failure after 3 months of VPA therapy. The patient's laboratory values showed that his kidney and hepatic function had impaired and thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy had developed. The patient's abdominal tomography showed a suspected appearance, which was consistent with pancreatitis. Because amylase and lipase levels were found to be high, AP was considered. The patient improved after cessation of VPA treatment. Ten days later, the patient recovered both clinically and laboratorial. Consequently, the patient was discharged with cure. In conclusion, AP is a rare, severe adverse reaction to VPA treatment. If a child, who is receiving VPA, develops abdominal pain and vomits, VPA-associated pancreatitis must be considered. PMID:23640149

  10. Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

    2012-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30-50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

  11. Acute pancreatitis affects the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Li, F; Liu, S; Sun, H; Cui, Y; Wu, Y

    2014-05-30

    Abnormalities of mental status represent a severe complication and an important cause of death in acute pancreatitis (AP), which is characterized by a pattern of neurological signs and symptoms. As some of the symptoms of AP are also affected by catecholamine neurotransmitters, they cannot be ruled out of the pathophysiology of AP; however, little research has been performed exploring this hypothesis. Our study aimed to elucidate whether AP affects the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters in rats. A total of 300 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, 6H, 24H, 48H and 72H experimental groups. AP was induced in rats by an injection of a sodium taurocholate solution via a cannulated bile-pancreatic duct. In the striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum, catecholamine neurotransmitters were tested using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a electrochemical detector, and the activities and protein concentration levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were also evaluated using ELISA and Western blotting analyses. In the hippocampus, the dopamine (DA) concentrations increased in the 48-h and 72-h groups. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentration of the 72-h group also increased. The MAO-A and TH activity of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased, respectively. The TH activities of the 48-h groups also decreased. The MAO-A and TH protein concentration of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased. In the corpus striatum, the homovanillic acid concentration of the 72-h group and norepinephrine concentrations of the 24-h and 48-h groups increased, respectively. The MAO-A and TH activities of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased. The MAO-A and TH protein concentrations of the 6-h and 24-h groups decreased. In the prefrontal cortex (left prefrontal lobe), the DA and DOPAC concentrations of the 48-h group increased. The MAO-A and TH activities of the 6-h, 24-h and 48-h groups decreased. The MAO-A and TH protein concentrations of the 6-h and 24-h groups also decreased. The other catecholamine concentration and enzyme activities fluctuated, but there was no statistically significant difference compared with the control group. Catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolic systems are widely affected in AP, and these fluctuations may play an important role in determining the symptomatology of AP. PMID:24657461

  12. Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules

    PubMed Central

    Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK?/?) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK?/? keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK?/? mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK?/? mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK?/? acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

  13. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as recurrent acute pancreatitis: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Misgar, Raiz A.; Mathew, Vivek; Pandit, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2011-01-01

    The association between pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is controversial. We report a 32-year-old man who presented with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed after the fourth episode of pancreatitis. He had no additional risk factors for pancreatitis. Eighteen months after successful parathyroid surgery, there has been no recurrence of abdominal pain and his serum calcium is within the normal range. PMID:21584170

  14. Role of hypertriglyceridemia in the pathogenesis of experimental acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wataru Kimura; Joachim Miissner

    1996-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusion  The pancreatic damage initiated via different pathogenetic pathways can be increased by triglycerides. Thus, triglycerides\\u000a seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Lipolytic enzymes and their substrates may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. We investigated,\\u000a therefore, whether triglycerides alter the course of acute pancreatitis in three experimental models of

  15. Impaired lipid clearance in patients with previous acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, S; Nervi, F; Llanos, O; León, P; Valdivieso, V

    1985-01-01

    Fasting serum triglycerides were measured in 52 patients who had sustained an attack of pancreatitis (gall stone related 33, alcoholism six) at least six months earlier. Several patients (23%) had raised fasting serum triglycerides, with a type IV phenotype in all but one patient. The 40 patients with normal fasting serum triglycerides received an oral load of 100 g sunflower oil to compare their clearance of dietary triglycerides with that of a control group of 54 subjects. The clearance of ingested triglycerides was significantly impaired in the patients - irrespective of the presumed aetiological factor, or clinical condition associated with pancreatitis - compared with the clearance in controls. A triglyceride tolerance test is the only way to detect those patients in whom a future attack of pancreatitis may be precipitated by a diet rich in fat, or endogenous over production of triglycerides as after an alcoholic debauch. PMID:4029716

  16. A Rare and Unexpected Side-Effect of Cannabis Use: Abdominal Pain due to Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Akkucuk, Mehmet Husamettin; Erbayrak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a frequently encountered disorder in patients presenting to emergency units. Biliary system disorders, alcohol consumption, infections, and drugs are among the causes of acute pancreatitis. However, it is sometimes difficult to determine the etiology of this disorder, particularly if the patient does not wish to disclose his consumption of cannabis, the use of which is illegal.

  17. Assessment of Platelet Adhesiveness and Aggregation in Mild Acute Pancreatitis Using the PFA100TM System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Mimidis; Vassilios Papadopoulos; Zafiris Kartasis; Maria Baka; Vassilios Tsatlidis; Georgios Bourikas; Georgios Kartalis

    Context Acute pancreatitis constitutes a systemic inflammatory process which is often accompanied by thrombosis and bleeding disorders. The role of platelets in the pathophysiology of the disease remains to be elucidated. Objective In the present study, we evaluated the alterations of platelet function in patients suffering from acute edematous pancreatitis using the recently developed platelet function analyzer PFA-100TM.

  18. Does Nitric Oxide Protect from Microcirculatory Disturbances in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Rats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dobosz; Z. Wajda

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) on the microcirculation in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into the following groups: group A (5 rats) = control; group B (5 rats) = acute pancreatitis induced by retrograde taurocholate infusion into the pancreatobiliary duct without treatment; group C (5 rats)

  19. Effect of prostaglandins and superoxide dismutase administration on oxygen free radical production in experimental acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Closa; O. Bulbena; J. Rosello-Catafau; L. Fernandez-Cruz; E. Gelpi

    1993-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals and prostaglandins are implicated in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, although their mechanisms of action remain unclear. We have studied the effect of administration of exogenous 16, 16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase on oxygen free radical production in acute pancreatitis. For this purpose, five experimental rat groups were studied: group I, control; group II, sodium taurocholate-induced

  20. Somatostatin and octreotide in acute pancreatitis: the never-ending story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cavallini; L. Frulloni

    2001-01-01

    The role of somatostatin and octreotide in the treatment of acute pancreatitis has been studied in the last two decades. We describe the physiologic activities of somatostatin and octreotide and their action on pancreas secretion. Results of experimental studies on the action of somatostatin and octreotide in some models of acute pancreatitis are discussed as well as the results of

  1. Role of Nitric Oxide Derived from Alveolar Macrophages in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Tsukahara; Yoshiyuki Horita; Keisei Anan; Takashi Morisaki; Masao Tanaka; Motomichi Torisu

    1996-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis is known to be often complicated by lung injury; however, the pathogenesis of lung injury in the early phase of acute pancreatitis remains unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) have been suggested to contribute to lung injury by releasing various cytotoxic products including nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the role of AM-derived NO in the pathogenesis of lung injury

  2. New PRSS1 and common CFTR mutations in a child with acute recurrent pancreatitis, could be considered an \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vito D Corleto; Stefano Gambardella; Francesca Gullotta; Maria R D'Apice; Matteo Piciucchi; Elena Galli; Vincenzina Lucidi; Giuseppe Novelli; Gianfranco Fave

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: acute recurrent pancreatitis is a complex multigenic disease, the diagnosis is even more difficult when this disease develops in a child. CASE PRESENTATION: a 6-years old boy, hospitalized with epigastric pain radiating to the back showed high serum levels of serum amylase, lipase, CRP and erythrosedimentation rate. Several similar milder episodes of pain, followed by quick recovery and complete

  3. Acute pancreatitis induces FasL gene expression and upregulates apoptotic pathways in the liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Gallagher; J. Yang; P. K. Epling-Burnette; W. R. Gower; F. Bai; K. Baksh; K. Haines; J. Norman; M. M. Murr

    2003-01-01

    Background: Liver injury is of prognostic importance in acute pancreatitis. We previously demonstrated that Kupffer cell-derived cytokines mediate liver injury. Aim: To determine the role of Fas Ligand (FasL) in liver injury during acute pancreatitis. Methods: CCK was used to induce pancreatitis in mice; serum FasL (ELISA), AST, and liver FasL, p38-MAPK and Caspase-3 (western) were measured. Rat Kupffer cells

  4. Hyperglycaemia as an indicator of concurrent acute pancreatitis in fulminant hepatic failure associated with hepatitis B infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Srinivasan; S Venkataraman; S G Hansdak; O C Abraham; D Mathai

    Pancreatitis occurring concurrently with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is primarily detected on autopsy and is seldom clinically apparent. We report a fatal case of FHF in a 25-year-old woman which was related to acute hepatitis B infection. In this patient, hyperglycaemia needing insulin infusions led to the detection of acute pancreatitis. FHF complicated by acute pancreatitis has a poor prognosis.

  5. Treatment with antileukinate, a CXCR2 chemokine receptor antagonist, protects mice against acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhav Bhatia; Akhil Hegde

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common, and as yet incurable, clinical condition, the incidence of which has been increasing over recent years. Chemokines are believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. We have earlier shown that treatment with a neutralizing antibody against CINC, a CXC chemokine, protects rats against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The hexapeptide antileukinate

  6. Evidence for a role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the treatment of experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Irrera, Natasha; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by acute inflammation and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. AP is often associated with organ failure, sepsis, and high mortality. The pathogenesis of AP is still not well understood. In recent years several papers have highlighted the cellular and molecular events of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is initiated by activation of digestive enzymes within the acinar cells that are involved in autodigestion of the gland, followed by a massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and release of inflammatory mediators, responsible for the local and systemic inflammatory response. The hallmark of AP is parenchymal cell necrosis that represents the cause of the high morbidity and mortality, so that new potential therapeutic approaches are indispensable for the treatment of patients at high risk of complications. However, not all factors that determine the onset and course of the disease have been explained. Aim of this article is to review the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469021

  7. Diagnosis of acute severe colitis.

    PubMed

    Goenka, M K; Nag, Sourav; Kumar, Ajay; Pai, C Ganesh

    2014-08-01

    It is important to assess the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in order to decide the intensity of treatment and predict outcome. The criteria instituted by Truelove and Witts almost 60 years back are still being used. However, they lack a scoring system and offer no clear definition for the moderate group. The criteria with scoring system and endoscopic criteria (Mayo Score) seems to be more useful clinically. Endoscopic assessment is very important and a cautious attempt should always be made even if it enables a limited colonoscopic examination. Proctosigmoidoscopy is advocated at initial stages and after 5 to 7 days. The criteria for severity in general are same for pan-colitis and limited disease. PMID:25735119

  8. Enteral Nutrition within 48 Hours of Admission Improves Clinical Outcomes of Acute Pancreatitis by Reducing Complications: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Cheng; Yuan, Yu-Hong; Zhong, Wa; Zhao, Li-Na; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteral nutrition is increasingly advocated in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, but its timing is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to find out the feasibility of early enteral nutrition within 48 hours of admission and its possible advantages. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, EMBASE Databases, Web of Science, the Cochrane library, and scholar.google.com for all the relevant articles about the effect of enteral nutrition initiated within 48 hours of admission on the clinical outcomes of acute pancreatitis from inception to December 2012. Eleven studies containing 775 patients with acute pancreatitis were analyzed. Results from a pooled analysis of all the studies demonstrated that early enteral nutrition was associated with significant reductions in all the infections as a whole (OR 0.38; 95%CI 0.21–0.68, P<0.05), in catheter-related septic complications (OR 0.26; 95%CI 0.11–0.58, P<0.05), in pancreatic infection (OR 0.49; 95%CI 0.31–0.78, P<0.05), in hyperglycemia (OR 0.24; 95%CI 0.11–0.52, P<0.05), in the length of hospitalization (mean difference ?2.18; 95%CI ?3.48?(?0.87); P<0.05), and in mortality (OR 0.31; 95%CI 0.14–0.71, P<0.05), but no difference was found in pulmonary complications (P>0.05). The stratified analysis based on the severity of disease revealed that, even in predicted severe or severe acute pancreatitis patients, early enteral nutrition still showed a protective power against all the infection complications as a whole, catheter-related septic complications, pancreatic infection complications, and organ failure that was only reported in the severe attack of the disease (all P<0.05). Conclusion Enteral nutrition within 48 hours of admission is feasible and improves the clinical outcomes in acute pancreatitis as well as in predicted severe or severe acute pancreatitis by reducing complications. PMID:23762266

  9. Foreign serum-induced pancreatitis in mice. I. A new model of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Janigan, D T; Nevalainen, T J; MacAulay, M A; Vethamany, V G

    1975-12-01

    Within a few hours after one injection of fresh human serum by the intraperitoneal route only, mice developed pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and inflammation, fat necrosis, elevated serum amylase and a shocklike state. The extent of these lesions and mortalities were roughly dose dependent and were not noticeably modified by either different fasting cycles or pilocarpine. Acinar cell changes and necrosis usually developed first in subserosal acini. The earliest ultrastructural change detected was nonspecific swelling of cytoplasmic compartments which was reversible but also preceded the cytoplasmic degradation that developed in cells undergoing necrosis. Notably, zymogen granule dissolution neither preceded nor accompanied this swelling, but developed pari passu with cell degradation. Occasionally, intact granules were found in necrotic cells. Serum was cytotoxic for isolated acinar cells in vitro, even in the presence of soybean trypsin inhibitor. These results (1) indicate that the injury mechanism in vivo is directly initiated through contact of serum with acinar cell surfaces and is independent of zymogen secretions and trypsin activation, and (2) suggest that a rapid disturbance in cell membrane permeability results, the magnitude of which being the primary determinant of cell death. Pancreatic toxicity of human serum was abolished by aging, heating, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, heparin, zymosan, cobra venom factor, and absorptions with mouse red blood cells, against which fresh, unabsorbed serum was hemolytic. Pancreatic toxicity in vitro and, to a much lesser extent, in vivo was reconstituted by combining the red blood cell-absorbed serum with either heated serum, or with IgM-enriched, but not IgG serum fractions. Fresh cord serum was virtually nontoxic and could substitute for absorbed serum in such reconstitutions. These results indicate that the injury mechanism involves at least two serum components. By both circumstance and analogy, other results and a review of other examples of foreign sera toxicity suggest that they are components of a complement-dependent, cytotoxic heterophile antibody system. The relevance of this odd phenomenon is that it offers a simple model of acute pancreatitis, contributes to the debunking of traditional notions of the pivotal role of zymogens in the initiation of acute pancreatitis, and hints at a potential pathogenetic connection between pancreatitis and products of immune or related reactions. PMID:1202281

  10. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and bile duct microlithiasis in acute idiopathic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elta, Grace H

    2008-01-01

    Although there are numerous causes of acute pancreatitis, an etiology cannot always be found. Two potential etiologies, microlithiasis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, are discussed in this review. Gallbladder microlithiasis, missed on transcutaneous ultrasound, is reported as the cause of idiopathic acute pancreatitis in a wide frequency range of 6%-80%. The best diagnostic technique for gallbladder microlithiasis is endoscopic ultrasound although biliary crystal analysis and empiric cholecystectomy remain as reasonable options. In contrast, in patients who are post-cholecystectomy, bile duct microlithiasis does not appear to have a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is present in 30%-65% of patients with idiopathic acute recurrent pancreatitis in whom other diagnoses have been excluded. It is unclear if this sphincter dysfunction was the original etiology of the first episode of pancreatitis although it appears to have a causative role in recurring episodes since sphincter ablation decreases the frequency of recurrent attacks. Unfortunately, this conclusion is primarily based on small retrospective case series; larger prospective studies of the outcome of pancreatic sphincterotomy for SOD-associated acute pancreatitis are sorely needed. Another problem with this diagnosis and its treatment is the concern over potential procedure related complications from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), manometry and pancreatic sphincterotomy. For these reasons, patients should have recurrent acute pancreatitis, not a single episode, and have a careful informed consent before assessment of the sphincter of Oddi is undertaken. PMID:18286682

  11. Treatment with bindarit, a blocker of MCP-1 synthesis, protects mice against acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; Ramnath, Raina Devi; Chevali, Lakshmi; Guglielmotti, Angelo

    2005-06-01

    Chemokines are believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. We have earlier shown that pancreatic acinar cells produce the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in response to caerulein hyperstimulation, demonstrating that acinar-derived MCP-1 is an early mediator of inflammation in acute pancreatitis. Blocking chemokine production or action is a major target for pharmacological intervention in a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as acute pancreatitis. 2-Methyl-2-[[1-(phenylmethyl)-1H-indazol-3yl]methoxy]propanoic acid (bindarit) has been shown to preferentially inhibit MCP-1 production in vitro in monocytes and in vivo without affecting the production of the cytokines IL-1, IL-6, or the chemokines IL-8, protein macrophage inflammatory-1alpha, and RANTES. The present study aimed to define the role of MCP-1 in acute pancreatitis with the use of bindarit. In a model of acute pancreatitis induced by caerulein hyperstimulation, prophylactic as well as therapeutic treatment with bindarit significantly reduced MCP-1 levels in the pancreas. Also, this treatment significantly protected mice against acute pancreatitis as evident by attenuated hyperamylasemia neutrophil sequestration in the pancreas (pancreatic MPO activity), and pancreatic acinar cell injury/necrosis on histological examination of pancreas sections. PMID:15691869

  12. Prophylactic Octreotide Reduces the Severity of Histopathologic Changes and Hemodynamic Shock in Early Taurodeoxycholate-induced Experimental Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUN-CHIA CHEN; SUN-SANG WANG; FA-YAUH LEE; SHYH-HAW TSAY; LING WU; REI-HWA LU; FULL-YOUNG CHANG; SHOU-DONG LEE

    The findings related to the effects of somatostatin and octreotide in experimental and clinical acute pancreatitis are so far inconclusive. In this study, we examined the early effects of prophylactic octreotide in acute experimental pancreatitis. Serum levels of amylase and lipase, pancreatic histopathology and systemic hemodynamic profiles, including mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate, were

  13. Retrospective study of patients with acute pancreatitis: is serum amylase still required?

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Dhanwant; Addison, Alfred; De Rosa, Antonella; Brooks, Adam; Cameron, Iain C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of serum amylase and lipase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Secondary aims were to perform a cost analysis of these enzyme assays in patients admitted to the surgical admissions unit. Design Cohort study. Setting Secondary care. Participants Patients admitted with pancreatitis to the acute surgical admissions unit from January to December 2010 were included in the study. Methods Data collated included demographics, laboratory results and aetiology. The cost of measuring a single enzyme assay was Ł0.69 and both assays were Ł0.99. Results Of the 151 patients included, 117 patients had acute pancreatitis with gallstones (n=51) as the most common cause. The majority of patients with acute pancreatitis had raised levels of both amylase and lipase. Raised lipase levels only were observed in additional 12% and 23% of patients with gallstone-induced and alcohol-induced pancreatitis, respectively. Overall, raised lipase levels were seen in between 95% and 100% of patients depending on aetiology. Sensitivity and specificity of lipase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was 96.6% and 99.4%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of amylase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis were 78.6% and 99.1%, respectively. Single lipase assay in all patients presenting with abdominal pain to the surgical admission unit would result in a potential saving of Ł893.70/year. Conclusions Determining serum lipase level alone is sufficient to diagnose acute pancreatitis and substantial savings can be made if measured alone. PMID:23002153

  14. AGE-DEPENDENT VULNERABILITY TO EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE PANCREATITIS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION AND THROMBOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Daiki; Starr, Marlene E.; Lee, Eun Y.; Stromberg, Arnold; Evers, B. Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The severity and mortality rates of acute pancreatitis (AP) are significantly elevated in the elderly population. However, due to a lack of appropriate animal models, the underlying mechanisms for this age-dependent vulnerability remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize a murine model of AP, which displays age-associated severity, and to use this model to identify pathophysiologies that are distinctive of the aged with AP. AP was induced in young (4–5 months), middle-aged (12–13 months), and aged (23–25 months) C57BL/6 mice by repeated injection of caerulein, a homologue of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin. Approximately 10% of aged mice died during AP while young and middle-aged mice showed no mortality. Although both young and aged mice exhibited early signs of edema and inflammation in the pancreas, kidney, and lung, young mice showed signs of recovery within 24 h while aged mice exhibited increasingly severe tissue damage and cell death. There was a significant age-dependent increase in pancreatic neutrophil activation and systemic inflammation as assessed by pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration, respectively. Importantly, aged but not young mice with AP showed significantly elevated thrombosis in the lung and kidney as well as a marked increase in plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. These results demonstrate that aging is associated with increased severity of AP characterized by augmented and prolonged pancreatic inflammation and the presence of multiple extra-pancreatic sequelae including thrombosis. PMID:22672542

  15. Sudden death and lipomatous infiltration of the heart involved by fat necrosis resulting from acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Gualandri, Giorgio; Fortuni, Giuseppe; Barbolini, Giuseppe

    2012-04-10

    The possible causal link between damage to the heart and acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases has been considered in both adults and children, particularly in cases of sudden, unexpected death. However, the cardiac pathological findings so far reported in the literature are neither specific enough, nor of a kind to prove a direct pancreatic pathogenesis. We describe the occurrence of steatonecrosis developed in areas of lipomatous infiltration of the heart following acute exacerbation of latent chronic pancreatitis. The presence of mature adipocytes in the myocardium is an adequate substrate for the pancreatic lipase to give rise to the steatonecrosis, which is a well-known marker of acute pancreatitis. As far as we are aware, this is the first reported case of heart steatonecrosis in the literature. PMID:22079999

  16. A Nonpancreatic Source of the Proteolytic-enzyme Amidase and Bacteriology in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Keynes, W. Milo

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies of human and experimental acute pancreatitis, three main assumptions have been made. First, that the disease is due to activation of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in the pancreas with resulting “autodigestion” of the gland. Second, that interstitial pancreatitis is a mild form of hemorrhagic pancreatitis into which it may progress, and third, that bacteria play little part, if any, in the initiation of the disease. These assumptions are now questioned. In the present study in dogs, levels of proteolytic enzymes in blood, thoracicduct lymph and peritoneal fluid were measured using benzoylarginine amide. Raised levels of amidase were found in hemorrhagic, but not with interstitial, pancreatitis, and biochemical examination of amidase suggested it was not a pancreatic protease, but with its broad specificity and stability derived from bacteria. Addition of antibiotic to the blind duodenal loop in hemorrhagic pancreatitis reduced the level of blood amidase, but Trasylol given intravenously did not, nor did it inhibit amidase in vitro. In all animals, histological examination was made of the pancreas at time of death. On bacteriology, it is concluded that experimental interstitial pancreatitis results from damage to the pancreatic duct system without infection, and haemorrhagic pancreatitis mainly from reflux of bacteria into the pancreatic ducts from the duodenum. Only bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium welchii that produce proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxins appear to be able to cause haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and these bacteria may explain the release of vasoactive polypeptides and the vascular effects. In hemorrhagic pancreatitis such bacteria were found in the pancreas, but none in interstitial pancreatitis. Evidence is given to suggest that pancreatic proteolytic enzymes are unlikely to cause the cell necrosis which is a pathological feature of hemorrhagic pancreatitis, and that “autodigestion” is likewise unlikely to be a cause of this condition. An extrapancreatic source of proteolytic enzymes from bacteria is now suggested in haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and more attention to bacteriology in human acute pancreatitis is urgently needed. Amidase levels were highest in peritoneal fluid, suggesting a rationale for peritoneal lavage in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, and it is unlikely that Trasylol can give any benefit. The assessment of treatment of acute pancreatitis will be unsatisfactory as long as the proportion of haemorrhagic to interstitial pancreatitis in any series is not known accurately. PMID:6987958

