Science.gov

Sample records for severe fluid retention

  1. Successful use of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration to treat profound fluid retention in severe peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Freebairn, R C; Lipman, J

    1993-12-01

    The use of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration after failure of conventional treatment in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is described. Treatment with inotropes and diuretics failed to produce a diuresis despite the presence of severe fluid overload. Haemofiltration over a 9-day period allowed removal of 171 of fluid with a concomitant improvement in haemodynamic function and a spontaneous diuresis. PMID:8285327

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  3. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  4. Retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs (Tapirus sp.).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Lang-Deuerling, Stefanie; Müller, Dennis W H; Kienzle, Ellen; Steuer, Patrick; Hummel, Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    The retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. We measured particle and fluid mean retention times (MRT) in 13 lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) and 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 Malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24) with cobalt-EDTA as fluid and chromium-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as particle markers. MRT for fluid and particles averaged 42+/-16 h and 55+/-18 h in lowland and 40+/-13 h and 56+/-14 h in Malayan tapirs. In a General Linear Model, neither Tapir species, body mass or diet (characterised by the proportion of roughage) was significantly related to MRT, but dry matter intake was, with a steep decline in MRT with higher intake levels. Compared to other hindgut fermenters, tapirs have a low defecation frequency, which might be linked to their comparatively low food intake. Their gastrointestinal capacity (in dry matter: 1.63+/-0.63% of body mass) is similar to that calculated for horses. A comparison of the difference in fluid and particle MRT in large hindgut fermenters (horses, rhinoceroses, elephants, and the tapirs of this study) shows that longer absolute particle MRT are linked to shorter relative fluid MRT, possibly indicating a more thorough 'washing' of particulate ingesta with digestive fluids at longer particle MRT. The only outlier to this general pattern, with an exceptionally high difference between fluid and particle MRT, indicating a particularly efficient ingesta washing, is the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). If possible, results of this study should be compared to findings in tapirs on natural diets. PMID:20363350

  5. Gravel pack screen having retention means and fluid permeable particulate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidry, J.E.; Quebedeaux, L.J.; Donovan, J.F.; Ashton, J.P.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an apparatus for use on a subterranean well conduit to prevent particulate matter in the well of a pre-determinable size from passing into the conduit with the well production fluids. It comprises a cylindrically shaped inner tubular member having an interior wall and an exterior wall; a fluid flow passageway defined within the interior wall of the tubular member; fluid flow passage means extending from the interior of the tubular member through the exterior wall of the tubular member and in communication with the fluid flow passageway; retention means disposed around the exterior wall of the tubular member and passing across the fluid flow passage means, and having fluid flow openings therethrough; a fluid permeable bed of particulate solids around the exterior of the retention means sized to prevent effectively all such particulate matter in the well from passing inwardly with the production fluids through the fluid permeable bed and through the fluid flow passage means and into the fluid flow passageway when the conduit and the apparatus are positioned within the subterranean well, whereby the openings in the retention means are sized to prevent the particulate solids of the fluid permeable bed from passing into the fluid flow passage means and into the fluid flow passageway and further sized to permit any particulate matter in the well passing through the fluid permeable bed to pass through the retention means and through the subterranean well conduit.

  6. Gravel pack screen having retention means and fluid permeable particulate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidry, J.E.; Quebedeaux, L.J.; Donovan, J.F.; Ashton, J.P.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes an apparatus for use on a subterranean well conduit to prevent particulate matter in the well of a predeterminable size from passing into the conduit with the well production fluids. It comprises an inner member having an interior wall and an exterior wall; a fluid flow passageway defined within the interior wall of the inner member; fluid flow passage means extending from the interior of the inner member through the exterior wall of the inner member and in communication with the fluid flow passageway; retention means wrapped around the exterior wall of the inner member and conforming in shape to the selected exterior wall shape; a fluid permeable bed of particulate solids around the exterior of the retention means sized; an outer fluid permeable housing positioned around the exterior of the fluid permeable bed and having fluid passages therethrough.

  7. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD. PMID:26235579

  8. Gravel pack screen having retention mesh support and fluid permeable particulate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidry, J.E.; Quebedeaux, L.J.; Donovan, J.F.; Ashton, J.P.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for use on a subterranean well conduit to prevent particulate matter in the well of a pre-determinable size from passing into the conduit with the well production fluids. It comprises: a cylindrically shaped inner tubular member having an interior wall and an exterior wall; a fluid flow passageway defined within the interior wall of the tubular member; fluid flow passage means extending from the interior of the tubular member through the exterior wall of the tubular member and in communication with the fluid flow passageway; retention mesh means disposed around the exterior wall of the tubular member and passing across the fluid flow passage means, and having fluid flow openings there-through.

  9. Retention of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus infectivity in fish tissue homogenates and fluids stored at three temperatures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1983-01-01

    Pools of brain, kidney, spleen, liver and gut tissues from several rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and whole sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fry were homogenized with a known amount of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virus was also added to ovarian fluids and sera pooled from several rainbow trout. The plaque assay was used to determine the retention of IHNV infectivity after different storage periods at 20°C, 4°C and —20°C. The work was used to evaluate homogenization as a remote field treatment of IHNV samples before shipment to the laboratory. Maintenance of viral infectivity varied widely among different homogenates and fluids. For short-term storage, 4°C was generally the most efficient temperature for preserving infectious virus in ovarian fluids, Sera and homogenates of eggs, spleen, whole fry and brain, while infectivity was most efficiently preserved in kidney and liver homogenates by storage at −20°C. Infectious virus was not detected in any sample stored for one year at −20°C. Variations in retention of viral infectivity make homogenization of samples in the field followed by transfer to the laboratory unacceptable.

  10. Severity estimation of cracked shaft vibrations within fluid film bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, B. S.; Sekhar, A. S.

    1995-07-01

    The equations of motion, with four degrees of freedom, taking into consideration the flexibility, damping and cross coupling of the fluid film bearings are derived for a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on fluid film bearings. Dimensionless equations are developed for dynamic radial load, dynamic pressure developed in the fluid film bearings and coefficient of dissipation considering the journal vibrations in two harmonics; bearing fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients. These are applied to a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on different types of bearings, i.e., cylindrical journal bearings, offset cylindrical bearings, tilting pad journal bearings and three-lobe bearings. Based on the allowable dynamic pressure developed in the fluid bearings, the severity of cracked shaft and allowable crack depths are estimated in this study. Measurement of dynamic pressure and dissipation for monitoring the crack growth is suggested. However, 2x vibration is the best indicator of cracks in the shafts.

  11. Electrolyte-free milk protein solution influences sodium and fluid retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kengo; Kato, Yoshiho; Usami, Ayako; Yamada, Mari; Yamamura, Asuka; Fushiki, Tohru; Seyama, Yousuke

    2013-01-01

    Milk is an effective post-exercise rehydration drink that maintains the net positive fluid balance. However, it is unclear which components are responsible for this effect. We assessed the effect of milk protein solution (MPS) obtained by dialysis on body fluid retention. Milk, MPS, milk electrolyte solution (MES), sports drink and water were administered to male Wistar rats at a dose of 6 ml/rat after treadmill exercise. Total body fluid retention was assessed by urine volume 4 h after administration of hydrating liquids. The rate of gastric emptying was evaluated by a tracer method using (13)C-labelled acetate. Plasma osmolality, Na and K levels, and urinary Na and K were measured by HPLC and osmometry, respectively. The gastric emptying rate was not delayed by MPS. During 4 h of rehydration, cumulative urine volumes differed significantly between treatment groups (P < 0·05) with 4·9, 2·2 and 3·4 ml from water-, milk- and MPS-fed rats, respectively. Thus, MPS elicited 50 % of the total body fluid retention of milk. Plasma aldosterone levels were significantly higher in MPS- and milk-fed rats compared with water-fed rats. Plasma osmolality was maintained at higher levels in MPS-fed rats than in water- and MES-fed rats (P < 0·05). Cumulative urine Na excretion was also suppressed in the milk- and MPS-fed groups compared with the MES-fed group. Our results demonstrate that MPS obtained by dialysis clearly affects net body water balance without affecting gastric emptying after exercise. This effect was attributed to retention of Na and water, and maintenance of plasma osmolality. PMID:25191594

  12. Effects of various fragrant ingredients on desmopressin-induced fluid retention in mice.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Shibata, Yujiro

    2010-07-01

    Although fragrances are often used in aromatherapy for the treatment of edema, few studies on their diuretic and/or antiedematous activities have been performed. In this study, the effects of four types of fragrant ingredients (d-limonene, piperitone, alpha-pinene, and cinnamaldehyde) were examined in a mouse model of fluid retention. The mice were loaded with water after treatment with desmopressin (an antidiuretic hormone). In addition, zingerone, a pungent component of ginger which is considered to be effective in the treatment of edema, was examined. Moreover, their effects were compared with those of furosemide, a representative diuretic. Among the five types of fragrant ingredients examined, all except for cinnamaldehyde increased the urine volume in the fluid retention mouse model when administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In particular, d-limonene and zingerone significantly increased the urine volume. Thus the effects of these two ingredients were further examined at lower doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. d-Limonene significantly increased the urine volume in a dose-dependent manner. Zingerone resulted in a significant increase in the urine volume only at a dose of 30 mg/kg. In normal mice, d-limonene did not affect the urine volume at the same doses. In contrast, zingerone significantly increased the urine volume in normal mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Furosemide significantly increased the urine volume in both the fluid-retentive and normal mice. These results indicate that both d-limonene and zingerone exhibit diuretic actions; however, the former fragrance only exerted an action in the fluid-retentive state. This different action suggests that d-limonene might be promising for the treatment of edema. PMID:20606379

  13. A critique of fluid bolus resuscitation in severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation of septic patients by means of one or more fluid boluses is recommended by guidelines from multiple relevant organizations and as a component of surviving sepsis campaigns. The technique is considered a key and life-saving intervention during the initial treatment of severe sepsis in children and adults. Such recommendations, however, are only based on expert opinion and lack adequate experimental or controlled human evidence. Despite these limitations, fluid bolus therapy (20 to 40 ml/kg) is widely practiced and is currently considered a cornerstone of the management of sepsis. In this pointof-view critique, we will argue that such therapy has weak physiological support, has limited experimental support, and is at odds with emerging observational data in several subgroups of critically ill patients or those having major abdominal surgery. Finally, we will argue that this paradigm is now challenged by the findings of a large randomized controlled trial in septic children. In the present article, we contend that the concept of large fluid bolus resuscitation in sepsis needs to be investigated further. PMID:22277834

  14. A closer study of methanol adsorption and its impact on solute retentions in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Glenne, Emelie; Öhlén, Kristina; Leek, Hanna; Klarqvist, Magnus; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2016-04-15

    Surface excess adsorption isotherms of methanol on a diol silica adsorbent were measured in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a mixture of methanol and carbon dioxide as mobile phase. The tracer pulse method was used with deuterium labeled methanol as solute and the tracer peaks were detected using APCI-MS over the whole composition range from neat carbon dioxide to neat methanol. The results indicate that a monolayer (4Å) of methanol is formed on the stationary phase. Moreover, the importance of using the set or the actual methanol fractions and volumetric flows in SFC was investigated by measuring the mass flow respective pressure and by calculations of the actual volume fraction of methanol. The result revealed a significant difference between the value set and the actually delivered volumetric methanol flow rate, especially at low modifier fractions. If relying only on the set methanol fraction in the calculations, the methanol layer thickness should in this system be highly overestimated. Finally, retention times for a set of solutes were measured and related to the findings summarized above concerning methanol adsorption. A strongly non-linear relationship between the logarithms of the retention factors and the modifier fraction in the mobile phase was revealed, prior to the established monolayer. At modifier fractions above that required for establishment of the methanol monolayer, this relationship turns linear which explains why the solute retention factors are less sensitive to changes in modifier content in this region. PMID:26979267

  15. Effect of reference conditions on flow rate, modifier fraction and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2016-08-12

    When using compressible mobile phases such as fluidic CO2, the density, the volumetric flow rates and volumetric fractions are pressure dependent. The pressure and temperature definition of these volumetric parameters (referred to as the reference conditions) may alter between systems, manufacturers and operating conditions. A supercritical fluid chromatography system was modified to operate in two modes with different definition of the eluent delivery parameters, referred to as fixed and variable mode. For the variable mode, the volumetric parameters are defined with reference to the pump operating pressure and actual pump head temperature. These conditions may vary when, e.g. changing the column length, permeability, flow rate, etc. and are thus variable reference conditions. For the fixed mode, the reference conditions were set at 150bar and 30°C, resulting in a mass flow rate and mass fraction of modifier definition which is independent of the operation conditions. For the variable mode, the mass flow rate of carbon dioxide increases with system pump operating pressure, decreasing the fraction of modifier. Comparing the void times and retention factor shows that the deviation between the two modes is almost independent of modifier percentage, but depends on the operating pressure. Recalculating the set volumetric fraction of modifier to the mass fraction results in the same retention behaviour for both modes. This shows that retention in SFC can be best modelled using the mass fraction of modifier. The fixed mode also simplifies method scaling as it only requires matching average column pressure. PMID:27401813

  16. Severe acute measles pneumonitis: virus isolation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Suter, Cosima; Buergi, Urs; Eigenmann, Katja; Franzen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, several endemic outbreaks of measles have been recognised, not only in children but also in adults, with severe and, occasionally, even fatal complications, possibly due to delayed diagnosis of the disease in adult medicine and decreasing vaccination rates. Furthermore, the treatment consists of supportive measures only. We present a case of severe measles pneumonitis in a 42-year-old man, a travel returnee, proven by direct virus isolation with PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CT findings and pulmonary function testing revealed features of obstructive bronchiolitis; the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids. He fully recovered, and lung function measurement returned to normal values. We conclude that acute measles can present as obstructive bronchiolitis and may be successfully treated with corticosteroids. PMID:26508116

  17. Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention: Recent Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Rachańczyk, Jolanta; Włodarczyk, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are used to improve insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, thiazolidinediones induce fluid retention, edema, and sometimes precipitate or exacerbate heart failure in a subset of patients. The mechanism through which thiazolidinediones induce fluid retention is controversial. Most studies suggest that this effect results from the increase in tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the kidney, but the role of specific nephron segments and sodium carriers involved is less clear. Some studies suggested that PPARγ agonist stimulates Na+ reabsorption in the collecting duct by activating epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), either directly or through serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK-1). However, other studies did not confirm this mechanism and even report the suppression of ENaC. Alternative mechanisms in the collecting duct include stimulation of non-ENaC sodium channel or inhibition of chloride secretion to the tubular lumen. In addition, thiazolidinediones may augment sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule by stimulating the expression and activity of apical Na+/H+ exchanger-3 and basolateral Na+-HCO3 − cotransporter as well as of Na+,K+-ATPase. These effects are mediated by PPARγ-induced nongenomic transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). PMID:23577024

  18. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Several Fluid Mechanical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this thesis, three parts, each with several chapters, are respectively devoted to hydrostatic, viscous, and inertial fluids theories and applications. Involved topics include planetary, biological fluid systems, and high performance computing technology. In the hydrostatics part, the classical Maclaurin spheroids theory is generalized, for the first time, to a more realistic multi-layer model, establishing geometries of both the outer surface and the interfaces. For one of its astrophysical applications, the theory explicitly predicts physical shapes of surface and core-mantle-boundary for layered terrestrial planets, which enables the studies of some gravity problems, and the direct numerical simulations of dynamo flows in rotating planetary cores. As another application of the figure theory, the zonal flow in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated for a better understanding of the Jovian gravity field. An upper bound of gravity field distortions, especially in higher-order zonal gravitational coefficients, induced by deep zonal winds is estimated firstly. The oblate spheroidal shape of an undistorted Jupiter resulting from its fast solid body rotation is fully taken into account, which marks the most significant improvement from previous approximation based Jovian wind theories. High viscosity flows, for example Stokes flows, occur in a lot of processes involving low-speed motions in fluids. Microorganism swimming is such a typical case. A fully three dimensional analytic solution of incompressible Stokes equation is derived in the exterior domain of an arbitrarily translating and rotating prolate spheroid, which models a large family of microorganisms such as cocci bacteria. The solution is then applied to the magnetotactic bacteria swimming problem, and good consistency has been found between theoretical predictions and laboratory observations of the moving patterns of such bacteria under magnetic fields. In the analysis of dynamics of planetary