  17. Strongyloidiasis: A case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection. PMID:25805946

  18. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

  19. Diagnostic challenges of Wilson’s disease presenting as acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, and jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Nussinson, Elchanan; Shahbari, Azmi; Shibli, Fahmi; Chervinsky, Elena; Trougouboff, Philippe; Markel, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Wilson’s disease is a rare disorder of copper transport in hepatic cells, and may present as cholestatic liver disease; pancreatitis and cholangitis are rarely associated with Wilsons’s disease. Moreover, cases of Wilson’s disease presenting as pigmented gallstone pancreatitis have not been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe a case of a 37-year-old man who was admitted with jaundice and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, and obstructive jaundice caused by pigmented gallstones that were detected during retrograde cholangiopancreatography. However, because of his long-term jaundice and the presence of pigmented gallstones, the patient underwent further evaluation for Wilson’s disease, which was subsequently confirmed. This patient’s unique presentation exemplifies the overlap in the clinical and laboratory parameters of Wilson’s disease and cholestasis, and the difficulties associated with their differentiation. It suggests that Wilson’s disease should be considered in patients with pancreatitis, cholangitis, and severe protracted jaundice caused by pigmented gallstones. PMID:24303094

  20. Defining a Therapeutic Program for Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Patients with Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Vincenzo; Lapolla, Francesco; Di Lascia, Alessandra; Giambavicchio, Libero Luca

    2014-01-01

    AIM To define a therapeutic program for mild-moderate acute pancreatitis (AP), often recurrent, which at the end of the diagnostic process remains of undefined etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period 2011–2012, we observed 64 cases of AP: 52 mild-moderate, 12 severe; biliary 39, biliary in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis 5, unexplained recurrent 20. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the 20 cases of unexplained AP showed 6 patients with biliary sludge, 4 microlithiasis, 4 sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and 6 cases that remained undefined. RESULTS Among 20 patients with recurrent, unexplained AP at initial etiological assessment, we performed 10 video laparo cholecystectomies (VLCs), 2 open cholecystectomies and 4 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/endoscopic sphincterotomies (ERCP/ES) in patients who had undergone previous cholecystectomy; 4 patients refused surgery. Among these 20 patients, 6 had AP that remained unexplained after second-level imaging investigations. For these patients, 4 VLCs and 2 ERCP/ES were performed. Follow-up after six months was negative for further recurrence. CONCLUSION The recurrence of unexplained acute pancreatitis could be treated with empirical cholecystectomy and/or ERCP/ES in cases of previous cholecystectomy. PMID:24833943

  1. Pyogenic Liver Abscess Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore whether there is a relationship between pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and subsequent risk of acute pancreatitis in Taiwan. Methods Using inpatients claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we identified 30 866 subjects aged 20–84 years with the first-attack of PLA from 2000 to 2010 as the PLA group and randomly selected 123 464 subjects without PLA as the non-PLA group. The incidence of the first attack of acute pancreatitis at the end of 2010 and the risk associated with PLA and other comorbidities were measured. Results The overall incidence of acute pancreatitis was 3.84-fold greater in the PLA group than in the non-PLA group (4.61 vs 1.19 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 3.43–4.29). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted hazard ratio of acute pancreatitis was 3.00 (95% CI, 2.62–3.43) for the PLA group, as compared to the non-PLA group. Further analysis showed that compared to subjects with neither PLA nor comorbidities, patients with PLA and hypertriglyceridemia, biliary stones, alcoholism, or hepatitis C had greater risk of acute pancreatitis than those with PLA alone. Conclusions PLA correlates with increased risk of subsequent acute pancreatitis. Comorbidities, including hypertriglyceridemia, biliary stones, alcoholism, and hepatitis C, may enhance the risk of developing acute pancreatitis. PMID:25716281

  2. Biliopancreatic duct injection of ethanol as an experimental model of acute and chronic pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Ethem; Atalay, Suleyman; Tolan, Huseyin Kerem; Yuksekdag, Sema; Yucel, Metin; Acar, Aylin; Basak, Fatih; Gunes, Pembegul; Bas, Gurhan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we described an easily reproducable experimental pancreatits model induced by biliopancreatic duct injection of ethyl alcohol. Seventy Wistar albino rats were divided equally into seven groups randomly: the control group (group 1), acute pancreatitis groups; induced by 20% ethanol (group 2), 48% ethanol (group 3), 80% ethanol (group 4), chronic pancreatitis groups; induced by 20% ethanol (group 5), 48% ethanol (group 6) and by 80% ethanol (group 7). Acute pancreatitis groups were sacrified on postoperative day 3, while the control group and chronic pancreatitis groups were killed on postoperative day 7. Histopathologic evaluation was done, and P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. All rats in group 3 developed acute pancreatitis (100%). Inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, interstitial edema, and focal necrotic areas were seen in the pancreatic tissues. Similarly, all rats in group 6 developed chronic pancreatitis (100%). Interstitial fibrosis, lymphotic infiltration, ductal dilatation, acinar cell atrophy, periductal hyperplasia were seen in the pancreatic tissues. Mortality was seen only in group 7. The biliopancreatic ductal injection of 48% ethanol induced acute and chronic pancreatitis has 100% success rate. PMID:25785001

  3. Acute pancreatitis and elevated liver transaminases after rapid titration of oral levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Azar, Nabil J; Aune, Patsy

    2014-06-01

    We report a 25-year-old woman with new onset convulsive episodes. The patient initially failed to respond to phenytoin and was switched to levetiracetam (LEV) which was rapidly titrated to 3000 mg daily over 1 week. At initiation of LEV therapy, she developed mild nausea and decrease in appetite. This was rapidly followed by severe digestive symptoms consistent with acute pancreatitis. She was also found to have elevated liver transaminases. An extensive work-up failed to reveal an organic cause for her symptoms, suggesting a direct relationship to LEV. Clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities normalized after LEV discontinuation, along with supportive therapy. PMID:24291473

  4. A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with acute pancreatitis and chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Seok; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is known to be caused by a variety of clinical disorders. The authors encountered a case of PRES associated with acute pancreatitis and chronic alcoholism. A 49-year-old man presented with altered mental status. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) displayed vasogenic edema at the bilateral posterior temporal and parieto-occipital lobes and cerebellum. Laboratory tests and abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed acute pancreatitis. The patient recovered completely, and follow-up brain MRI and abdominal CT exhibited resolution of the previous lesions. We suggest that acute pancreatitis might be an etiology of PRES. PMID:25578790

  5. Acute pancreatitis, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and defective insulin secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleem S. Qader; Mats Ekelund; Roland Andersson; Stefanie Obermuller; Albert Salehi

    2003-01-01

    A high level of nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is involved in pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined whether iNOS is also expressed in beta cells after induction of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the rat. Pancreatic islets taken from AP animals and incubated for 60 min in the presence of 20.0 mmol\\/l glucose

  6. TLR4 but not TLR2 regulates inflammation and tissue damage in acute pancreatitis induced by retrograde infusion of taurocholate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darbaz Awla; Aree Abdulla; Sara Regnér; Henrik Thorlacius

    Objective  Neutrophil infiltration is a key regulator in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), although the impact of Toll-like\\u000a receptors (TLRs) in AP remains elusive. The aim of this study was to define the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in leukocyte recruitment\\u000a and tissue damage in severe AP.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Experimental design  AP was induced by retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic

  7. The "golden hours" of management in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jessica M; Gardner, Timothy B

    2012-08-01

    In the past decade, a significant amount of active and enthusiastic research has changed the way we treat acute pancreatitis (AP) within the first 24 hours of presentation. We highlight the importance of rapid initiation of treatment to help prevent the considerable morbidity and mortality that can occur when interventions are delayed. We review recent data that validate simple and accurate tools for prognostication of AP to replace the older, more tedious methods that relied on numerous factors and required up to 48 hours to complete. Additionally, we aim to provide evidence-based guidelines and end points for fluid resuscitation. Finally, we hope to bring clarification to two previously controversial topics in AP treatment: the use of prophylactic antibiotics and early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. PMID:22858994

  8. Endoscopic management of pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Law, Ryan; Baron, Todd H

    2015-02-01

    Over the last several years, there have been refinements in the understanding and nomenclature regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis. Patients with acute pancreatitis frequently develop acute pancreatic collections that, over time, may evolve into pancreatic pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Endoscopic management of these local complications of acute pancreatitis continues to evolve. Treatment strategies range from simple drainage of liquefied contents to repeated direct endoscopic necrosectomy of a complex necrotic collection. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocysts may arise as a consequence of pancreatic ductal obstruction that then leads to pancreatic ductal disruption. In this review, we focus on the indications, techniques and outcomes for endoscopic therapy of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis. PMID:25222140

  9. Association of CTRC and SPINK1 gene variants with recurrent hospitalizations for pancreatitis or acute abdominal pain in lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Karine; Dubois-Bouchard, Camélia; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are important inter-individual variations in the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Several genes involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism or serine proteases pathways are known to influence the risk of pancreatitis. Aim: To evaluate the association between genes regulating serine proteases, chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type1 (SPINK1), and recurrence of hospitalizations for acute pancreatitis or severe abdominal pain in patients with Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPLD), a rare and extreme monogenic model of severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Method: The CTRC and SPINK1 genes promoter and coding regions sequencing has been performed in a sample of 38 LPLD adults (22 men and 16 women) and 100 controls (53 men and 47 women). Estimation of the association of CTRC and SPINK1 gene variants or combinations of variants with history of hospitalizations for pancreatitis or acute abdominal pain in LPLD was investigated using non-parametric analyses with correction for multiple testing and logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, family history, and life habits. Results: Gene sequencing followed by genotype-stratified analyses of the CTRC and SPINK1 genes in LPLD and controls revealed a positive association between recurrence of hospitalizations and the rs545634 (CTRC)—rs11319 (SPINK1) combination [OR = 41.4 (CI: 2.0–848.0); p = 0.016]. In all models, a positive family history of pancreatitis was a significant predictor of recurrent hospitalizations independently of the contribution of SPINK1 or CTRC (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that a positive family history of pancreatitis and genetic markers in the serine protease pathways could be associated with a risk of recurrent hospitalization for acute pancreatitis in severe hypertriglyceridemia due to LPLD. PMID:24795752

  10. Protein C Activation during the Initial Phase of Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in the Rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Ottesen; E. M. Bladbjerg; M. Osman; S. B. Lausten; N. O. Jacobsen; J. Gram; S. L. Jensen

    1999-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of coagulation and fibrinolysis are well-known systemic effects of acute necrotising pancreatitis (ANP). The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the initial events in the haemostatic activation during ANP in an animal model with relevance to the human situation. Methods: ANP was introduced in 7 rabbits by infusion of chenodeoxycholic acid in the pancreatic duct. Seven

  11. Influence of shock on development of infection during acute pancreatitis in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert S. F. Runkel; Gregory S. Smith; Liliana F. Rodriguez; Mark T. LaRocco; Frank G. Moody; Thomas A. Miller

    1992-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that hypovolemic shock elicits or promotes the development of infection during acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced in rats by ligation of the common biliopancreatic duct; nonlaparotomized animals served as controls. After 24 hr, the animals were subjected to either sham-shock (instrumented only) or to shock by withdrawal of blood through a femoral artery line by

  12. Role of stellate cells in pancreatic fibrogenesis associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bachem, Max G; Zhou, Zhengfei; Zhou, Shaoxia; Siech, Marco

    2006-10-01

    Pancreas fibrosis is the result of a dynamic cascade of mechanisms beginning with acinar cell (AC) injury and necrosis and followed by inflammation, activation of macrophages, aggregation of platelets, release of growth factors and reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC), stimulated synthesis of extracellular matrix and reduced matrix degradation. The result is a net matrix accumulation. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have provided strong evidence of a central role for PSC in fibrogenesis associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis. The PSC share homologies with hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In normal pancreas, the fat-storing phenotype of PSC is found in low numbers (approx. 4% of the cells) in the periacinar and interlobular space. Similar to the stellate cell-activating mechanisms in the liver, in pancreas injury PSC change their phenotype from the fat-storing to a highly active matrix-producing cell type (activated PSC). The induction of the activated phenotype of PSC has been shown to involve a number of diverse extra- and intracellular effector molecules, including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and oxidative stress. PMID:16958683

  13. Importance of the liver in systemic complications associated with acute pancreatitis: the role of Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Folch-Puy, E

    2007-03-01

    Although its exact nature is still unknown, acute pancreatitis progresses with a local production of inflammatory mediators, eventually leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Knowing that almost all pancreatic mediators released from the pancreas to the bloodstream may pass through the liver before their dilution in the systemic circulation, it would be reasonable to assume a determinant role for this organ in the development of the inflammatory response associated with acute pancreatitis. Thus, recent studies have shown the involvement of the liver in the complex network of events triggering the multiorgan dysfunction associated with the disease. Once pancreatic mediators reach the liver, they strongly activate Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages, greatly amplifying the release of cytokines into the bloodstream and thus contributing to the systemic manifestations of acute pancreatitis. Altogether, these results show that the pancreas is not the only source of mediators that trigger the deleterious effects of acute pancreatitis, but that the liver may orchestrate the final outcome of the disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in understanding the function of the liver in the early stages of the development of systemic organ dysfunction secondary to acute pancreatitis. PMID:17212343

  14. Pancreatitis developing in the context of acute hepatitis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Ghamar-Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Agah, Shahram; Aghaei, Aghdas

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong evidence suggestive of associations between hepatic diseases and pancreas injury, a potential relationship between acute hepatitis and acute pancreatitis has not been a matter of review; which we focused on in the current paper. Some of the main findings of this review article are: fulminant hepatitis failure represents the highest incident rate of hepatitis-related acute pancreatitis; so a screening program might be indicative in these patients. Specific characteristics of HAV-related pancreatitis are that it is a benign condition with no reported mortality; and a male preponderance in the incidence, with females developing in older ages and having shown the signs of both conditions simultaneously. The incidence of acute pancreatitis in HBV infection is the lowest, but the mortality was the highest. HEV-related acute pancreatitis was most likely to represent pseudocysts and there was an apparent ethnic-priority with Indian descents, the only reported cases in the literature. Hepatitis-related pancreatitis in liver transplant recipients was most frequent in HBV infected patients; and in IFN-induced pancreatitis, cessation of the drug was most effective in treatment, with no catastrophic event reported. PMID:25791542

  15. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a signi?cant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  16. Is an elevated concentration of acinar cytosolic free ionised calcium the trigger for acute pancreatitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Ward; S. A. Jenkins; R. Sutton; O. H. Petersen

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is poorly understood, despite well-recognised precipitating factors. Current evidence suggests that the earliest abnormalities of acute pancreatitis arise within acinar cells, but the key intracellular trigger has yet to be identified. Within the pancreas, physiological concentrations of secretagogues bind to G-protein-linked cell-surface receptors on acinar cells, evoking short, oscillatory spikes of acinar cytosolic- free ionised

  17. Progress of Study on the Relationship Between Mediators of Inflammation and Apoptosis in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Qian Lin; Yi-Feng Zhou

    2007-01-01

    As an important pathological feature of acute pancreatitis, apoptosis may occur in multiple organs and relate directly to\\u000a the progression of disease. It is mainly controlled by the apoptosis gene and also influenced by inflammatory mediators. We\\u000a summarize here the roles of the main inflammatory mediators (e.g., NO, TNF-?, TGF-?1, IL-10, NF-?B) during the pathologic\\u000a process of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Gut Origin Sepsis, Macrophage Function, and Oxygen Extraction Associated with Acute Pancreatitis in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangdong Wang; Roland Andersson; Vasile Soltesz; Per Leveau; Ingemar Ihse

    1996-01-01

    . It has been suggested that the gut plays a role in the development of bacterial complications, which are important\\u000a contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. The present study evaluated the enteric bacterial\\u000a translocation, bacterial homeostasis, and reticuloendothelial system function in experimental acute pancreatitis induced by\\u000a intraductal injection of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate in the rat. The

  19. Proinflammatory Cytokines in Alcohol or Gallstone Induced Acute Pancreatitis. A Prospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srdan Novovic; Anders Mřller Andersen; Annette Kjćr Ersbřll; Ole Haagen Nielsen; Lars Nannestad Jorgensen; Mark Berner Hansen

    Objectives If differences of inflammatory pathways in acute pancreatitis exist for various etiologies, selective and specific anti- inflammatory and other modulatory treatment regimens might be indicated. Circulating levels of prominent proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8, 18, and TNF-alpha were measured in patients having their first attack of either alcohol- or gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. Methods Seventy-five consecutive patients were prospectively included over

  20. Ectopic paraesophageal mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, a rare cause of acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophoros N Foroulis; Sotirios Rousogiannis; Christos Lioupis; Dimitrios Koutarelos; Georgia Kassi; Athanassios Lioupis

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism with acute pancreatitis is a rare event. Ectopic paraesophageal parathyroid adenomas account for about 5%–10% of primary hyperparathyroidism and surgical resection results in cure of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old woman was presented with acute pancreatitis and hypercalcaemia. During the investigation of hypercalcemia, a paraesophageal ectopic parathyroid mass was detected by computerized tomography

  1. An update on recurrent acute pancreatitis: data from five European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucio Gullo; Marina Migliori; Raffaele Pezzilli; Attila Oláh; Gyula Farkas; Philippe Levy; Constantine Arvanitakis; Paul Lankisch; Hans Beger

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:A great number of studies have been published on acute pancreatitis, but few have focused on the recurrent form. In this study, we have sought to determine the relative frequency and mortality of recurrent acute pancreatitis, and also to update our knowledge of its etiological factors.METHODS:Patients were selected from a total of 1068 persons included in a previous European study

  2. Grp78 Heterozygosity Regulates Chaperone Balance in Exocrine Pancreas with Differential Response to Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Risheng; Mareninova, Olga A.; Barron, Ernesto; Wang, Miao; Hinton, David R.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Lee, Amy S.

    2010-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is abundant in the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. To test the role of ER homeostasis in acute pancreatitis, we manipulated GRP78 levels, a major ER chaperone, in mice. Grp78+/+ and +/? littermates were fed either a regular diet (RD) or a high-fat diet. Acinar cells were examined for ER structure by electron microscopy, and ER chaperone levels were assessed by immunoblotting. Pancreatitis was induced by cerulein injection, and multiple pathological parameters were analyzed. Grp78+/? mice showed decreased GRP78 expression in acinar cells. Exocrine pancreata of RD-fed Grp78+/? mice in an outbred C57BL/6 × 129/sv genetic background exhibited ER lumen dilation, a reduction in chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT), and exacerbated pancreatitis associated with high CHOP induction. With the high-fat diet regimen, Grp78 heterozygosity triggered GRP94 up-regulation and restoration of GRP78, CNX, and CRT to wild-type levels, corresponding with mitigated pancreatitis on cerulein insult. Interestingly, after backcrossing into the C57BL/6 background, RD-fed Grp78+/? mice exhibited an increase in GRP94 and levels of CNX and CRT equivalent to wild type, associated with decreased experimental pancreatitis severity. Administration of a chemical chaperone, 4-phenolbutyrate, was protective against cerulein-induced death. Thus, in exocrine pancreata, Grp78 heterozygosity regulates ER chaperone balance, in dietary- and genetic background–dependent manners, and improved ER protein folding capacity might be protective against pancreatitis. PMID:20971738

  3. Grp78 heterozygosity regulates chaperone balance in exocrine pancreas with differential response to cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Risheng; Mareninova, Olga A; Barron, Ernesto; Wang, Miao; Hinton, David R; Pandol, Stephen J; Lee, Amy S

    2010-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is abundant in the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. To test the role of ER homeostasis in acute pancreatitis, we manipulated GRP78 levels, a major ER chaperone, in mice. Grp78(+/+) and (+/-) littermates were fed either a regular diet (RD) or a high-fat diet. Acinar cells were examined for ER structure by electron microscopy, and ER chaperone levels were assessed by immunoblotting. Pancreatitis was induced by cerulein injection, and multiple pathological parameters were analyzed. Grp78(+/-) mice showed decreased GRP78 expression in acinar cells. Exocrine pancreata of RD-fed Grp78(+/-) mice in an outbred C57BL/6 × 129/sv genetic background exhibited ER lumen dilation, a reduction in chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT), and exacerbated pancreatitis associated with high CHOP induction. With the high-fat diet regimen, Grp78 heterozygosity triggered GRP94 up-regulation and restoration of GRP78, CNX, and CRT to wild-type levels, corresponding with mitigated pancreatitis on cerulein insult. Interestingly, after backcrossing into the C57BL/6 background, RD-fed Grp78(+/-) mice exhibited an increase in GRP94 and levels of CNX and CRT equivalent to wild type, associated with decreased experimental pancreatitis severity. Administration of a chemical chaperone, 4-phenolbutyrate, was protective against cerulein-induced death. Thus, in exocrine pancreata, Grp78 heterozygosity regulates ER chaperone balance, in dietary- and genetic background-dependent manners, and improved ER protein folding capacity might be protective against pancreatitis. PMID:20971738

  4. Effect of harmless acute pancreatitis score, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on the mortality of patients with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis at the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Gülen, Bedia; Sonmez, Ertan; Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Dur, Ali; Turkdogan, Figen Tunali; Sö?üt, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmless acute pancreatitis score (HAPS), neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are used to determine the early prognosis of patients diagnosed with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (K 85.9) in the ED according to the ICD10 coding during one year were included in the study. Patients with chronic pancreatitis and those who had missing data in their files were excluded from the study. Patients who did not have computed tomography (CT) in the ED were not included in the study. RESULTS: Ultimately, 322 patients were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 53.1 (IQR=36–64). Of the patients, 68.1% (n=226) had etiological causes of the biliary tract. The mortality rate of these patients within the first 48 hours was 4.3% (n=14). In the logistic regression analysis performed by using Balthazar classification, HAPS score, RDW, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio, age, diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure, the only independent variable in determining mortality was assigned as Balthazar classification (OR: 15; 95% CI: 3.5 to 64.4). CONCLUSIONS: HAPS, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and RDW were not effective in determining the mortality of nontraumatic acute pancreatitis cases within the first 48 hours. The only independent variable for determining the mortality was Balthazar classification.

  5. Chapter 14: Acute severe asthma (status asthmaticus).

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachna; Saltoun, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Acute severe asthma, formerly known as status asthmaticus, is defined as severe asthma unresponsive to repeated courses of beta-agonist therapy such as inhaled albuterol, levalbuterol, or subcutaneous epinephrine. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate recognition and treatment. Oral or parenteral corticosteroids should be administered to all patients with acute severe asthma as early as possible because clinical benefits may not occur for a minimum of 6-12 hours. Approximately 50% of episodes are attributable to upper respiratory infections, and other causes include medical nonadherence, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory exposure in aspirin-allergic patients, allergen exposure (especially pets) in severely atopic individuals, irritant inhalation (smoke, paint, etc.), exercise, and insufficient use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids. The patient history should be focused on acute severe asthma including current use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, number of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, intensive-care unit admissions and intubations, the frequency of albuterol use, the presence of nighttime symptoms, exercise intolerance, current medications or illicit drug use, exposure to allergens, and other significant medical conditions. Severe airflow obstruction may be predicted by accessory muscle use, pulsus paradoxus, refusal to recline below 30°, a pulse >120 beats/min, and decreased breath sounds. Physicians' subjective assessments of airway obstruction are often inaccurate. More objective measures of airway obstruction via peak flow (or forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and pulse oximetry before oxygen administration usually are helpful. Pulse oximetry values >90% are less commonly associated with problems although CO(2) retention and a low Pao(2) may be missed. PMID:22794687

  6. Granulomatous Pancreatitis in a Patient with Acute Manifested Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mandys, Václav; Kheck, Michal; And?l, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Isolated granulomatous noncaseating pancreatitis is a rare condition exceptionally described in human population. We demonstrate a case of the a 71-years-old female patient suffering from recent diabetes mellitus, generalized atherosclerosis and hypertension who died due to pulmonary embolism and terminal bronchopneumonia. Lipomatosis of pancreatic tissue was observed during the postmortem examination. Histological examination of pancreatic tissue discovered multiple small noncaseating epithelioid cell and giant cell granulomas, partly replacing the islets of Langerhans. To our knowledge, our case represents the first description of noninfectious granulomatous pancreatitis associated with acute manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:24711951

  7. Recurrent acute pancreatitis due to a santorinicele in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, S A; Chawla, T; Azami, R

    2009-05-01

    A cystic dilatation of the terminal portion of the minor pancreatic duct (duct of Santorini) is referred to as a santorinicele. It is usually associated with pancreas divisum and has been suggested to be a cause of relative stenosis of the minor papilla, often leading to recurrent pancreatitis. While this anomaly has been reported in the paediatric population, it is more commonly found in the elderly. We present a 27-year-old woman with recurrent acute pancreatitis attributed to a santorinicele with a dorsal duct-exclusive pancreatic drainage. PMID:19495498

  8. Treatment with neutralising antibody against cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) protects rats against acute pancreatitis associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, M; Brady, M; Zagorski, J; Christmas, S; Campbell, F; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Lung injury manifest clinically as adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following acute pancreatitis (AP). Neutrophils play a critical role in the progression of AP to ARDS. C-x-C chemokines are potent neutrophil chemoattractants and activators and have been implicated in AP.?AIMS—To evaluate the effect of blocking the C-x-C chemokine, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), in AP on pancreatic inflammation and the associated lung injury in rats.?METHODS—AP was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein. Goat anti-CINC antibody was administered either before or after starting caerulein injections to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects, respectively. Severity of AP was determined by measuring plasma amylase, pancreatic water content, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a measure of neutrophil sequestration in the pancreas. Lung injury was determined by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability and lung MPO activity.?RESULTS—Treatment with anti-CINC antibody had little effect on caerulein induced pancreatic damage. However, it reduced the caerulein mediated increase in lung MPO activity as well as lung microvascular permeability when administered either prophylactically (lung MPO (fold increase over control): 1.53 (0.21) v 3.30 (0.46), p<0.05; microvascular permeability (L/P%): 0.42 (0.07) v 0.77 (0.11), p<0.05) or therapeutically (lung MPO (fold increase over control): 2.13 (0.10) v 4.42 (0.65), p<0.05; microvascular permeability (L/P%): 0.31 (0.05) v 0.79 (0.13), p<0.05).?CONCLUSION—Treatment with anti-CINC antibody afforded significant protection against pancreatitis associated lung injury. These results suggest that CINC plays an important role in the systemic inflammatory response in AP.???Keywords: chemokines; acute pancreatitis; caerulein; adult respiratory distress syndrome PMID:11076884

  9. Pathogenesis of Infection in Pancreatic Inflammatory Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard A. Reber

    2001-01-01

    The majority of cases of acute pancreatitis are mild and the patient recovers quickly, with little morbidity. Severe acute pancreatitis associated with significant amounts of pancreatic necrosis is a more serious disease. This is especially so when it is accompanied by infection of the necrotic pancreas or peripancreatic tissue, which significantly increases both the mortality rate and the morbidity of

  10. Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wan; Koo, Hyun-Na; An, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lim, Byung-Cheal; Seo, Eun-A; Ryu, Do-Gon; Moon, Goo; Kim, Hong-Yeoul; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TO on cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: TO at 10 mg/kg was orally administered, followed by 75 ?g/kg CCK octapeptide injected subcutaneously three times after 1, 3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated for 5 d. We determined the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, the levels of pancreatic HSP60 and HSP72, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Repeated CCK octapeptide treatment resulted in typical laboratory and morphological changes of experimentally-induced pancreatitis. RESULTS: TO significantly decreased the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio in CCK octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis. TO also increased the pancreatic levels of HSP60 and HSP72. Additionally, the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? decreased in the animals treated with TO. CONCLUSION: TO may have a protective effect against CCK octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:15641154

  11. Vascular Access System for Continuous Arterial Infusion of a Protease Inhibitor in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganaha, Fumikiyo; Yamada, Tetsuhisa; Yorozu, Naoya; Ujita, Masuo; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Tada, Shimpei [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Aoto Hospital, 6-41-2 Aoto, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8506 (Japan)

    1999-09-15

    We used a vascular access system (VAS) for continuous arterial infusion (CAI) of a protease inhibitor in two patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The infusion catheter was placed into the dorsal pancreatic artery in the first patient and into the gastroduodenal artery in the second, via a femoral artery approach. An implantable port was then connected to the catheter and was secured in a subcutaneous pocket prepared in the right lower abdomen. No complications related to the VAS were encountered. This system provided safe and uncontaminated vascular access for successful CAI for acute pancreatitis.

  12. Acute pancreatitis in children and rotavirus infection. Description of a case and minireview.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Salvatore; Serra, Gregorio; Dones, Piera; Di Gangi, Maria; Failla, Maria Concetta; Iaria, Chiara; Ricciardi, Filippo; Pernice, Lucia Maria; Pantaleo, Dario; Cascio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a case of acute pancreatitis in a 2-year-old boy following rotavirus gastroenteritis. Its characteristics are analyzed and discussed in the light of another 4 cases of pancreatitis associated with rotavirus infection found through a systematic review of the international literature. None of the five children underwent surgery or was referred to an intensive care unit and all 5 children recovered with normalization of pancreatic enzymes within 5-10 days. The pathogenesis of this rare complication remains unsettled, and its actual incidence may be higher than reported. Although acute pancreatitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis seems to be a mild disease, attention must be paid by the pediatrician fearing possible complications. Rotavirus infection should be amended to the differential diagnosis panel of pancreatitis in toddlers. PMID:23435823

  13. Acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a patient with pancreas divisum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, D; Partalis, N; Polimili, G; Kastanakis, S

    2013-09-15

    Pancreas divisum is a frequent congenital anatomical anomaly characterized by the failure of fusion of the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung during fetal development. Although the condition usually remains asymptomatic, it has been reported to be a predisposing factor of chronic and recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. We report a case of acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a 54-year-old Caucasian male with pancreas divisum. Diagnosis was established based on the findings from magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The patient was managed conservatively and was discharged home having an uneventful clinical course after five days of hospitalization. Although the role of the pancreas in the induction of acute pancreatitis is still a matter of debate, physicians have to be aware about this prevalent pancreatic anatomic abnormality. Timely detection may help in the prevention of potential recurrent pancreatic reaction. PMID:24146696

  14. Acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a patient with pancreas divisum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anyfantakis, D; Partalis, N; Polimili, G; Kastanakis, S

    2013-01-01

    Pancreas divisum is a frequent congenital anatomical anomaly characterized by the failure of fusion of the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung during fetal development. Although the condition usually remains asymptomatic, it has been reported to be a predisposing factor of chronic and recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. We report a case of acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a 54-year-old Caucasian male with pancreas divisum. Diagnosis was established based on the findings from magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The patient was managed conservatively and was discharged home having an uneventful clinical course after five days of hospitalization. Although the role of the pancreas in the induction of acute pancreatitis is still a matter of debate, physicians have to be aware about this prevalent pancreatic anatomic abnormality. Timely detection may help in the prevention of potential recurrent pancreatic reaction. PMID:24146696

  15. Changing Referral Trends of Acute Pancreatitis in Children: A 12-year Single-center Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Alexander; Latif, Sahibzada Usman; Shah, Ahsan U.; Tian, Jianmin; Werlin, Steven; Hsiao, Allen; Pashankar, Dinesh; Bhandari, Vineet; Nagar, Anil; Husain, Sohail Zakiuddin

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disorder known to occur in children. Recent reports, primarily on the basis of adult data, have suggested an increasing incidence. However, pediatric studies are limited. Objective The study was performed to examine the frequency of acute pancreatitis in a pediatric population from 1994 to 2007 and to characterize etiologies by age subsets. Patients and Methods In this retrospective study, cases of pancreatitis were identified by ICD-9 codes and subjected to inclusion criteria. Results Two hundred and seventy-one cases of pancreatitis met inclusion criteria. Mean age of the subjects was 13.1 ± 5.6 years. The recurrence rate was 15.3%. Biliary disease was the most common etiology (32.6%). Acute pancreatitis cases evaluated at a single tertiary care center increased 53% between 1995 to 2000 and 2001 to 2006 (P <0.02). However, when cases were normalized by all annual pediatric emergency department visits for all medical reasons, the increase was reduced to 22% and lost statistical significance (P = 0.16). The rise was not associated with a change in etiologies or body mass index (BMI). Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating that an increase in pediatric pancreatitis may in part be due to growing referrals to tertiary care centers. The data on etiologies, particularly with regard to differing ages, may be helpful in managing children who present with acute pancreatitis. PMID:19503003

  16. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans protected the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting high-mobility group box protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Il-Joo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Choi, Sun Bok; Jung, Won-Seok; Jung, Su-Young; Cho, Jung-Hee; Choi, Mee-Ok; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. METHODS: SSM water extract (0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. Once AP developed, the stable cholecystokinin analogue, cerulein was injected hourly, over a 6 h period. Blood samples were taken 6 h later to determine serum amylase, lipase, and cytokine levels. The pancreas and lungs were rapidly removed for morphological examination, myeloperoxidase assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To specify the role of SSM in pancreatitis, the pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using collagenase method. Then the cells were pre-treated with SSM, then stimulated with cerulein. The cell viability, cytokine productions and high-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) were measured. Furthermore, the regulating mechanisms of SSM action were evaluated. RESULTS: The administration of SSM significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis associated lung injury, as was shown by the reduction in pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, vacuolization and necrosis. SSM treatment also reduced pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, serum amylase, lipase and cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of multiple inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?. In addition, treatment with SSM inhibited HMGB-1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, SSM inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine, and HMGB-1 release. SSM also inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and nuclear factor (NF)-?B. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SSM plays a protective role during the development of AP and pancreatitis associated lung injury via deactivating c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and NF-?B. PMID:23539679

  17. Severe necrotic and septic pancreatitis. Indications to endoscopic, surgical, and nutritional therapy

    PubMed Central

    MANGIANTE, G.; RODELLA, L.; CEROFOLINI, A.; GIACOPUZZI, S.; PASSERI, V.; STERZI, E.; CATALANO, F.; SCHENAL, G.; de MANZONI, G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) management has changed over the last fifteen years, and from too aggressive behaviour, we moved to a cautious one. In every case, we can appreciate defect of extremist conceptual position. We reviewed our strategy on disease treatment, and we analyzed treatment of single cases. We collected 4 SAP cases from January 2009 to January 2010. All patients were septic, and we adopted the same approach for all of them, avoiding surgery without peritoneal infection. In all patients we placed jejumostomy and, after cleaning of septic site, we started immediate enteral nutrition (EN). Antibiotic therapy against Gram+, Gram? and antifugal drug had been started. No one died and all patients were back to an active life even if social costs are considerably high especially due to very long hospital stay. PMID:24629818

  18. Angiopoietin-1 gene-modified human mesenchymal stem cells promote angiogenesis and reduce acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jie; He, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Dao-Hai; Lin, Sheng-Ping; Gong, Jian; Meng, Hong-Bo; Yang, Ting-Song; Sun, Wei; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can serve as a vehicle for gene therapy. Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) plays an important role in the regulation of endothelial cell survival, vascular stabilization, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs might be a potential therapeutic approach for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs with or without transfection with lentiviral vectors containing the ANGPT1 gene were delivered through the tail vein of rats 12 h after induction of SAP. Administration of MSCs alone significantly reduced pancreatic injury and inflammation, as reflected by reductions in pancreatitis severity scores and serum amylase and lipase levels as well as reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-6). Furthermore, administration of ANGPT1-transfected MSCs resulted in not only further reductions in pancreatic injury and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, but also promotion of pancreatic angiogenesis. These results suggest that MSCs and ANGPT1 have a synergistic role in the treatment of SAP. ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs may be developed as a potential novel therapy strategy for the treatment of SAP. PMID:25120736

  19. Angiopoietin-1 gene-modified human mesenchymal stem cells promote angiogenesis and reduce acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jie; He, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Dao-Hai; Lin, Sheng-Ping; Gong, Jian; Meng, Hong-Bo; Yang, Ting-Song; Sun, Wei; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can serve as a vehicle for gene therapy. Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) plays an important role in the regulation of endothelial cell survival, vascular stabilization, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs might be a potential therapeutic approach for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs with or without transfection with lentiviral vectors containing the ANGPT1 gene were delivered through the tail vein of rats 12 h after induction of SAP. Administration of MSCs alone significantly reduced pancreatic injury and inflammation, as reflected by reductions in pancreatitis severity scores and serum amylase and lipase levels as well as reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-6). Furthermore, administration of ANGPT1-transfected MSCs resulted in not only further reductions in pancreatic injury and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, but also promotion of pancreatic angiogenesis. These results suggest that MSCs and ANGPT1 have a synergistic role in the treatment of SAP. ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs may be developed as a potential novel therapy strategy for the treatment of SAP. PMID:25120736

  20. Chronic diarrhea, eosinophilic ascites, acute pancreatitis and deep venous thrombosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Javid Bhat, Khalid; Bhat, Sanjay; Dutt, Kalyan; Gupta, Sakul; Jeelani Samoon, Hamaad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is rare and is characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract and chronic diarrhea. In this report we present a case of EG with acute pancreatitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Case presentation: A 30 years old male was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of epigastric pain, vomitting and swelling of his left limb for the past six days. He was also having diarrhea for the last several months. He had been evaluated for chronic diarrhea and ascites before he sought the current consultation. Duplex color doppler of left limb showed DVT of distal calf vein. Contrast enhanced CT imaging of abdomen revealed thickening of duodenum, proximal jejunal wall and presence of ascites. Duodenal biopsy showed normal villous pattern with mild inflammation and eosinophilic infiltration. The constellation of clinical presentation, hypereosinophilia, CT and biopsy findings all is in consistence to EG. The patient was treated with prednisolone 20 mg/day for four weeks and tapered slowly. Acute pancreatitis was managed conservatively while DVT was treated with heparin and oral anticoagulants. The patient’s diarrhea settled and ascites resolved completely. At follow up, the absolute eosinophil count was 300/?l and the patient was doing well. Conclusion: This case report emphasizes that one should consider these rare disorders during the differential diagnosis of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms in the presence of hypereosinophilia. PMID:25202449

  1. Protein kinase C modulates the pulmonary inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Zhao; Changbin Shi; Xiangdong Wang; Roland Andersson

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the development of acute lung injury, production of inflammatory mediators and expression of adhesion molecules on leukocytes after induction of acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced by the intraductal infusion of 5% sodium taurodeoxycholate in the rat. The animals had the PKC inhibitor polymyxin B administered

  2. Severe acute tubular necrosis observed subsequent to oxaliplatin administration

    PubMed Central

    Filewod, Niall; Lipman, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old man known for metastatic colon cancer received treatment with oxaliplatin and developed severe acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed severe acute tubular necrosis. Acute kidney injury is a rare but severe adverse effect of oxaliplatin administration.

  3. Role of cathepsin B in intracellular trypsinogen activation and the onset of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Halangk, Walter; Lerch, Markus M.; Brandt-Nedelev, Barbara; Roth, Wera; Ruthenbuerger, Manuel; Reinheckel, Thomas; Domschke, Wolfram; Lippert, Hans; Peters, Christoph; Deussing, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Autodigestion of the pancreas by its own prematurely activated digestive proteases is thought to be an important event in the onset of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism responsible for the intrapancreatic activation of digestive zymogens is unknown, but a recent hypothesis predicts that a redistribution of lysosomal cathepsin B (CTSB) into a zymogen-containing subcellular compartment triggers this event. To test this hypothesis, we used CTSB-deficient mice in which the ctsb gene had been deleted by targeted disruption. After induction of experimental secretagogue–induced pancreatitis, the trypsin activity in the pancreas of ctsb–/– animals was more than 80% lower than in ctsb+/+ animals. Pancreatic damage as indicated by serum activities of amylase and lipase, or by the extent of acinar tissue necrosis, was 50% lower in ctsb–/– animals. These experiments provide the first conclusive evidence to our knowledge that cathepsin B plays a role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation and the onset of acute pancreatitis. PMID:10995788

  4. Acute pancreatitis and cholecystitis associated with postpartum HELLP syndrome: a case and review.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Satoshi; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Hanaoka, Mio; Anami, Ai; Nakanami, Naoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nozaki, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of preeclampsia associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome and concomitant nonbiliary acute pancreatitis and cholecystitis in the first postpartum day. A thorough investigation ruled out known etiologies of both pancreatitis and cholecystitis. Following conservative treatment, the patient's HELLP syndrome, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis resolved on the third postpartum day. Preeclampsia is associated with microvascular abnormalities that may involve the splanchnic circulation. These abnormalities may cause not only HELLP syndrome but also pancreatitis and cholecystitis. Recognizing that ischemia can damage not only the liver but also the pancreas and gallbladder, could result in improvements in the diagnosis and management of pancreatitis in patients with preeclampsia. PMID:17454215

  5. Predicting outcomes in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ventham, Nicholas T; Kalla, Rahul; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Satsangi, Jack; Arnott, Ian D

    2015-04-01

    Response to corticosteroid treatment in acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) has changed very little in the past 50 years. Predicting those at risk at an early stage helps stratify patients into those who may require second line therapy or early surgical treatment. Traditionally, risk scores have used a combination of clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters; established indices include the 'Travis' and 'Ho' scores. Recently, inflammatory bowel disease genetic risk alleles have been built into models to predict outcome in ASUC. Given the multifactorial nature of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis, in the future, composite scores integrating clinical, biochemical, serological, genetic and other '-omic' data will be increasingly investigated. Although these new genetic prediction models are promising, they have yet to supplant traditional scores, which remain the best practice. In this modern era of rescue therapies in ASUC, robust scoring systems to predict failure of ciclosporine and infliximab must be devised. PMID:25494666

  6. Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Javali, Tarun; Prathvi; Ramesh, D.

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus. PMID:24497695

  7. Ascitic fluid and serum from rats with acute pancreatitis injure rat pancreatic tissues and alter the expression of heat shock protein 60

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Yu Li; Xue-Jin Li; Shuai Lv; Kun Li; Yan-Na Li; Zhi-Rong Gao; Jia-Yan Feng; Chang-Jie Chen; Claus Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory process in which cytokines and chemokines are involved. After onset, extrapancreatic\\u000a stimuli can induce the expression of cytokines in pancreatic acinar cells, thereby amplifying this inflammatory loop. To further\\u000a determine the role and mechanism of irritating agents in the pathogenesis of AP, rat pancreatic tissues were stimulated with\\u000a ascitic fluid (APa) and serum (APs)

  8. Pancreatic Cancer as a Model: Inflammatory Mediators, Acute-phase Response, and Cancer Cachexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. H. Fearon; Matthew D. Barber; J. S. Falconer; Donald C. McMillan; James A. Ross; Tom Preston

    1999-01-01

    .   Patients with pancreatic cancer frequently develop the syndrome of cancer cachexia. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been\\u000a strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In patients with pancreatic cancer an acute-phase response (an index\\u000a of pro-inflammatory cytokine activity) is associated with accelerated weight loss, hypermetabolism, anorexia, and a shortened\\u000a duration of survival. However, little is known about the primary significance

  9. CD14 promoter polymorphism in Chinese alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver and acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You-Chen Chao; Heng-Cheng Chu; Wei-Kuo Chang; Hsin-Hung Huang; Tsai-Yuan Hsieh

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of the CD14 promoter and the occurrence of alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic pancreatitis, and to challenge the conclusion made earlier that the patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of liver are two different subpopulations. METHODS: Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)

  10. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Venu, Rama P; Brown, Russell D; Halline, Allan G

    2002-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Whereas endoscopic observation during ERCP permits recognition of abnormalities involving the major and minor duodenal papillae such as papillary tumors or choledochocele, radiographic evaluation enables the detection of structural abnormalities of pancreaticobiliary ducts like strictures or calculi. Sphincter of Oddi manometry, a technical advance of ERCP, is essential for the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, which may present clinically as recurrent pancreatitis. Because structural alterations of the pancreatic duct forms the hallmark of chronic pancreatitis, ERCP is highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Apart from its diagnostic role, ERCP offers a variety of possibilities for therapeutic interventions in selected problems associated with pancreatitis. Endoscopic papillectomy and mucosal resection for tumors of the papilla, unroofing of a choledochocele, and sphincterotomy for sphincter ablation in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are some of the therapeutic interventions possible during ERCP. Pancreatic ductal hypertension, which is considered to be the major pathophysiologic mechanism for disabling abdominal pain in chronic pancreatitis, also can be managed by ERCP-directed treatments. Pancreatic sphincterotomy, dilation of strictures, lithotripsy, extraction of calculi, and deployment of endoprosthesis constitute the commonly used therapeutic techniques in this situation. Besides offering a noninvasive alternative, these treatments are associated with a favorable clinical outcome comparable with that of operative treatments. Nevertheless, complications such as acute pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, or sepsis may occur in 5% to 10% of patients undergoing these procedures. Therefore, careful selection of patients, appropriate preoperative care, and a team approach, including surgeon, interventional radiologist, and endoscopist, are important. PMID:11960071

  11. Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to an Incarcerated Paraoesophageal Hernia: A Rare Cause for a Common Problem

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Kathryn; Campbell, William; Taylor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This is a rare case report of acute pancreatitis secondary to a massive incarcerated paraoesophageal hernia. The pathogenesis resulted from obstruction of the distal pancreatic duct after displacement of the pancreatic head and body into the thorax as part of a Type IV paraoesophageal hernia. Although this condition is rare, the patient made steady progress following laparotomy and open repair of hernia. She made a good recovery after prompt therapy, therefore, this report can be a guide to the diagnosis and treatment of similar conditions. PMID:24653652

  12. Leptin Modulates the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Konturek; J. Jaworek; A. Maniatoglou; J. Bonior; H. Meixner; S. J. Konturek; E. G. Hahn

    2002-01-01

    Background: Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Recent findings demonstrated that leptin receptors are present in the pancreas but the involvement of leptin in pancreatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was: (1) to assess plasma leptin levels in rats with caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) and humans with

  13. Late-Onset Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Accompanying Acute Pancreatitis and Hyperammonemia

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar; Fonseca, Gilton Marques; Jukemura, José

    2013-01-01

    Hyperammonemia related to urea cycle disorders is a rare cause of potentially fatal encephalopathy that is encountered in intensive care units (ICUs). Left undiagnosed, this condition may manifest irreversible neuronal damage. However, timely diagnosis and treatment initiation can be facilitated simply by increased awareness of the ICU staff. Here, we describe a patient with acute severe pancreatitis who developed hyperammonemia and encephalopathy without liver disease. Urea cycle disorder was suspected and hemodialysis was initiated. Following reduction of ammonia levels, subsequent treatment included protein restriction and administration of arginine and sodium benzoate. The patient was discharged to home after 47 days with plasma ammonia within normal range and without neurological symptoms. In clinical care settings, patients with neurological symptoms unexplained by the present illness should be assessed for serum ammonia levels to disclose any urea cycle disorders to initiate timely treatment and improve outcome. PMID:24073003

  14. Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

    2012-10-14

    Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

  15. [Purtscher's retinopathy: a rare complication of acute non-alcoholic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Núńez, L; Cubiella, J; Moreno, C; Díez, M S; Sánchez, E; Vega, M

    2003-11-01

    Purtscher's retinopathy is a rare complication of acute alcoholic pancreatitis that is characterized by the development of cotton-wool exudates and retinal hemorrhages located around the optic disk. Its development is due to ischemic phenomena in the posterior pole of the retina due to microemboli in the retinal arterioles and capillaries. This complication is not related to a poorer prognosis of acute pancreatitis and the retinopathy usually has a favorable outcome with disappearance of the ophthalmic lesions and restoration of visual acuity after 4-6 weeks in most cases. However, some patients may show residual lesions, especially if optical atrophy occurs. We present a 40-year-old woman with loss of visual acuity due to Purtscher's retinopathy during the course of mild acute idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:14642240

  16. [Endoscopic treatment of a pediatric patient with acute pancreatitis caused by anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct combined with incomplete pancreatic divisum].