  19. Systemic PPARγ deletion causes severe disturbance in fluid homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Panasiuk, Alexandra; Downton, Maicy; Zhao, Daqiang; Yang, Baoxue; Jia, Zhanjun; Yang, Tianxin

    2015-11-01

    The pharmacological action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ in promoting sodium and water retention is well documented as highlighted by the major side-effect of body weight gain and edema associated with thiazolidinedione use. However, a possible physiological role of PPARγ in regulation of fluid metabolism has not been reported by previous studies. Here we analyzed fluid metabolism in inducible whole-body PPARγ knockout mice. The null mice developed severe polydipsia and polyuria, reduced urine osmolality, and modest hyperphagia. The phenomenon persisted during 3 days of pair feeding and pair drinking, accompanied by progressive weight loss. After 24 h water deprivation, the null mice had a lower urine osmolality, a higher urine volume, a greater weight loss, and a greater rise in hematocrit than the floxed control. Urinary vasopressin (AVP) excretion was not different between the genotypes under basal condition or after WD. The response of urine osmolality to acute and chronic 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin treatment was attenuated in the null mice, but the total abundance or phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the kidney or AVP-induced cAMP production in inner medullary collecting duct suspensions was unaffected. Overall, PPARγ participates in physiological control of fluid homeostasis through an unknown mechanism involving cAMP/AQP2-independent enhancement of AVP response. PMID:26330489

  20. Ascites fluid in severe acute pancreatitis: from pathophysiology to therapy.

    PubMed

    Dugernier, T; Laterre, P F; Reynaert, M S

    2000-01-01

    acute pancreatitis. The rationale behind this procedure was the washout of potential toxic mediators from the peritoneal cavity before they gain access to the systemic circulation. Contrary to animal and uncontrolled human data no prospective randomized study could ever demonstrated a significant effect of peritoneal lavage neither in the prevention and control of remote organ failures or in early mortality and ultimate survival after severe acute pancreatitis in humans. Differences between experimentally-induced pancreatitis, difference in the timing of the initiation of lavage and a type II error in controlled human studies may account for the discrepancy in the outcome between these studies. Anyway, this disparity should raise the question as whether the peritoneal cavity acts simply as a reservoir or as a route of transfer of toxic mediators to the systemic circulation. Although data are scarce, conflicting and limited to animal experiments and to a few molecules, peripancreatic veins and lymphatics seem to be the major routes of transfer whereas transperitoneal absorption is trivial. Nevertheless early peritoneal aspiration of ascitic fluid in acute pancreatitis and measurement of trypsinogen activation peptides may be used as a means of severity assessment and identification of pancreatic necrosis. This implies that even if not taking part actively in the emergence of remote organ failures ascitic fluid may reflect the peripancreatic necrotizing process. So careful comparative analysis of peritoneal exudate, plasma and lymph with regards to putative mediators of local and remote injury may provide essential pathophysiological clues. At the time of trials of antimediator therapy early in the attack this kind of insight is essential. PMID:11189983

  1. Breathing pattern and carbon dioxide retention in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, M.; Misuri, G.; Corrado, A.; Duranti, R.; Iandelli, I.; De Paola, E.; Scano, G.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors leading to chronic hypercapnia and rapid shallow breathing in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not completely understood. In this study the interrelations between chronic carbon dioxide retention, breathing pattern, dyspnoea, and the pressure required for breathing relative to inspiratory muscle strength in stable COPD patients with severe airflow obstruction were studied. METHODS: Thirty patients with COPD in a clinically stable condition with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of < 1 litre were studied. In each patient the following parameters were assessed: (1) dyspnoea scale rating, (2) inspiratory muscle strength by measuring minimal pleural pressure (PPLmin), and (3) tidal volume (VT), flow, pleural pressure swing (PPLsw), total lung resistance (RL), dynamic lung elastance (ELdyn), and positive end expiratory alveolar pressure (PEEPi) during resting breathing. RESULTS: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) related directly to RL/PPLmin, and ELdyn/PPLmin, and inversely to VT and PPLmin. There was no relationship between PaCO2 and functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC), or minute ventilation. PEEPi was similar in eucapnic and hypercapnic patients. Expressing PaCO2 as a combined function of VT and PPLmin (stepwise multiple regression analysis) explained 71% of the variance in PaCO2. Tidal volume was directly related to inspiratory time (TI), and TI was inversely related to the pressure required for breathing relative to inspiratory muscle strength (PPLsw, %PPLmin). There was an association between the severity of dyspnoea and both the increase in PPLsw (%PPLmin) and the shortening in TI. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that, in stable patients with COPD with severe airflow obstruction, hypercapnia is associated with shallow breathing and inspiratory muscle weakness, and rapid and shallow breathing appears to be linked to both a marked increase in the pressure

  2. [A case report of severe urinary retention and meteorism during flunarizine administration].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, F; Masuda, Y; Kodaira, M; Fukayama, M; Inamatsu, T; Nagura, H

    1992-03-01

    A case of flunarizine hydrochloride (FZ)-induced severe urinary retention and meteorism which resulted from sphincter spasm of the urinary bladder and the anus is presented. An 81-year-old female had received 10 mg/day FZ orally for 12 months before hypokinesia and general fatigue developed. Physical examination revealed slight rigidity of the extremities, abdominal distention and spasm of the anal sphincter muscle. Laboratory examinations showed uremia (BUN 88 mg/dl, Creatinine 16.8 mg/dl) and abdominal X-ray demonstrated marked distention of the small and large bowels. Renal failure improved within 2 days after massive urination using a urethral catheter. Abdominal distention was improved by the ileus and anal tubes. The difficulties of urination and defecation and decreased mobility of the extremities were resolved one month after the cessation of FZ. No organic changes were detected in urinary, intestinal and neurological systems by cystoscopy, CT, MRI and gastrointestinal fiberscopy. Serum concentration of FZ was 42.5 ng/ml on admission but decreased slowly to 17.9 ng/ml 80 days later. Serum half life was calculated to be 55 days which was 3 times longer than that healthy younger volunteers. PMID:1593790

  3. Noble gases in gas shales : Implications for gas retention and circulating fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Jones, Adrian; Verchovsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Gas shales from three cores of Haynesville-Bossier formation have been analysed simultaneously for carbon, nitrogen and noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) to constrain their source compositions and identify signatures associated with high gas retention. Ten samples from varying depths of 11785 to 12223 feet from each core, retrieved from their centres, have been combusted from 200-1200°C in incremental steps of 100°C, using 5 - 10 mg of each sample. Typically, Xe is released at 200°C and is largely adsorbed, observed in two of the three cores. The third core lacked any measureable Xe. High 40Ar/36Ar ratio up to 8000, is associated with peak release of nitrogen with distinctive isotopic signature, related to breakdown of clay minerals at 500°C. He and Ne are also mostly released at the same temperature step and predominantly hosted in the pore spaces of the organic matter associated with the clay. He may be produced from the uranium related to the organic matter. The enrichment factors of noble gases defined as (iX/36Ar)sample/(iX/36Ar)air where iX denotes any noble gas isotope, show Ne and Xe enrichment observed commonly in sedimentary rocks including shales (Podosek et al., 1980; Bernatowicz et al., 1984). This can be related to interaction of the shales with circulating fluids and diffusive separation of gases (Torgersen and Kennedy, 1999), implying the possibility of loss of gases from these shales. Interaction with circulating fluids (e.g. crustal fluids) have been further confirmed using 20Ne/N2, 36Ar/N2 and 4He/N2 ratios. Deviations of measured 4He/40Ar* (where 40Ar* represents radiogenic 40Ar after correcting for contribution from atmospheric Ar) from expected values has been used to monitor gas loss by degassing. Bernatowicz, T., Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Kramer, F.E., 1984. The Atmospheric Inventory of Xenon and Noble Gases in Shales: The Plastic Bag Experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research 89, 4597-4611. Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Ozima, M., 1980

  4. Thermocapillary flow with evaporation and condensation and its effect on liquid retention in low-G fluid acquisition devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1994-01-01

    The steady motion, thermal and free surface behavior of a volatile, wetting liquid in microgravity are studied using scaling and numerical techniques. The objective is to determine whether the thermocapillary and two-phase convection arising from thermodynamic nonequilibrium along the porous surfaces of spacecraft liquid acquisition devices could cause the retention failures observed with liquid hydrogen and heated vapor pressurant. Why these devices seem immune to retention loss when pressurized with heated helium or heated directly through the porous structure was also examined. Results show that highly wetting fluids exhibit large negative and positive dynamic pressure gradients towards the meniscus interline when superheated and subcooled, respectively. With superheating, the pressure variation and recoil force arising from liquid/vapor phase change exert the same influence on surface morphology and promote retention. With subcooling, however, the pressure distribution produces a suction that degrades mechanical equilibrium of the surface. This result indicates that thermocapillary-induced deformation arising from subcooling and condensation is the likely cause for retention loss. In addition, increasing the level of nonequilibrium by reducing accommodation coefficient suppresses deformation and explains why this failure mode does not occur in instances of direct screen heating or pressurization with a heated inert gas.

  5. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn. PMID:26796241

  6. Fluid Retention Associated with Imatinib Treatment in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Quantitative Radiologic Assessment and Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Pyo, Junhee; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to describe radiologic signs and time-course of imatinib-associated fluid retention (FR) in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its implications for management. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of 403 patients with GIST treated with imatinib, 15 patients with imaging findings of FR were identified by screening radiology reports, followed by manual confirmation. Subcutaneous edema, ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion were graded on a four-point scale on CT scans; total score was the sum of these four scores. Results The most common radiologic sign of FR was subcutaneous edema (15/15, 100%), followed by ascites (12/15, 80%), pleural effusion (11/15, 73%), and pericardial effusion (6/15, 40%) at the time of maximum FR. Two distinct types of FR were observed: 1) acute/progressive FR, characterized by acute aggravation of FR and rapid improvement after management, 2) intermittent/steady FR, characterized by occasional or persistent mild FR. Acute/progressive FR always occurred early after drug initiation/dose escalation (median 1.9 month, range 0.3-4.0 months), while intermittent/steady FR occurred at any time. Compared to intermittent/steady FR, acute/progressive FR was severe (median score, 5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.002), and often required drug-cessation/dose-reduction. Conclusion Two distinct types (acute/progressive and intermittent/steady FR) of imatinib-associated FR are observed and each type requires different management. PMID:25741192

  7. Looking beyond endotoxin: a comparative study of pyrogen retention by ultrafilters used for the preparation of sterile dialyis fluid

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Griet; Hulko, Michael; Speidel, Rose; Brodbeck, Katrin; Krause, Bernd; Vanholder, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Sterile single-use ultrafilters are used in dialysis for the preparation of the substitution fluid given to patients undergoing dialysis treatments with high convective fluid removal. The retention of pyrogenic agents by the ultrafilters is crucial to avoiding inflammatory responses. The performance of a new single-use ultrafilter (NUF) with a positively charged flat sheet membrane of relatively small membrane area and large pore size was compared to a reference ultrafilter (RUF) with a hollow fiber membrane. Filter performance was tested with various pyrogen-contaminated dialysis fluids by direct pyrogen quantification and by measuring inflammatory responses in cell-based bioassays. The NUF completely retained oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), whereas the RUF was fully permeable. Both filters tended to decrease biological activity of DNA in filtered bacterial lysates. The NUF reduced lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and LPS-induced biological activity by 100%, whereas the RUF produced filtrates with low but detectable levels of LPS in most cases. Peptidoglycans (PGN) were fully retained both by the NUF and the RUF. The new ultrafilter retained biologically active ODN, which has not yet been described for any other device used in dialysis, and it showed better or equal retention of LPS and PGN even with a smaller membrane surface and larger pore size. PMID:25227511

  8. Determining otitis media severity from middle ear fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Juhn, S K; Garvis, W J; Lees, C J; Le, C T; Kim, C S

    1994-05-01

    Otitis media has a complex multifactorial pathogenesis, and the middle ear inflammatory response is typified by the accumulation of cellular and chemical mediators in middle ear effusion. However, specific biochemical and immunochemical factors that may be responsible for the severity or chronicity of otitis media have not been identified. Identification of factors involved in chronicity appears to be an essential step in the treatment and ultimate prevention of chronic otitis media. We analyzed 70 effusion samples from patients 1 to 10 years of age who had chronic otitis media with effusion for two cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and total collagenase. The highest concentrations of all three inflammatory mediators were found in purulent otitis media, and concentrations were higher in younger than in older patients. Mediator concentrations were similar in samples obtained from patients having their first myringotomy for otitis media with effusion and in those who had had multiple previous myringotomies. The multiresponse star, which incorporates several biochemical parameters in one graphic illustration, may best characterize the complex nature of middle ear inflammation. PMID:8179269

  9. Severe Hydronephrosis and Perinephric Urinoma with Rupture of Renal Fornix Secondary to Postoperative Urinary Retention following Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wysock, James; Satterfield, James

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a known complication following a variety of procedures, with a reported incidence of 2.1–3.8% in general surgery and up to 52% in anorectal surgery. We report a case of POUR in a female resulting in severe unilateral hydronephrosis with a perinephric urinoma due to a ruptured fornix. The extent of hydroureter caused an axial rotation upon itself producing further outflow obstruction. This phenomenon of an anatomical ureter deformity secondary to urinary retention resulting in a ruptured fornix is an unusual occurrence. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrogram where a stiff guidewire was successfully passed into the bladder by interventional radiology (IR) and allowed for placement of an indwelling ureteral stent. The case presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. PMID:27555977

  10. Severe Hydronephrosis and Perinephric Urinoma with Rupture of Renal Fornix Secondary to Postoperative Urinary Retention following Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Dakwar, Anthony; Wysock, James; Satterfield, James

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a known complication following a variety of procedures, with a reported incidence of 2.1-3.8% in general surgery and up to 52% in anorectal surgery. We report a case of POUR in a female resulting in severe unilateral hydronephrosis with a perinephric urinoma due to a ruptured fornix. The extent of hydroureter caused an axial rotation upon itself producing further outflow obstruction. This phenomenon of an anatomical ureter deformity secondary to urinary retention resulting in a ruptured fornix is an unusual occurrence. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrogram where a stiff guidewire was successfully passed into the bladder by interventional radiology (IR) and allowed for placement of an indwelling ureteral stent. The case presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. PMID:27555977

  11. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink. PMID:25162651

  12. Severe dehydration and acute renal failure associated with external ventricular drainage of cerebrospinal fluid in children.

    PubMed

    Simpson, S; Yung, M; Slater, A

    2006-10-01

    We report three paediatric cases of severe dehydration and hyponatraemia with circulatory compromise associated with the use of external ventricular drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. Two of the children had cardiac arrests. All were successfully resuscitated. While there were additional factors that contributed to other fluid losses, and fluid balance data are incomplete, these cases highlight a need for increased vigilance when managing children with external ventricular drains. PMID:17061645

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Transport and Retention of Nanoparticle in Saturated Sand Filters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental and computational investigation of the transport parameters of nano particles flowing through porous media has been made. The objective of this work was to develop a simulation capability applicable to the transport and retention of nanoparticles (NPs) in saturated p...

  14. Association of Fluid Accumulation with Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Children with Severe Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Li, Xiaozhong; Bai, Zhenjiang; Fang, Fang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Pan, Jian; Wang, Jian; Feng, Xing; Li, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether early and acquired daily fluid overload (FO), as well as fluctuations in fluid accumulation, were associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill children with severe sepsis. Methods This study enrolled 202 children in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with severe sepsis. Early fluid overload was defined as ≥5% fluid accumulation occurring in the first 24 hours of PICU admission. The maximum daily fluid accumulation ≥5% occurring during the next 6 days in patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay was defined as PICU-acquired daily fluid overload. The fluctuation in fluid accumulation was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily fluid accumulation obtained during the first 7 days after admission. Results Of the 202 patients, 61 (30.2%) died during PICU stay. Among all patients, 41 (20.3%) experienced early fluid overload, including 9 with a FO ≥10%. Among patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay (n = 154), 36 (23.4%) developed PICU-acquired daily fluid overload, including 2 with a FO ≥10%. Both early fluid overload (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.08–1.33; P = 0.001; n = 202) and PICU-acquired daily fluid overload (AOR = 5.47 per log increase; 95% CI 1.15–25.96; P = 0.032; n = 154) were independent risk factors associated with mortality after adjusting for age, illness severity, etc. However, fluctuations in fluid accumulation were not associated with mortality after adjustment. Length of PICU stay increased with greater fluctuations in fluid accumulation in all patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay (FO <5%, 5%-10% vs. ≥10%: 4 [3–8], 7 [4–11] vs. 10 [6–16] days; P <0.001; n = 154) and in survivors (4 [3–8], 7 [5–11] vs. 10 [5–15] days; P <0.001; n = 121). Early fluid overload achieved an area under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI 0.65–0.82; P <0.001; n = 202) for predicting mortality in patients with severe sepsis, with a sensitivity of 67

  15. Unsupervised parameter optimization for automated retention time alignment of severely shifted gas chromatographic data using the piecework alignment algorithm.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2007-02-02

    First, simulated chromatographic separations with declining retention time precision were used to study the performance of the piecewise retention time alignment algorithm and to demonstrate an unsupervised parameter optimization method. The average correlation coefficient between the first chromatogram and every other chromatogram in the data set was used to optimize the alignment parameters. This correlation method does not require a training set, so it is unsupervised and automated. This frees the user from needing to provide class information and makes the alignment algorithm more generally applicable to classifying completely unknown data sets. For a data set of simulated chromatograms where the average chromatographic peak was shifted past two neighboring peaks between runs, the average correlation coefficient of the raw data was 0.46 ± 0.25. After automated, optimized piecewise alignment, the average correlation coefficient was 0.93 ± 0.02. Additionally, a relative shift metric and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to independently quantify and categorize the alignment performance, respectively. The relative shift metric was defined as four times the standard deviation of a given peak’s retention time in all of the chromatograms, divided by the peak-width-at-base. The raw simulated data sets that were studied contained peaks with average relative shifts ranging between 0.3 and 3.0. Second, a “real” data set of gasoline separations was gathered using three different GC methods to induce severe retention time shifting. In these gasoline separations, retention time precision improved ~8 fold following alignment. Finally, piecewise alignment and the unsupervised correlation optimization method were applied to severely shifted GC separations of reformate distillation fractions. The effect of piecewise alignment on peak heights and peak areas is also reported. Piecewise alignment either did not change the peak height, or caused it to slightly

  16. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  17. Fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jürgen; Steuer, Patrick; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hammer, Sven; Hammer, Catrin; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-02-01

    Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals with a body weight (BW) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (Chloris gayana) diet were available. Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibers (<2 mm) were used as pulse-dose markers. Mean retention time (MRT) in the digestive tract was calculated from faecal marker excretion. Average daily intake of the addax was found to be 1.7 kg dry matter (DM) or 60+/-8.3 g DM/kg BW(0.75). The MRT of fluid and particles in the reticulo-rumen (MRT(fluid)RR and MRT(particle)RR) were quantified to be 20+/-5.8 and 42+/-7.0 h respectively. When compared to literature data, MRT(fluid)RR was significantly longer than in cattle species, and MRT(particle)RR was significantly longer than in 11 taxa of all feeding types. The ratio of MRT(particle)RR/MRT(fluid)RR (2.3+/-0.5) was found to be within the range described for grazing ruminants. The long retention times found in the addax can be interpreted as an adaptation to a diet including a high proportion of slow fermenting grasses, while the long retention time of the fluid phase can be interpreted as a consequence of water saving mechanisms of the desert-adapted addax with a potentially low water turnover and capacious water storing rumen. PMID:18083600

  18. Unsupervised parameter optimization for automated retention time alignment of severely shifted gas chromatographic data using the piecewise alignment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Karisa M; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Simulated chromatographic separations were used to study the performance of piecewise retention time alignment and to demonstrate automated unsupervised (without a training set) parameter optimization. The average correlation coefficient between the target chromatogram and all remaining chromatograms in the data set was used to optimize the alignment parameters. This approach frees the user from providing class information and makes the alignment algorithm applicable to classifying completely unknown data sets. The average peak in the raw simulated data set was shifted up to two peak-widths-at-base (average relative shift=2.0) and after alignment the average relative shift was improved to 0.3. Piecewise alignment was applied to severely shifted GC separations of gasolines and reformate distillation fraction samples. The average relative shifts in the raw gasolines and reformates data were 4.7 and 1.5, respectively, but after alignment improved to 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The effect of piecewise alignment on peak heights and peak areas is also reported. The average relative difference in peak height was -0.20%. The average absolute relative difference in area was 0.15%. PMID:17174960

  19. Semi-Permeable Membrane Retention of Synovial Fluid Lubricants Hyaluronan and Proteoglycan 4 for a Biomimetic Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Blewis, Megan E.; Lao, Brian J.; Jadin, Kyle D.; McCarty, William J.; Bugbee, William D.; Firestein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Synovial fluid (SF) contains lubricant macromolecules, hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4). The synovium not only contributes lubricants to SF through secretion by synoviocyte lining cells, but also concentrates lubricants in SF due to its semi-permeable nature. A membrane that recapitulates these synovium functions may be useful in a bioreactor system for generating a bioengineered fluid (BF) similar to native SF. The objectives were to analyze expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes with pore sizes of 50 nm, 90 nm, 170 nm, and 3 μm in terms of (1) HA and PRG4 secretion rates by adherent synoviocytes, and (2) the extent of HA and PRG4 retention with or without synoviocytes adherent on the membrane. Experiment 1: Synoviocytes were cultured on tissue culture (TC) plastic or membranes ± IL-1β + TGF-β1 + TNF-α, a cytokine combination that stimulates lubricant synthesis. HA and PRG4 secretion rates were assessed by analysis of medium. Experiment 2: Bioreactors were fabricated to provide a BF compartment enclosed by membranes ± adherent synoviocytes, and an external compartment of nutrient fluid (NF). A solution with HA (1 mg/mL, MW ranging from 30 to 4,000 kDa) or PRG4 (50 μg/mL) was added to the BF compartment, and HA and PRG4 loss into the NF compartment after 2, 8, and 24 h was determined. Lubricant loss kinetics were analyzed to estimate membrane permeability. Experiment 1: Cytokine-regulated HA and PRG4 secretion rates on membranes were comparable to those on TC plastic. Experiment 2: Transport of HA and PRG4 across membranes was lowest with 50 nm membranes and highest with 3 μm membranes, and transport of high MW HA was decreased by adherent synoviocytes (for 50 and 90 nm membranes). The permeability to HA mixtures for 50 nm membranes was ~20 × 10−8 cm/s (− cells) and ~5 × 10−8 cm/s (+ cells), for 90 nm membranes was ~35 × 10−8 cm/s (− cells) and ~ 19 × 10−8 cm/s (+ cells), for 170 nm membranes was ~74 × 10−8 cm/s (± cells

  20. Chromatographic methods enabling the characterization of stationary phases and retention prediction in high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sykora, David; Vozka, Jiri; Tesarova, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the scope of the present review, the current status of high-performance liquid chromatography/ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography is briefly provided. These techniques and their retention mechanisms are compared. Various alternative approaches utilized for the determination and description of the retention processes in these two systems are mapped. Two frequently used concepts, linear-free energy relationships, and hydrophobic subtraction models, used for the characterization of the retention interactions, are discussed. Principles and selected applications of the both methods are also covered. Then the models applied for the prediction of retention behavior of solutes on stationary phases are outlined. The procedures utilized for the sorbent/column classification are also covered. Simple chromatographic tests frequently used for the basic characterization and mutual comparison of stationary phases are summarized and briefly commented on. The importance of a statistical evaluation of complex retention data obtained from the chromatographic measurements is outlined. Finally, computer simulations aiming at the facilitation of the quest to optimize separation conditions for a given mixture of analytes are touched upon. PMID:26497150

  1. Dimethylarginine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of hyperacute ischemic stroke patients are associated with stroke severity.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Raf; Marescau, Bart; Possemiers, Ilse; Sheorajpanday, Rishi; De Deyn, Peter P

    2009-09-01

    We hypothesise that asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, SDMA) are released in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to ischemia-induced proteolysis and that CSF dimethylarginines are related to stroke severity. ADMA and SDMA were measured in CSF of 88 patients with ischemic stroke or TIA within 24 h after stroke onset (mean 8.6 h) and in 24 controls. Stroke severity was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission. Outcome was evaluated by institutionalization due to stroke and the modified Rankin scale. Dimethylarginine levels were higher in patients with stroke than in TIA patients, who had higher levels than controls and correlated with the NIHSS. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that dimethylarginines were independently associated with stroke severity. The SDMA/ADMA ratio did not differ significantly between controls and stroke patients. CSF dimethylarginine levels are increased in hyperacute ischemic stroke and are associated with stroke severity. PMID:19296217

  2. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with amniotic fluid embolism associated with severe cardiopulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Terashima, Masahiro; Amiya, Eisuke; Nakao, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Akiko; Hyodo, Hironobu; Ando, Jiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but devastating complication of pregnancy. Acute circulatory failure and obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulopathy are often associated with AFE and lead to poor prognosis of this syndrome. Although many reports of AFE and its cardiopulmonary complications exist, their etiology remains unknown. Classically, it was believed that the fatal cardiopulmonary complication in AFE is due to acute and severe pulmonary hypertension caused by critical obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by embolized amniotic fluid. However, recent hypotheses are suggesting that anaphylactic reaction or a cytokine effect induced by amniotic fluid is the main pathophysiological mechanism. We report a case in which cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at the chronic stage of AFE. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was detected at the mid-wall of the left ventricle with no evidence of pulmonary hypertension. This finding suggests that the pathophysiological mechanism of severe cardiac complications in AFE may include direct left ventricular myocardial injury through an immune reaction or cytokine release, rather than pulmonary embolism. PMID:23676374

  3. Vectorization on the star computer of several numerical methods for a fluid flow problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A reexamination of some numerical methods is considered in light of the new class of computers which use vector streaming to achieve high computation rates. A study has been made of the effect on the relative efficiency of several numerical methods applied to a particular fluid flow problem when they are implemented on a vector computer. The method of Brailovskaya, the alternating direction implicit method, a fully implicit method, and a new method called partial implicitization have been applied to the problem of determining the steady state solution of the two-dimensional flow of a viscous imcompressible fluid in a square cavity driven by a sliding wall. Results are obtained for three mesh sizes and a comparison is made of the methods for serial computation.

  4. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Coles, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethlsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed deploymerization of the fluid molecule.

  5. Modeling Fluid Resuscitation by Formulating Infusion Rate and Urine Output in Severe Thermal Burn Adult Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qizhi; Li, Wei; Zou, Xin; Dang, Yongming; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acute burn injuries are among the most devastating forms of trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate fluid resuscitation after severe burn, specifically during the first 48 hours following injury, is considered as the single most important therapeutic intervention in burn treatment. Although many formulas have been developed to estimate the required fluid amount in severe burn patients, many lines of evidence showed that patients still receive far more fluid than formulas recommend. Overresuscitation, which is known as “fluid creep,” has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial period of burn care. If fluid titration can be personalized and automated during the resuscitation phase, more efficient burn care and outcome will be anticipated. In the present study, a dynamic urine output based infusion rate prediction model was developed and validated during the initial 48 hours in severe thermal burn adult patients. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed dynamic fluid resuscitation model might significantly reduce the total fluid volume by accurately predicting hourly urine output and has the potential to aid fluid administration in severe burn patients. PMID:26090415

  6. [Distribution and retention of nitroxinil in the tissues and fluids of large and small ruminants treated with fasciolide].

    PubMed

    Baĭrakova, L

    1979-01-01

    Nitroxynil distribution and the period of its retention in the organism of sheep and calves subcutaneously treated with therapeutical doses of the Bulgarian patent medicine fasciolid which contains N-methylglucaminic-nitro-xynil salt were followed. Comparative studies were carried out using the patent medicine dovenix "Specia". The polarographic method, based on nitro-group reduction over a dripping mercury electrod was applied for nitroxynil determination. It was established that fasciolid and dovenix applied to sheep and cattle in a prophylactic-therapeutic dose did not differ significantly in their distribution and retention in the organism. PMID:545838

  7. Retention behaviour of ceramides in sub-critical fluid chromatography in comparison with non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, K; Lesellier, E; Chaminade, P; Ferrier, D; Baillet, A; Tchapla, A

    2000-06-23

    This study was devoted to the development of an analytical method for ceramide analysis in packed subcritical fluid chromatography (pSubFC). Monofunctional grafted silica support was found to be more suitable for ceramide analysis. Five Kromasil columns were coupled and the parameters, temperature, pressure and percentage of organic modifier in CO2 were optimised, considering selectivity and analysis time. The final conditions were 31 degrees C, 6% of methanol (MeOH) and 13 MPa. In these conditions the selectivity for structural differences (methylene group, unsaturation or two different bases) were studied. As classically observed, the methylene selectivity decreased with the increase of the eluotropic strength. Moreover, unlike in non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography (NARP-LC), adding a further unsaturation and two further methylene groups on ceramide results to an increase of retention in pSubFC. Moreover, this last technique allowed to separate ceramides with the same total number of carbons containing unsaturated fatty acids, when the distribution of carbon number of the two chain is very different. These results had enabled to plot retention chart in order to predict ceramide structure in view to identify additional ceramide. This retention chart was finally compared with the one already obtained in NARP-LC. PMID:10910215

  8. Don't Go Chasing Waterfalls: Excessive Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive fluid resuscitation is the mainstay therapy in modern sepsis management. Its efficacy was demonstrated in the landmark study by Emmanuel Rivers in 2001. However, more recent evidence largely shows that a positive fluid balance increases mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis. This article examines the theoretical benefits of fluid resuscitation and physiological responses to it that may negatively affect patients' outcome. PMID:26633156

  9. Therapeutic hypothermia for cardiovascular collapse and severe respiratory distress after amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Ocegueda-Pacheco, Cynthia; García, J Carlos; Varon, Joseph; Polderman, Kees H

    2014-06-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the most catastrophic complications that can occur during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period, frequently complicated by profound shock and cardiovascular collapse as well as severe respiratory distress. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now commonly used to improve neurological outcomes after various types of hypoxic injury and is widely used in the treatment of postanoxic injury after cardiac arrest (CA). To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated whether TH could be effectively used in AFE, and its use for this indication has not been described previously. We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman, who developed clinical manifestations of AFE and suffered a CA in the 29th week of her pregnancy. She received prolonged CPR (40 minutes until ROSC) and remained comatose. TH was induced and maintained for a total of 60 hours using an endovascular device, followed by controlled rewarming and maintenance of strict normothermia. The patient survived and was neurologically intact (CPC 1) at 6 months of follow up. PMID:24670228

  10. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Spudich, Serena S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liegler, Teri; Zetterberg, Henrik; Camp, David G.; Price, Richard W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-03-20

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral and correlated abundances of identified proteins (a) within and between subjects, (b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and (c) with 'external' CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) {le}0.3 and {ge}0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with amyloid

  11. Joule-Thomson inversion curves and related coefficients for several simple fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Peller, I. C.; Baron, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The equations of state (PVT relations) for methane, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, neon, hydrogen, and helium were used to establish Joule-Thomson inversion curves for each fluid. The principle of corresponding states was applied to the inversion curves, and a generalized inversion curve for fluids with small acentric factors was developed. The quantum fluids (neon, hydrogen, and helium) were excluded from the generalization, but available data for the fluids xenon and krypton were included. The critical isenthalpic Joule-Thomson coefficient mu sub c was determined; and a simplified approximation mu sub c approximates T sub c divided by 6P sub c was found adequate, where T sub c and P sub c are the temperature and pressure at the thermodynamic critical point. The maximum inversion temperatures were obtained from the second virial coefficient (maximum (B/T)).