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Beom; Seo, Joo Hee; Park, Jung Yeup; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2009-11-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis are microlithiasis and alcohol. In pediatrics, anomalies in pancreaticobiliary system should be considered as possible causes. Among many anomalies, pancreas divisum associated with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) is very rare. APBDU is associated with acute pancreatitis, choledochal cyst, and gallbladder cancer. Pancreas divisum is also a well known cause of acute recurrent pancreatitis. In adult cases with such conditions, the role of endoscopic management including sphincterotomy or stenting through the Santorini duct is well documented. However, it is still controversial to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pediatrics. Herein, we experienced a case of 4 year 7 month old female patient suffered from recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis, which were caused by APBDU and incomplete pancreas divisum. She was treated by endoscopic sphincterectomy of both openings to the Santorinis and Wirsungs ducts. Thus, we report this interesting case with literature review. PMID:19934615

  17. The effect of erythropoietin to pulmonary injury and mast cells secondary to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening necroinflammatory disease that is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute lung injury even in its very first days. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone considered as an antiapoptotic and cytoprotective with observed receptors of anti-inflammatory effect on organs apart from the liver and the kidneys. In this study, the effects of EPO on pulmonary mast cells and on secondary injury caused by acute pancreatitis are investigated. Methods Twenty one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups—sham, control, and EPO groups—with 7 rats per group. Pancreatitis was induced by administering 4.5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. A 1000 U/kg/day dosage (three times) of EPO was administered to the EPO group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, amylase, and troponin I in the serum were studied; and lung, kidney, brain, and heart tissues were examined histopathologically. Results There were no histopathological changes in the other organ tissues except for the lung tissue. Compared to the control group, the EPO group showed significantly reduced alveolar hemorrhage, septal neutrophil infiltration, lung wall thickness score, and mast cell count in the lung tissue. Conclusions Administration of EPO reduces the mast cell count and lung wall thickness, and it reduces the alveolar hemorrhage and septal infiltration induced by acute pancreatitis. PMID:24761770

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating-peptide and its receptor antagonists in development of acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You-Dai; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Hong-Kai; Yan, Wen-Wei; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Gao-Ping; Peng, Xiao-Hui

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating-peptide (PACAP) is a late member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family of brain-gut peptides. It is unknown whether PACAP takes part in the development of acute pancreatitis and whether PACAP or its antagonists can be used to suppress the progression of acute pancreatitis. We investigated the actions of PACAP and its receptor antagonists in acute pancreatitis on rats. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with caerulein or 3.5% sodium taurocholate. The rats were continuously infused with 5-30 ?g/kg PACAP via jugular vein within the first 90 min, while 10-100 ?g/kg PACAP6-27 and (4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17) VIP (PACAP receptor antagonists) were intravenously infused for 1 h. Biochemical and histopathological assessments were made at 4 h after infusion. Pancreatic and duodenal PACAP concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chinese ink-perfused pancreas was fixed, sectioned and cleared for counting the functional capillary density. RESULTS: PACAP augmented caerulein-induced pancreatitis and failed to ameliorate sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. ELISA revealed that relative concentrations of PACAP in pancreas and duodenum were significantly increased in both sodium taurocholate- and caerulein-induced pancreatitis compared with those in normal controls. Unexpectedly, PACAP6-27 and (4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17) VIP could induce mild acute pancreatitis and aggravate caerulein-induced pancreatitis with characteristic manifestations of acute hemorrhagic/necrotizing pancreatitis. Functional capillary density of pancreas was interpreted in the context of pancreatic edema, and calibrated functional capillary density (calibrated FCD), which combined measurement of functional capillary density with dry weight/wet weight ratio, was introduced. Hyperemia or congestion, rather than ischemia, characterized pancreatic microcirculatory changes in acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: PACAP may take part in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in rats. The two PACAP receptor antagonsits might act as partial agonists. Calibrated functional capillary density can reflect pancreatic microcirculatory changes in acute pancreatitis. PMID:15641142

  19. Death due to acute pancreatitis. A retrospective analysis of 405 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Renner, I G; Savage, W T; Pantoja, J L; Renner, V J

    1985-10-01

    A large retrospective autopsy study of patients was analyzed to evaluate the major etiologic and pathologic factors contributing to fatal acute pancreatitis (AP). From an autopsy population of 50,227 patients, 405 cases were identified where AP was defined as the official primary cause of death. AP was classified according to morphological and histological, but not biochemical, criteria. Patients with AP died significantly earlier than a control autopsy population of 38,259 patients. Sixty percent of the AP patients died within 7 days of admission. Pulmonary edema and congestion were significantly more prevalent in this group, as was the presence of hemorrhagic pancreatitis. In the remaining 40% of patients surviving longer than 7 days, infection was the major factor contributing to death. Major etiologic groups in AP were chronic alcoholism; postabdominal surgery; common duct stones; a small miscellaneous group including viral hepatitis, drug, and postpartum cases; and a large idiopathic group comprising patients with cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus, and ischemia. The prevalence of established diabetes mellitus in the AP group was significantly higher than that observed in the autopsy control series, suggesting that this disease should be considered as an additional risk factor influencing survival in AP. Pulmonary complications, including pulmonary edema and congestion, appeared to be the most significant factor contributing to death and occurred even in those cases where the pancreatic damage appeared to be only moderate in extent. Emphasis placed on the early recognition and treatment of pulmonary edema in all cases of moderate and severe AP should contribute significantly to an increase in survival in this disease. PMID:3896700

  20. Oxidative stress in distant organs and the effects of allopurinol during experimental acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Czakó; Tamás Takács; Ilona Sz. Varga; László Tiszlavicz; Do Quy Hai; Péter Hegyi; Béla Matkovics; János Lonovics

    2000-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background. The present study was aimed at an assessment of the role of oxygen-derived free radicals in the development of local and\\u000a systemic manifestations of l-arginine (Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis and at an evaluation of the protective effect of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor\\u000a allopurinol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Acute pancreatitis was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 2×250 mg\\/100 g body weight

  1. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  2. Metabolic pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Krishna, S V S; Lakhtakia, Sandeep; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2013-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a medical emergency. Alcohol and gallstones are the most common etiologies accounting for 60%-75% cases. Other important causes include postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure, abdominal trauma, drug toxicity, various infections, autoimmune, ischemia, and hereditary causes. In about 15% of cases the cause remains unknown (idiopathic pancreatitis). Metabolic conditions giving rise to pancreatitis are less common, accounting for 5%-10% cases. The causes include hypertriglyceridemia, hypercalcemia, diabetes mellitus, porphyria, and Wilson's disease. The episodes of pancreatitis tend to be more severe. In cases of metabolic pancreatitis, over and above the standard routine management of pancreatitis, careful management of the underlying metabolic abnormalities is of paramount importance. If not treated properly, it leads to recurrent life-threatening bouts of acute pancreatitis. We hereby review the pathogenesis and management of various causes of metabolic pancreatitis. PMID:24083160

  3. Liver injury during acute pancreatitis: The role of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (paaf), p38MAPK, and caspase-3 in inducing hepatocyte apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yang; Adam Fier; Yvette Carter; Gouqing Liu; P. K. Epling-Burnette; Fanqi Bai; Thomas P. Loughran; Stephen Mastorides; James G. Norman; Michel M. Murr

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated that pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid contributes to hepatocyte injury during acute pancreatitis;\\u000a a phenomenon independent of ascites' enzymatic content and Kupffer cell-derived cytokines. Our aim is to characterize the\\u000a mechanisms of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid induced hepatocyte death. NIH mice were injected intraperitoneally with\\u000a pathogen-free pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid. Twenty-four hours later, serum AST, ALT, LDH, and hepatocyte apoptosis\\u000a (TUNEL)

  4. Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kedia, Saurabh; Ahuja, Vineet; Tandon, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine naďve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patients not responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy. PMID:25401001

  5. [Radiologic diagnosis of different forms of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Stashuk, G A; Dubrova, S E; Emel'ianova, L N; Tripatkhi, S

    1999-01-01

    By using their data on 123 patients with different forms of pancreatitis, the authors describe the ultrasound and computed tomographic semiotics of this condition. The authors consider ultrasonography and computed tomography to be highly informative in diagnosing different forms of the disease and its complications. Both methods not only assess the pancreatic parenchyma, the extent of the process to the adjacent anatomic structures, but permit a follow-up and diagnostic and treatment measures under their visual guidance. PMID:10714225

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Enteral Nutrition and Total Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Heming; Wang, Xingpeng; Guo, Chuanyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. Randomized controlled trials of TPN and EN in patients with acute pancreatitis were searched in NCBI and CBM databases and The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Six studies were enrolled into the analysis, and the details about the trial designs, characters of the subjects, results of the studies were reviewed by two independent authors and analyzed by STATA 11.0 software. Results. Compared with TPN, EN was associated with a significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infection complications (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436?0.709, P = .000), MOF (RR = 0.395, 95% CI 0.272?0.573, P = .003), surgical interventions (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436?0.709, P = .000), and mortality (RR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.238?0.764, P = .167). There was no statistic significance in non-pancreatitis-related complications (RR = 0.853, 95% CI 0.490?1.483, P = .017). However, EN had a significantly higher incidence of non-infection-related complications (RR = 2.697, 95% CI 1.947?3.735, P = .994). Conclusion. EN could be the preferred nutrition feeding method in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:21687619

  7. Autocrine Sonic Hedgehog Attenuates Inflammation in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice via Upregulation of IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Jang, Feng; Xiang, Chuannan; Li, Yuan; He, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling plays critical roles in pancreatic oncogenesis and chronic pancreatitis, but its roles in acute pancreatitis (AP) are largely ambiguous. In this study, we provide evidence that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), but neither Desert hedgehog (Dhh) nor Indian hedgehog (Ihh), is the main protein whose expression is activated during the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice, and the Shh serves as an anti-inflammation factor in an autocrine manner. Blocking autocrine Shh signaling with anti-Shh neutralizing antibody aggravates the progression of acute pancreatitis. Mechanistic insight into Shh signaling activation in acute pancreatitis indicates that inflammatory stimulation activates Shh expression and secretion, and subsequently upregulates the expression and secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Moreover, inhibition of Shh signaling with neutralizing antibody abolishes IL-10 production in vivo and in vitro. Molecular biological studies show that autocrine Shh signaling activates the key transcriptional factor Gli1 so that the target gene IL-10 is upregulated, leading to the protective and anti-inflammatory functions in the mouse model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, this study suggests autocrine Shh signaling functions as a protective signaling in the progression of acute pancreatitis. PMID:22956998

  8. Early Enteral Nutrition within 24 Hours or between 24 and 72 Hours for Acute Pancreatitis: Evidence Based on 12 RCTs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueping; Ma, Fengbo; Jia, Kezhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although (EEN) is a relatively safer route by which to feed patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) or predicted SAP (pSAP) compared to total parental nutrition (TPN), the appropriate starting time for EEN administration after admission is still controversial. This study pooled all relevant studies to assess the complications associated with EEN by stratifying relevant RCTs into subgroups according to the starting time (<24 h or between 24 and 72 h after admission). Material/Methods Relevant studies were searched for among 5 databases. The association between intervention and complications, including pancreatic infection, mortality, hyperglycemia, organ failure, and catheter-related septic complications, were assessed by using pooled risk ratio (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidential interval (CI). Results Twelve RCTs were identified through our literature search. Pooled analysis showed that EEN, but not TPN or delayed enteral nutrition (DEN), is associated with reduced risk of pancreatic infection, mortality, organ failure, hyperglycemia, and catheter-related septic complications. EEN within 24 h of admission presented significantly better outcome in morality than EEN between 24 and 72 h. However, no significant heterogeneity was observed in the risk of pancreatic infection, organ failure, hyperglycemia, and catheter-related septic complications between the 2 subgroups. Conclusions If the patients are reasonably expected to have high compliance to EN therapy, it could be considered as early as possible. PMID:25399541

  9. Neutrophil engagement and septic challenge in acute experimental pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ha?, Stanis?aw; Dobosz, Marek; Kaczor, Jan J; Rzepko, Robert; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, Ewa; Wajda, Zdzis?aw; ?ledzi?ski, Zbigniew; Krajewski, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of neutrophil adhesion molecule blockade with monoclonal antibody (MoAb CD11b) and E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: AP was induced by four ip injections of cerulein (Cn) at 1-h intervals. MoAb CD 11b and LPS were administered at the beginning of the experiment. RESULTS: The neutrophil count and chemiluminescence were diminished at the beginning of AP. The oxidative stress parameters were found within the pancreatic gland. MoAb CD 11b used for AP resulted in a significant reduction of pancreatic infiltration and pancreatitis oxidative stress parameters. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) was not detected in AP animals, whereas high serum IL-6 concentration was noted only in animals receiving LPS. CONCLUSION: Neutrophils are involved in pancreatic damage in the early stage of AP. Neutrophil infiltration reduction protects the pancreatic gland from destruction during AP. LPS does not change the early course of Cn pancreatitis in rats. PMID:16425416

  10. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury through Promoting Gastrointestinal Motility in Rats with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Zhao, Xian-Lin; Wan, Mei-Hua; Tang, Wen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Gastrointestinal disfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) were common in acute pancreatitis (AP). The effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and ALI in rats with AP was investigated to verify the theory of “lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related” in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, and EA group. AP model was established by three injections of 20% L-arginine at 1?h intervals. EA were applied to bilateral ST-25 and ST-36 for 30 minutes twice a day after modeling for 3 days. Arterial blood, pancreas, lung, and intestinal tissues were collected for detecting the inflammatory factors and histopathology. Intestinal propulsion rate (IPR) was also measured at 72?h. Results. EA treatment improved IPR and increased CCK-8 level compared with model group (P < 0.05). It lowered the serum levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and increased the level of IL-4 with no effect on IL-10. EA treatment reduced serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in the lung and the pathologic scores of pancreas, lung and intestine were decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. EA treatment could promote gastrointestinal motility through inhibiting VIP, and promoting CCK expression and regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators to ameliorate ALI in AP. PMID:24876883

  11. Antibiotics as Part of the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indi Trehan; Hayley S. Goldbach; Lacey N. LaGrone; Guthrie J. Meuli; Richard J. Wang; Kenneth M. Maleta; Mark J. Manary

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS—In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir,

  12. Spontaneous regression of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Tandazo, Wilson; Ortega, José; Mariscal, César

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm regression is a rare event. In particular, the spontaneous regression of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm has, to our knowledge, been previously documented in only two case reports. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanism of this event remains unclear. However, it is fully known that this vascular complication is potentially life-threatening and presents a high mortality rate if untreated. We report the case of a 49-year-old man affected by acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography was performed, and showed a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery. This patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to treat the pancreatitis, while the vascular complication was managed with a careful and conservative treatment. On day 6 of hospitalization, a second computed tomography scan was performed and revealed complete regression of the pseudoaneurysm. This case describes the diagnosis and management of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm following acute pancreatitis and its spontaneous regression. PMID:23750106

  13. Post-gastrectomy acute pancreatitis in a patient with gastric carcinoma and pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, I-Ming; Wang, Frank; Liu, Keng-Hao; Jan, Yi-Yin

    2009-09-28

    Gastrectomy is commonly performed for both benign and malignant lesions. Although the incidence of post-gastrectomy acute pancreatitis (PGAP) is low compared to other well-recognized post-operative complications, it has been reported to be associated with a high mortality rate. In this article, we describe a 70-year-old man with asymptomatic pancreatic divisum who underwent palliative subtotal gastrectomy for an advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis. His post-operative course was complicated by acute pancreatitis and intra-abdominal sepsis. The patient eventually succumbed to multiple organ failure despite surgical debridement and drainage, together with aggressive antibiotic therapy and nutritional support. For patients with pancreas divisum or dominant duct of Santorini who fail to follow the normal post-operative course after gastrectomy, clinicians should be alert to the possibility of PGAP as one of the potential diagnoses. Early detection and aggressive treatment of PGAP might improve the prognosis. PMID:19777622

  14. A case of metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Marumo, Satoshi; Saitoh, Motoh; Kato, Motokazu

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a rare case of metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP) from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) diagnosed on autopsy, indicating a diagnosis of MIAP with SCLC. Our case suggests that MIAP can arise as a complication of SCLC and has an extremely poor prognosis.

  15. Association of two polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor gene with acute biliary pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dian-Liang Zhang; Jie-Shou Li; Zhi-Wei Jiang; Bao-Jun Yu; Xing-Ming Tang; Hong-Mei Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate TNF-?-308 and TNFB polymorphisms in acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) and to related them to the plasma TNF-? levels. METHODS: Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients (n=127) and healthy controls (n=102) using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Reading the size of digested

  16. Acute Pancreatitis after Embolization of Liver Tumors: Frequency and Associated Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. López-Benítez; B. A. Radeleff; H. M. Barragán-Campos; G. Noeldge; L. Grenacher; G. M. Richter; P. Sauer; M. Büchler; G. Kauffmann; P. J. Hallscheidt

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare complication after liver embolization (LE) of primary and secondary liver tumors (approximately 1.7%), but it has a significant morbidity and mortality potential if associated with other complications. It usually develops early within 24 h after the LE procedure. Study Purpose: To calculate the frequency of AP after LE in our institution and to

  17. [A neuropsychic form of acute pancreatitis in a child. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Destuynder, O; Aubert, D

    1987-01-01

    We report the case of an 11 year-old girl with idiopathic acute pancreatitis in whom initial clinical symptomatology was resumed in marked neuropsychic signs and atypical abdominal pain. In such unusual circumstances, measurement of amylase levels as well as abdominal echography are of value for the diagnosis. PMID:3451180

  18. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Rados?aw; Jab?onowska, Monika; ?ciskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanis?aw

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and ?-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  19. PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutations in idiopathic chronic and recurrent acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pelaez-Luna, Mario; Robles-Diaz, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify gene mutations in PRSS1 and SPINK1 in individuals with early onset idiopathic chronic or recurrent acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1; exons 2 and 3) and the serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1 gene (SPINK1; exon 3) were selectively amplified and sequenced from blood samples of 19 patients admitted to the Pancreas Clinic at our institution with chronic pancreatitis and/or idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis that were diagnosed or with onset before age 35. Fifty healthy volunteers served as controls. Whole blood samples were collected and gene specific sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All PCR products were subsequently sequenced in order to identify the presence of any mutations. RESULTS: Nineteen patients with pancreatitis (14 males; median age 24 years, range 15-48 years) were included in this study, of which five showed the presence of gene mutations. Direct sequencing results indicated the presence of two previously unidentified mutations in exon 2 of PRSS1 (V39E and N42S) in two patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. Two cases had the N34S SPINK1 mutation. Analysis of the relatives of one patient homozygous for this mutation showed that five of the six family members carried the N34S SPINK1 mutation. Of these members, three were healthy heterozygous carriers and two were homozygotes (one sibling had diabetes, the other was healthy). Another patient was heterozygous for a novel SPINK1 mutation located on exon 3 (V46D). All members from this patient’s family had normal genotypes, indicating that it was a de novo mutation. No mutations in either gene were present in the control subjects. CONCLUSION: Two novel PRSS1 mutations and one novel SPINK1 mutation were identified in Mexican patients with early onset idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:25206283

  20. New Insights into the Methodology of L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kui, Balázs; Balla, Zsolt; Vasas, Béla; Végh, Eszter T.; Pallagi, Petra; Kormányos, Eszter S.; Venglovecz, Viktória; Iványi, Béla; Takács, Tamás; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are ideal to study the pathomechanism and therapy of acute pancreatitis (AP). The use of L-arginine-induced AP model is nowadays becoming increasingly popular in mice. However, carefully looking through the literature, marked differences in disease severity could be observed. In fact, while setting up the L-arginine (2×4 g/kg i.p.)-induced AP model in BALB/c mice, we found a relatively low rate (around 15%) of pancreatic necrosis, whereas others have detected much higher rates (up to 55%). We suspected that this may be due to differences between mouse strains. We administered various concentrations (5–30%, pH = 7.4) and doses (2×4, 3×3, or 4×2.5 g/kg) of L-arginine-HCl in BALB/c, FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice. The potential gender-specific effect of L-arginine was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The fate of mice in response to the i.p. injections of L arginine followed one of three courses. Some mice (1) developed severe AP or (2) remained AP-free by 72 h, whereas others (3) had to be euthanized (to avoid their death, which was caused by the high dose of L-arginine and not AP) within 12 h., In FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice, the pancreatic necrosis rate (about 50%) was significantly higher than that observed in BALB/c mice using 2×4 g/kg 10% L–arginine, but euthanasia was necessary in a large proportion of animals, The i.p. injection of lower L-arginine concentrations (e.g. 5–8%) in case of the 2×4 g/kg dose, or other L-arginine doses (3×3 or 4×2.5 g/kg, 10%) were better for inducing AP. We could not detect any significant differences between the AP severity of male and female mice. Taken together, when setting up the L-arginine-induced AP model, there are several important factors that are worth consideration such as the dose and concentration of the administered L arginine-HCl solution and also the strain of mice. PMID:25688985

  1. New insights into the methodology of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kui, Balázs; Balla, Zsolt; Vasas, Béla; Végh, Eszter T; Pallagi, Petra; Kormányos, Eszter S; Venglovecz, Viktória; Iványi, Béla; Takács, Tamás; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are ideal to study the pathomechanism and therapy of acute pancreatitis (AP). The use of L-arginine-induced AP model is nowadays becoming increasingly popular in mice. However, carefully looking through the literature, marked differences in disease severity could be observed. In fact, while setting up the L-arginine (2×4 g/kg i.p.)-induced AP model in BALB/c mice, we found a relatively low rate (around 15%) of pancreatic necrosis, whereas others have detected much higher rates (up to 55%). We suspected that this may be due to differences between mouse strains. We administered various concentrations (5-30%, pH = 7.4) and doses (2×4, 3×3, or 4×2.5 g/kg) of L-arginine-HCl in BALB/c, FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice. The potential gender-specific effect of L-arginine was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The fate of mice in response to the i.p. injections of L arginine followed one of three courses. Some mice (1) developed severe AP or (2) remained AP-free by 72 h, whereas others (3) had to be euthanized (to avoid their death, which was caused by the high dose of L-arginine and not AP) within 12 h., In FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice, the pancreatic necrosis rate (about 50%) was significantly higher than that observed in BALB/c mice using 2×4 g/kg 10% L-arginine, but euthanasia was necessary in a large proportion of animals, The i.p. injection of lower L-arginine concentrations (e.g. 5-8%) in case of the 2×4 g/kg dose, or other L-arginine doses (3×3 or 4×2.5 g/kg, 10%) were better for inducing AP. We could not detect any significant differences between the AP severity of male and female mice. Taken together, when setting up the L-arginine-induced AP model, there are several important factors that are worth consideration such as the dose and concentration of the administered L arginine-HCl solution and also the strain of mice. PMID:25688985

  2. 1H NMR global metabolic phenotyping of acute pancreatitis in the emergency unit.