  12. Severe maternal morbidity and mortality from amniotic fluid embolism in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Koen H; Zwart, Joost J; Schutte, Joke; VAN Roosmalen, Jos

    2012-08-01

    We have assessed the incidence, symptoms and risk factors of amniotic fluid embolism in the Netherlands. Data were retrieved from two nationwide registration systems. From 1983 to 2005 the maternal mortality ratio of amniotic fluid embolism increased from 0.11 to 0.63 (odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-25.3). The most common signs and symptoms of amniotic fluid embolism were dyspnea and massive obstetric hemorrhage. In the majority of women, onset of symptoms was intrapartum or immediately postpartum. Potential risk factors of developing amniotic fluid embolism were maternal age >30, multiparity (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.02-10.5), cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-5.2) and induction of labor (OR 2.1, 95% CI 2.1-6.1). Perinatal mortality was increased to 38.1% compared with 0.98% in the general pregnant population (p < 0.001) High maternal age and multiparity are the most important risk factors for developing amniotic fluid embolism. PMID:22568783

  13. Postoperative fluid retention after heart surgery is accompanied by a strongly positive sodium balance and a negative potassium balance.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Lara; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Renes, Maurits H; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Hoekstra, Miriam; Touw, Daan J; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2016-05-01

    The conventional model on the distribution of electrolyte infusions states that water will distribute proportionally over both the intracellular (ICV) and extracellular (ECV) volumes, while potassium homes to the ICV and sodium to the ECV Therefore, total body potassium is the most accurate measure of ICV and thus potassium balances can be used to quantify changes in ICV In cardiothoracic patients admitted to the ICU we performed complementary balance studies to measure changes in ICV and ECV In 39 patients, fluid, sodium, potassium, and electrolyte-free water (EFW) balances were determined to detect changes in ICV and ECV Cumulatively over 4 days, these patients received a mean ± SE infusion of 14.0 ± 0.6 L containing 1465 ± 79 mmol sodium, 196 ± 11 mmol potassium and 2.1 ± 0.1 L EFW This resulted in strongly positive fluid (4.0 ± 0.6 L) and sodium (814 ± 75 mmol) balances but in negative potassium (-101 ± 14 mmol) and EFW (-1.1 ± 0.2 L) balances. We subsequently compared potassium balances (528 patients) and fluid balances (117 patients) between patients who were assigned to either a 4.0 or 4.5 mmol/L blood potassium target. Although fluid balances were similar in both groups, the additionally administered potassium (76 ± 23 mmol) in the higher target group was fully excreted by the kidneys (70 ± 23 mmol). These findings indicate that even in the context of rapid and profound volume expansion neither water nor potassium moves into the ICV. PMID:27225629

  14. Retention of good visual acuity in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and chronic refractory subfoveal subretinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Kavita V.; Freund, K. Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of a subset of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy which retain good visual acuity despite chronic, persistent subfoveal subretinal fluid (SRF). Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Study eyes were identified from a consecutive series of 186 patients treated with anti-VEGF therapy seen for regular follow-up over a 3-month period. The clinical histories of 10 eyes of 9 patients with NVAMD, chronic subfoveal SRF despite continuous anti-VEGF therapy, and good long-term visual acuity of 20/40 or greater were reviewed. Demographic factors, baseline and final visual acuity, neovascular lesion type, duration of persistent fluid, baseline and final subfoveal choroidal thickness, presence of geographic atrophy, and number of anti-VEGF injections were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 78 years (range 55–91). The mean duration of persistent fluid was 5.2 years (range 1.3–11.0). Long-term visual acuities remained stable at 20/40 or better in all eyes. All eyes had type 1 (sub-retinal pigment epithelial) neovascularization. Average baseline subfoveal choroidal thickness was 285.3 μm and the average follow-up subfoveal choroidal thickness was 239.7 μm. No eyes had the presence of geographic atrophy. The mean number of injections was 36.5 (range 17–66). Conclusion Some eyes with type 1 neovascularization associated with chronic persistent subfoveal subretinal fluid despite continuous intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy may maintain good long-term visual outcomes. We hypothesize that type 1 neovascularization and greater subfoveal choroidal thickness may exert a protective effect on photoreceptor integrity. Further studies are necessary to assess long-term visual prognosis and predictive factors in patients with type 1 neovascularization leading to persistent subretinal fluid that is

  15. Choice of Fluid Therapy in the Initial Management of Sepsis, Severe Sepsis, and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ronald; Holcomb, John B

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis results in disruption of the endothelial glycocalyx layer and damage to the microvasculature, resulting in interstitial accumulation of fluid and subsequently edema. Fluid resuscitation is a mainstay in the initial treatment of sepsis, but the choice of fluid is unclear. The ideal resuscitative fluid is one that restores intravascular volume while minimizing edema; unfortunately, edema and edema-related complications are common consequences of current resuscitation strategies. Crystalloids are recommended as first-line therapy, but the type of crystalloid is not specified. There is increasing evidence that normal saline is associated with increased mortality and kidney injury; balanced crystalloids may be a safer alternative. Albumin is similar to crystalloids in terms of outcomes in the septic population but is costlier. Hydroxyethyl starches appear to increase mortality and kidney injury in the critically ill and are no longer indicated in these patients. In the trauma population, the shift to plasma-based resuscitation with decreased use of crystalloid and colloid in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock has led to decreased inflammatory and edema-mediated complications. Studies are needed to determine if these benefits also occur with a similar resuscitation strategy in the setting of sepsis. PMID:26844975

  16. [The permeability of the hemato-encephalic barrier and the proteolytic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid in severe craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Churliaev, Iu A; Nikiforova, N V; Lutsik, A A; Kuksinskiĭ, V A; Lykova, O F; Martynenkov, V Ia; Karpenko, V S

    1999-01-01

    To study blood-brain barrier permeability and proteolytic changes in in patients with severe brain injury and to evaluate their impact on its course and outcome, the concentrations of albumin, plasminogen (plasmin), alpha 2-macroglobulin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were examined in 58 victims by enzyme immunoassay. The control group comprised 20 patients examined for lumbar discal hernia. The studies indicate that early severe brain injury showed blood-brain barrier dysfunction whose severity can be detected by the spinal fluid levels of albumin, plasminogen, and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Proteolytic changes in spinal fluid are determined by its albumin, plasminogen (plasmin), alpha 2-macroglobulin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrations and affect the development of secondary brain lesion and they are of practical value. PMID:10696680

  17. Associations of Hospital and Patient Characteristics with Fluid Resuscitation Volumes in Patients with Severe Sepsis: Post Hoc Analyses of Data from a Multicentre Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Perner, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fluid resuscitation is a key intervention in patients with sepsis and circulatory impairment. The recommendations for continued fluid therapy in sepsis are vague, which may result in differences in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate associations between hospital and patient characteristics and fluid resuscitation volumes in ICU patients with severe sepsis. Methods We explored the 6S trial database of ICU patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation randomised to hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 vs. Ringer’s acetate. Our primary outcome measure was fluid resuscitation volume and secondary outcome total fluid input administered from 24 hours before randomisation until the end of day 3 post-randomisation. We performed multivariate analyses with hospital and patient baseline characteristics as covariates to assess associations with fluid volumes given. Results We included 654 patients who were in the ICU for 3 days and had fluid volumes available. Individual trial sites administered significantly different volumes of fluid resuscitation and total fluid input after adjusting for baseline variables (P<0.001). Increased lactate, higher cardiovascular and renal SOFA subscores, lower respiratory SOFA subscore and surgery were all independently associated with increased fluid resuscitation volumes. Conclusions Hospital characteristics adjusted for patient baseline values were associated with differences in fluid resuscitation volumes given in the first 3 days of severe sepsis. The data indicate variations in clinical practice not explained by patient characteristics emphasizing the need for RCTs assessing fluid resuscitation volumes fluid in patients with sepsis. PMID:27196104

  18. [A propose to suspend the use of hydroxyethyl starch for fluid resuscitation in shock phase of severe burns].

    PubMed

    Luo, Gao-xing; Peng, Yi-zhi; Wu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Based on the result of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis recently, the infusion of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) was not shown to over match routine crystalline solution in exerting resuscitation effect against hypovolemia of patients with burn shock, severe systematic infection, or other critical conditions, on the other hand, it may induce renal toxicity and other toxic and side effects. Since the pathological mechanism underlying hypovolemia during shock phase after burn is similar to that of severe systemic infection, we propose to suspend the use of HES for fluid resuscitation during the shock phase of severe burn until further elucidation. PMID:24359998

  19. Selective V(1a) agonism attenuates vascular dysfunction and fluid accumulation in ovine severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda; Bartha, Eva; Jonkam, Collette; Hasselbach, Anthony K; Traber, Lillian D; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Daniel L

    2012-11-15

    Vasopressin analogs are used as a supplement to norepinephrine in septic shock. The isolated effects of vasopressin agonists on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction, however, remain controversial. Because V(2)-receptor stimulation induces vasodilation and procoagulant effects, a higher V(1a)- versus V(2)-receptor selectivity might be advantageous. We therefore hypothesized that a sole, titrated infusion of the selective V(1a)-agonist Phe(2)-Orn(8)-Vasotocin (POV) is more effective than the mixed V(1a)-/V(2)-agonist AVP for the treatment of vascular and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced, ovine sepsis. After the onset of hemodynamic instability, awake, chronically instrumented, mechanically ventilated, and fluid resuscitated sheep were randomly assigned to receive continuous infusions of either POV, AVP, or saline solution (control; each n = 6). AVP and POV were titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure above baseline - 10 mmHg. When compared with that of control animals, AVP and POV reduced neutrophil migration (myeloperoxidase activity, alveolar neutrophils) and plasma levels of nitric oxide, resulting in higher mean arterial pressures and a reduced vascular leakage (net fluid balance, chest and abdominal fluid, pulmonary bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio, alveolar and septal edema). Notably, POV stabilized hemodynamics at lower doses than AVP. In addition, POV, but not AVP, reduced myocardial and pulmonary tissue concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine, VEGF, and angiopoietin-2, thereby leading to an abolishment of cumulative fluid accumulation (POV, 9 ± 15 ml/kg vs. AVP, 110 ± 13 ml/kg vs. control, 213 ± 16 ml/kg; P < 0.001 each) and an attenuated cardiopulmonary dysfunction (left ventricular stroke work index, PaO(2)-to-FiO(2) ratio) versus control animals. Highly selective V(1a)-agonism appears to be superior to unselective vasopressin analogs for the treatment of sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction. PMID

  20. Influence of deformation and fluids on Ar retention in white mica: Dating the Dover Fault, Newfoundland Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, Dawn A.; Warren, Clare; Larson, Kyle P.; Zwingmann, Horst; van Staal, Cees R.; Rogers, Neil

    2016-06-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar analyses may provide useful constraints on the timing of tectonic processes, but complex geological and thermal histories can perturb Ar systematics in a variety of ways. Ductile shear zones represent excellent case studies for exploring the link(s) between dynamic re-/neo-crystallization of white mica and coeval enhanced fluid flow, and their effect on 40Ar/39Ar dates. White mica 40Ar/39Ar dates were collected from compositionally similar granites that record different episodes of deformation with proximity to the Dover Fault, a terrane-bounding strike-slip shear zone in the Appalachian orogen, Newfoundland, Canada. 40Ar/39Ar data were collected in situ by laser ablation and by step heating single crystals. Results were compared to each other and against complementary U-Pb zircon and monazite, and K-Ar fault gouge analysis. Although step-heat 40Ar/39Ar is a widely applied method in orogenic settings, this dataset shows that relatively flat step-heat 40Ar/39Ar spectra are in contradiction with wide spreads in in-situ40Ar/39Ar dates from the same samples, and that plateau dates in some cases yielded mixed dates of equivocal geological significance. This result indicates that the step-wise release of Ar from white mica likely homogenizes and obscures spatially-controlled Ar isotope reservoirs in white mica from sheared rocks. In contrast, in situ laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar analysis preserves the spatial resolution of 40Ar reservoirs that have been variably reset by deformation and fluid interaction. This study therefore suggests that laser ablation is the best method for dating the timing of deformation recorded by white mica. Final interpretation of results should be guided by microstructural analysis, estimation of deformation temperature, chemical characterization of white mica, and complementary chronometers. Overall the dataset shows that granitic protoliths were emplaced between 430 and 422 Ma (U-Pb zircon). High strain deformation along the

  1. A Comparison of Symptom Severity and Bolus Retention to Chicago Classification Esophageal Pressure Topography Metrics in Patients with Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Nicodème, Frédéric; de Ruigh, Annemijn; Xiao, Yinglian; Rajeswaran, Shankar; Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Hungness, Eric S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims We compared findings from timed barium esophagrams (TBEs) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) studies among achalasia subtypes and in relation to symptom severity. Method We analyzed data from 50 patients with achalasia (31 male, 20–79 years old) who underwent high-resolution manometry (HRM), had TBE following a 200ml barium swallow, and completed questionnaires that determine Eckardt Scores (ES). Twenty-five were not treated and 25 were treated (11 by pneumatic dilation, 14 by myotomy). Non-parametric testing was used to assess differences among groups of treated patients (10 had type-1 achalasia and 15 had type-2 achalasia), and the Pearson correlation was used to assess their relationship. Results There were no significant differences in TBE measurements between patient groups. Of the 25 patients who received treatment, 10 had a manometric pattern consistent with persistent achalasia after treatment (6 with type 1 and 4 with type 2 achalasia), whereas 15 appeared to have resolved the achalasia pattern (peristalsis was absent in 8 and weak in 7). The height of the barium column at 5 minutes and ES were significantly reduced in patients that had resolved their achalasia pattern, based on HRM. The integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) and the TBE column height correlated at 5 minutes (r=0.422; p<0.05). Discussion Patients that resolve their achalasia pattern, based on HRM, demonstrated improved emptying based on TBE measurements and improved symptom scores. There was no significant difference between patients with type-1 or 2 achalasia in TBEs. These findings indicate that normalization of the IRP on HRM is a clinically relevant objective of treatment for achalasia. PMID:23078890

  2. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  3. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Cobb-Richardson, Patricia; Connolly, Adrian J; Bujosa, Cesar T; O'neall, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning was assessed using measures of personality disorder, psychiatric symptoms, early maladaptive schemas, interpersonal problems, and addiction-related psychosocial impairment. Therapy retention (total weeks in treatment) and utilization (number of weeks in which sessions were attended) were the primary outcomes. Although rates of cluster B personality disorders were comparable to other substance dependent samples, clusters A and C disorders were disproportionately more common. Clients reported significant psychiatric symptoms, criminality, and psychosocial impairment, yet made limited lifetime use of mental health services. Overall, there was greater utilization of individual DFST than group SAC. However, clients with more severe personality disorder symptoms demonstrated better utilization of SAC than DFST. PMID:16122538

  4. The transmembrane domain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF7b protein is necessary and sufficient for its retention in the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Schaecher, Scott R; Diamond, Michael S; Pekosz, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ORF7b (also called 7b) protein is an integral membrane protein that is translated from a bicistronic open reading frame encoded within subgenomic RNA 7. When expressed independently or during virus infection, ORF7b accumulates in the Golgi compartment, colocalizing with both cis- and trans-Golgi markers. To identify the domains of this protein that are responsible for Golgi localization, we have generated a set of mutant proteins and analyzed their subcellular localizations by indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The N- and C-terminal sequences are dispensable, but the ORF7b transmembrane domain (TMD) is essential for Golgi compartment localization. When the TMD of human CD4 was replaced with the ORF7b TMD, the resulting chimeric protein localized to the Golgi complex. Scanning alanine mutagenesis identified two regions in the carboxy-terminal portion of the TMD that eliminated the Golgi complex localization of the chimeric CD4 proteins or ORF7b protein. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the Golgi complex retention signal of the ORF7b protein resides solely within the TMD. PMID:18632859

  5. Metabolomic analysis of cerebral spinal fluid from patients with severe brain injury.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas C; Hirt, Daniel; Mendez, Gustavo; McArthur, David L; Sturtevant, Rachael; Wolahan, Stephanie; Fazlollahi, Farbod; Ordon, Matthew; Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Ellingson, Ben; Vespa, Paul; Hovda, David A; Martin, Neil A

    2013-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of cerebral spinal fluid provides a quick, non-invasive modality for evaluating the metabolic activity of brain-injured patients. In a prospective study, we compared the CSF of 44 TBI patients and 13 non-injured control subjects. CSF was screened for ten parameters: β-glucose (Glu), lactate (Lac), propylene glycol (PG), glutamine (Gln), alanine (Ala), α-glucose (A-Glu), pyruvate (PYR), creatine (Cr), creatinine (Crt), and acetate (Ace). Using mixed effects measures, we discovered statistically significant differences between control and trauma concentrations (mM). TBI patients had significantly higher concentrations of PG, while statistical trends existed for lactate, glutamine, and creatine. TBI patients had a significantly decreased concentration of total creatinine. There were no significant differences between TBI patients and non-injured controls regarding β- or α-glucose, alanine, pyruvate or acetate. Correlational analysis between metabolites revealed that the strongest significant correlations in non-injured subjects were between β- and α-glucose (r = 0.74), creatinine and pyruvate (r = 0.74), alanine and creatine (r = 0.62), and glutamine and α-glucose (r = 0.60). For TBI patients, the strongest significant correlations were between lactate and α-glucose (r = 0.54), lactate and alanine (r = 0.53), and α-glucose and alanine (r = 0.48). The GLM and multimodel inference indicated that the combined metabolites of PG, glutamine, α-glucose, and creatinine were the strongest predictors for CMRO2, ICP, and GOSe. By analyzing the CSF of patients with TBI, our goal was to create a metabolomic fingerprint for brain injury. PMID:23564115

  6. The severity of shock is associated with impaired rates of net alveolar fluid clearance in clinical acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zeyed, Yosaf F; Bastarache, Julie A; Matthay, Michael A; Ware, Lorraine B

    2012-09-15

    The rate of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) is associated with mortality in clinical acute lung injury (ALI). Patients with ALI often develop circulatory shock, but how shock affects the rate of AFC is unknown. To determine the effect of circulatory shock on the rate of AFC in patients with ALI, the rate of net AFC was measured in 116 patients with ALI by serial sampling of pulmonary edema fluid. The primary outcome was the rate of AFC in patients with shock compared with those without shock. We also tested the effects of shock severity and bacteremia. Patients with ALI and shock (n = 86) had significantly slower rates of net AFC compared with those without shock (n = 30, P = 0.03), and AFC decreased significantly as the number of vasopressors increased. Patients with positive blood cultures (n = 21) had slower AFC compared with patients with negative blood cultures (n = 96, P = 0.023). In addition, the edema fluid-to-plasma protein ratio, an index of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability, was highest in patients requiring the most vasopressors (P < 0.05). Patients with ALI complicated by circulatory shock and bacteremia had slower rates of AFC compared with patients without shock or bacteremia. An impaired capacity to reabsorb alveolar edema fluid may contribute to high mortality among patients with sepsis-induced ALI. These findings also suggest that vasopressor use may be a marker of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability in ALI and provide justification for new therapies that enhance alveolar epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity in ALI, particularly in patients with shock. PMID:22821995

  7. The effect of lamination angle on polymer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1992-09-01

    Polymer retention may be affected by the reservoir geological structure due to lamination of the mineral surfaces. These laminae are very prevalent in Class I reservoirs. To account for the effect of lamination angle on polymer retention, several corefloods with three fired, rectangular, Berea sandstone cores were conducted. The three cores were cut at three different angles, 0, 30, and 90 degrees, with respect to the direction of laminations. A multiple slug retention method was used to determine the retention of a biopolymer in each core. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the biopolymer flow to determine how the retained biopolymer affected the fluid advance. A computed tomography (CT) scanning method was used to monitor the advance of the tracer. All corefloods and tracer tests were conducted at low flow rates similar to that in reservoirs. Coreflood tests revealed that polymer retention, which was mainly caused by mechanical entrapment, was higher in cores that had laminations parallel to the direction of flow than in cores that had crossbed laminae. In cores that had crossbed laminae, polymer retention increased with an increase in the lamination angle. Retained polymer is harmful to the stability of fluid front in cores that have laminations parallel to the direction of flow, but is helpful in cores that have crossbed laminae.

  8. Risk Factors for Postoperative Retention After Hemorrhoidectomy: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Qi-Ming, Xue; Jue-Ying, Xiang; Ben-Hui, Chen; Jing, Wu; Ning, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for urinary retention after hemorrhoidectomy. With the approval of West China Hospital of Sichuan University Ethics Board, data were abstracted from 961 charts of patients who underwent hemorrhoidectomy from January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011. The outcome was urinary retention in the first 24 hours after surgery. Risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and they were expressed as odds ratios or 95% confidence intervals. The overall urinary retention rate was 14.8% (n = 142). Significant risk factors associated with postoperative urinary retention included female gender, anesthesia methods, severity of hemorrhoid, a large amount of intravenous fluid administered perioperatively, and length of hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender (odds ratio, 2.607; p < .01), sacral anesthesia (odds ratio, 2.481; p = .02), more than 3 hemorrhoids resected (odds ratio, 2.658; p < .01), hemorrhoids having 4 degrees of severity (odds ratio, 3.101; p < .01), intravenous fluids > 700 ml (odds ratio, 1.597; p = .02), and length of stay more than 7 days (odds ratio, 1.852; p < .01) were significant predictors of urinary retention post-hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:25974011

  9. Endothelin-1 Is Increased in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes in Children after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Empey, Philip E.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Klamerus, Megan; Ozawa, Haishin; Wagner, Amy K.; Ruppel, Randall; Bell, Michael J.; Feldman, Keri; Adelson, P. David; Clark, Robert S.B.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with unfavorable outcomes secondary to injury from activation of the inflammatory cascade, the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, and changes in the reactivity of cerebral vessels, causing ischemia. Hypoperfusion of injured brain tissues after TBI is also associated with unfavorable outcomes. Therapeutic hypothermia is an investigational treatment strategy for use in patients with severe TBI that has shown differential effects on various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mediators in pediatric patients. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasoconstrictor that exerts its effects on the cerebrovascular endothelium for sustained periods after TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine if CSF concentrations of ET-1 are increased after severe TBI in children, and if they are associated with demographics and outcomes that are affected by therapeutic hypothermia. This was an ancillary study to a prospective, randomized-controlled trial of early hypothermia in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit. Children (n = 34, age 3 months–15 years) suffering from severe TBI were randomized to hypothermia (n = 19) and normothermia (n = 15) as part of the efficacy study. Children undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture (n = 11) to rule out infection were used as controls. Patients received either mild to moderate hypothermia (32–33°C) or normothermia as part of their treatment protocol. CSF was serially collected during the first 5 days after TBI. ET-1 concentrations were quantitated in patient and control CSF samples by a validated ELISA in duplicate with a limit of quantification of 0.195 pg/mL. CSF ET-1 concentrations were increased by two- to threefold in children after TBI compared to controls, and the increase was sustained for up to 5 days post-TBI. This relationship was not affected by hypothermia, and there were no differences in ET-1 response between children with inflicted

  10. Synovial Fluid Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Levels Correlate with Severity of Self-Reported Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei-liang; Liu, Jun; Xu, Li; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xue-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation is considered as one of the main pathogeneses in OA-induced pain. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a well known pro-inflammatory cytokine. We aimed to determine whether MIF levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) are associated with severity of OA-induced pain. Material/Methods We recruited 226 patients with knee OA and 106 controls. Self-reported pain severity of OA patients was evaluated using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) pain scores. MIF levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results OA patients had similar serum MIF levels compared to controls (11.93 [5.68–18.10] vs. 10.06 [6.60–14.61] ng/ml, P>0.05). In OA patients, MIF levels in SF were dramatically lower compared to paired serum samples (3.39 [1.87–5.89] vs. 11.93 [5.68–18.10] ng/ml, P<0.01). MIF levels in SF were significantly correlated with WOMAC pain scores (r=0.237, P<0.001), but MIF levels in serum had no significant correlation with WOMAC pain scores (r=0.009, P=0.898). Conclusions MIF levels in SF, but not in serum, were independently associated with the severity of self-reported pain in OA patients. The inhibition of MIF signaling pathways may be a novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating OA-induced pain. PMID:27342658

  11. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. Materials and Methods FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebral hemisphere was divided into 4 regions and each region was scored based on the prominence of the ivy sign. Total ivy score (TIS) was defined as the sum of the scores from the eight regions and dominant hemispheric ivy sign (DHI) was determined by comparing the ivy scores from each hemisphere. According to the degree of ischemic symptoms, patients were classified into four subgroups: 1) nonspecific symptoms without motor weakness, 2) single transient ischemic attack (TIA), 3) recurrent TIA, or 4) complete stroke. Results TIS was significantly different as follows: 4.86±2.55 in patients with nonspecific symptoms, 5.89±3.10 in patients with single TIA, 9.60±3.98 in patients with recurrent TIA and 8.37±3.39 in patients with complete stroke (p=0.003). TIS associated with old lesions was significantly higher than those not associated with old lesions (9.35±4.22 vs. 7.49±3.37, p=0.032). We found a significant correlation between DHI and motor symptoms (p=0.001). Conclusion Because TIS has a strong tendency with severity of ischemic motor symptom and the presence of old lesions, the ivy sign may be useful in predicting severity of disease progression. PMID:26256975

  12. Plasma and Synovial Fluid TrxR Levels are Correlated With Disease Risk and Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhijun; Sun, Jing; Li, Haichang; Shao, Tiejuan; Wang, Dawei; Zheng, Qi; Wen, Chengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed and performed to establish the relationship between plasma and synovial fluid (SF) levels of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and disease activity in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study consisted of a total of 224 patients diagnosed with RA, 224 age and sex-matched healthy controls, and 156 patient controls. The disease activity of RA patients was calculated as diseases activity score that include 28-joint counts (DAS 28), which was divided into low-diseases activity (LDA) and high-diseases activity (HDA) groups. Increased plasma TrxR was detected in patients with RA than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.874, plasma TrxR showed a evidently greater discriminatory ability than C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC, 0.815), antistreptolysin-O (ASO; AUC, 0.631), rheumatoid factor (RF, AUC, 0.793), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, AUC, 0.789) in diagnosing RA. RA patients with HDA had significantly elevated TrxR levels in plasma and SF than did those with LDA (P < 0.0001). With an AUC of 0.874, plasma TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability than CRP (AUC, 0.690), ASO (AUC, 0.597), RF (AUC, 0.657), and ESR (AUC, 0.603). Similarly, SF TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA also showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability as compared with above biomarkers. TrxR levels in plasma and SF were positively correlated with the severity of RA. TrxR levels may therefore serve as a new biomarker in addition of the traditional biomarkers for assessing the risk and severity of RA. Further analysis of TrxR release machinery may give us a new understanding of pathogenesis of RA. PMID:26871773

  13. Severe postoperative dyspnea caused by neglected massive intraperitoneal fluid collection during laser enucleation and morcellation of the prostate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Son, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Hwang, Jai-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Laser enucleation and morcellation of the prostate is an increasingly used surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can cause several complications including capsular perforation, ureteral orifice injury, and bladder mucosal morcellation injury. Herein, we report a case of severe postoperative dyspnea caused by neglected massive intraperitoneal fluid collection during laser surgery of the prostate. The patient experienced massive abdominal distension and severe respiratory difficulty after the procedure. Although immediate postoperative cystogram showed no leakage of contrast dye, the computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed massive fluid collection in the abdominal pelvic cavity suggesting bladder wall injury. After percutaneous drainage of intraperitoneal fluid, abdominal distention and dyspnea were relieved. PMID:27066210

  14. Terlipressin Induced Severe Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Šíma, Martin; Pokorný, Miroslav; Paďour, František; Slanař, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its vasoconstrictor effect in the treatment of variceal bleeding. Despite its good safety profile compared to vasopressin, some adverse reactions may occur during its use - e.g. hyponatremia. We describe a case of a cirrhotic patient with active variceal bleeding treated during two separate hospitalizations with terlipressin. In both drug treatment periods, severe laboratory hyponatremia developed. After terlipressin discontinuation, mineral disbalance corrected rapidly. Positive dechallenge and rechallenge corresponding to the drug administration schedule confirms the causality between terlipressin administration and hyponatremia. Hyponatremia was preceded with substantial fluid retention in both episodes. In this case report we want to highlight the need for fluid balance monitoring immediately after first terlipressin dose, which may individually predict the patient risk for the development of hyponatremia as other risk factors have rather limited predictive value in real clinical settings. PMID:26995205

  15. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  16. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  17. Statistical analysis of synovial fluid layers phase maps in the diagnostics of development and differentiation of pathological changes severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2011-09-01

    A new method for differential diagnosis of pathological changes of the joints on the basis of synovial fluid was founded. Adduced description scheme and the principles of polarization filtering to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of synovial fluid smears and the change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  18. Statistical analysis of synovial fluid layers phase maps in the diagnostics of development and differentiation of pathological changes severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasniuk, D. I.; Vasyuk, V. L.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for differential diagnosis of pathological changes of the joints on the basis of synovial fluid was founded. Adduced description scheme and the principles of polarization filtering to determine the coordinate distributions of phase shifts.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of knee joint synovial fluid is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of synovial fluid smears and the change in optical anisotropy of this biological object. The diagnostic criteria of knee joint inflammation processes are determined.

  19. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains. PMID:26616952

  20. Protein analysis of earthworm coelomic fluid. III. Isolation and characterization of several bacteriostatic molecules from Eisenia fetida andrei.