    PubMed

    Villaseńor, Alma; Kinross, James M; Li, Jia V; Penney, Nicholas; Barton, Richard H; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Darzi, Ara; Barbas, Coral; Holmes, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the urinary and plasma metabolic phenotype of acute pancreatitis (AP) patients presenting to the emergency room at a single center London teaching hospital with acute abdominal pain using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. Patients were allocated to either the AP (n = 15) or non-AP patients group (all other causes of abdominal pain, n = 21) on the basis of the national guidelines. Patients were assessed for three clinical outcomes: (1) diagnosis of AP, (2) etiology of AP caused by alcohol consumption and cholelithiasis, and (3) AP severity based on the Glasgow score. Samples from AP patients were characterized by high levels of urinary ketone bodies, glucose, plasma choline and lipid, and relatively low levels of urinary hippurate, creatine and plasma-branched chain amino acids. AP could be reliably identified with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (OPLS-DA model R(2) = 0.76 and Q(2)Y = 0.59) using panel of discriminatory biomarkers consisting of guanine, hippurate and creatine (urine), and valine, alanine and lipoproteins (plasma). Metabolic phenotyping was also able to distinguish between cholelithiasis and colonic inflammation among the heterogeneous non-AP group. This work has demonstrated that combinatorial biomarkers have a strong diagnostic and prognostic potential in AP with relevance to clinical decision making in the emergency unit. PMID:25160714

  3. Relative quantification of albumin and fibrinogen modifications by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the diagnosis and monitoring of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lankes, Ulrich; Brennan, Stephen O; Walmsley, Trevor A; George, Peter M

    2015-04-15

    The increasing availability of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical laboratories provides the opportunity to replace or complement present underperforming immuno- and chemometric assays. Amylase and lipase show limited specificity and sensitivity for pancreatic inflammation and lack the capacity of monitoring the disease due to their short half-lives. Previous findings suggested that cleavage products of the pancreatic enzyme carboxypeptidase A could be a more suitable indicator for defining and classifying pancreatic inflammation. The plasma proteins albumin and ?-fibrinogen were digested with trypsin and truncated forms (des-Leu-albumin, and des-Gln-?-fibrinogen) quantified against their non-truncated forms by LC-MS/MS. Four hundred fifty eight samples from 83 patients were used to evaluate the novel method and affirm its suitability for detecting acute pancreatitis. A robust, selective, precise and accurate LC-MS/MS method was set up to measure the proportion of truncated proteins. Reference ranges for the proportion of the truncated albumin and ?-fibrinogen were from 2% to 9% and 3% to 25%, respectively. Acute pancreatitis patients had values above these ranges and were distinctly separated from reference control individuals. The longer circulating half-lives of albumin and fibrinogen compared to pancreatic enzymes themselves provide the potential to diagnose pancreatitis more specifically over a longer time period, to monitor the course of the disease, and to track recurrent complications. The wide range of the proportion and the differential half-life of both truncated proteins could also be used for assessing the severity of pancreatitis. PMID:25770789

  4. The role of diagnostic radiology in pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Elmas, N

    2001-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a frequent inflammatory and necrotic process of pancreas and peripancreatic field. To detect the presence of infected or sterile necrotic components and hemorrhage of the pancreatic paranchyma is important for therapeutic approach. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irreversible exocrine dysfunction, progressive loss of pancreatic tissue and morphological changes of the pancreatic canal. Imaging modalities play a primary role in the management of both acute and cronic pancreatitis. CT and MR imaging confirm the diagnosis and detect the severity of disease. In chronic pancreatitis, MRCP after Secretin administration, Spiral CT and endoscopic US seems to replace diagnostic ERCP. However differentiation of pseudotumor of chronic pancreatitis from the pancreatic carcinoma is difficult with either imaging modalities. PMID:11335094

  5. Estimation of plasma esterolytic activity and it's in vitro inhibition by proteinase inhibitors during acute pancreatitis in the human.

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, K. J.; Cuschieri, A.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma esterolytic activity was measured using benzyol arginine ethyl ester (BAEe) in the peripheral venous blood of patients with acute pancreatitis, normal healthy volunteers and a contrast group of patients with acute intrabdominal inflammations other than acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity was significantly elevated in the pancreatitis group. This activity was maximal during the first 48 hours of the illness and remained elevated for a further 8 days thereafter. Aprotinin in a dose of 2000 K.I. u/0-3 ml plasma did not completely inhibit this esterolytic activity, although it resulted in a more substantial inhibition than either ovomucoid or soy bean inhibitor. It is concluded that pancreatic enzymes are released into the circulation during acute pancreatitis and that Aprotinin does not completely inhibit this proteolytic activity. This polyvalent proteinase inhibitor should therefore be administered in much higher dosage than that used hitherto in acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity seems to be of diagnostic value in acute pancreatitis. PMID:1083738

  6. Sterile Fluid Collections in Acute Pancreatitis: Catheter Drainage Versus Simple Aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, Eric M. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: walser.eric@mayo.edu; Nealon, William H. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Surgery (United States); Marroquin, Santiago; Raza, Syed; Hernandez, J. Alberto; Vasek, James [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To compare the clinical outcome of needle aspiration versus percutaneous catheter drainage of sterile fluid collections in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. We reviewed the clinical and imaging data of patients with acute pancreatic fluid collections from 1998 to 2003. Referral for fluid sampling was based on elevated white blood cell count and fevers. Those patients with culture-negative drainages or needle aspirations were included in the study. Fifteen patients had aspiration of 10-20 ml fluid only (group A) and 22 patients had catheter placement for chronic evacuation of fluid (group C). We excluded patients with grossly purulent collections and chronic pseudocysts. We also recorded the number of sinograms and catheter changes and duration of catheter drainage. The CT severity index, Ranson scores, and maximum diameter of abdominal fluid collections were calculated for all patients at presentation. The total length of hospital stay (LOS), length of hospital stay after the drainage or aspiration procedure (LOS-P), and conversions to percutaneous and/or surgical drainage were recorded as well as survival. Results. The CT severity index and acute Ransom scores were not different between the two groups (p = 0.15 and p = 0.6, respectively). When 3 crossover patients from group A to group C were accounted for, the duration of hospitalization did not differ significantly, with a mean LOS and LOS-P of 33.8 days and 27.9 days in group A and 41.5 days and 27.6 days in group C, respectively (p = 0.57 and 0.98, respectively). The 60-day mortality was 2 of 15 (13%) in group A and 2 of 22 (9.1%) in group C. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different (p 0.3). Surgical or percutaneous conversions occurred significantly more often in group A (7/15, 47%) than surgical conversions in group C (4/22, 18%) (p 0.03). Patients undergoing catheter drainage required an average of 2.2 sinograms/tube changes and kept catheters in for an average of 52 days. Aspirates turned culture-positive in 13 of 22 patients (59%) who had chronic catheterization. In group A, 3 of the 7 patients converted to percutaneous or surgical drainage had infected fluid at the time of conversion (total positive culture rate in group A 3/15 or 20%). Conclusions. There is no apparent clinical benefit for catheter drainage of sterile fluid collections arising in acute pancreatitis as the length of hospital stay and mortality were similar between patients undergoing aspiration versus catheter drainage. However, almost half of patients treated with simple aspiration will require surgical or percutaneous drainage at some point. Disadvantages of chronic catheter drainage include a greater than 50% rate of bacterial colonization and the need for multiple sinograms and tube changes over an average duration of about 2 months.

  7. Effects of pancreatic duct ligation and aging on acute taurocholate-induced pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wataru Kimura; Kenji Okubo; Ilsoo Han; Setsuko Kanai; Akira Matsushita; Tetsuichiro Muto; Kyoko Miyasaka

    1996-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a When taurocholate was injected into the common bile duct, high ductal pressure due to ligation of the pancreatic duct did\\u000a not produce more damage in the pancreas of both old rats and young adult rats, and levels of pancreatic enzymes in portal\\u000a venous effluent were lower in old rats than in younger rats\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  The effects of ligation of

  8. Diagnostic Relevance of Interleukin Pattern, Acute-Phase Proteins, and Procalcitonin in Early Phase of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Oezcueruemez-Porsch; D. Kunz; P. D. Hardt; T. Fadgyas; O. Kress; H. U. Schulz; H. Schnell-Kretschmer; H. Temme; S. Westphal; C. Luley; H. U. Kloer

    1998-01-01

    Post-endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis has beensuggested as a model for acute pancreatitis (AP), whichallows evaluation of early alterations in the timecourse of the disease. The influence of the clinical courseon procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A (SAA), andseveral proinflammatory and inhibitory cytokines wasevaluated in patients with AP following ERCP. Blood samples were prospectively collected frompatients undergoing ERCP. The incidence of ERCP-inducedpancreatic

  9. Chylomicronemia Syndrome in Pregnancy: a Case Report of an Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, D.; Schyrba, V.; Drack, G.; Schöning, A.; Stage, A.; Hornung, R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Chylomicronemia syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder characterized by a high level of triglycerides in plasma. We present a case of a pregnant woman with a severe acute pancreatitis (AP) affected by a CS. Case: A 38-year-old gravida 2, para 0 with an uneventful course of pregnancy was referred with an AP at 37 0/7 weeks of gestation. This diagnosis was made from a nearby hospital where the chemical analysis showed elevated pancreatic enzymes with significant hypertriglyceridemia. Because of a pathological fetal heart tracing a caesarean delivery was performed. The APGAR score of the female newborn was 5/8/8 at 1, 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. The pH from the umbilical cord were 7.26 (artery) and 7.59 (vein). Once transferred to our intensive care unit a computer tomography scan confirmed an onset of a necrotizing AP. A conservative treatment was tried without success. For this reason a surgical debridement of the infected and necrosic parts was performed. After a long hospitalisation the patient could be dismissed after 2.5 months in good general condition. Discussion: Lipid profile changes in normal pregnancy are characterized by an elevation of total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This is normally caused by an increased liver synthesis of triglycerides in response to elevated estrogen levels. When a CS is diagnosed the main goal is to maintain fasting triglyceride levels at less than 500?mg/dL to reduce the risk for AP. Conclusion: Practitioners have an important role in evaluating chylomicronemic patients and implementing therapeutic lifestyle and pharmaceutic interventions aimed to reduce the risk for AP. PMID:25308985

  10. Use of Gene Expression Profiles in Cells of Peripheral Blood to Identify New Molecular Markers of Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Vanderveen; Richard J. Bold; Martin Bluth; Yin-yao Lin; Hong Zhang; Domenico Viterbo; Michael Zenilman; Nita Ahuja; Yukihiro Yokoyama; Masato Nagino; Koji Oda; Hideki Nishio; Tomoki Ebata; Jason K. Sicklick; Frederic Eckhauser; Peter J. Mazzaglia; Eren Berber; Alexandra Kovach; Mira Milas; Caldwell Esselstyn; Allan E. Siperstein; Edgar J. B. Furnee; Werner A. Draaisma; Ivo A. M. J. Broeders; Andre J. P. M. Smout; Hein G. Gooszen

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis: Blood leukocytes play a major role in mediating local and systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in circulation exhibit unique changes in gene expression and could provide a \\

  11. Pancreatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids. PMID:23148855

  12. Alterations of Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression on Peripheral Blood Monocytes During the Early Stage of Human Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Guang Li; Zong-Guang Zhou; Yuan Li; Xue-Lian Zheng; Song Lei; Lin Zhu; Yong Wang

    2007-01-01

    We sought to study Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during the early stage\\u000a of human acute pancreatitis (AP). Thirty consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis admitted within 24 hr of onset of abdominal\\u000a pain were enrolled prospectively in this study. Blood samples were taken by venipuncture at admission and on the third and\\u000a seventh days

  13. Rosiglitazone, a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, reduces acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Cuzzocrea; Barbara Pisano; Laura Dugo; Angela Ianaro; Domenico Britti; Nimesh S. A. Patel; RosannaDi Paola; Tiziana Genovese; MassimoDi Rosa; Achille P. Caputi; Christoph Thiemermann

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveIn the present study, we investigated the effects of rosiglitazone (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.), a PPAR-? agonist, on the development of acute pancreatitis.DesignIntraperitoneal injection of cerulein in mice induced an acute pancreatitis characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration elevated serum levels of amylase and lipase. This experimental model was performed to test the anti-inflammatory activity of rosiglitazone.SettingUniversity research laboratory.InterventionsMale CD mice (20–22 g) were

  14. Catalpol ameliorates sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis in rats via inhibiting activation of nuclear factor kappa B.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen Qin; Yin, Guo Jian; Fan, Yu Ting; Qiu, Lei; Cang, Xiao Feng; Yu, Ge; Hu, Yan Ling; Xing, Miao; Wu, De Qing; Wang, Xing Peng; Hu, Guo Yong; Wan, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia glutinosa, is reported to exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptotic effects. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether catalpol ameliorates experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by sodium taurocholate (STC). AP was induced in rats via retrograde injection of 4% STC (0.1 mL/100 g) into the biliopancreatic duct. Rats were pre-treated with saline or catalpol (50 mg/kg) 2 h before STC injection. At 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, the severity of AP was evaluated using biochemical and morphological analyses. Pretreatment with catalpol led to a significant reduction in serum amylase and lipase activities, pancreatic histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? levels, and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). Moreover, administration of catalpol increased the viability of pancreatic acinar cells and inhibited NF-?B expression in vitro. Our results collectively support the potential of catalpol as a highly effective therapeutic agent for treatment of AP. PMID:25000266

  15. Catalpol Ameliorates Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Inhibiting Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wen Qin; Yin, Guo Jian; Fan, Yu Ting; Qiu, Lei; Cang, Xiao Feng; Yu, Ge; Hu, Yan Ling; Xing, Miao; Wu, De Qing; Wang, Xing Peng; Hu, Guo Yong; Wan, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia glutinosa, is reported to exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptotic effects. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether catalpol ameliorates experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by sodium taurocholate (STC). AP was induced in rats via retrograde injection of 4% STC (0.1 mL/100 g) into the biliopancreatic duct. Rats were pre-treated with saline or catalpol (50 mg/kg) 2 h before STC injection. At 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, the severity of AP was evaluated using biochemical and morphological analyses. Pretreatment with catalpol led to a significant reduction in serum amylase and lipase activities, pancreatic histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? levels, and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). Moreover, administration of catalpol increased the viability of pancreatic acinar cells and inhibited NF-?B expression in vitro. Our results collectively support the potential of catalpol as a highly effective therapeutic agent for treatment of AP. PMID:25000266

  16. Spontaneous rupture of a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma presenting as an acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Porghasem, Jalal; Esmaeili, Arefeh; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is a rare malignant pancreatic neoplasm. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report on spontaneous rupture of acinar cell carcinoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 39-year-old Azari male presented with a history of sudden onset, acute epigastric pain of 12-h duration. Eight hours later the patient's general condition rapidly deteriorated, blood pressure was decreased to 90/70 mm/Hg and heart rate was increased to 120 beat/min. Emergent abdominal computed tomography scan showed a well-defined hypo-dense, necrotic mass, measured 12 cm × 12 cm that was originating from the uncinate process of pancreas with marked free peritoneal fluid and extensive haziness of retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat compatible with marked bleeding. Emergent abdominal operation was performed and histopathology revealed acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. DISCUSSION Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) usually presents with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. To best of our knowledge, no report has been made of spontaneous rupture of ACC. CONCLUSION Pancreatic carcinoma may present as acute abdomen due to rupture of underlying neoplasm. PMID:22543229

  17. Antioxidant therapy in the management of acute, chronic and post-ERCP pancreatitis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Monfared, Seyed Sajad Mohseni Salehi; Vahidi, Hamed; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the clinical trials which recruited antioxidants in the therapy of pancreatitis and evaluated whether antioxidants improve the outcome of patients with pancreatitis. Electronic bibliographic databases were searched for any studies which investigated the use of antioxidants in the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP) and in the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) up to February 2009. Twenty-two randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials met our criteria and were included in the review. Except for a cocktail of antioxidants which showed improvement in outcomes in three different clinical trials, the results of the administration of other antioxidants in both AP and CP clinical trials were incongruent and heterogeneous. Furthermore, antioxidant therapy including allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine failed to prevent the onset of PEP in almost all trials. In conclusion, the present data do not support a benefit of antioxidant therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapy in the management of AP, CP or PEP. Further double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample size need to be conducted. PMID:19777606

  18. In Vivo Imaging with Fluorescent Smart Probes to Assess Treatment Strategies for Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhiruchi; Boettcher, Andreas; Kneuer, Rainer; Sari-Sarraf, Farid; Donovan, Adriana; Woelcke, Julian; Simic, Oliver; Brandl, Trixi; Krucker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Endoprotease activation is a key step in acute pancreatitis and early inhibition of these enzymes may protect from organ damage. In vivo models commonly used to evaluate protease inhibitors require animal sacrifice and therefore limit the assessment of dynamic processes. Here, we established a non-invasive fluorescence imaging-based biomarker assay to assess real-time protease inhibition and disease progression in a preclinical model of experimental pancreatitis. Methods Edema development and trypsin activation were imaged in a rat caerulein-injection pancreatitis model. A fluorescent “smart” probe, selectively activated by trypsin, was synthesized by labeling with Cy5.5 of a pegylated poly-L-lysine copolymer. Following injection of the probe, trypsin activation was monitored in the presence or absence of inhibitors by in vivo and ex vivo imaging. Results We established the trypsin-selectivity of the fluorescent probe in vitro using a panel of endopeptidases and specific inhibitor. In vivo, the probe accumulated in the liver and a region attributed to the pancreas by necropsy. A dose dependent decrease of total pancreatic fluorescence signal occurred upon administration of known trypsin inhibitors. The fluorescence-based method was a better predictor of trypsin inhibition than pancreatic to body weight ratio. Conclusions We established a fluorescence imaging assay to access trypsin inhibition in real-time in vivo. This method is more sensitive and dynamic than classic tissue sample readouts and could be applied to preclinically optimize trypsin inhibitors towards intrapancreatic target inhibition. PMID:23409095

  19. Impaired autophagic flux mediates acinar cell vacuole formation and trypsinogen activation in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mareninova, Olga A.; Hermann, Kip; French, Samuel W.; O’Konski, Mark S.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Webster, Paul; Erickson, Ann H.; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Gorelick, Fred S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanisms underlying acute pancreatitis are not clear. Two key pathologic acinar cell responses of this disease are vacuole accumulation and trypsinogen activation. We show here that both result from defective autophagy, by comparing the autophagic responses in rodent models of acute pancreatitis to physiologic autophagy triggered by fasting. Pancreatitis-induced vacuoles in acinar cells were greater in number and much larger than those induced with fasting. Degradation of long-lived proteins, a measure of autophagic efficiency, was markedly inhibited in in vitro pancreatitis, while it was stimulated by acinar cell starvation. Further, processing of the lysosomal proteases cathepsin L (CatL) and CatB into their fully active, mature forms was reduced in pancreatitis, as were their activities in the lysosome-enriched subcellular fraction. These findings indicate that autophagy is retarded in pancreatitis due to deficient lysosomal degradation caused by impaired cathepsin processing. Trypsinogen activation occurred in pancreatitis but not with fasting and was prevented by inhibiting autophagy. A marker of trypsinogen activation partially localized to autophagic vacuoles, and pharmacologic inhibition of CatL increased the amount of active trypsin in acinar cells. The results suggest that retarded autophagy is associated with an imbalance between CatL, which degrades trypsinogen and trypsin, and CatB, which converts trypsinogen into trypsin, resulting in intra-acinar accumulation of active trypsin in pancreatitis. Thus, deficient lysosomal degradation may be a dominant mechanism for increased intra-acinar trypsin in pancreatitis. PMID:19805911

  20. Recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates the severity of chronic pancreatitis induced by TNBS in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunfang; Shen, Jiaqing; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Zhenyu; He, Zhilong; Zhuang, Xiaohui; Xu, Ting; Shi, Yuqi; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Han, Wei

    2015-02-15

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in the department of gastroenterology, with the main symptoms of exocrine and/or endocrine insufficiency and abdominal pain. The pathogenic mechanism of CP is still not fully clarified and the aims of treatment now are to relieve symptoms. In this study, we attempted to find a connection between interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic pancreatitis, and then the therapeutic effect of recombinant IL-1Ra was also detected in the CP model. Chronic pancreatitis was induced by intraductal infusion of TNBS in SD rats followed by a consecutive administration of rIL-1Ra, and the histological changes and collagen content in the pancreas were measured, as well as the abdominal hypersensitivity. We found that rhIL-1Ra could attenuate the severity of chronic pancreatic injury, modulate the extracellular matrix secretion, focal proliferation and apoptosis, and cellular immunity in TNBS-induced CP. Interestingly, rIL-1Ra could also block the pancreatitis-induced referred abdominal hypersensitivity. In conclusion, IL-1Ra may play a protective role in CP and rIL-1Ra would be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CP, while its possible mechanisms and clinical usage still need further investigation. PMID:25559498

  1. [Apropos of a case of acute pancreatitis revealing cystic dilatation of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Kabbaj, N; Ababou, A; el Fakir, Y; Amarouch, N; Dafiri, R; Sbihi, A; Imani, F

    1998-11-01

    Dilatation of the common bile duct is rarely caused by cystic formations. Though the pathogenesis is uncertain, congenital disorders have been suggested. Most cases are observed in small children (80% female predominance) with only 20% of the cases reported in adults. Clinical signs vary. Recurrent acute pancreatitis has been reported but is rare. New imaging techniques using CT-scan cholangiography and sometimes MR cholangiography have greatly improved the diagnostic approach. MR of the bile ducts is a recent noninvasive technique enabling an analysis of the biliopancreatic ducts without contrast injection into the bile. To our knowledge, cystic dilatation of the common bile duct has not been previously reported in the literature. We report an interesting case in a 25-year-old woman who developed an episode of acute pancreatitis during the post partum period. We describe the clinical aspects and the different imaging findings, including magnetic resonance cholangiography results. PMID:9846293

  2. The role of tumor necrosis factor-? in the aggravation of cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Sameshima; Satoshi Ikei; Katsutaka Mori; Yasuo Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Egami; Mikio Misumi; Masaya Moriyasu; Michio Ogawa

    1993-01-01

    Summary  Severe acute pancreatitis is often complicated by intraperitoneal infection, resulting in multiple organ failure (MOF). It\\u000a is known to elevate serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) in patients with sepsis and\\/or MOF. In order to study the role of\\u000a TNF-? in the aggravation of acute pancreatitis, we investigated TNF-? production by peritoneal macrophages in acute pancreatitis\\u000a rat using the cerulein-induced pancreatitis

  3. Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-wan Seo; Hyun-na Koo; An Hyo-jin; Kang-beom Kwon; Byung-cheal Lim; Eun-a Seo; Do-gon Ryu; Goo Moon; Hong-yeoul Kim; Hyung-min Kim; Seung-heon Hong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract AIM: Taraxacum,officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy,for inflammatory,diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TO on cholecystokinin (CCK)-octapeptide-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: TO at 10 mg\\/kg was orally administered, followed by 75 µg\\/kg CCK octapeptide injected subcutaneously,three times after 1, 3 and 5 h. This whole procedure was repeated

  4. Delayed Production of IL18 in Lungs and Pancreas of Rats with Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Pastor; Denis R. Morel; Alain Vonlaufen; Eduardo Schiffer; Pierre Lescuyer; Jean-Louis Frossard

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: During acute pancreatitis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 play a pivotal role in promoting injury in the pancreas and remote organs. IL- 18 is a more recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine whose expression is also increased in serum. However, the profile of IL-18 expression in the pancreas and lung is unknown, and the aim of our study

  5. Acute pancreatitis after EUS-guided FNA of solid pancreatic masses: a pooled analysis from EUS centers in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad A. Eloubeidi; Frank G. Gress; Thomas J. Savides; Maurits J. Wiersema; Michael L. Kochman; Nuzhat A. Ahmad; Gregory G. Ginsberg; Richard A. Erickson; John DeWitt; Jacques Van Dam; Nicholas J. Nickl; Michael J. Levy; Jonathan E. Clain; Amitabh Chak; Michael V. Sivak; Richard Wong; Gerard Isenberg; James M. Scheiman; Brenna Bounds; Michael B. Kimmey; Michael D. Saunders; Kenneth J. Chang; Ashish Sharma; Phoniex Nguyen; John G. Lee; Steven A. Edmundowicz; Dayna Early; Riad Azar; Babak Etemad; Yang K. Chen; Irving Waxman; Vanessa Shami; Mark F. Catalano; C. Mel Wilcox

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the severity of pancreatitis after EUS-guided FNA of solid pancreatic masses. A survey of centers that offer training in EUS in the United States was conducted.