    PubMed

    Vaillier, J; Cadoret, M A; Roch, P; Valembois, P

    1985-01-01

    A bacteriostatic activity in Eisenia fetida andrei cell free coelomic fluid is described. This activity is detected by growth inhibition of a bacteria Bacillus megaterium. Gel filtration analysis revealed eleven coelomic fluid protein fractions designated A, B,..J. Antibacterial activity was mainly found within fractions B and C. Chromatofocusing resolved fractions B-C into five different peaks named alpha BC, beta BC,... epsilon BC. Antibacterial activity appeared mediated by three different proteins characterized by their molecular weights (20,000, 40,000 and 45,000) and their isoelectric points (4.9, 5.75 and 6.0). These bacteriostatic proteins possess either hemolysis or hemagglutination activities. The polymorphic aspect of this humoral antibacterial defense is discussed. PMID:3922817

  1. The effect of lamination angle on polymer retention. FY92 annual research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1992-09-01

    Polymer retention may be affected by the reservoir geological structure due to lamination of the mineral surfaces. These laminae are very prevalent in Class I reservoirs. To account for the effect of lamination angle on polymer retention, several corefloods with three fired, rectangular, Berea sandstone cores were conducted. The three cores were cut at three different angles, 0, 30, and 90 degrees, with respect to the direction of laminations. A multiple slug retention method was used to determine the retention of a biopolymer in each core. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the biopolymer flow to determine how the retained biopolymer affected the fluid advance. A computed tomography (CT) scanning method was used to monitor the advance of the tracer. All corefloods and tracer tests were conducted at low flow rates similar to that in reservoirs. Coreflood tests revealed that polymer retention, which was mainly caused by mechanical entrapment, was higher in cores that had laminations parallel to the direction of flow than in cores that had crossbed laminae. In cores that had crossbed laminae, polymer retention increased with an increase in the lamination angle. Retained polymer is harmful to the stability of fluid front in cores that have laminations parallel to the direction of flow, but is helpful in cores that have crossbed laminae.

  2. Corrosion behavior of several metals in ethylene glycol-base heat-transfer fluids under conditions encountered in solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum, copper, and iron in inhibited ethylene glycol-ASTM corrosive water solutions was evaluated in a laboratory loop under isothermal and heat-flux conditions for 1000 h at temperatures between 378 and 413/sup 0/K, in static autoclave tests at 450/sup 0/K for 500 h, and by potentiodynamic polarization measurements at temperatures between 298 and 348/sup 0/K. The effect of time, temperature, and ethylene glycol concentration of the heat-transfer fluid on the extent of inhibitor depletion was determined from analyses of the reserve alkalinity, pH, and inhibitor content of the solutions. The performance of an electrochemical sensor as a monitor of fluid quality was also evaluated. A heat flux of 0.4 to 1.0 kW/m/sup 2/ did not have a significant effect on the corrosion behavior of the various materials at temperatures between 378 and 413/sup 0/K. The corrosion rates of aluminum, copper, and iron in the 50 volume percent inhibited ethylene glycol-corrosive water solution decreased as a function of time during the 1000-h test. At 413/sup 0/K, the corrosion rate of copper was considerably higher than that of iron or aluminum at low flow velocity. Significant degradation of the fluid quality, as indicated by the measurement of the pH, reserve alkalinity, and inhibitor concentrations, occurred after several hundred hours at temperatures of approx. 450/sup 0/K.

  3. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  4. The influence of artery wall curvature on the anatomical assessment of stenosis severity derived from fractional flow reserve: a computational fluid dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Viswanathan, Girish N; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Salman Ahmed, N J; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A A A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of artery wall curvature on the anatomical assessment of stenosis severity and to identify a region of misinterpretation in the assessment of per cent area stenosis (AS) for functionally significant stenosis using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as standard. Five artery models of different per cent AS severity (70, 75, 80, 85 and 90%) were considered. For each per cent AS severity, the angle of curvature of the arterial wall varied from straight to an increasingly curved model (0°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120°). Computational fluid dynamics was performed under transient physiologic hyperemic flow conditions to investigate the influence of artery wall curvature on the pressure drop and the FFR. The findings in this study may be useful in in vitro anatomical assessment of functionally significant stenosis. The FFR decreased with increasing stenosis severity for a given curvature of the artery wall. Moreover, a significant decrease in FFR was found between straight and curved models discussed for a given severity condition. These findings indicate that the curvature effect was included in the FFR assessment in contrast to minimum lumen area (MLA) or per cent AS assessment. The MLA or per cent AS assessment may lead to underestimation of stenosis severity. From this numerical study, an uncertainty region could be evaluated using the clinical FFR cutoff value of 0.8. This value was observed at 81.98 and 79.10% AS for arteries with curvature angles of 0° and 120° respectively. In conclusion, the curvature of the artery should not be neglected in in vitro anatomical assessment. PMID:27052093

  5. Marked increases in concentrations of apolipoprotein in the cerebrospinal fluid of poliovirus-infected macaques: relations between apolipoprotein concentrations and severity of brain injury.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, K; Seishima, M; Heyes, M P; Song, H; Fujigaki, S; Maeda, S; Vickers, J H; Noma, A

    1997-01-01

    Apolipoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) might have important functional roles in the pathophysiology of brain and lipid metabolism in the vascular component. The present study examined apolipoprotein A-I (apo-A-I) and apolipoprotein E (apo-E) levels in CSF and serum from poliovirus-infected macaques. Poliovirus-infected macaques developed motor deficits and were classified into three groups: (1) muscle weakness in one or both legs; (2) partial paralysis in one or both legs; (3) complete paralysis in one or both legs. No motor deficits were evident in the control or sham-treated macaques. Apo-A-I concentrations in CSF were markedly elevated in poliovirus-infected macaques with weakness, partial or complete paralysis, in comparison with either control or sham-treated animals, and were proportional to the severity of motor impairment. Apo-E concentrations in CSF were also significantly elevated in poliovirus-infected macaques with complete paralysis. The magnitude of increase in CSF apo-A-I or apo-E concentrations was also closely associated with the degree of histologic neurological damage and inflammation (lesion scores). However, no changes in serum apo-A-I and apo-E concentrations were observed in the poliovirus-infected macaques compared with control macaques. Furthermore there were no significant correlations apo-A-I or apo-E concentrations between serum and CSF. We hypothesize that the elevation of apo-A-I and apo-E concentrations after poliovirus infection is caused by immune stimulation within the central nervous system (CNS). Measures of CSF apo-A-I and apo-E levels might serve as a useful marker for the severity and/or the range of CNS injury. PMID:9003413

  6. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  7. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  8. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  9. Typewriting: Retention and Relearning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Joseph D.

    Retention and relearning of straight-copy typewriting skill among thirty-eight administrative specialists, 71L Military Occupational Speciality, were examined after the no-practice retention interval between Advanced Individual Training (AIT) graduation and unit duty. Over this interval, average typing speed decreased and errors increased. As a…

  10. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  11. Psoriasin, one of several new proteins identified in nasal lavage fluid from allergic and non-allergic individuals using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bryborn, Malin; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Background Extravasation and luminal entry of plasma occurs continuously in the nose. This process is markedly facilitated in patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis, resulting in an increased secretion of proteins. Identification of these proteins is an important step in the understanding of the pathological mechanisms in allergic diseases. DNA microarrays have recently made it possible to compare mRNA profiles of lavage fluids from healthy and diseased patients, whereas information on the protein level is still lacking. Methods Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 11 patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis and 11 healthy volunteers. 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins in the lavage fluids. Protein spots were picked from the gels and identified using mass spectrometry and database search. Selected proteins were confirmed with western blot. Results 61 spots were identified, of which 21 were separate proteins. 6 of these proteins (psoriasin, galectin-3, alpha enolase, intersectin-2, Wnt-2B and hypothetical protein MGC33648) had not previously been described in nasal lavage fluids. The levels of psoriasin were markedly down-regulated in allergic individuals. Prolactin-inducible protein was also found to be down-regulated, whereas different fragments of albumin together with Ig gamma 2 chain c region, transthyretin and splice isoform 1 of Wnt-2B were up-regulated among the allergic patients. Conclusion The identification of proteins in nasal lavage fluid with 2-dimensional gelelectrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is a novel tool to profile protein expression in allergic rhinitis and it might prove useful in the hunt for new therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers for allergic diseases. Psoriasin is a potent chemotactic factor and its down-regulation during inflammation might be of importance for the outcome of the disease. PMID:16236163

  12. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  13. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  14. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  15. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  16. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  17. [Chronic monstrous urine retention].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik Gustav; Holm, Mette Lind

    2015-01-26

    A 75-year-old male was diagnosed with renal mass at a computed tomography during an examination for extended abdominal girth. A large mesenterical cyst was also detected. The patient had infrequent voiding, which he had trained over many years as a taxi driver. A basic physical examination led to suspect urinary retention. His creatinine level was normal and he had no hydronephrosis. A renography showed equal function, but prolonged bilateral outflow. The volume extracted by urethral catheter passed 15 l. Absence of hydronephrosis and normal S-creatinine level has not been described in chronic urinary retention of this extent. Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. PMID:25612956

  18. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  19. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  20. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  1. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  2. Methodological inaccuracies in clinical aortic valve severity assessment: insights from computational fluid dynamic modeling of CT-derived aortic valve anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, Brad; Srivatsa, Sanjay S.; Beussman, Kevin M.; Wang, Yechun; Suzen, Yildirim B.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mazur, Wojciech; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease. Assessing the contribution of the valve as a portion to total ventricular load is essential for the aging population. A CT scan for one patient was used to create one in vivo tricuspid aortic valve geometry and assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD simulated the pressure, velocity, and flow rate, which were used to assess the Gorlin formula and continuity equation, current clinical diagnostic standards. The results demonstrate an underestimation of the anatomic orifice area (AOA) by Gorlin formula and overestimation of AOA by the continuity equation, using peak velocities, as would be measured clinically by Doppler echocardiography. As a result, we suggest that the Gorlin formula is unable to achieve the intended estimation of AOA and largely underestimates AOA at the critical low-flow states present in heart failure. The disparity in the use of echocardiography with the continuity equation is due to the variation in velocity profile between the outflow tract and the valve orifice. Comparison of time-averaged orifice areas by Gorlin and continuity with instantaneous orifice areas by planimetry can mask the errors of these methods, which is a result of the assumption that the blood flow is inviscid.

  3. Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J., Ed.

    Based on a series of faculty workshops conducted at Jefferson Community College (KY) in 1978 and 1980, this handbook outlines 95 practical suggestions for increasing student retention rates. After introductory material describing these workshops, the first 22 suggestions recommend ways to foster positive student/teacher interaction. Methods are…

  4. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  5. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  6. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1990-01-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. To ensure an adequate retention over a number of years different factors have to be considered. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin (Panavia Ex) are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rets, interocclusal clearance of 0.4 mm and cingulum stops is equally important. Care should be taken not to remove all the enamel in the cervical region in preparing a mini chamfer. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Teeth with a different mobility should not be included in the same bridge. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. Only an exact impression, a precise model and a reliable casting technique will provide a metal frame with an optimal marginal adaptation and a close fit. The retention does not depend on one single factor but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 90% can be obtained. PMID:2077574

  7. Retention and Persistence Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Timothy R.

    Two studies are combined with an introductory section: one is "Persistence to Graduation for Freshmen Entering the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1967-75," by Timothy Sanford, and the second is "Freshman, Transfer, Professional, Masters, and Doctoral Student Retention at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill," by Paul D.…

  8. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  9. Development of mucoadhesive sprayable gellan gum fluid gels.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Mohammed H; Conway, Barbara R; Smith, Alan M

    2015-07-01

    The nasal mucosa provides a potentially good route for local and systemic drug delivery. However, the protective feature of the nasal cavity make intranasal delivery challenging. The application of mucoadhesive polymers in nasal drug delivery systems enhances the retention of the dosage form in the nasal cavity. Several groups have investigated using low acyl gellan as a drug delivery vehicle but only limited research however, has been performed on high acyl gellan for this purpose, despite its properties being more conducive to mucoadhesion. High acyl gellan produces highly elastic gels below 60°C which make it difficult to spray using a mechanical spray device. Therefore, in this study we have tried to address this problem by making fluid gels by introducing a shear force during gelation of the gellan polymer. These fluid gel systems contain gelled micro-particles suspended in a solution of un-gelled polymer. These systems can therefore behave as pourable viscoelastic fluids. In this study we have investigated the rheological behavior and mucoadhesion of fluid gels of two different types of gellan (high and low acyl) and fluid gels prepared from blends of high and low acyl gellan at a 50:50 ratio. The results demonstrated that by preparing fluid gels of high acyl gellan, the rheological properties were sufficient to spray through a standard nasal spray device. Moreover fluid gels also significantly enhance both high acyl and low acyl gellan mucoadhesion properties. PMID:25863119

  10. The effects of warmed intravenous fluids, combined warming (warmed intravenous fluids with humid-warm oxygen), and pethidine on the severity of shivering in general anesthesia patients in the recovery room

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ahmad; Akbari, Ayob; Sharifzade, GholamReza; Derakhshan, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shivering is a common complication of general and epidural anesthesia. Warming methods and many drugs are used for control of shivering in the recovery room. The present study is a randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the effects of two interventions in comparison with pethidine which is the routine treatment on shivering in patients undergoing abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients undergoing abdominal surgery by general anesthesia were randomly assigned to three groups (two intervention groups in comparison with pethidine as routine). Patients in warmed intravenous fluids group received pre-warmed Ringer serum (38°C), patients in combined warming group received pre-warmed Ringer serum (38°C) accompanied by humid-warm oxygen, and patients in pethidine group received intravenous pethidine routinely. The elapsed time of shivering and some hemodynamic parameters of the participants were assessed for 20 min postoperatively in the recovery room. Then the collected data were analyzed by software SPSS (v. 16) with the significance level being P < 0.05. Results: The mean of elapsed time in the warmed intravenous serum group, the combined warming group, and the pethidine group were 7 (1.5) min, 6 (1.5) min, and 2.8 (0.7) min, respectively, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The body temperatures in both combined warming and pethidine groups were increased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Combined warming can be effective in controlling postoperative shivering and body temperature increase. PMID:26793258

  11. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  12. A Janus Mucoadhesive and Omniphobic Device for Gastrointestinal Retention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhang, Shiyi; Lin, Jiaqi; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    A novel Janus device with omniphobic and mucoadhesive sides that exhibit the unique capacity for antifouling and extended gastrointestinal retention is fabricated. This system enables repulsion of the food and fluid stream by the luminal-facing omniphobic side and allows attachment to the gastrointestinal mucosa by the mucoadhesive side. PMID:27060695

  13. Diffusion-limited retention of porous particles at density interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Kolja; Khalili, Arzhang; Stocker, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Downward carbon flux in the ocean is largely governed by particle settling. Most marine particles settle at low Reynolds numbers and are highly porous, yet the fluid dynamics of this regime have remained unexplored. We present results of an experimental investigation of porous particles settling through a density interface at Reynolds numbers between 0.1 and 1. We tracked 100 to 500 μm hydrogel spheres with 95.5% porosity and negligible permeability. We found that a small negative initial excess density relative to the lower (denser) fluid layer, a common scenario in the ocean, results in long retention times of particles at the interface. We hypothesized that the retention time was determined by the diffusive exchange of the stratifying agent between interstitial and ambient fluid, which increases excess density of particles that have stalled at the interface, enabling their settling to resume. This hypothesis was confirmed by observations, which revealed a quadratic dependence of retention time on particle size, consistent with diffusive exchange. These results demonstrate that porosity can control retention times and therefore accumulation of particles at density interfaces, a mechanism that could underpin the formation of particle layers frequently observed at pycnoclines in the ocean. We estimate retention times of 3 min to 3.3 d for the characteristic size range of marine particles. This enhancement in retention time can affect carbon transformation through increased microbial colonization and utilization of particles and release of dissolved organics. The observed size dependence of the retention time could further contribute to improve quantifications of vertical carbon flux. PMID:21135242

  14. The Role of Student Characteristics in Predicting Retention in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin D.; Campbell, Stacy M.; Baker, Hope M.; Leeds, Elke M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the continued issue of student retention for online classes, past research has suggested several "retention strategies" focused on engaging students as a way to reduce their withdrawal rate from these classes. However, a recent study testing the effects of these strategies on retention in online undergraduate business courses…

  15. The mechanism of polyelectrolyte-assisted retention of TiO2 filler particles during paper formation.

    PubMed

    Gesenhues, Ulrich

    2011-02-17

    The mechanism of the retention of TiO(2) filler particles on cellulose fibers has been under discussion for several decades; the diverse models, and the properties of the components relevant to retention, are critically reviewed in the first part of this study. In addition, two new quantitative models of detachment of polyelectrolyte-bonded colloidal particles from the fiber are also examined; one of these is based on DLVO theory for description of the influence of particle charge and polyelectrolyte amount, and should hold true at low shear rates and high bond strengths. The other model applies Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence in order to relate the work necessary for particle detachment to the turbulent energy of pulp in paper machines, i.e., under high shear rate and low bond-strength conditions. The second model is based on analysis of fluid dynamics in paper machines, and is formulated here for laboratory tests using the Dynamic Drainage Jar (DDJ). A series of laboratory-prepared TiO(2) fillers covering a range of isoelectric points (ieps) from pH 4.4 to pH 7.5, additionally with poly-(aminoamide)-epichlorohydrin (PAE) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) as retention aids, and commercially milled cellulose, were used in the experimental part of the study. The retention-aid demand of fillers and cellulose for surface neutralization was determined using electrokinetic methods. Filler retention on cellulose was measured in the DDJ for various stirrer speeds and amounts of retention aid, with the amount of filler not exceeding that for a monolayer on the fiber. Without retention aids, neutral filler particles are accordingly completely retained on the negative fiber, whereas negatively charged particles are not. The retention of the latter can, however, be steadily improved by increasing polyelectrolyte concentration. Retention of colloidal particles in paper manufacturing is therefore determined by a delicate balance between H-bridging and van der Waals forces

  16. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  17. ORTHODONTIC RETENTION. Studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman

    2014-01-01

    gender had no significant influence on mandibular LII (Paper II, Figure 4 and Table 4). Paper III. The cost minimization analysis disclosed that although the three retention methods achieved clinically similar results, the associated societal costs differed. After two years of retention, the vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) in combination with a canine-to-canine retainer (CTC) was the least cost-effective retention appliance. Paper IV. After five years or more out of retention, the three retention methods had achieved equally favourable clinical results. Key conclusion and clinical implications. This study compared the short- and long-term outcomes of orthodontic retention by three different methods: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. All methods gave equally positive clinical results in both the short-term, i.e. after one and two years of retention, and in the long-term, five years or more post-retention. After two years of retention, the level of compliance affected the retention treatment result. However, no such effect was shown for body height, the severity of initial crowding or gender. Today, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of economic aspects of healthcare. Of the three methods evaluated in this study, the least cost-effective, after two years of retention, was a vacuum-formed retainer combined with a bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The clinical implication of this finding is that in patients meeting the inclusion criteria, interproximal stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth, or the use of a prefabricated positioner, are highly appropriate alternatives to a mandibular bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The overall conclusions are that there are a number of effective retention methods available and the clinician is not limited to routine use of a bonded mandibular canine

  18. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach. PMID:22900520

  19. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome. PMID:23983716

  20. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  1. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is ... in the womb, the baby floats in the amniotic fluid. The amount of amniotic fluid is greatest at ...

  2. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  3. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  4. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  5. Severe sepsis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Luis D; Saade, George R; Hankins, Gary D V

    2014-12-01

    Severe sepsis is a major cause of mortality among critically ill patients. Early recognition accompanied by early initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics with source control and fluid resuscitation improves outcomes. Hemodynamic resuscitation starts with fluid therapy followed by vasopressors if necessary. Cases refractory to first-line vasopressors (norepinephrine) will require second-line vasopressors (epinephrine or vasopressin) and low-dose steroid therapy. Resuscitation goals should include optimization of central venous oxygenation and serum lactate. PMID:25286297

  6. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  7. Retention through redemption.

    PubMed

    Abrashoff, D M

    2001-02-01

    Corporate America and the U.S. Navy share one big problem: employee retention. Today's knowledge workers hop from start-up to start-up. And 40% of the navy's new recruits leave the service before their four-year tours of duty are up. D. Michael Abrashoff came face to face with the navy's retention problem when he took command of the USS Benfold. Before he became captain, sailors couldn't get away from the ship fast enough. Today the vessel is the pride of the Pacific fleet, and sailors from other ships are clamoring to join its crew. In this firsthand account, Abrashoff explains how he got the ship and its crew back on course by breaking bad habits--personal and professional ones--and jettisoning old attitudes. During his 21 months aboard the Benfold, Abrashoff came to realize that in today's technology-intensive U.S. Navy, the traditional command-and-control style wouldn't work. And it hadn't--the Benfold's 310 sailors had cheered derisively when Abrashoff's predecessor had left the ship. So he defied 225 years of navy tradition in his quest to engage the sailors in their work, increase their performance, and keep them around for their entire tours of duty. He retained his crew by redeeming them--showing them how to be not just better sailors but better people, too. That meant breaking them down when they were at their worst and then building them up to reach their best. It also meant personal redemption for Abrashoff; he resolved to really listen to what his sailors were saying. The result? Cost-saving ideas for the entire navy and surging confidence and commitment among crew members. PMID:11213688

  8. Teacher Retention in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przygocki, Walter F.

    2004-01-01

    Teacher attrition is a concern in all educational sectors but is of special importance to Catholic schools because of the salary disparity between public and Catholic schools. This review examines the research on teacher retention in general with a view to understanding how this knowledge might inform teacher recruitment and retention strategies…

  9. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  10. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  11. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little…

  12. SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

  13. Fluid overpressures and strength of the sedimentary upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, John

    2014-12-01

    The classic crustal strength-depth profile based on rock mechanics predicts a brittle strength σ1 -σ3 = κ(ρbar gz -Pf) that increases linearly with depth as a consequence of [1] the intrinsic brittle pressure dependence κ plus [2] an assumption of hydrostatic pore-fluid pressure, Pf = ρwgz. Many deep borehole stress data agree with a critical state of failure of this form. In contrast, fluid pressures greater than hydrostatic ρbar gz >Pf >ρw gz are normally observed in clastic continental margins and shale-rich mountain belts. Therefore we explore the predicted shapes of strength-depth profiles using data from overpressured regions, especially those dominated by the widespread disequilibrium-compaction mechanism, in which fluid pressures are hydrostatic above the fluid-retention depth zFRD and overpressured below, increasing parallel to the lithostatic gradient ρbar gz . Both brittle crustal strength and frictional fault strength below the zFRD must be constant with depth because effective stress (ρbar gz -Pf) is constant, in contrast with the classic linearly increasing profile. Borehole stress and fluid-pressure measurements in several overpressured deforming continental margins agree with this constant-strength prediction, with the same pressure-dependence κ as the overlying hydrostatic strata. The role of zFRD in critical-taper wedge mechanics and jointing is illustrated. The constant-strength approximation is more appropriate for overpressured crust than classic linearly increasing models.

  14. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  15. Fiber length and orientation prevent migration in fluid filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiman, P. A.

    1966-01-01

    Stainless steel fiber web filter resists fiber migration which causes contamination of filtered fluids. This filter is capable of holding five times more particulate matter before arbitrary cutoff pressure drop and shows excellent retention in fuel flow at high rates.

  16. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  17. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  18. Payload retention device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A payload retention device for grappling and retaining a payload in docked position on a supporting structure in the cargo bay of a space vehicle is presented. The device comprises a two-fault tolerant electromagnetic grappling system comprising electromagnets for attracting and grappling a grapple strike plate affixed to the payload when in proximity thereto and an electromechanical latching assembly comprising a pair of independent latching subassemblies. Each subassembly comprises a set of latching pawls which are driven into latching and unlatching positions relative to a grappled payload by a pair of gearmotors, each equipped with a ratchet clutch drive mechanism which is two-fault tolerant with respect to latching such that only one gearmotor of the four needs to be operational to effect a latch of the payload but is single fault tolerant with respect to release of a latched payload. Sensors are included for automatically sensing the magnetic grappling of a payload and for automatically de-energizing the gearmotors of the latching subassemblies when a latch condition is achieved.

  19. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  20. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  1. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  2. Management of Diabetes Associated with Nephrotic Syndrome: Therapeutic Potential of Dapagliflozin for Protracted Volume Retention.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toshimi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ito, Chiharu; Masuda, Takahiro; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old female was admitted to our hospital presenting with a chief complaint of progressive swelling because of diabetic nephrotic syndrome. Dapagliflozin seemed to play a role in accelerating the patient's urinary sodium excretion as well as reducing gross fluid retention despite the fact that her nephrotic condition was resistant to furosemide. Our experience emphasizes a potential novel approach to overcoming loop diuretic resistance using this agent among some subsets of type 2 diabetic subjects complicated with severe volume accumulation. We believe that combination treatment consisting of dapagliflozin and furosemide may produce diuretic synergy via sequential nephron blockade. The accumulation of more experience with additional cases similar to ours requires continuous and careful attention. PMID:26609216

  3. The Effect of Moisture Content on Retention of Fluorocarbon Tracers on Sand

    SciTech Connect

    B. T. Maxfield; D. M. Ginosar; R. D. McMurtrey; H. W. Rollins; G. M. Shook

    2005-02-01

    Several fluorocarbon compounds have been evaluated as geothermal tracers in sand column tests using damp, dry, and untreated ‘washed sea sand’. Fluorocarbons evaluated in these tests included two hydrofluorocarbon freons: trifluoromethane (R23) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a), and five perfluorocarbons: perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluoromethylcyclopentane, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, perfluorodimethylcyclohexane and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane. Transport of the fluorocarbon compounds was explored in flowing helium at 23 and 60 °C. This work found that fluorocarbon retention is strongly affected by sand moisture content. The fluorocarbon compounds flowed with the bulk fluid when the sand was damp, but were significantly retained by the solid phase when the sand was thoroughly dried. The data suggest that the fluorocarbons may be conservative tracers in geothermal conditions up to mild superheat but they may not be conservative at geothermal conditions with a high degree of superheat.

  4. For-Profit versus Nonprofit Colleges: A Predictive Study of Student Retention in Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Student retention has been a significant issue in higher education for several decades. "Two-year colleges" tend to have lower retention rates than four-year colleges (Seidman, 2005, ). Low retention is a problem in both two-year for-profit and nonprofit colleges. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the predictors of retention…

  5. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002220.htm Amniotic fluid To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds ...

  6. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  7. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  8. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  9. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    PubMed

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

  10. Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document discusses retention rate based on ethnicity for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) for December 2002. The study found that the 2001 Fall-Spring retention rates increased among all ethnic groups. The total college retention rate rose by 2.7 percentage points to 75.2%. Among individual groups, the highest retention rate of 76.9% was…

  11. Modeling of Hydrogen Retention in Metallic Plasma Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterl, Jerome; Smirnov, R.

    2012-10-01

    The retention of hydrogen isotopes in the vacuum vessel of the ITER device is a critical plasma wall interaction issue for safety (tritium inventory) and operational reasons (hydrogen recycling). In particular, long-term retention of hydrogen have been observed both in the near-surface region and in the bulk of material in experiments reproducing ITER first wall conditions [1]. In this work, we present a modeling of the long-term hydrogen retention in a plasma exposed metallic walltaking into account processes both at the wall surface (material erosion, hydrogen adsorption, etc.) and in the bulk (hydrogen implantation, creation of trap sites, etc.). Using numerical simulations, the model is applied to analyze retention as a function of various parameters of the wall irradiated by hydrogen plasma for beryllium wall. Depth profiles of retained hydrogen for several ion energies as well as dependencies of retained hydrogen amount on wall temperature are obtained, showing good agreement with experimental data. The role of radiation-induced point-defects in the hydrogen retention as well as other aspects of retention are discussed in application to ITER conditions. [4pt] [1] R.A. Anderl, et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 273 (1999) 1

  12. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  13. Spacer fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

  14. Retention of hydrogen in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1986-10-01

    The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

  15. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences. PMID:24715561

  16. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  17. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  18. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  19. Undergraduate STEM Achievement and Retention: Cognitive, Motivational, and Institutional Factors and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony; Kaplan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Student cognition and motivation, as well as institutional policies, determine student course grades and retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Regarding cognition, study skills relate to course grades, and grades relate to retention in STEM. Several aspects of motivation are related to both grades and…

  20. Reimagining the Retention Problem: Moving Our Thinking from End-Product to By-Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades, college-student retention has arguably been the most intensely studied issue in academe. Though the body of retention literature grows ever larger, no one model adequately explains the process by which college students make a decision to leave an institution or to persist to graduation. And while no magic bullet…

  1. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  2. How Students "Stay the Course": Retention Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurantowicz, Ewa; Nizinska, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on the results of research carried out under the RANLHE project in several Polish academic institutions. Applying the biographical research approach, the project aimed to explore and understand the access and retention-related experiences of non-traditional students. In a study of non-traditional students, three distinct…

  3. Employee voice and employee retention.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

  4. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    PubMed

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

  5. Meeting Individual Needs Fosters Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Johanne I.; Gore, Robert C.

    A 1991 study of non-returning students at Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, revealed that only 37.9% of these students were actual dropouts (i.e., had failed to accomplish their educational goals, and had no plans to take up further study). Retention studies conducted in Texas between 1985 and 1989 have shown that DMC has…

  6. Implicit Memory: Retention without Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III

    1990-01-01

    Reviews recent research on retention that is demonstrated without conscious recollection, such as the ability to tie shoelaces or drive a car. Suggests that future research in this field may have implications for such educational issues as the transfer of training and the carryover of abstract classroom learning to problems in other contexts. (EVL)

  7. JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

  8. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  9. Classroom Management for Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    This guidebook recommends methods for teachers to use to improve teacher-student interaction in the classroom, as a means of increasing student retention. Chapter I introduces eight major systems of classroom management which teachers may use as their values and the classroom situation dictate: "Behavior Modification,""Reality Therapy,""Discipline…

  10. Self-Managed Skill Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the Relapse Prevention model, which provides the structure in which managers can analyze potential lapses in their own skill retention. Discusses training goals, self-management, specific strategies, choosing a skill to retain, imagery and prediction, and holistic training. (CT)

  11. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  12. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  13. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  14. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests How do I know if my child's heel pain is caused by Sever's disease? In Sever's disease, heel pain can be in one or both heels. It ... cut down or stop any activity that causes heel pain. Apply ice to the injured heel for 20 ...

  15. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  16. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  17. Prediction of gas chromatographic retention data for hydrocarbons from naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Woloszyn, T.F.; Jurs, P.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Regression equations that model the gas chromatographic retention behavior of hydrocarbons found in complex petrochemical mixtures were developed for two different stationary phases, SE-30 and Carbowax 20M. The models had relative standard errors in the range 1--2%. This quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) study focused on a relatively heterogeneous data set and resulted in the generation of several statistical models that related Kovats' retention index with descriptors that encode molecular structure. Also investigated was the addition of boiling point as a physicochemical descriptor. These models bore a significant improvement over the models containing only structural descriptors, with R values of 0.996. 27 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Tritium retention in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Y.; Abe, S.; Matsuyama, M.; Alimov, V.K.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Bobyr, N.P.; Cherkez, D.I.; Khripunov, B.I.; Golubeva, A.V.; Ogorodnikova, O.V.; Klimov, N.S.; Chernov, V.M.; Oyaidzu, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are structural material candidates for breeding blankets of future fusion reactors. Therefore, tritium (T) retention in RAFM steels is an important problem in assessing the T inventory of blankets. In this study, specimens of RAFM steels were subjected to irradiation of 20 MeV W ions to 0.54 displacements per atom (dpa), exposure to high flux D plasmas at 400 and 600 K and that to pulsed heat loads. The specimens thus prepared were exposed to DT gas at 473 K. Despite severe modification in the surface morphology, heat loads had negligible effects on T retention. Significant increase in T retention at the surface and/or subsurface was observed after D plasma exposure. However, T trapped at the surface/subsurface layer was easily removed by maintaining the specimens in the air at about 300 K. Displacement damage led to increase in T retention in the bulk due to the trapping effects of defects, and T trapped was stable at 300 K. It was therefore concluded that displacement damages had the largest influence on T retention under the present conditions.