  6. Indwelling catheter and conservative measures in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in fulminant acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhao-Xi; Huang, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Hong

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of combined indwelling catheter, hemofiltration, respiration support and traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Dahuang) in treating abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Patients with fulminant acute pancreatitis were divided randomly into 2 groups of combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring and routine conservative measures group (group 1) and control group (group 2). Routine non-operative conservative treatments including hemofiltration, respiration support, gastrointestinal TCM ablution were also applied in control group patients. Effectiveness of the two groups was observed, and APACHE II scores were applied for analysis. RESULTS: On the second and fifth days after treatment, APACHE II scores of group 1 and 2 patients were significantly different. Comparison of effectiveness (abdominalgia and burbulence relief time, hospitalization time) between groups 1 and 2 showed significant difference, as well as incidence rates of cysts formation. Mortality rates of groups 1 and 2 were 10.0% and 20.7%, respectively. For patients in group 1, celiac drainage quantity and intra-abdominal pressure, and hospitalization time were positively correlated (r = 0.552, 0.748, 0.923, P < 0.01) with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSION: Combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring, short veno-venous hemofiltration (SVVH), gastrointestinal TCM ablution, respiration support have preventive and treatment effects on abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. PMID:16937509

  7. Influence of interleukin-1? and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms on the development of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chi, D Z; Chen, J; Huang, D P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between 3 main proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6] and the risk of acute pancreatitis. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to genotype IL-1?+3954 C/T (rs1143634) and IL-1?-511 C/T (rs16944) and IL-6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) and IL-6 -634 C/G (rs1800796). The genotype distributions of IL-1?+3954 C/T (rs1143634) and IL-1?-511 C/T (rs16944) and IL-6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) and IL-6 -634 C/G (rs1800796) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the control group. Multivariate regression analyses showed that subjects carrying the rs1143634 TT genotype had a significantly increased risk of acute pancreatitis, with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.11 (1.03-4.51). Subjects carrying the IL-1? rs1143634 TT genotype had a significantly increased risk of acute pancreatitis in our Chinese population. PMID:25730036

  8. The effect of interleukin-6 on bacterial translocation in acute canine pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Liu; Goldie Djuricin; Catherine Nathan; Paolo Gattuso; Robert A. Weinstein; Richard A. Prinz

    2000-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background. Bacterial translocation from the gut to mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites is an important source of\\u000a infection in acute pancreatitis. Impaired host immunity is known to promote bacterial translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6)\\u000a is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates the immune response, acute phase reaction, and hematopoiesis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Twenty-four mongrel dogs (18–29 kg) were studied in four equal

  9. Multicenter Approach to Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States: The North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2)

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, David C.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Adam, Slivka; Hawes, Robert H.; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Bishop, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; Lo, Simon K.; DeMeo, Mark T.; Steinberg, William M.; Kochman, Michael L.; Etemad, Babak; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Elinoff, Beth; Greer, Julia B.; O’Connell, Michael; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are complex syndromes associated with numerous etiologies, clinical variables and complications. We developed the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2) to be sufficiently powered to understand the complex environmental, metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying RAP and CP. Methods Between August 2000 and September 2006, a consortium of 20 expert academic and private sites prospectively ascertained 1,000 human subjects with RAP or CP, plus 695 controls (spouse, family, friend or unrelated). Standardized questionnaires were completed by both the physicians and study subjects and blood was drawn for genomic DNA and biomarker studies. All data were double-entered into a database and systematically reviewed to minimize errors and include missing data. Results A total of 1,000 subjects (460 RAP, 540 CP) and 695 controls who completed consent forms and questionnaires and donated blood samples comprised the final dataset. Data were organized according to diagnosis, supporting documentation, etiological classification, clinical signs and symptoms (including pain patterns and duration, and quality of life), past medical history, family history, environmental exposures (including alcohol and tobacco use), medication use and therapeutic interventions. Upon achieving the target enrollment, data were organized and classified to facilitate future analysis. The approaches, rationale and datasets are described, along with final demographic results. Conclusion The NAPS2 consortium has successfully completed a prospective ascertainment of 1,000 subjects with RAP and CP from the USA. These data will be useful in elucidating the environmental, metabolic and genetic conditions, and to investigate the complex interactions that underlie RAP and CP. PMID:18765957

  10. Roles of Cav3.2 and TRPA1 channels targeted by hydrogen sulfide in pancreatic nociceptive processing in mice with or without acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuka; Fujimura, Mayuko; Nishimura, Sachiyo; Tsubota, Maho; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), formed by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), targets Ca(v)3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T channels) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), facilitating somatic pain. Pancreatitis-related pain also appears to involve activation of T channels by H(2)S formed by the upregulated CSE. Therefore, this study investigates the roles of the Ca(v)3.2 isoform and/or TRPA1 in pancreatic nociception in the absence and presence of pancreatitis. In anesthetized mice, AP18, a TRPA1 inhibitor, abolished the Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn caused by injection of a TRPA1 agonist into the pancreatic duct. As did mibefradil, a T-channel inhibitor, in our previous report, AP18 prevented the Fos expression following ductal NaHS, an H(2)S donor. In the mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, the referred hyperalgesia was suppressed by NNC 55-0396 (NNC), a selective T-channel inhibitor; zinc chloride; or ascorbic acid, known to inhibit Ca(v)3.2 selectively among three T-channel isoforms; and knockdown of Ca(v)3.2. In contrast, AP18 and knockdown of TRPA1 had no significant effect on the cerulein-induced referred hyperalgesia, although they significantly potentiated the antihyperalgesic effect of NNC at a subeffective dose. TRPA1 but not Ca(v)3.2 in the dorsal root ganglia was downregulated at a protein level in mice with cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The data indicate that TRPA1 and Ca(v)3.2 mediate the exogenous H(2)S-induced pancreatic nociception in naďve mice and suggest that, in the mice with pancreatitis, Ca(v)3.2 targeted by H(2)S primarily participates in the pancreatic pain, whereas TRPA1 is downregulated and plays a secondary role in pancreatic nociceptive signaling. PMID:25267397

  11. Relationship of strain-dependent susceptibility to experimentally induced acute pancreatitis with regulation of Prss1 and Spink3 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Suyama, Koichi; Hirota, Masahiko; Ozaki, Nobuyuki; Baba, Hideo; Nakagata, Naomi; Araki, Kimi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2010-05-01

    To analyze susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, five mouse strains including Japanese Fancy Mouse 1 (JF1), C57BL/6J, BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/HeJ were treated with either a cholecystokinin analog, cerulein, or a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein was highest in C3H/HeJ and CBA/J, moderate in BALB/c, and mildest in C57BL/6J and JF1. Basal protein expression levels of the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 3 (Spink3) were higher in JF1 and C57BL/6J mice than those of the other three strains under normal feeding conditions. After treatment with cerulein, expression level of Spink3 increased remarkably in JF1 and mildly in C57BL/6J, BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/HeJ strains. Increased proteinase, serine, 1 (Prss1) protein expression accompanied by increased trypsin activity with cerulein treatment was observed in susceptible strains such as CBA/J and C3H/HeJ. Similar results were obtained with a CDE diet. In the 3 kb Spink3 promoter region, 92 or 8 nucleotide changes were found in JF1 or C3H vs C57BL/6J, respectively, whereas in the Prss1 promoter region 39 or 46 nucleotide changes were found in JF1 or C3H vs C57BL/6J, respectively. These results suggest that regulation of Prss1 and Spink3 expression is involved in the susceptibility to experimentally induced pancreatitis. The JF1 strain, which is derived from the Japanese wild mouse, will be useful to examine new mechanisms that may not be found in other laboratory mouse strains. PMID:20157294

  12. Antibiotics as Part of the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Indi; Goldbach, Hayley S.; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Meuli, Guthrie J.; Wang, Richard J.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. The primary outcomes were the rate of nutritional recovery and the mortality rate. RESULTS A total of 2767 children with severe acute malnutrition were enrolled. In the amoxicillin, cefdinir, and placebo groups, 88.7%, 90.9%, and 85.1% of the children recovered, respectively (relative risk of treatment failure with placebo vs. amoxicillin, 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.68; relative risk with placebo vs. cefdinir, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.11). The mortality rates for the three groups were 4.8%, 4.1%, and 7.4%, respectively (relative risk of death with placebo vs. amoxicillin, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.24; relative risk with placebo vs. cefdinir, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.64). Among children who recovered, the rate of weight gain was increased among those who received antibiotics. No interaction between type of severe acute malnutrition and intervention group was observed for either the rate of nutritional recovery or the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS The addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. (Funded by the Hickey Family Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01000298.) PMID:23363496

  13. The simultaneous incidence of acute pancreatitis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a rare duo in a patient with SLE

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A young female presented with acute abdominal pain of two days duration consistent with acute pancreatitis. During her stay in the hospital she had a sudden drop in hemoglobin to 6 g/dl without any overt blood loss. On evaluation, it was evident that she had acute pancreatitis, in addition to displaying features of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She had been a known case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and had discontinued her treatment. She was managed with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Her clinical condition improved, and she has been regularly attending our clinic for the last 2 years. According to a literature search in Medline, it would appear that this is the first report of a case in which SLE with autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been associated with acute pancreatitis in a single case. PMID:25276114

  14. An unexpected ending: brain death following acute severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Galluccio, Steven T; Rai, Sumeet; Sharley, Peter

    2008-09-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented to our hospital with acute severe asthma. As a consequence of severe refractory airflow limitation, moderate hypercapnia ensued for several days. Unexpectedly, the patient died as a result of brain stem herniation, in the absence of hypoxaemia, arterial hypotension or an intracranial mass lesion. We discuss the mechanisms that may have precipitated severe intracranial hypertension resulting in brain death, and the possible methods to detect and avoid such a devastating consequence. PMID:18798723

  15. Effects of the Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Mitoquinone in Murine Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Li; Szatmary, Peter; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Armstrong, Jane; Chvanov, Michael; Tepikin, Alexei V.; Murphy, Michael P.; Sutton, Robert; Criddle, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Although oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis (AP), antioxidant therapy in patients has so far been discouraging. The aim of this study was to assess potential protective effects of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, in experimental AP using in vitro and in vivo approaches. MitoQ blocked H2O2-induced intracellular ROS responses in murine pancreatic acinar cells, an action not shared by the control analogue dTPP. MitoQ did not reduce mitochondrial depolarisation induced by either cholecystokinin (CCK) or bile acid TLCS, and at 10?µM caused depolarisation per se. Both MitoQ and dTPP increased basal and CCK-induced cell death in a plate-reader assay. In a TLCS-induced AP model MitoQ treatment was not protective. In AP induced by caerulein hyperstimulation (CER-AP), MitoQ exerted mixed effects. Thus, partial amelioration of histopathology scores was observed, actions shared by dTPP, but without reduction of the biochemical markers pancreatic trypsin or serum amylase. Interestingly, lung myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 were concurrently increased by MitoQ in CER-AP. MitoQ caused biphasic effects on ROS production in isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, inhibiting an acute increase but elevating later levels. Our results suggest that MitoQ would be inappropriate for AP therapy, consistent with prior antioxidant evaluations in this disease.

  16. Elevated Deoxycholic Acid and Idiopathic Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report With 48 Months of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening condition with a well-established differential diagnosis. In a significant number of cases, no explanation exists. This case report documents one patient with a clear pattern of recurrent acute pancreatitis and no identifiable cause despite great effort. After 7 years of recurrent symptoms, she was found to have marked elevation of fecal deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid used to precipitate pancreatitis in animal models. This report documents cessation of symptoms/hospitalizations with normalization of her fecal DCA levels. This secondary bile acid is easily measured in stool. Needed now is an observational study of fecal DCA levels in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:24891995

  17. Lethal cardiotoxicity, steatohepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and acute enteritis induced by capecitabine and oxaliplatin in a 36-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 36-year-old female was hospitalized with symptoms suggesting intestinal occlusion. She was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater (pT4N0 stage) and underwent cephalic duodenopancreatectomy 8 months ago. Five cycles of postoperative chemotherapy were administrated using capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX or XELOX), the last one being completed 1 month ago. During the present hospitalization, because of normal computed tomography and ultrasound abdominal examination, rehydration and antibiotherapy were administrated. However, 4 days after hospital admission, the patient died. At autopsy and histological examination, we found a severe myocardial sclerosis with large scarring areas, severe steatohepatitis, chronic pancreatitis with large fibrotic areas, and acute enteritis. Alcohol consumption was denied. The patient died due to associated heart, liver and pancreatic failure. This multiorgan toxicity and death following CAPOX regimen had not yet been reported in the literature. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6472150549833105 PMID:24041405

  18. Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5’ region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

  19. Factors Affecting Outcome in Acute Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis Treated with Plasma Exchange: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Romozi, Karmen; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal therapy for hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis, especially the role of plasma exchange (PE), is not entirely clear. The aim of our large, single-center, observational, cohort study was to analyze the factors affecting outcome in hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE. Methods We included 111 episodes of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE, which occurred in 103 different patients. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, triglycerides, delay to first PE, and PE treatment details were retrospectively obtained from the patients’ records. The main outcome measures were length of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Results The patients were 47±9 years old and the median APACHE II score at first PE was 4 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 2–7). There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, and the recurrence rate was 1.6% per year. Triglycerides at presentation did not correlate with APACHE II or influence the outcome. The mean reduction in triglycerides during PE was 59% (from 44±31 to 18±15 mmol/l), which was twice the reduction observed during conservative treatment (27% daily). The median hospital stay was 16 days (IQR 10–24) and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The median delay to first PE was 35 hours (IQR 24–52), and there was no difference in mortality in the early and late PE groups (7% vs. 6%, p?=?0.79). The group with citrate anticoagulation during PE had a significantly lower mortality than the group with heparin anticoagulation (1% vs. 11%, p?=?0.04), and citrate was an independent predictor also in the multivariate model (p?=?0.049). Conclusions PE effectively reduced serum triglycerides faster than could be expected with conservative treatment. The delay in PE therapy did not influence survival. We found that citrate anticoagulation during PE was associated with reduced mortality, which should be confirmed in a randomized study. PMID:25047332

  20. Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Pachon, Maria Dolores; Enriquez, Ricardo; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Millan, Isabel; Romero, Alberto; Amorós, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diagnosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously. PMID:24434395

  1. Acute severe chromium poisoning after dermal exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ling; Yang, Chen-Chang; Ger, Jiin; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2009-04-01

    Severe acute chromium poisoning related to dermal involvement has rarely been reported in the literature. We report a case of acute severe chromium poisoning through skin exposure as a result of a chemical burn of 15% of the body surface area and multiple organ failure after short-term exposure. Medical interventions, including mechanical ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and plasmapheresis were performed. In addition, a chelating agent, dimercaptopropane sulfonic acid, was infused intravenously, combined with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid as adjuvant therapy. The patient was discharged on day 33 without long-term sequelae. The consequence of transdermal exposure of hexavalent chromium should not be overlooked. PMID:19372081

  2. Arterial pH, bicarbonate levels and base deficit at presentation as markers of predicting mortality in acute pancreatitis: a single-centre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Shanti Devi, Thingbaijam; Sharma, Ravi; Chhabra, Puneet; Gupta, Rajesh; Rana, Surinder S.; Bhasin, Deepak K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters such as pH form part of multi-parameter scoring systems for predicting severe acute pancreatitis; however, literature on detailed evaluation of ABG alone in this context is scarce. Methods. Patients with acute pancreatitis presenting to our unit between January 2012 and November 2013 were prospectively studied. ABG analysis was done at admission and development of organ failure, any need for intervention, and mortality were noted. The association between various parameters of ABG analysis and the development of organ failure or local complications, need for interventions (endoscopic/radiological/surgical) and mortality were analysed. Results. Two hundred and five patients (mean age: 39.33 ± 13.85 years; 61.0% males) were prospectively studied. The aetiology of acute pancreatitis was alcohol in 93 patients (45.4%) and gall stone disease in 73 (35.6%). Organ failure developed in 71.2% patients and 83.9% had local complications. In 18% of patients, endoscopic/radiological/surgical interventions were needed and 14.6% died. The patients (n = 35) with metabolic acidosis (pH <7.35) suffered higher frequency of organ failure, need for interventions and mortality. Patients with low arterial bicarbonate levels, as well as higher base deficit, also displayed higher frequency of organ failure, need for interventions and mortality. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for pH <7.35, bicarbonate <22 meq/L and base deficit of >?4 meq/L for prediction of mortality were 0.771 (95% CI: 0.664–0.878), 0.707 (95% CI: 0.622–0.791) and 0.780 (95% CI: 0.693–0.867), respectively. Conclusion. Arterial pH, bicarbonate levels, and base deficit at presentation are useful early markers for predicting adverse outcome in acute pancreatitis. PMID:24994834

  3. CC-chemokine activation in acute pancreatitis: enhanced release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in patients with local and systemic complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Rau; Katja Baumgart; Colin M. Krüger; Martin Schilling; Hans G. Beger

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Systemic leukocyte activation is claimed to trigger inflammatory response and remote organ dysfunction in acute pancreatitis. Chemokines are inflammatory mediators with potent leukocyte-activating properties and have been shown to be involved in the pathophysiological process of experimental acute pancreatitis. However, as little is known about their role in human disease we investigated local and systemic concentrations of different CC-chemokine

  4. Overexpression of the PC3\\/TIS21\\/BTG2 mRNA Is Part of the Stress Response Induced by Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Fiedler; Gustavo V. Mallo; Hans Bödeker; Volker Keim; Jean Charles Dagorn; Juan L. Iovanna

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that the acute phase reaction of the pancreas is a powerful emergency mechanism which protects the organism against further pancreatic aggression. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms involved in this protective effect we tried to characterize at the molecular level the phenotypic changes of the pancreatic cell during acute stress. Using a systematic approach, we

  5. Does large-bowel enema reduce septic complications in acute pancreatitis? 1 1 This study was performed in the Experimental Medical Research Center of Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serdar Yol; Mahmut Baykan; ?ükrü Özer; Mehmet Aköz; Osman Yilmaz; Cüneyt Kuru

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The source of septic complications in acute pancreatitis was unknown until recent years. The pathogenesis of bacterial translocation from the gut has been accepted as the main source of pancreatic or peripancreatic infection. This study was designed to investigate the role of large bowel enema during acute pancreatitis in preventing bacterial translocation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley rats were used in

  6. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Infection on Outcome in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bechien U; Johannes, Richard S.; Kurtz, Stephen; Banks, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known regarding the impact of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in acute pancreatitis (AP). We conducted a population-based assessment of the impact of HAI on outcome in AP. Methods Patient data was obtained from the Cardinal Health Clinical Outcomes Research Database, a large population-based dataset. Cases with principal diagnosis ICD9-CM 577.0 (AP) between Jan 2004 and Jan 2005 were identified. These cases were linked with recently reported HAI data collected by the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Identification of HAI was based upon definitions set forth by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We conducted a 5:1 multivariate propensity matched cohort study in order to determine the independent contribution of HAI to in-hospital mortality, length-of-stay and hospital charges. Results From 177 participating hospitals, there were 11,046 AP cases identified. Eighty-two (0.7%) patients developed an HAI. Mortality in the overall AP population was 1.2% vs. 11.4% among 405 matched non-HAI controls vs. 28.4% among patients that developed HAI (X2 p<0.0001). Fifteen percent of all deaths were associated with an HAI. Both average LOS and hospital charges were significantly increased among patients with HAI compared to matched non-HAI controls. Conclusions We determined that HAI had a major impact on mortality in AP. Patients that developed HAI also had significantly increased LOS and hospital charges. These differences were not explained by increased disease severity alone. Reducing HAI is an important step to improving outcome in AP. PMID:18616944

  7. Cationic liposome-mediated gene transfer during acute pancreatitis: Tissue specificity, duration, and effects of acute inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woody Denham; Jun Yang; Sally MacKay; Cynthia Tannabill; Gay Carter; Amer Aboubamze; Lyle L. Moldawer; James Norman

    1998-01-01

    Production of inflammatory cytokines in the pancreas, lung, and liver is believed to play a major role in the development\\u000a of severe pancreatitis. This tissue-specific production could lend itself to directed anticytokine gene therapy if an appropriate\\u000a delivery system could be developed. This study was undertaken to examine a novel approach for the delivery of protein-based\\u000a therapies to the tissues

  8. Pancreatic extracts are necessary for the absorption of elemental and polymeric enteral diets in severe pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Caliari, S; Benini, L; Bonfante, F; Brentegani, M T; Fioretta, A; Vantini, I

    1993-08-01

    Tube feeding nutrition, either elemental or polymeric, is increasingly used in patients with digestive problems. Pancreatic insufficiency is a widely accepted indication for the use of an elemental formula, which requires less residual digestive capacity. To confirm this assumption, we have compared the absorption of elemental and polymeric diets and the effect of exogenous pancreatic enzymes in a patient on long-term total enteral feeding after total pancreatectomy. Malabsorption of both formulas was observed without enzyme supplementation. A marked improvement of fat and nitrogen absorption was obtained when pancreatic enzymes were added to both enteral diets. It is concluded that pancreatic enzymes should always be added to liquid diets in pancreatic insufficiency. No clear advantage is to be anticipated by the use of elemental as compared with polymeric diets. PMID:8210993

  9. Biliary Cystadenoma: An Unusual Cause of Acute Pancreatitis and Indication for Mesohepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Bilal; Meschino, Michael; Mercado, Ashley; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The classic presentation of cystic hepatobiliary lesions is usually nonspecific and often identified incidentally. Here we describe the case of a patient presenting with acute pancreatitis resulting from a large centrally located biliary cystadenoma compressing the pancreas. Determination of the origin of the cystic lesion was difficult on imaging studies. Due to the difficult location of the lesion, a complete surgical resection was achieved with mesohepatectomy and the suspected diagnosis confirmed by pathology. The patient continues to do well 2 years post-op with no signs of recurrence. PMID:25506000

  10. Identification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Poutanen; Donald E. Low; Bonnie Henry; Sandy Finkelstein; David Rose; Karen Green; Raymond Tellier; Ryan Draker; Dena Adachi; Melissa Ayers; Adrienne K. Chan; Danuta M. Skowronski; Irving Salit; Andrew E. Simor; Arthur S. Slutsky; Patrick W. Doyle; Mel Krajden; Martin Petric; Robert C. Brunham; Allison J. McGeer

    1995-01-01

    background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a condition of unknown cause that has re- cently been recognized in patients in Asia, North America, and Europe. This report summarizes the initial epidemiologic findings, clinical description, and diagnostic findings that followed the identification of SARS in Canada. methods SARS was first identified in Canada in early March 2003. We collected epidemiologic,

  11. A Novel Coronavirus Associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Ksiazek; Dean Erdman; Cynthia Goldsmith; Sherif R. Zaki; Teresa Peret; Shannon Emery; Suxiang Tong; Carlo Urbani; James A. Comer; Pierre E. Rollin; Scott Dowell; Ai-Ee Ling; Charles Humphrey; Wun-Ju Shieh; Jeannette Guarner; Christopher D. Paddock; Paul Rota; Joseph DeRisi; Jyh-Yuan Yang; Nancy Cox; James Hughes; James W. LeDuc; William Bellini; Larry J. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    background A worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been associated with exposures originating from a single ill health care worker from Guangdong Prov- ince, China. We conducted studies to identify the etiologic agent of this outbreak. methods We received clinical specimens from patients in six countries and tested them, using virus isolation techniques, electron-microscopical and histologic studies,

  12. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  13. OUTBREAK OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN, 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHENG-NAN LU; DONALD DAH-SHYONG JIANG; JIEN-WEI LIU; MENG-CHIH LIN; CHAO-LONG CHEN; IH-JEN SU; SHUN-SHENG CHEN

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiologic features of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in southern Taiwan in 2003. According to the official files of reported cases of SARS from February 21 to June 19, 2003, there were 586 cases in southern Taiwan. Symptom onset occurred between February 21 and June 19 in reported cases, between March 13 and May

  14. Acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis in non-diabetic person while on treatment with sodium valproate, chlorpromazine and haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Laghate, V D; Gupta, S B

    2004-03-01

    A nondiabetic young male patient in hypomanic phase of bipolar disorder on maintenance treatment with sodium valproate, developed transient episode of acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis after addition of chlorpromazine and halopridol. It subsided completely within six weeks and his blood sugar was normal without any antidiabetic therapy. Simultaneous occurrence of acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis is reported as a very rare complication of combination of antipsychotic drugs sodium valproate, chlorpromazine and haloperidol. Blood sugar should be periodically monitored in patients on sodium valproate and antipsychotic medication. PMID:15636323