  19. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2008-07-01

    We study the rheology of the digestive fluid secreted by the carnivorous pitcher plants Nepenthes rafflesiana and its role in the mechanism of insects trapping. Using a combination of physical measurements (surface tension, wetting properties, extensional and shear rheometry), insects bioessays and high-speed video, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is a highly viscoelastic fluid and that this property is crucial for the retention of insect in its trap. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements (large Deborah numbers).

  20. Severe Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, Vasileios; Jacob, Joe; Wells, Athol U

    2015-12-01

    In sarcoidosis, reduction in mortality and the prevention of disability due to major organ involvement are treatment goals. Thus, it is important to recognize severe disease and identify patients at higher risk of progression to severe disease. In this article, fibrotic lung disease and cardiac sarcoidosis are reviewed as the major contributors to sarcoidosis mortality and morbidity. In the absence of a standardized definition of severe pulmonary disease, a multidisciplinary approach to clinical staging is suggested, based on symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and imaging findings at presentation, integrated with the duration of disease and longitudinal disease behavior during early follow-up. PMID:26593144

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  2. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  3. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  4. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  5. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  6. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  7. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  8. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  9. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  10. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  11. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  12. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  13. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  14. Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

  15. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  16. Wellbore fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-06-19

    The water loss properties of well completion and well workover fluids are improved by the addition of an effective amount of at least one adjuvant selected from (1) sodium carbonate with either sodium bicarbonate or an organic polycarboxylic acid or polycarboxylic acid anhydride or (2) sodium bicarbonate alone. In another embodiment, the adjuvants are added to stabilize water loss control agents in wellbore fluids, especially at elevated temperatures.

  17. Queuing register uses fluid logic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Queuing register /a multistage bit-shifting device/ uses a series of pure fluid elements to perform the required logic operations. The register has several stages of three-state pure fluid elements combined with two-input NOR gates.

  18. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sever's Disease KidsHealth > ...

  19. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  20. Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating

    DOEpatents

    Tutu, Narinder K.; Ginsberg, Theodore; Klages, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

  1. RETENTION OF HALOCARBONS ON A HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE EPOXIDE-MODIFIED GRAPHITIZED CARBON BLACK - IV. PROPANE- BASED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The retention characteristics of 25 propane-based bromofluorocarbon, chlorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon, and fluorocarbon fluids have been studied as a function of temperature on a stationary phase consisting of a 5% (m/m) coating of a low-molecular-mass polymer of hexafluoropropyl...

  2. Peritoneal dialysis. An adjunct to pediatric postcardiotomy fluid management.

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, D; Fraser, C D; Sorof, J M; Drescher, K; Feltes, T F

    1997-01-01

    Patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery commonly exhibit impaired renal function and extravascular fluid retention. These conditions contribute to early postoperative fluid overload, which may result in significant morbidity and mortality. We examined the safety and efficacy of peritoneal dialysis in removing extravascular fluid from critically ill postcardiotomy patients. A retrospective case review from July of 1995 through April of 1996 was conducted. All patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis achieved a net negative fluid balance. Average urine output increased from 2.1 cc/kg/hr to 3.9 cc/kg/hr (P < 0.01) during the pre-peritoneal dialysis to post-peritoneal dialysis period, and the mean number of inotropic agents decreased from 2.2 to 1.7 (P < 0.05). Controlled comparison revealed that the peritoneal dialysis cohort more rapidly achieved a negative weight-adjusted fluid balance throughout the early postoperative course. The peritoneal dialysis group's illness severity decreased more rapidly within the 24-hour period after initiation of peritoneal dialysis than did that of the control cohort over the same period of time. No difference in postoperative morbidity or mortality existed between the study groups. Complications from the catheter placement were minimal, and no patient experienced peritonitis or metabolic or hemodynamic instability during peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, usage, or removal. Peritoneal dialysis is a safe and effective form of renal replacement therapy, even among critically ill pediatric postcardiotomy patients. Early postsurgical institution of peritoneal dialysis may hasten early postoperative recovery. We speculate that intraoperative catheter placement reduces the complication rate associated with this treatment modality. PMID:9456479

  3. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  4. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  5. Introduction to Special Issue: Using Theory and Research To Improve College Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the focus of this special issue on college student retention and describes the issue's articles, which advance recommendations for institutional action that emanate from theory and research rooted in several different theoretical orientations: organizational, sociological, and psychological. (EV)

  6. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  7. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  8. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  9. Retention ratio and nonequilibrium bandspreading in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (As-FlFFF), only the membrane-covered accumulation wall is permeable to fluid; the opposite channel wall is impermeable. Fluid enters the channel at the inlet and exits partly through the membrane-covered accumulation wall and partly through the channel outlet. This means that not only does the volumetric channel flow rate decrease along the channel length as fluid exits through the membrane but also the cross-channel component to fluid velocity must approach zero at the impermeable wall. This dependence of cross-channel fluid velocity on distance across the channel thickness influences the equilibrium concentration profile for the sample components introduced to the channel. The concentration profile departs from the exponential profile predicted for the ideal model of field-flow fractionation. This influences both the retention ratio and the principal contribution to bandspreading--the nonequilibrium contribution. The derivation of an equation for the nonequilibrium bandspreading parameter χ in As-FlFFF is presented, and its numerical solution graphed. At high retention, it is shown that the solutions for both retention ratio R and χ converge on those for the ideal model, as expected. At lower levels of retention, the departures from the ideal model are significant, particularly for bandspreading. For example, at a level of retention corresponding to a retention parameter λ of 0.05, R is almost 4% higher than for the ideal model (0.28047 as compared to 0.27000) but the value of χ is almost 60% higher. The equations presented for both R and χ include a first-order correction for the finite size of the particles--the steric exclusion correction. These corrections are shown to be significant for particle sizes eluting well before steric inversion. For example, particles of half the inversion diameter are predicted to elute 25% slower and to show almost 40% higher bandspreading when steric effects are not accounted

  10. The contributions of encoding, retention, and recall to the Hebb effect.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Meyer, Nadine

    2009-10-01

    The article reports an experiment testing whether the Hebb repetition effect-the gradual improvement of immediate serial recall when the same list is repeated several times-depends on overt recall of the repeated lists. Previous reports which suggest that recall is critical confound the recall manipulation with retention interval. The present experiment orthogonally varies retention interval (0 or 9 s) and whether the list is to be recalled after the retention interval. Hebb repetition learning is assessed in a final test phase. A repetition effect was obtained in all four experimental conditions; it was larger for recalled than non-recalled lists, whereas retention interval had no effect. The results show that encoding is sufficient to generate cumulative long-term learning, which is strengthened by recall. Rehearsal, if it takes place in the retention interval at all, does not have the same effect on long-term learning as overt recall. PMID:19598058

  11. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  12. Hysteresis of colloid retention and release in saturated porous media during transients in solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Kim, Hyunjung N; Simunek, Jiri; Bradford, Scott A

    2010-03-01

    Saturated packed column and micromodel transport studies were conducted to gain insight on mechanisms of colloid retention and release under unfavorable attachment conditions. The initial deposition of colloids in porous media was found to be a strongly coupled process that depended on solution chemistry and pore space geometry. During steady state chemical conditions, colloid deposition was not a readily reversible process, and micromodel photos indicated that colloids were immobilized in the presence of fluid drag. Upon stepwise reduction in eluting solution ionic strength (IS), a sharp release of colloids occurred in each step which indicates that colloid retention depends on a balance of applied (hydrodynamic) and resisting (adhesive) torques which varied with pore space geometry, surface roughness, and interaction energy. When the eluting fluid IS was reduced to deionized water, the final retention locations occurred near grain-grain contacts, and colloid aggregation was sometimes observed in micromodel experiments. Significant amounts of colloid retention hysteresis with IS were observed in the column experiments, and it depended on the porous medium (glass beads compared with sand), the colloid size (1.1 and 0.5 mum), and on the initial deposition IS. These observations were attributed to weak adhesive interactions that depended on the double layer thickness (e.g., the depth of the secondary minimum and/or nanoscale heterogeneity), colloid mass transfer on the solid phase to regions where the torque and force balances were favorable for retention, the number and extent of grain-grain contacts, and surface roughness. PMID:20136144

  13. Effects of polymer retention on dynamics of single phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2014-11-01

    We study the effect of adsorption of polymer solution on dynamics of a single phase flow in a model porous medium. We use confocal microscopy to fully visualize the flow of fluid in 3D micromodel of porous media. Polymer flooding is known to be an effective method for enhanced oil recovery. However, the physical mechanism is not clearly understood. We study the effect of polymer retention on the dynamics of single phase flow using particle image velocimetery. The distribution of velocities in the medium changes greatly after flow of high concentrations of polymer through the medium. Comparing the magnitude of velocities before and after the polymer flow, we observe reduction of accessible pores to the fluid at similar injection rates. Independent measurement of the permeability of the medium confirms the decrease in the porosity. Measurements of the retention of polymer in porous media shows a weak dependence on the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer. In these experiments, the viscoelastic behavior of the polymer is isolated from velocity measurements.

  14. Research on Computational Fluid Dynamics and Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Preconditioning matrices for Chebyshev derivative operators in several space dimensions; the Jacobi matrix technique in computational fluid dynamics; and Chebyshev techniques for periodic problems are discussed.

  15. [Severe asthma].

    PubMed

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended. PMID:26826988

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  17. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  18. Sepsis Resuscitation: Fluid Choice and Dose.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Rice, Todd W

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research. PMID:27229641

  19. Digesta retention and fibre digestion in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) and guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, E; Nippashi, K; Endoh, G

    1992-04-01

    1. Digestibilities of feed and turnover time (1/k), transit time (TT) and mean retention time (MRT: 1/k+TT) of fluid and particle markers were measured in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) and guinea-pigs (Cavia procellus) fed a diet containing 50% alfalfa. 2. The digestibility of fibre was similar in both animals, however, the digestibilities of crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and crude ash were lower in the mara than in the guinea-pig. 3. 1/k of the digesta markers were similar in both animals, suggesting that the two animals possess similar dilution and retention time of digesta in their caecum and proximal colon. PMID:1351463

  20. Theory for nanoparticle retention time in the helical channel of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2009-05-01

    Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a separation and characterization technique for magnetic nanoparticles such as those used for cell labeling and for targeted drug therapy. A helical separation channel is used to efficiently exploit the quadrupole magnetic field. The fluid and sample components therefore have angular and longitudinal components to their motion in the thin annular space occupied by the helical channel. The retention ratio is defined as the ratio of the times for non-retained and a retained material to pass through the channel. Equations are derived for the respective angular and longitudinal components to retention ratio.

  1. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Predictors of Enrollment and Retention in a Preventive Parenting Intervention for Divorced Families

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Emily B.; Bonds, Darya; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Participation rates in parenting programs are typically low, severely limiting the public health significance of these interventions. We examined predictors of parenting program enrollment and retention in a sample of 325 divorced mothers. Predictors included intervention timing and maternal reports of child, parent, family, and sociocultural risk factors. In multivariate analyses, child maladjustment and family income-to-needs positively predicted enrollment, and higher maternal education and recruitment near the time of the divorce predicted retention. Findings have implications for the optimal timing of preventive parenting programs for divorcing families and point to the importance of examining predictors of enrollment and retention simultaneously. PMID:19283483

  3. Managing patients with acute urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Gillatt, David

    2011-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is more than ten times more common in men than women. In men it tends to occur in the elderly; the risk of AUR is higher in men > 70 years. The causes in men can be divided into precipitated or occurring spontaneously. These can be further divided according to the mechanism i.e. obstructive, neurological and myogenic. Spontaneous AUR, caused by progression of BPH leading to a mechanical obstruction of the bladder outlet, is the most common cause of AUR. The typical presentation of AUR is a patient complaining of a sudden inability to urinate associated with progressive abdominal distension which is usually painful. The pain increases in intensity with increasing distension of the bladder. An abdominal examination should reveal a distended bladder which can be confirmed by a dull percussion note. A digital rectal examination is vital to gain information on prostatic enlargement (benign or malignant), faecal load in rectum, anal tone and presence of other masses. Urinalysis and culture should be carried out on a sample obtained after catheterisation to rule out infection. Renal function should be assessed to see if there has been damage to the upper tracts. It is better not to perform a PSA test in this situation as it will invariably be raised due to distension of the bladder and catheter insertion. If catheter insertion fails then a urological consultation is required for insertion of a suprapubic catheter. Admission is essential if the patient is: unwell with urosepsis; has abnormal renal function needing investigation and fluid monitoring; has acute neurological problems; or cannot take care of the catheter. Trial without catheter needs to be planned and the ideal time to do this is within 2-3 days so that the patient can pass urine naturally. PMID:21789984

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  5. Retention Revisited: R=E, Id+E & In, Iv.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on college student attrition is examined for trends, and it is suggested that the common perspective on retention and attrition is too narrow; it should be viewed from three perspectives: within-course retention; program retention; and institutional retention rate. Recommended for retention (R) is early (E) identification (Id) plus…

  6. Developing Successful Retention Programs: An Interview with Michael Hovland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluepfel, Gail A.; Hovland, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Michael Hovland, the senior consultant at Noel-Levitz Centers, responds to questions about summer bridge programs, first-year seminar programs, Rutgers' retention model, faculty reactions to retention programs, the impact of retention programs on institutional mission, administrative involvement in retention, student assessment, retention efforts…

  7. Preheating temperature effect on tritium retention in VPS-W

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Uchimura, H.; Toda, K.; Oya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Tokunaga, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Hatano, Y.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Nagasaka, T.

    2015-03-15

    The W coating by Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) technology is thought to be reasonable for most plasma facing components in future fusion reactors. In this paper the deuterium retention behavior for the Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) tungsten (W) coating has been studied to demonstrate the tritium retention as a function of heating temperature. It has been found that two major deuterium desorption stages were observed at the temperature regions of 400 - 700 K (Stage 1) and 900 - 1100 K (Stage 2), considering that Stage 1 has been linked to the desorption of deuterium trapped by near surface and intrinsic defects, and Stage 2 has been related to the desorption of deuterium bound to impurities as C-D bonds. By heating the sample above 673 K, the major peak of C-1s shifted from C-O bond to C-C bond, where the retention of deuterium as Stage 2 has increased. Therefore it indicates that the hydrogen isotope retention was controlled by the amount of C-C bond in VPS, most of which was contaminated during the VPS coating process. The comparison of several samples (VPS-W with shading, VPS-W without shading and Polycrystalline W (PCW)) shows that the carbon impurity has a large affinity with deuterium and makes stable trapping states compared to that with intrinsic defects and grain boundaries. However, most of them was reduced by heating at 1173 K. Therefore, heating treatment is quite important to get rid of carbon impurities and refrain higher tritium retention in VPS. (authors)

  8. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead. PMID:15923925

  9. The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

  10. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  11. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  12. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  13. A Model for Freshman Engineering Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Cindy P.; Dey, Eric L.; Herrin, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    With the current concern over the growing need for more engineers, there is an immediate need to improve freshman engineering retention. A working model for freshman engineering retention is needed. This paper proposes such a model based on Tinto's Interactionalist Theory. Emphasis in this model is placed on pre-college characteristics as…

  14. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  15. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. (a) Importer....

  16. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  17. 14 CFR 291.23 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 291.23 Record retention. (a) The provisions of 14 CFR part 249, Preservation of air carrier accounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 291.23 Section 291.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS)...

  18. 10 CFR 37.103 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 37.103 Section 37.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Records § 37.103 Record retention. Licensees shall maintain the records that are required by...

  19. 12 CFR 1013.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1013.8 Section 1013.8 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 1013.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements imposed by this part,...

  20. 12 CFR 213.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 213.8 Section 213.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the...

  1. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  2. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  3. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  4. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  5. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  6. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  7. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  8. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule....

  9. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  10. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...