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of ?,?-amyrin, a triterpene from Protium heptaphyllum , on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline M. Melo; Talita C. Morais; Adriana R. Tomé; Gerly Anne C. Brito; Mariana H. Chaves; Vietla S. Rao; Flávia A. Santos

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ?,?-amyrin, a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Protium heptaphyllum, on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Acute pancreatitis was induced in Swiss mice by five intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 ?g\\/kg), at 1 h intervals.\\u000a Mice received ?,?-amyrin (10, 30 and 100 mg\\/kg), thalidomide (200 mg\\/kg), or vehicle (3% Tween 80) orally 1 h before and 12 h\\u000a after the cerulein challenge. The

  16. Hereditary pancreatitis: a model for inflammatory diseases of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Alexander; Whitcomb, David C

    2002-06-01

    Acute and chronic pancreatitis remain among the most recalcitrant of all diseases to investigation and intervention. In the majority of patients, excessive alcohol consumption is associated with development of the disease. Therefore, several theories have been proposed seeking to explain the relationship between alcohol and the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis. However, recent investigations in hereditary pancreatitis provided important insights into chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis and offer an important model for understanding pancreatic inflammation. This article highlights several advances gained from investigating hereditary pancreatitis kindreds, and reviews the TIGAR-O risk/aetiology classification system. Finally, the major independent theories on development of chronic pancreatitis are reviewed with respect to the SAPE hypothesis of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis. PMID:12079262

  17. Are gastric mucosal macrophages responsible for gastric injury in acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Sheng-Chun; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Cui, Lei; Jiang, De-Li; Chen, Rong-Fang; Qu, Jian-Guo; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Chen, Min; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of clodronate-containing liposomes against severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)-triggered acute gastric mucosal injury (AGMI) in rats. METHODS: Clodronate- and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-containing liposomes were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation. The SAP rat model was established by injecting sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic subcapsular space. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (C), SAP plus PBS-containing liposome (P) and SAP plus clodronate-containing liposome (T). Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels were estimated by ELISA. Pathological changes in the gastric mucosa and pancreas were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The numbers of macrophages in the gastric mucosa were analyzed by CD68 immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The liposomes had a mean diameter of 150 ± 30 nm. The TNF-? levels were significantly higher in the P group than that in the C group (2 h, 145.13 ± 11.50 vs 23.2 ± 2.03; 6 h, 245.06 ± 12.11 vs 30.28 ± 6.07, P < 0.05), and they were significantly lower in the T group than that in the P group (2 h, 93.24 ± 23.11 vs 145.13 ± 11.50; 6 h, 135.18 ± 13.10 vs 245.06 ± 12.11, P < 0.05). The pathological scores of the pancreas were lower in the T group than in the P group (2 h, 1.88 ± 0.83 vs 4.13 ± 0.83; 6 h, 2.87 ± 0.64 vs 6.25 ± 0.88, P < 0.01). The pathological scores of the gastric mucosa were also lower in the T group than in the P group (2 h, 1.12 ± 0.64 vs 2 ± 0.75; 6 h, 1.58 ± 0.53 vs 3 ± 1.31, P < 0.05). In addition, increased CD68 levels were observed in the gastric mucosa of the P group compared with the C group. Clodronate-containing liposomes decreased the CD68 levels in the mucosa of the T group. The apoptotic indexes of the gastric mucosa were higher in the T group than in the P group (2 h, 15.7 ± 0.92 vs 11.5 ± 1.64; 6 h, 21.12 ± 1.06 vs 12.6 ± 2.44, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Gastric macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric injury in SAP. Clodronate-containing liposomes have protective effects against AGMI in rats with SAP. PMID:25759533

  18. Acute biliary conditions.

    PubMed

    de C Ferreira, Lincoln E V V; Baron, Todd H

    2013-10-01

    Acute biliary complications may result from several medical conditions such as gallstone pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, acute cholecystitis, bile leak, liver abscess and hepatic trauma. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. About 25% of theses patients will develop clinically severe acute pancreatitis, usually due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Choledocholithiasis, malignant and benign biliary strictures, and stent dysfunction may cause partial or complete obstruction and infection in the biliary tract with acute cholangitis. Bile leaks are most commonly associated with hepatobiliary surgeries or invasive procedures such as open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy, hepatic resection, hepatic transplantation, liver biopsy, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may have an essential role in the management of these complications. PMID:24160931

  19. Complicated Cholelithiasis: An Unusual Combination of Acute Pancreatitis and Bouveret Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Symeonidis, Dimitrios; Koukoulis, Georgios; Zachari, Eleni; Potamianos, Spyros; Tzovaras, George

    2012-01-01

    Bouveret syndrome is a rare form of gallstone ileus. The purpose of the present study was to present the unusual case of a female patient with complicated cholelithiasis manifested as a combination of acute pancreatitis and concomitant Bouveret syndrome. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department complaining of mid-epigastric and right upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating band-like in the thoracic region of the back as well as repeated episodes of vomiting over the last 24 h. The initial correct diagnosis of pancreatitis was subsequently combined with the diagnosis of Bouveret syndrome as a computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a gallstone within the duodenum causing luminal obstruction. After failure of endoscopic gallstone removal, a surgical approach was undertaken where gallstone removal was followed by cholecystectomy and restoration of the anatomy by eliminating the fistula. The concomitant pancreatitis complicated the postoperative period and prolonged the length of hospital stay. However, the patient was discharge on the 45th postoperative day. Attempts for endoscopic removal of the impacted stone should be the initial therapeutic step. Surgery should be reserved for cases refractory to endoscopic intervention and when definite treatment is the actual challenge. PMID:22855661

  20. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: A treatment paradigm based on our hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Shweta; Virk, Satpal Sing; Tandon, Pooja; Bindal, Vidushi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy, occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies. The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts, and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated with greater concerns as it deals with two lives rather than just one as in the nonpregnant population. AP is most often associated with gall stone disease or hypertriglyceridemia. Material and Methods: We present 2 years of experience during which we had eight patients of AP. Results: Of the eight patients, three underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and five were treated conservatively. One had multiple cysts in the abdomen which were drained. All the patients delivered at term. Prophylactic tocolysis was given for 48-72 h to only those patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All the patients recovered completely. There was no maternal or fetal mortality. Conclusion: When properly managed AP in pregnancy does not carry a dismal prognosis as in the past. PMID:24083148

  1. Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration in Pregnancy With Acute Gallstone Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young W.; Chung, Mathew H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: We present a case in which a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was performed safely in a pregnant patient with acute gallstone pancreatitis. Case Report: A 25-year-old female, gravida 4 para 3, at 14-weeks gestation presented to her obstetrician with complaints of epigastric pain radiating to the back. She was otherwise healthy with no past medical or surgical history. A physical examination revealed a healthy young female with no evidence of jaundice and in no acute distress. An abdominal examination was remarkable for a gravid abdomen with mild tenderness to palpation in her epigastrium and negative Murphy's sign. The patient safely underwent a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conclusion: This case illustrates the role of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in the diagnosis and treatment of possible choledocholithiasis in a pregnant patient. PMID:16709365

  2. Decreased serum platelet derived growth factor BB levels in acute and increased in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Stojek, Magdalena; Adrych, Krystian; Rojek, Lukasz; Smoczynski, Marian; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Szrok, Sylwia; Swierczynski, Julian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine circulating growth factor concentrations in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP), and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). METHODS: Forty patients with mild AP, 40 patients with alcoholic CP, 33 patients with WOPN and 40 healthy subjects were examined. Serum concentrations of platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGF?-1), chemerin and high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMBG1) were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Patients with mild AP and those with WOPN had significantly lower serum levels of PDGF-BB compared to healthy subjects (4.0 ± 0.61 ng/mL vs 6.2 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P = 0.027, and 1.60 ± 0.31 ng/mL vs 6.2 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P < 0.001, respectively), while CP was associated with higher serum levels of PDGF-BB (12 ± 1.3 ng/mL vs 6.2 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Circulating TGF?-1 and chemerin levels were elevated in CP patients (57 ± 3.6 ng/mL vs 39 ± 3.6 ng/mL, P < 0.001 and 73 ± 7.2 ng/mL vs 48 ± 2.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001, respectively), but not in patients with AP and WOPN. No significant changes in serum HMBG1 levels were found either in patients with AP, WOPN or CP. CONCLUSION: The serum levels of some growth factors and cytokines differ significantly in AP, WOPN and CP. These data suggest that selected growth factors and cytokines may be considered as potential diagnostic biomarkers in patients with pancreatic diseases. PMID:25278706

  3. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pandya, Naimesh [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Regine, William F., E-mail: wregine@umm.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  4. Development of Purtscher-like retinopathy after pre-eclampsia combined with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sun Young; Seol, Hyun Joo; Hur, Yun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Visual disturbances are common among women with pre-eclampsia. The obstetricians should have an understanding of the various conditions associated with visual impairments. We report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy developed after pre-eclampsia combined with acute pancreatitis. A 33-year-old primigravida with twin pregnancy was admitted to the department of obstetrics and gynecology for preterm labor and pre-eclampsia at 36+4 weeks gestation. After a cesarean section, she complained of abdominal pain and visual acuity loss. She was diagnosed with Purtscher-like retinopathy combined with acute pancreatitis after ophthalmologic examination and an abdominal computed tomography scan. Purtscher-like retinopathy, most often observed after trauma, is very rare in pre-eclampsia. In addition, while visual disturbances from other conditions are transient, it can result in persistent visual impairments. Thus, when a patient with pre-eclampsia complains of visual problems for a long period of time, obstetricians should consider an ophthalmologic evaluation and treatments during the earliest stage of the disease. PMID:24328012

  5. A patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting with acute pancreatitis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Baek, Moon Seong; Mok, Young Mi; Han, Weon-Cheol; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-03-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease characterized by focal or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach and duodenum. EGE has vague, nonspecific symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, ascites, and malabsorption. Here, we report a patient with EGE presenting with concurrent acute pancreatitis and ascites. A 68-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Laboratory findings revealed elevated serum titers of amylase, lipase, and peripheral blood eosinophil count. An abdominopelvic computed tomography scan showed a normal pancreas, moderate amount of ascites, and duodenal thickening. A esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed patchy erythematous mucosal lesions in the 2nd portion of the duodenum. Biopsies from the duodenum indicated eosinophilic infiltration in the lamina propria. The patient was successfully treated with prednisolone and montelukast. Despite its unusual occurrence, EGE may be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained acute pancreatitis, especially in a patient with duodenal edema on imaging or peripheral eosinophilia. PMID:24672666

  6. /sup 111/In-platelet and /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

    1987-12-01

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and /sup 111/In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.

  7. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats – definitions and pathophysiology

    E-print Network

    Watson, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    the sensitivity and specificity of serum markers of pancreatitis 129 investigated 63 dogs with histologically confirmed disease. Only 5 of these 130 dogs had purely acute pancreatitis with the other 58 having some histological 131 evidence of chronic underlying... , severe, epigastric pain often 203 radiating to the back); (2) serum lipase activity (or amylase activity) at least 204 three times greater than the upper limit of the reference interval; and (3) 205 characteristic findings of acute pancreatitis...

  8. An adult patient with common B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who presented with pancreatic involvement, description of the second adult case and review of paediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, Gulsum Emel; Tapan, Umit; Aksoy, Sema; Umit, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) may go unrecognised. There are only a few paediatric cases; nevertheless, presentation with pancreatic involvement in an adult patient with ALL has been reported rarely. Our 52-year-old male patient came to us with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting; he had pancreatic enlargement on CT. He was diagnosed with common B-cell ALL with pancreatic involvement. The patient obtained haematological remission and the pancreatic enlargement regressed after chemotherapy, but later he had central nervous system and liver relapses. He died 6?months after diagnosis because of progressive pneumonia and chemotherapy-resistant ALL with multiple extramedullary relapses. PMID:24855096

  9. Diarrhoea due to pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Brelian, Daniel; Tenner, Scott

    2012-10-01

    The exocrine pancreas provides essential digestive enzymes necessary for the proper breakdown and absorption of ingested food in humans. Any disruption of this process can lead to malabsorption and resultant diarrhoea. Typically, disruption of over 90 percent of the pancreatic parenchyma is needed to result in diarrhoea. This disruption can result from widespread pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis, fibrotic replacement of the parenchyma as seen in chronic pancreatitis and in patients with pancreatic cancer where normal tissue is replaced by tumour and/or the pancreatic duct becomes obstructed. Several uncommon tumours of the pancreas can also cause diarrhoea through the secretion of hormones. This article will explore each of these diseases, including the pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23384807

  10. The Pancreas Misled: Signals to Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Criddle; Euan McLaughlin; John A. Murphy; Ole H. Petersen; Robert Sutton

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an increasingly common and sometimes severe disease for which there is little specific therapy. Chronic pancreatitis is a common and grossly debilitating sequel that is largely irreversible, whatever treatment is adopted. In the face of these burdens, the absence of specific treatments is a spur to research. The acinar cell is the primary target of injury from

  11. Salutary and prophylactic effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute pancreatitis and concomitant gastroduodenal lesions in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Predrag Sikiri?; Sven Seiwerth; Željko Grabarevi?; Rudolf Ru?man; Marijan Petek; Vjekoslav Jagi?; Branko Turkovi?; IVO Rotkvi?; Stjepan Miše; Ivan Zori?i?; Ljubica Jurina; Paško Konjevoda; Miro Hanževa?ki; Danica Ljubanovi?; Jadranka Šeparovi?; Miroslav Gjurašin; Mirna Bratuli?; Branka Artukovi?; Nikola Jelovac; Gojko Buljat

    1996-01-01

    The superior effectiveness of a new pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on gastrointestinal and liver lesions, in conjunction with an antiinflammatory and analgetic activity was recently noted. In the present study, BPC 157 was tested as either a protective or healing agent in bile duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. In addition, the positive influence of BPC 157 on concomitantly developed gastric

  12. The mtDNA nt7778 G/T Polymorphism Augments Formation of Lymphocytic Foci but Does Not Aggravate Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sarah; Krüger, Burkhard; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Glass, Änne; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Jaster, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphism in the ATP synthase 8 (ATP8) gene of the murine mitochondrial genome, G-to-T transversion at position 7778, has been suggested to increase susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The polymorphism also induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, secretory dysfunction and ?-cell mass adaptation. Here, we have used two conplastic mouse strains, C57BL/6N-mtAKR/J (B6-mtAKR; nt7778 G; control) and C57BL/6N-mtFVB/N (B6-mtFVB; nt7778 T), to address the question if the polymorphism also affects the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, two age groups of mice (3 and 12-month-old, respectively) were subjected to up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 µg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of ?-amylase and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissue. A comparison of cerulein-induced pancreatic tissue damage and increases of ?-amylase and MPO activities showed no differences between the age-matched groups of both strains. Interestingly, histological evaluation of pancreatic tissue of both untreated and cerulein-treated B6-mtAKR and B6-mtFVB mice also revealed the presence of infiltrates of immune cells surrounding ducts and vessels; a finding that is compatible with an early stage of AIP. After recovery from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (day 7 after the injections), 12-month-old B6-mtFVB mice but not B6-mtAKR mice displayed aggravated lymphocytic lesions. A comparison of 12-month-old mice with other age groups of both strains revealed that lymphocytic foci were largely absent in 3-month-old mice, while 24-month-old mice were more affected. Together, our data suggest that the mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Autoimmune-like lesions, however, may progress faster if additional tissue damage occurs. PMID:25010670

  13. Hepatitis E virus in patients with acute severe liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Crossan, Claire Louise; Simpson, Kenneth J; Craig, Darren G; Bellamy, Christopher; Davidson, Janice; Dalton, Harry R; Scobie, Linda

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the incidence of hepatitis E (HepE) in individuals with acute liver injury severe enough to warrant treatment at a transplant unit. METHODS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen in developed countries causing severe illness, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying chronic liver disease. HepE infection is often under diagnosed, as clinicians can be reluctant to test patients who have not travelled to regions traditionally considered hyperendemic for HepE. There are few data regarding the significance of HEV in patients with very severe acute liver injury in developed countries. Eighty patients with acute severe liver injury attending the Scottish Liver Transplant unit were tested for HEV and anti-HEV IgG and IgM. Severe acute liver injury was defined as a sudden deterioration in liver function confirmed by abnormal liver function tests and coagulopathy or presence of hepatic encephalopathy. Eighty percent of these patients were diagnosed with paracetomol overdose. No patients had a history of chronic or decompensated chronic liver disease at time of sampling. IgG positive samples were quantified against the World Health Organization anti-HEV IgG standard. Samples were screened for HEV viral RNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Four cases of hepatitis E were identified. Three of the four cases were only diagnosed on retrospective testing and were initially erroneously ascribed to drug-induced liver injury and decompensated chronic liver disease, with the cause of the decompensation uncertain. One case was caused by HEV genotype 1 in a traveller returning from Asia, the other three were autochthonous and diagnosed on retrospective testing. In two of these cases (where RNA was detected) HEV was found to be genotype 3, the most prevalent genotype in developed countries. Three patients survived, two of whom had been misdiagnosed as having drug induced liver injury. The fourth patient died from sepsis and liver failure precipitated as a result of hepatitis E infection and previously undiagnosed cirrhosis. Histopathology data to date is limited to mainly that seen for endemic HepE. All patients, with the exception of patient 1, demonstrated characteristics of HepE infection, as seen in previously described locally acquired cases. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute severe liver injury, HEV testing should be part of the initial diagnostic investigation algorithm irrespective of suspected initial diagnosis, age or travel history. PMID:25018853

  14. [Assessment and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Position document of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology, Catalan Society of Surgery and Catalan Society of the Pancreas].

    PubMed

    Boadas, Jaume; Balsells, Joaquin; Busquets, Juli; Codina-B, Antoni; Darnell, Anna; Garcia-Borobia, Francisco; Ginés, Ŕngels; Gornals, Joan; Gruartmoner, Guillem; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Merino, Xavier; Oms, Lluís; Puig, Ignasi; Puig-Diví, Valentí; Vaquero, Eva; Vida, Francesc; Molero, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing. AP is one of the gastrointestinal diseases that most frequently requires hospital admission in affected individuals. In the last few years, considerable scientific evidence has led to substantial changes in the medical and surgical treatment of this disease. New knowledge of the physiopathology of AP indicates that its severity is influenced by its systemic effects (organ failure), especially if the disease is persistent, and also by local complications (fluid collections or necrosis), especially if these become infected. Treatment should be personalized and depends on the patient's clinical status, the location of the necrosis, and disease stage. PMID:25458544

  15. The effect of epidermal growth factor on the septic complications of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Djuricin, G; Nathan, C; Gattuso, P; Weinstein, R A; Prinz, R A

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) from the gastrointestinal tract to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other extraintestinal organs is an important source of infection in acute pancreatitis (AP). Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a peptide hormone with trophic effects on gut mucosa, has decreased intestinal mucosal injury in septic rats and decreased burn-induced BT in mice. The purpose of this study is to examine whether EGF could affect BT in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) were studied. AP was induced in Group I and Group II by pressure injection of 3% taurocholate and trypsin into the biliopancreatic duct (1 ml/kg of body weight). Group III and Group IV underwent laparotomy without induction of acute pancreatitis. Group I rats received human recombinant EGF (100 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously twice daily) and Group II rats received a similar volume of 0.1% bovine serum albumin as a placebo postoperatively. Group III and Group IV received EGF and placebo, respectively. At 48 hr postoperatively, blood was drawn for culture and amylase determinations. Jejunum and ileum were obtained to measure mucosal protein content, mucosal thickness, villus height, and crypt depth. Specimens from MLN, spleen, liver, pancreas, and cecum were harvested for pathology and culture of gram positive (G+), gram negative (G-), and anaerobic bacteria. Ileal mucosal protein levels were increased significantly in Group I (1.96 +/- 0.14 mg/cm) compared to Group II (0.95 +/- 0.15 mg/cm intestinal segment) (P < 0.01). Jejunal and ileal mucosal thickness, villus height, and crypt depth in Group I were significantly increased when compared to Group II (P < 0.05). All 12 rats in Group II had BT to MLN compared to 58% (7 of 12 rats) in Group I (P < 0.05). Thirty-three percent (4 of 12 rats) had BT to distant sites such as pancreas, spleen, liver, and/or blood in Group I vs 83% (10 of 12 rats) in Group II (P < 0.05). EGF treatment minimizes intestinal damage, decreases BT to MLN and bacterial spread to distant sites, and may be beneficial in preventing septic complications in AP. PMID:9202665

  16. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Pancreatic Head: An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis – Case Presentation of a Palliative Approach after Failed Resection and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Kandulski, Arne; Kuester, Doerthe; Meyer, Frank; Wieners, Gero; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are a rare cause of echo-poor pancreatic head enlargement. Histologically, IMTs are characterized by spindle-shaped myofibroblasts or fibroblasts accompanied by a mixed immune cell infiltration. The most common localizations of IMTs have been reported in lung, mesentery and omentum, especially in children and young adults. IMTs show infiltrating growth, multilocular appearance and also metastasis have been reported. Curative resection is the only therapeutic option so far. In the palliative situation, evident data and clear guidelines for this rare tumor entity are missing. We report on a 44-year-old male with an unresectable IMT of the pancreatic head causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis that resulted in a chronic obstructive course of the disease. The patient entered a palliative therapeutic regimen including radiation therapy and antiinflammatory medication. In a regular follow-up of 12 months, he presented with stable disease after initial progression. This case of local progressive IMT of the pancreatic head was managed with a palliative therapeutic regimen and is discussed based on the current literature. PMID:21113286

  17. Melatonin reduces inflammation and recovers endogenous ghrelin in acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhi-Hai; Qin, Meng-Bin; Tang, Guo-Du; Yang, Hui-Ying; Su, Juan; Huang, Jie-An

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of melatonin on either ghrelin secretion or gastric mucosal injury in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). ANP was induced in rats by L-arginine. Prior to L-arginine injection, the rats were pre-treated with melatonin for 30 min. Following the last injection, the animals were sacrificed at different time-points. The levels of ghrelin and melatonin in the serum and gastric tissue were detected by ELISA. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities in gastric tissue were measured. In rats with ANP, acute gastric injury was observed, and the levels of MDA, SOD, TNF-? and IL-6 were significantly increased. The melatonin levels in serum or gastric tissue peaked at 6 h and returned to normal levels at 12 h after melatonin was administered. However, ghrelin remained at low levels during the first 12 h, but it recovered at 24 h and continued increasing, while the levels of oxidative stress damage and activity of inflammatory factors were decreased. The protective effects of melatonin on acute gastric injury during the early stages of ANP may be mediated through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, while at advanced stages of ANP, it may be mediated through the recovered endogenous ghrelin. PMID:24718676

  18. Effects of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Deficiency on Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Chahed, Samah; Tabet, George; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Griffey, Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Haj, Fawaz G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity, and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized Ephx2 knockout (KO) mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as enzymatic activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated Ephx2 KO mice compared with controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1B and IL-6 were lower in cerulein-treated Ephx2 KO mice compared with controls. Further, Ephx2 KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. Conclusions -These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. PMID:25402489

  19. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Attenuates Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Jin, Wei-Hua; Wu, Juan; Fan, Kai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces oxidative stress and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS), a well-known ROS scavenger, has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on AP in many animal experiments. Recent findings have indicated that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex required for the maturation of interleukin- (IL-) 1?, may probably be a potential target of HRS in the treatment of AP. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and meanwhile assessed the degree of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, as well as the histological alterations in mice suffering from cerulein-induced AP after the treatment of HRS. The results showed that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in AP mice was substantially inhibited following the administration of HRS, which was paralleled with the decreased NF-?B activity and cytokines production, attenuated oxidative stress and the amelioration of pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our study has, for the first time, revealed that inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome probably contributed to the therapeutic potential of HRS in AP. PMID:25214720

  20. Severe reaction in a child with asymptomatic codfish allergy: Food challenge reactivating recurrent pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old child during the first year of life manifested severe atopic dermatitis and chronic diarrhea with mucorrhea and rectal bleeding; a fish-free diet was started based on weakly positive skin-prick tests to codfish extract. At the age of 4?years the child began to suffer of recurrent pancreatitis. When he came to our attention for the evaluation of his fish allergy, he was asymptomatic; a weak reactivity to codfish was observed (SPTs: cod, 4?mm, sIgE ImmunoCAP: cod, 1.30kU/l). The food challenge test with cod was negative. When the child ate cod again, within 5 minutes, developed anaphylactic reaction and complained of abdominal pain compatible with pancreatitis (enzyme serum levels risen and parenchymal oedema at ultrasonography), that resolved within 7?days after specific therapy. This case raises two issues: the elimination diet in asymptomatic food allergy on the basis only of SPT and the ethicality of food challenge in gastrointestinal chronic disease. PMID:22571554

  1. Protective effects of sivelestat in a caerulein-induced rat acute pancreatitis model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Liu, Quanyan

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of sivelestat on acute pancreatitis (AP) in a rat model. Sivelestat is a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, which has been developed in Japan in 1991. Varying doses of sivelestat in normal saline were infused continuously in sivelestat-treated groups through osmotic pumps. Blood and pancreas samples were collected for serological and histopathological studies, and ten rats in each group were taken for survival observation. Increasing doses of sivelestat inhibits the expression of lipase, amylase, corticosterone, IL-1?, TNF-?, and nuclear factor-?B. Furthermore, sivelestat reduces the inflammatory cells infiltration, histological damage, and mortality rate. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant power and serum level of IL-4 in high-dose sivelestat-treated groups were increased. Our findings suggest that the increasing doses of sivelestat protect against caerulein-induced AP in rats, and this protection is possibly associated with the anti-inflammatory ability of sivelestat. PMID:23794035

  2. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates.

  3. Endovascular treatment of severe acute basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Shi, Wanchao; Su, Zhiguo; Liu, Xiaozhi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhenlin; Lawton, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) has a high mortality rate but as yet no effective treatment has been developed. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of combined mechanical thrombectomy, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and emergent stent placement for patients with severe acute BAO. Eighteen patients who were unconscious after confirmed onset of BAO and who were given arterial interventional treatment from March 2011 to June 2013 at our department were included in this study. The mean age was 59.56 years (range: 31-76 years) and patients were in a critical physical condition upon admission, and had a mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 25.94 (range: 18-35). All patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy, 10 of whom received mechanical thrombectomy only. Of the others, eight were also treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, three were treated with emergent stent placement, and 17 were treated with recanalization with an achieved recanalized rate of 94.4%. The average number of passes through the stent was 1.5 (range: 1-3) and five patients died (27.8%). Thirteen patients survived, and the mean NIHSS score was 6.54 (range: 0-16). Seven patients showed a modified Rankin Scale score ? 2, and the rate of good prognoses was 38.9%. In the treatment of patients with severe acute BAO, intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy combined with thrombolysis or stent placement are effective strategies to restore blood flow and preserve life, and these strategies have a low incidence of complications. PMID:25443091

  4. Acute nutrient regulation of the mitochondrial glutathione redox state in pancreatic ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hilton K; Santos, Laila R B; Roma, Letícia P; Duprez, Jessica; Broca, Christophe; Wojtusciszyn, Anne; Jonas, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-15

    The glucose stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic ?-cells depends on increased production of metabolic coupling factors, among which changes in NADPH and ROS (reactive oxygen species) may alter the glutathione redox state (EGSH) and signal through changes in thiol oxidation. However, whether nutrients affect EGSH in ?-cell subcellular compartments is unknown. Using redox-sensitive GFP2 fused to glutaredoxin 1 and its mitochondria-targeted form, we studied the acute nutrient regulation of EGSH in the cytosol/nucleus or the mitochondrial matrix of rat islet cells. These probes were mainly expressed in ?-cells and reacted to low concentrations of exogenous H2O2 and menadione. Under control conditions, cytosolic/nuclear EGSH was close to -300 mV and unaffected by glucose (from 0 to 30 mM). In comparison, mitochondrial EGSH was less negative and rapidly regulated by glucose and other nutrients, ranging from -280 mV in the absence of glucose to -299 mV in 30 mM glucose. These changes were largely independent from changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and in mitochondrial pH. They were unaffected by overexpression of SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2) and mitochondria-targeted catalase, but were inversely correlated with changes in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, suggesting that they indirectly resulted from increased NADPH availability rather than from changes in ROS concentration. Interestingly, the opposite regulation of mitochondrial EGSH and NAD(P)H autofluorescence by glucose was also observed in human islets isolated from two donors. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that glucose and other nutrients acutely reduce mitochondrial, but not cytosolic/nuclear, EGSH in pancreatic ?-cells under control conditions. PMID:24678915

  5. Oxidised lipids present in ascitic fluid interfere with the regulation of the macrophages during acute pancreatitis, promoting an exacerbation of the inflammatory response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P T Gutierrez; E Folch-Puy; O Bulbena; D Closa

    2008-01-01

    Background:Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Taking into consideration that damaged pancreas exudes high concentrations of lipolytic enzymes in the peritoneal cavity, large amounts of lipid metabolism derived products could occur in PAAF. In this study, we have examined the involvement of the lipid fraction of PAAF generated in the early stages

  6. Centers for Disease Control: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this Web site from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) will find a current and reliable source of information about Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The FAQs section offers a general overview of the disease and recent outbreak -- a good starting point for finding the facts behind the headline news. The site also offers recent CDC guidelines and recommendations geared toward medical professionals, travel advisories and related concerns, and links to World Health Organization and other international resources (WHO is coordinating the international investigation of the SARS outbreak).

  7. Astragaloside IV ameliorates acute pancreatitis in rats by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-?B

    PubMed Central

    QIU, LEI; YIN, GUOJIAN; CHENG, LI; FAN, YUTING; XIAO, WENQIN; YU, GE; XING, MIAO; JIA, RONGRONG; SUN, RUIQING; MA, XIUYING; HU, GUOYONG; WANG, XINGPENG; TANG, MAOCHUN; ZHAO, YAN

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (AS-IV; 3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-?-D-glucopyranosylcycloastragenol), which has been reported to have comprehensive pharmacological functions, on sodium taurocholate (NaTc)/L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats in vivo and in rat pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. NaTc-induced experimental AP was induced in rats by injecting 4% NaTc (0.1 ml/100 g) in the retrograde direction of the biliopancreatic duct. L-Arg-induced experimental AP was induced in rats by 2 intraperitoneal injections of 20% L-arg (3 g/kg), with an interval of 1 h between the injections. The rats were pre-treated AS-IV (50 mg/kg) or the vehicle (DMSO) 2 h prior to the induction of AP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, H&E staining, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the effects of AS-IV on AP. The results revealed that treatment with AS-IV significantly reduced serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic pathological alterations, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MPO activity, and the protein expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in vivo. Moreover, pre-treatment with AS-IV significantly increased the expression levels of manganese superoxide dismutase and cuprum/zinc superoxide dismutase. In the in vitro experiment, treatment of the cells with AS-IV aslo reduced rat pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and nuclear NF-?B activity, and enhanced the protein expression of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, this study indicates that the protective effects of AS-IV on experimental AP in rats may be closely related to the inhibition of NF-?B. In addition, our results indicate that AS-IV may exert potential antioxidant effects on AP. Therefore, AS-IV may be an effective therapeutic agent for AP. PMID:25604657

  8. Contemporary review of drug-induced pancreatitis: A different perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Whitney Y; Abreu Lanfranco, Odaliz

    2014-01-01

    Although gallstone and alcohol use have been considered the most common causes of acute pancreatitis, hundreds of frequently prescribed medications are associated with this disease state. The true incidence is unknown since there are few population based studies available. The knowledge of drug induced acute pancreatitis is limited by the availability and the quality of the evidence as the majority of data is extrapolated from case reports. Establishing a definitive causal relationship between a drug and acute pancreatitis poses a challenge to clinicians. Several causative agent classification systems are often used to identify the suspected agents. They require regular updates since new drug induced acute pancreatitis cases are reported continuously. In addition, infrequently prescribed medications and herbal medications are often omitted. Furthermore, identification of drug induced acute pancreatitis with new medications often requires accumulation of post market case reports. The unrealistic expectation for a comprehensive list of medications and the multifactorial nature of acute pancreatitis call for a different approach. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of drug induced acute pancreatitis and provide the perspective of deductive reasoning in order to allow clinicians to identify potential drug induced acute pancreatitis with limited data. PMID:25400984

  9. Enhanced expression of TGF-betas and their receptors in human acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Friess, H; Lu, Z; Riesle, E; Uhl, W; Bründler, A M; Horvath, L; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Büchler, M W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine which mechanisms are involved in pancreatic remodeling, repair, and fibrosis after acute necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) in humans. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) are multifunctional polypeptides that have been implicated in the regulation and formation of extracellular matrix and fibrosis. They exert their functions by binding to specific receptors. In this study, we analyze the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 and their receptors type I (Tbeta-RI [ALK5]), type II (Tbeta-RII), and type III (Tbeta-RIII) in NP. PATIENTS: Pancreatic tissue samples were obtained from 6 female and 8 male patients with a median age of 65 years (range, 37 to 77 years) undergoing surgery for NP. The median Ranson score of the patients was 6 (range, 2 to 9). The operation was performed a median 5.5 days (range, 4 to 17 days) after the onset of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic tissue obtained from 12 previously healthy organ donors (6 male, 6 female; median age of 43 years) served as controls. METHODS: The expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), Tbeta-RII, Tbeta-RIII, and collagen type I mRNA was analyzed by Northern blot analysis. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antibodies was performed to detect TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), and Tbeta-RII. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis showed an increase in TGF-betas and their receptors in NP tissue samples compared with samples from normal controls. The increase was 3.5-fold for TGF-beta1 (p < 0.05), 2.7-fold for TGF-beta2 (p < 0.05), 3.5-fold for TGF-beta3 (p < 0.05), 10-fold for Tbeta-RI (ALK5) (p < 0.05), 5.7-fold for Tbeta-RII (p < 0.05), and 1.4-fold for Tbeta-RIII (not significant). Collagen type I mRNA was also markedly increased in NP samples and correlated with the level of TGF-betas. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated intense TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), and Tbeta-RII immunoreactivity in the remaining acinar and ductal cells in most NP samples; in the normal control pancreas, there was weak to moderate immunoreactivity for these factors only in some acinar cells and a few ductal cells. CONCLUSION: The marked increase in expression of TGF-betas and their signaling receptors Tbeta-RI (ALK5) and Tbeta-RII suggests a role for TGF-betas in the repair process after the onset of NP in humans and raises the possibility that TGF-betas might be involved in tissue remodeling and the fibrotic reaction that occurs in the pancreas after necrosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9445116

  10. Gallstone pancreatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Cucher, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Green, Donald J; Jie, Tun; Ong, Evan S

    2014-04-01

    Gallstone disease is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in the Western world. In most cases, gallstone pancreatitis is a mild and self-limiting disease, and patients may proceed without complications to cholecystectomy to prevent future recurrence. Severe disease occurs in about 20% of cases and is associated with significant mortality; meticulous management is critical. A thorough understanding of the disease process, diagnosis, severity stratification, and principles of management is essential to the appropriate care of patients presenting with this disease. This article reviews these topics with a focus on surgical management, including appropriate timing and choice of interventions. PMID:24679420

  11. Protective effects and mechanisms of G5 PAMAM dendrimers against acute pancreatitis induced by caerulein in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yin; Han, Yingchun; Liu, Lu; Shen, Wenwen; Zhang, Huayu; Wang, Yunan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George; Qi, Rong

    2015-01-12

    In this study, generation 5 (G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with two different surface groups, G4.5-COOH and G5-OH, were investigated for their protective effects on pancreas injury in a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) mouse model. Both dendrimers significantly decreased pathological changes in the pancreas and reduced the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in pancreatic tissues. In addition, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly inhibited by the two dendrimers, not only in pancreatic tissues from AP mice but also in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages with LPS-induced inflammation. G4.5-COOH, which had better in vivo protective effects for AP than G5-OH, led to a significant reduction in the total number of plasma white blood cells (WBCs) and monocytes in AP mice, and its anti-inflammatory mechanism was related to inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B in macrophages. PMID:25479110

  12. Morphological features of fluid collections on endoscopic ultrasound in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: do they change over time?

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder S.; Bhasin, Deepak K.; Reddy, Yalaka Rami; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Sharma, Ravi K.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been attempts to develop universally applicable nomenclature for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) in acute pancreatitis. But PFCs following acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) has not been studied by sensitive imaging techniques like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The aim of the study was to prospectively study morphological structure of pancreatic fluid collections occurring after ANP by serial EUS. Methods Patients with ANP having PFC at ?4 weeks of onset of symptoms seen at our center from October 2011 to November 2012 were prospectively followed up with EUS at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months respectively and the amount of solid content in the collection was quantified as percentage amount of echogenic material. The symptomatic patients undergoing EUS/percutaneous drainage also underwent EUS prior to drainage for assessment of solid content. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 7 patients were lost to follow up or refused EUS. Forty seven patients (34 males; mean age 36.7±11.6 years) were studied. Etiology of acute pancreatitis was alcohol (n=22), gallstones (n=10), idiopathic (10), gallstones+alcohol (n=3) and drug induced (n=2). Contrast enhanced computed tomography done after 3 days of onset of ANP had shown less than 30%, 30-50% and more than 50% necrosis in 6 (13%), 14 (30%) and 27 (57%) patients respectively. On EUS at 6 weeks, 41/47 (87%) patients had fluid collection with solid debris. Follow up EUS at 3 and 6 months revealed progressively decreasing solid content in PFCs. Conclusions All PFCs following ANP may not have solid necrotic content and over a period of time necrotic content tends to liquefy. This may have therapeutic implications. PMID:24975052

  13. Acute severe asthma: new approaches to assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Papiris, Spyros A; Manali, Effrosyni D; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Triantafillidou, Christina; Tsangaris, Iraklis

    2009-01-01

    The precise definition of a severe asthmatic exacerbation is an issue that presents difficulties. The term 'status asthmaticus' relates severity to outcome and has been used to define a severe asthmatic exacerbation that does not respond to and/or perilously delays the repetitive or continuous administration of short-acting inhaled beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABA) in the emergency setting. However, a number of limitations exist concerning the quantification of unresponsiveness. Therefore, the term 'acute severe asthma' is widely used, relating severity mostly to a combination of the presenting signs and symptoms and the severity of the cardiorespiratory abnormalities observed, although it is well known that presentation does not foretell outcome. In an acute severe asthma episode, close observation plus aggressive administration of bronchodilators (SABAs plus ipratropium bromide via a nebulizer driven by oxygen) and oral or intravenous corticosteroids are necessary to arrest the progression to severe hypercapnic respiratory failure leading to a decrease in consciousness that requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission and, eventually, ventilatory support. Adjunctive therapies (intravenous magnesium sulfate and/or others) should be considered in order to avoid intubation. Management after admission to the hospital ward because of an incomplete response is similar. The decision to intubate is essentially based on clinical judgement. Although cardiac or respiratory arrest represents an absolute indication for intubation, the usual picture is that of a conscious patient struggling to breathe. Factors associated with the increased likelihood of intubation include exhaustion and fatigue despite maximal therapy, deteriorating mental status, refractory hypoxaemia, increasing hypercapnia, haemodynamic instability and impending coma or apnoea. To intubate, sedation is indicated in order to improve comfort, safety and patient-ventilator synchrony, while at the same time decrease oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Benzodiazepines can be safely used for sedation of the asthmatic patient, but time to awakening after discontinuation is prolonged and difficult to predict. The most common alternative is propofol, which is attractive in patients with sudden-onset (near-fatal) asthma who may be eligible for extubation within a few hours, because it can be titrated rapidly to a deep sedation level and has rapid reversal after discontinuation; in addition, it possesses bronchodilatory properties. The addition of an opioid (fentanyl or remifentanil) administered by continuous infusion to benzodiazepines or propofol is often desirable in order to provide amnesia, sedation, analgesia and respiratory drive suppression. Acute severe asthma is characterized by severe pulmonary hyperinflation due to marked limitation of the expiratory flow. Therefore, the main objective of the initial ventilator management is 2-fold: to ensure adequate gas exchange and to prevent further hyperinflation and ventilator-associated lung injury. This may require hypoventilation of the patient and higher arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) levels and a more acidic pH. This does not apply to asthmatic patients intubated for cardiac or respiratory arrest. In this setting the post-anoxic brain oedema might demand more careful management of PaCO(2) levels to prevent further elevation of intracranial pressure and subsequent complications. Monitoring lung mechanics is of paramount importance for the safe ventilation of patients with status asthmaticus. The first line of specific pharmacological therapy in ventilated asthmatic patients remains bronchodilation with a SABA, typically salbutamol (albuterol). Administration techniques include nebulizers or metered-dose inhalers with spacers. Systemic corticosteroids are critical components of therapy and should be administered to all ventilated patients, although the dose of systemic corticosteroids in mechanically ventilated asthmatic patients remains controversial. Anticholinergics, inhaled corticosteroid

  14. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eva; Soler, María J.; Rap, Oana; Barrios, Clara; Orfila, María A.; Pascual, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening complication of severe rhabdomyolysis. This study was conducted to assess risk factors for AKI and to develop a risk score for early prediction. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study with a 9-year follow-up, carried out in an acute-care teaching-affiliated hospital. A total of 126 patients with severe rhabdomyolysis defined as serum creatine kinase (CK) > 5,000 IU/L fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for AKI. Based on the values obtained for each variable, a risk score and prognostic probabilities were estimated to establish the risk for developing AKI. Results The incidence of AKI was 58%. Death during hospitalization was significantly higher among patients with AKI, compared to patients without AKI (19.2% vs 3.6%, p?=?0.008). The following variables were independently associated with AKI: peak CK (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95%CI 1.4-16.8), hypoalbuminemia (< 33 mg/dL, [OR 5.1, 95%CI 1.4-17-7]), metabolic acidosis (OR 5.3, 95%CI 1.4-20.3), and decreased prothrombin time (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.3-14.5). A risk score for AKI was calculated for each patient, with an OR of 1.72 (95%CI 1.45-2.04). The discrimination value of the predictive model was established by means of a ROC curve, with the area under the curve of 0.871 (p<0.001). Conclusions The identification of independent factors associated with AKI and a risk score for early prediction of this complication in patients with severe rhabdomyolysis may be useful in clinical practice, particularly to implement early preventive measures. PMID:24367578

  15. Accounts of severe acute obstetric complications in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As maternal deaths have decreased worldwide, increasing attention has been placed on the study of severe obstetric complications, such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, and obstructed labor, to identify where improvements can be made in maternal health. Though access to medical care is considered to be life-saving during obstetric emergencies, data on the factors associated with health care decision-making during obstetric emergencies are lacking. We aim to describe the health care decision-making process during severe acute obstetric complications among women and their families in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using the pregnancy surveillance infrastructure from a large community trial in northwest rural Bangladesh, we nested a qualitative study to document barriers to timely receipt of medical care for severe obstetric complications. We conducted 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women reporting severe acute obstetric complications and purposively selected for conditions representing the top five most common obstetric complications. The interviews were transcribed and coded to highlight common themes and to develop an overall conceptual model. Results Women attributed their life-threatening experiences to societal and socioeconomic factors that led to delays in seeking timely medical care by decision makers, usually husbands or other male relatives. Despite the dominance of male relatives and husbands in the decision-making process, women who underwent induced abortions made their own decisions about their health care and relied on female relatives for advice. The study shows that non-certified providers such as village doctors and untrained birth attendants were the first-line providers for women in all categories of severe complications. Coordination of transportation and finances was often arranged through mobile phones, and referrals were likely to be provided by village doctors. Conclusions Strategies to increase timely and appropriate care seeking for severe obstetric complications may consider targeting of non-certified providers for strengthening of referral linkages between patients and certified facility-based providers. Future research may characterize the treatments and appropriateness of emergency care provided by ubiquitous village doctors and other non-certified treatment providers in rural South Asian settings. In addition, future studies may explore the use of mobile phones in decreasing delays to certified medical care during obstetric emergencies. PMID:22018330

  16. Effect of Qingyitang on activity of intracellular Ca2+Mg2+ATPase in rats with acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Qiu; Yong-Yu Li; Shu-Guang Li; Bo-Gen Song; Gui-Fen Zhao

    AIM: To study the change of intracellular calcium-magnesium ATPase (Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) activity in pancreas, liver and kidney tissues of rats with acute pancreatitis (AP), and to investigate the effects of Qingyitang (QYT) (Decoction for clearing the pancreas) and tetrandrine (Tet) and vitamin E (VitE) on the activity of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase. METHODS: One hundred and five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into: normal

  17. Ritonavir and Disulfiram May Be Synergistic in Lowering Active Interleukin18 Levels in Acute Pancreatitis, and thereby Hasten Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Eric Kast

    Summary Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is one of the mediators of both pancreas damage and systemic complications like hypotension and multi- organ dysfunction during acute pancreatitis. IL-18 is generated intracellularly from pro-IL- 18 by caspase-1 mediated proteolysis. Active caspase-1 itself is generated intracellularly by the action of the inflammasome, autocatalysis and other stimuli. The anti-retroviral drug ritonavir inhibits conversion of inactive pro-

  18. Pancreatic heterotopia in the gallbladder: an incidental finding after cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sroczy?ski, Maciej; Sebastian, Maciej; Ha?o?, Agnieszka; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Sebastian, Agata; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Piekarz, Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas in the gallbladder is found very rarely in histological examination after cholecystectomy. The etiology of this entity is not yet clear, but there exist several hypotheses about its origin. Our histological study revealed both exocrine and endocrine components of pancreatic tissue as shown by H&E and immunohistochemical staining of a gallbladder sections of a 55-year old man. Ectopic pancreatic tissue may be an underestimated cause of acute idiopathic pancreatitis thus detailed postoperative histological examination may decrease the number of acute pancreatitis cases without the known cause. PMID:23907949

  19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnostics using a coronavirus protein microarray

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Heng; Hu, Shaohui; Jona, Ghil; Zhu, Xiaowei; Kreiswirth, Nate; Willey, Barbara M.; Mazzulli, Tony; Liu, Guozhen; Song, Qifeng; Chen, Peng; Cameron, Mark; Tyler, Andrea; Wang, Jian; Wen, Jie; Chen, Weijun; Compton, Susan; Snyder, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection, a coronavirus protein microarray that harbors proteins from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and five additional coronaviruses was constructed. These microarrays were used to screen ?400 Canadian sera from the SARS outbreak, including samples from confirmed SARS-CoV cases, respiratory illness patients, and healthcare professionals. A computer algorithm that uses multiple classifiers to predict samples from SARS patients was developed and used to predict 206 sera from Chinese fever patients. The test assigned patients into two distinct groups: those with antibodies to SARS-CoV and those without. The microarray also identified patients with sera reactive against other coronavirus proteins. Our results correlated well with an indirect immunofluorescence test and demonstrated that viral infection can be monitored for many months after infection. We show that protein microarrays can serve as a rapid, sensitive, and simple tool for large-scale identification of viral-specific antibodies in sera. PMID:16537477

  20. Development of antiviral therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cinatl, Jindrich; Michaelis, Martin; Hoever, Gerold; Preiser, Wolfgang; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

    2005-06-01

    A new disease, the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), emerged at the beginning of 2003 and rapidly spread throughout the world. Although the disease had disappeared in June 2003 its re-emergence cannot be excluded. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV may take years. Therefore, the availability of effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV may be crucial for the control of future SARS outbreaks. In this review, experimental and clinical data about potential anti-SARS drugs is summarised and discussed. Animal model studies will be needed to help to determine which interventions warrant controlled clinical testing. PMID:15878786